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CHAPTER

16

STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS

T

DUE TO TEMPERATURE

16.1 INTRODUCTION
In a bridge structures temperature change has very significant influence to its response. Temperature
change cause additional strain to structural element. For unconstrained structural element temperature
change cause zero stress, but for constrained structural element that temperature change cause
stress. For that reason we shall to placing release to a joint of element of bridge like expansion joint so
the joint free to expand.

We can use matrix method for structural analysis under temperature change. Same like other modeling
technique we need to transform the temperature change to equivalent joint loads.

16.2 TEMPERATURE CHANGE ON STRUCTURAL ELEMENT
Uniform change in temperature cause extensional strain in all direction but no shearing strain arises in
freely deforming body. The extensional strain due to temperature change can be calculated with the
equation below

εT = α T T

16.1

Where :
εT

= thermal strain

αT

= coefficient of thermal expansion (unit of strain)

T

= temperature change

The coefficient of thermal expansion is described in table below

MATERIAL
Concrete
Steel
Wood

COEFFICIENT OF
THERMAL EXPANSION
10E-6
12E-6
5E-6 (parallel fiber)
50E-6 (perpendicular fiber)

16 - 1

Thermal stress due to temperature change is
σT = E(ε − εT )

16.2

Where :
σT

= actual thermal stress

E

= modulus of elasticity

ε

= actual thermal strain

εT

= thermal strain

If the body is constrained then εT =0 then thermal stress becomes σT = −εTE . For that reason we can
control the thermal stress by placing releases, expansion joint in a structure.

This chapter discussed about temperature change at the centroidal axis of structural element. Thermal
strain subjected to temperature change consists of thermal axial strain and thermal curvature strain.

Thermal axial strain is
ε0 = α T T0

16.3

Where :
ε0

= thermal strain at centriodal axis

αT

= coefficient of thermal expansion (unit of strain)

T0

= temperature change at centroidal axis

Thermal curvature strain is

φ0 = −

2
α T ΔT
h

16.4

Where :
φ0

= thermal curvature

h

= depth of element

αT

= coefficient of thermal expansion (unit of strain)

ΔT

= difference of top and bottom fiber of element section

The equation above assumes that temperature change linearly to element depth, if the temperature
change is uniform then ΔT = 0 produce only axial strain. In other word the temperature difference
between top and bottom fiber is null.

16 - 2

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16.3 MODELING TECHNIQUE
16.3.1 General
In matrix method for structural analysis subjected to temperature change we need to transform the
element depth there are only normal fixed end forces. For linearly temperature change to element
depth there are normal and flexure fixed end forces. In any condition of temperature change there is no
shear fixed end forces.

16.3.2 Temperature Change Modeling
Normal fixed end force due to temperature change is
NT = EAε0

16.5

NT = EA (α T T0 )
Where :
NT

= normal fixed end force

E

= modulus of elasticity

A

= axial area

αT

= coefficient of thermal expansion (unit of strain)

T0

= temperature change at centroidal axis

Flexure fixed end force due to temperature change is
MT = EIφ0

16.6

⎛2

MT = EI⎜ α T ΔT ⎟
⎝h

Where :
MT

= flexure fixed end force

E

= modulus of elasticity

I

= moment of inertia

αT

= coefficient of thermal expansion (unit of strain)

ΔT

= temperature difference top and bottom fiber of section

Fixed end forces matrix due to uniform temperature change is
⎧NT ⎫
{FTC } = ⎪⎨ 0⎪⎬
⎪ 0⎪
⎩ ⎭

16.7

Fixed end forces matrix due to linearly temperature change is
⎧ NT ⎫
{FTC } = ⎪⎨ 0⎪⎬
⎪M ⎪
⎩ T⎭

16.8

2
MT
NT

3

1

MT
NT

16 - 3

Figure 16.1

Fixed End Force Due to Temperature Change

Sign convention for positive temperature change can be seen in the figure above

16.4 EXAMPLE
16.4.1 Structural Model

1500 kg/m
15/30

3,5

30/30

3

Element 2 has constant temperature change 30oC

30

30 Deg

+
+

15

16.4.2 Units, Material and Section Properties

Units

Material

= Reinforced Concrete

E

= 2.1E9

m2

30/30

AREA
(m2)
0.3 × 0.3 = 0.09

15/30

0.15 × 0.3 = 0.045

DIMENSION

16 - 4

kg

MOMENT OF INERTIA
(m4)
1
× 0.3 × 0.33 = 0.000675
12
1
× 0.15 × 0.33 = 0.0003375
12

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16.4.3 Joint, Element and DOF Numbering
2
1

