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Syunsuke Hasuka

English 102
19 October 2015
Dams: How They Damn the Environment (Annotated Bibliography)
Adams, Patricia. "Chinese Study Reveals Three Gorges Dam Triggered 3,000 Earthquakes,
Numerous Landslides." Probe International. Probe International, 01 June 2011. Web. 14
Nov. 2015.
This article covers the study that reveals how the Three Gorges Dam of China has been
triggering numerous earthquakes and landslides within its region. It is said that the dam on the
Yangtze River has significantly increased the seismic activity within the region and according
to a Chinese study, there have been 3,429 earthquakes between June of 2003 and December of
2009 recorded in this region alone; June of 2003 being the month they began inundating the
reservoirs. This particular study also reveals that many other dams are causing seismic activity
within their own regions. These earthquakes triggered by reservoirs is a phenomenon called
Reservoir-induced Seismicity (RIS). The article also covers, the claims of a different report,
that of the 19 Chinese dams that are large enough to suffer from RIS, 15 are geologically similar
to the geology of the Three Gorges dam. To capitalize, the article talks about how interest in RIS
has grown significantly since the earthquake of 2008 that was caused by the Zipingpu dam in the
Sichuan province. This earthquake alone killed almost 90,000 people and left many more
homeless. There is a fear that the Three Gorges dam, which is the worlds largest dam, may cause
a more catastrophic earthquake than that of the Zipingpu induced event. In a worse-case
scenario, they fear that an earthquake of significant magnitude will not only cause damage to the
area surrounding that dam, but damage the dam itself, increasing the dams chance of
catastrophic failure. A catastrophic failure that would kill thousands and effect millions. The
point of this article was to shed light on current events that are unfolding in China. They hope
that by supplying the public with this information, the public would use this information to help
form a conclusion of their own. That in that conclusion, people will be able to see that dams
shouldnt be as glorified as they are.
Probe International is a division of Canadas well known and respected environmental and
energy policy non-government organization, Energy Probe Research Foundation. Ran by a group
of individuals who work to promote social, economic, and environmental well-being, Probe
International was created to address environmental damages caused by the Canadian government
and corporations. Based in Toronto, this groups hopes to bring into attention the two sides of a
story and tries to remain neutral. They claim they are neither left wing nor right wing and are
only concerned about the progress of society. Since its creation, the division has been proactive
in its efforts all around globe. What makes this particular organization reliable is their decades of

existence. It would be tough for an organization promoting such things as they, to stay afloat for
so long if they didnt have a strong foundation. With that in mind, this organization has been very
fruitful in their efforts around the globe, only adding to their prestige. The goal of this source has
always been about progress and in doing so, they believe that education is the best way to
achieve that. Compared to my other sources, this article provides more of an example of how
over glorified dams are and not so much on fact claims. They are more specific on one aspect of
dams, than the overall influence of them. This is a source that I can use to showcase specific
negative aspects of dams.
Within my essay, I expect to use this source as an example of one of the many detrimental things
dams do. This article will provide to my audience a real life example of things going wrong,
rather than a hypothetical one. In a way, I am using this article to prove that these things really
do happen and arent of speculation in the field of science. I believe it is important to back up
claims with real facts, rather than hypothetical ones and this article helps me achieve that. This
article should help convince my audience into believe that my claims are factual and are indeed
reliable. The way this article has changed the way I think about my topic, is by enlightening me
on the other details of what dams may cause. I had no clue prior to my research that dams could
produce earthquakes. It was just a thought I had never conceived up and that is why it is
important for me to use this example, because I believe my audience will have the same reaction
as I did.
Birk, Newman P., and Genevieve B. Birk. "Selection, Slating, and Charged
Language." Language Awarness, Readings for College Writers (2005): n. pag. Print.
This essay on language talks about how people used certain words or stress of words to indicated
different things. They talk about how words can be used to share the same story, but tell it from a
different perspective and give it a different connotation.
As this essay is published with other scholarly essays, it shows that the publisher has confidence
in the claims of this essay along with the others. The goal of this source is to inform the readers
on the use of language to better emphasize certain things. They also show how a story being told
could be different from what has actually happened. The claims of this essay seem to be
supported by academia. Compared to my other sources, it has nothing to do with dams and their
negative effects at all. It does not support any claims I make through evidence, as my other
sources may.
I am using this source in my paper to show my audience why, how, and where the general public