2

1

3
2

3

1

3

2

NJOINT

=3

NR

=6

NDOF

= 3(3)-6

3

2

= 3 DOF
3,5

1

Y

1

X
3

16.4.4 Joint Coordinates
JOINT

X

Y

1

0.00

0.00

2

0.00

3.50

3

3.00

3.50

16.4.5 M-Code Matrix
⎧0

⎪0
⎪⎪0
M=⎨
⎪1
⎪2

⎩⎪3

1⎫

2⎪
3⎪⎪

0⎪
0⎪

0⎪⎭

16.4.6 Local Element Stiffness Matrix

[ke ] = EI3 ⎢⎢
L −

⎢⎣

AL2
I
0

0
12

0 −
6L

AL2
I
0

0
− 12

2

0 6L 4L
AL2
0
0
I
0 − 12 − 6 L

0 − 6L
AL2
0
I
0
12

2 L2

0 − 6L

0

6L

0⎥
6 L⎥⎥
2 L2 ⎥

0⎥

− 6 L⎥
4 L2 ⎥⎦

16 - 5

ID

1

L

STIFFNESS MATRIX

(m)

(kg/m)

3.5

0
0 −16333.33
0
0⎤ 0
⎡ 16333 .33

0
12
21
0 − 12
12⎥ 0

0
21
49
0 − 21 24.5⎥ 0
[k e ]1 = 33061.22⎢

0
0 16333.33
0
0⎥ 1
⎢− 16333 .33

0 − 12 − 21
0
12 − 21⎥ 2

0
21 24.5
0 − 21
49⎦⎥ 3
⎣⎢

⎡ 54000000

0

[k e ]1 = ⎢− 540000000

0

⎢⎣
0

2

3.0

[k e ]2

0 −54000000

0
396734 .69

694285 .71

694285 .71
0

1620000
0

694285 .71

2

16 - 6

L

0

3.0

396734 .69 − 694285 .71⎥ 2
1620000 ⎥⎦ 3

− 694285 .71

0 −31500000

0

0−0
=0
3 .5
3 .5 − 0
sin θ =
=1
3 .5

3−0
cos θ =
=1
3
3 .5 − 3 .5
sin θ =
=0
3

0⎤ 1

472500

0 − 315000

472500 ⎥ 2

472500
0

945000
0

0 − 472500
31500000
0

472500 3

0⎥ 0

− 315000 − 472500

cos θ =

0

315000

472500

0

⎡ 0

⎢− 1

[T]1 = ⎢ 0
⎢ 0
⎢ 0

⎣⎢ 0

[T]2

⎡1

⎢0
⎢0
=⎢
⎢0
⎢0

⎢⎣0

1 0
0 0
0

1

0 0
0 0
0 0

0 0 0⎤

0 0 0⎥
0 0 0⎥

0 1 0⎥
− 1 0 0⎥

0 0 1⎦⎥

0 0 0 0 0⎤

1 0 0 0 0⎥
0 1 0 0 0⎥

0 0 1 0 0⎥
0 0 0 1 0⎥

0 0 0 0 1⎥⎦

315000 − 472500 ⎥ 0

0 − 472500

472500

TRANSFORMATION MATRIX

(m)

3.5

810000 0

0⎥ 1

0

810000

16.4.7 Transformation Matrix

1

− 694285 .71
0

0
0 −12000
0
0⎤ 1
⎡ 12000

0
12
18
0
12
18

⎥2

0
18
36
0 − 18
18⎥ 3
= 26250 ⎢

0
0 12000
0
0⎥ 0
⎢− 12000

0 − 12 − 18
0
12 − 18⎥ 0

0
18
18
0 − 18
36⎥⎦ 0
⎢⎣

⎡ 31500000

0

[k e ]2 = ⎢− 315000000

0

⎢⎣
0

ID

396734 .69 ⎥ 0

0
54000000

− 396734 .69 − 694285 .71

0⎤ 0

0

0 − 396734 .69

945000 ⎥⎦ 0

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16.4.8 Global Element Stiffness Matrix

[KE ] i= [T] iT[k e ] i[T] i
STIFFNESS MATRIX

ID

1

(kg/m)

[KE ]1 = [T]1T [k e ]1[T]1
⎡ 396734 .69

0
⎢ − 694285 .71
[KE ]1 = ⎢− 396734.69

0

⎣⎢ − 694285 .71

2

0 −396734 .69 ⎤ 0

0 −694285 .71 −396734 .69
54000000

0

0
0

1620000
694285 .71

0⎥ 0

0 − 54000000
694285 .71
396734 .69

0
0

− 54000000

0

0

54000000

0

810000

694285 .71

0

810000 0

694285 .71⎥ 1
0⎥ 2

1620000 ⎦⎥ 3

[KE ]2 = [T]2T [k e ]2 [T]2
⎡ 31500000

0

0
[KE ]2 = ⎢− 31500000

0

⎢⎣
0

0 −31500000

0
315000

472500

472500

945000

0

0

0 − 472500

472500 3

0

0⎥ 0

0

315000 − 472500 ⎥ 0

0 − 472500

472500

0⎤ 1

472500 ⎥ 2

31500000

− 315000 − 472500
472500

0

0 − 315000

945000 ⎥⎦ 0

16.4.9 Generalized Element Stiffness Matrix
STIFFNESS MATRIX

ID

1

(kg/m)
⎡ 396734 .69

0
⎢ − 694285 .71
[KE ]1 = ⎢− 396734.69

0

⎢⎣ − 694285 .71

0 −396734 .69 ⎤ 0

0 −694285 .71 −396734 .69
54000000

0

0
0

1620000
694285 .71

0⎥ 0

0 − 54000000
694285 .71
396734 .69

0
0

− 54000000

0

0

54000000

0

810000

694285 .71

0

810000 0

694285 .71⎥ 1
0⎥ 2

1620000 ⎥⎦ 3

0 694285 .71⎤ 1
⎡396734 .69

0 54000000
0⎥ 2
⎢ 694285 .71
0
1620000 ⎥⎦ 3

M
[KE ]1 ⎯⎯→
[KES ]1 = ⎢⎢

2

⎡ 31500000

0

0
[KE ]2 = ⎢− 31500000

0

⎢⎣
0

0 −31500000

0

0

0⎤ 1

315000

472500

0 − 315000

472500 ⎥ 2

472500
0

945000
0

0 − 472500
31500000
0

472500 3

0⎥ 0

− 315000 − 472500
472500

472500

0

315000 − 472500 ⎥ 0

0 − 472500

945000 ⎥⎦ 0

0
0⎤ 1
⎡31500000

0 315000 472500⎥ 2

0 472500 945000⎥⎦ 3

M
[KE ]2 ⎯⎯→
[KES ]2 = ⎢⎢

16.4.10

Structure Stiffness Matrix
0 694285 .71⎤ 1
⎡31896734 .69

0 54315000
472500 ⎥ 2
⎢ 694285 .71
472500
2565000 ⎥⎦ 3

[K ]3x3 = ⎢⎢

16 - 7

16.4.11

MATRIX
1500 kg/m

1125 kgm

1125 kgm
2250 kg

2250 kg

3

LOCAL

ID

GLOBAL
FEF

FEF

2

{Qˆ }

fe 2

0⎫ 1

⎪ 2250 ⎪ 2
⎪⎪ 1125 ⎪⎪ 3
=⎨

0⎪ 0

⎪ 2250 ⎪ 0

⎩⎪− 1125 ⎭⎪ 0

⎧ 28350 ⎫ 1

0⎪ 2

⎪⎪
0⎪⎪ 3
=⎨

⎪− 28350 ⎪ 0

0⎪ 0

0⎭⎪ 0
⎩⎪

2

{ftc }2

GENERALIZED
FEF

{Qˆ } = [T] {Qˆ }
T

FE 2

{Qˆ }

FE 2

{FTC }2

2

fe 2

0⎫ 1

2250
⎪2

⎪⎪ 1125⎪⎪ 3
=⎨

0⎪ 0

⎪ 2250⎪ 0

⎪⎩− 1125⎪⎭ 0
⎧ 28350 ⎫ 1

0⎪ 2

⎪⎪
0⎪⎪ 3
=⎨

⎪− 28350 ⎪ 0

0⎪ 0

0⎭⎪ 0
⎩⎪

0⎫ 1

{Qˆ } ⎯⎯→{Qˆ } = ⎪⎨2250⎪⎬ 2
M

FE 2

FES 2

⎪1125 ⎪ 3

⎧28350 ⎫ 1

0⎬ 2

0⎪⎭ 3

M
{FTCS }2 ⎯⎯→
{FTCS }2 = ⎪⎨

⎧28350 ⎫ 1

{Qˆ }= ⎪⎨ 2250⎪⎬ 2
FE

{Q} = {Q}− {QˆFE }
⎧0⎫ ⎧28350 ⎫ ⎧−28350 ⎫ 1

⎪ ⎪
2250 ⎬ = ⎨ − 2250 ⎬ 2
⎪0⎪ ⎪ 1125 ⎪ ⎪ − 1125 ⎪ 3

⎩ ⎭ ⎩
⎭ ⎩

{Q} = ⎪⎨0⎪⎬ − ⎪⎨

16.4.12

[K ]{q} = {Q}
0 694285 .71⎤ ⎧D1 ⎫ ⎧−28350 ⎫
⎡31896734 .69

⎥⎪ ⎪ ⎪

0
54315000
472500 ⎥ ⎨D2 ⎬ = ⎨ − 2250 ⎬

⎢ 694285 .71
472500
2565000 ⎥⎦ ⎪⎩D3 ⎪⎭ ⎪⎩ − 1125 ⎪⎭

⎧D1 ⎫ ⎧ −0.000885 ⎫

⎪ ⎪ ⎪
⎨D2 ⎬ = ⎨− 0.000040 ⎬
⎪D ⎪ ⎪− 0.000192 ⎪

⎩ 3⎭ ⎩

16 - 8

⎪ 1125 ⎪ 3

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16.4.13
ID

1

LOCAL DISPLACEMENT

(m)

(m)

16.4.14

2

{d}1 = [T]1{D}1

0⎫ 0

0⎪ 0

0⎪⎪ 0
{D}1 = ⎪⎨

⎪− 0.000885 ⎪ 1
⎪− 0.000040 ⎪ 2

⎩⎪− 0.000192 ⎭⎪ 3

{D}2

1

Element Displacement Matrix

GLOBAL DISPLACEMENT

2

ID

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0⎫ 0

0⎪ 0

0⎪⎪ 0
{d}1 = ⎪⎨

0
.
000040

⎪1

⎪− 0.000885 ⎪ 2

⎪⎩− 0.000192 ⎪⎭ 3

{d}2 = [T]2 {D}2

⎧ −0.000885 ⎫ 1

⎪− 0.000040 ⎪ 2
⎪⎪− 0.000192 ⎪⎪ 3
=⎨

0⎪ 0

0⎪ 0

0⎭⎪ 0
⎩⎪

{d}2

⎧ 0.000885 ⎫ 1

⎪− 0.000040 ⎪ 2
⎪⎪− 0.000192 ⎪⎪ 3
=⎨

0⎪ 0

0⎪ 0

0⎭⎪ 0
⎩⎪

Element Nodal Forces
GLOBAL

LOCAL

LOCAL

NODAL FORCES

NODAL FORCES-#1

NODAL FORCES-#2

{F}1 = [KE ]1{D}1

{f }1 = [k e ]1{d}1 + {Qˆfe }1

{f }1 = [T]1{F}1

⎧ 484.14⎫ 0

⎪ 2146.84⎪ 0

{F}1 = ⎪⎨ − 769.56⎪⎬ 0
484
.
14

⎪1

⎪− 2146.84⎪ 2

⎪⎩ − 924.94⎪⎭ 3

⎧ 2146.84⎫ 0

⎪ − 484.14⎪ 0
⎪⎪ − 769.56⎪⎪ 0
{f }1 = ⎨

⎪− 2146.84⎪ 1
⎪ 484.14⎪ 2

⎩⎪ − 924.94⎭⎪ 3

{F}2 = [KE ]2 {D}2
ˆ } + +{F }
+ {Q
FE 2
TC 2
{F}2

⎧ 484.14⎫ 1

⎪ 2146.84⎪ 2
⎪⎪ 924.94⎪⎪ 3
=⎨

⎪ − 484.14⎪ 0
⎪ 2353.16⎪ 0

⎪⎩− 1234.42⎪⎭ 0

{f }2 = [k e ]2 {d}2
ˆ } + {f }
+ {Q
fe 2
tc 2
{f }2

⎧ 484.14⎫ 1

⎪ 2146.84⎪ 2
⎪⎪ 924.94⎪⎪ 3
=⎨

⎪ − 484.14⎪ 0
⎪ 2353.16⎪ 0

⎪⎩− 1234.42⎪⎭ 0

⎧ 2146.84⎫ 0

⎪ − 484.14⎪ 0

{f }1 = ⎪⎨ − 769.56⎪⎬ 0
2146
.
84

⎪1

⎪ 484.14⎪ 2

⎪⎩ − 924.94⎪⎭ 3

{f }2 = [T]2 {F}2

{f }2

⎧ 484.14⎫ 1

⎪ 2146.84⎪ 2
⎪⎪ 924.94⎪⎪ 3
=⎨

⎪ − 484.14⎪ 0
⎪ 2353.16⎪ 0

⎩⎪− 1234.42⎭⎪ 0

16 - 9

16.4.15

Internal Forces

ID

INTERNAL FORCES

1

2

x1

769.56

1

3

1

2146.84

2

1

924.94

2146.84
484.14

484.14
3,5
Px1 = −2146.84

Q x1 = −484.14

x1

x1

Px1

Mx1 = −484.14(x1) + 769.56

Qx1

x1

Mx1

0

-2146.84

0

-484.14

0

769.56

1

-2146.84

1

-484.14

1

285.42

2

-2146.84

2

-484.14

2

-198.72

3

-2146.84

3

-484.14

3

-682.86

3.5

-2146.84

3.5

-484.14

3.5

-924.94

2

1500 kg/m

x2
2

924.94

484.14

3

2

1

484.14
2353.16

3

2

2146.84

1234.42

3
Px 2 = −484.14

x2

16.4.16

Px2

− 1500 (x 2 )

x2

Qx2

Mx 2 = 2146.84(x 2 ) − 924.94

1
2

2
1500 (x 2 )

x2

Mx2

0

-484.14

0

2146.84

0

-924.94

1

-484.14

1

646.84

1

471.90

2

-484.14

2

-853.16

2

368.74

3

-484.14

3

-2353.16

3

-1234.42

Support Reactions and Apply Joint Loads

⎧ 484.14⎫ 0

⎪ 2146.84⎪ 0

{F}1 = ⎪⎨ − 769.56⎪⎬ 0

484
.
14

⎪1
⎪− 2146.84⎪ 2

⎪⎩ − 924.94⎪⎭ 3

16 - 10

Q x 2 = 2146.84

{F}2

⎧ 484.14⎫ 1

⎪ 2146.84⎪ 2
⎪⎪ 924.94⎪⎪ 3
=⎨

⎪ − 484.14⎪ 0
⎪ 2353.16⎪ 0

⎪⎩− 1234.42⎪⎭ 0

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ID

1

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SUPPORT REACTIONS &
⎧ 484.14⎫ 0

{R}1 = ⎪⎨ 2146.84⎪⎬ 0
⎪− 769.56⎪ 0

3

⎧ −484.14⎫ 1 ⎧ 484.14⎫ 1

⎧0⎫ 1

⎪ − 924.94⎪ 3 ⎪ 924.94⎪ 3

⎪0⎪ 3
⎩ ⎭

{R}2 = ⎪⎨− 2146.84⎪⎬ 2 + ⎪⎨2146.84⎪⎬ 2 = ⎪⎨0⎪⎬ 2
⎧ −484.14⎫ 0

2353.16⎬ 0
⎪− 1234.42⎪ 0

{R}3 = ⎪⎨

1500 kg/m

484.14
2353.16

1234.42

3,5

2

769.56

484.14
2146.84

3

16 - 11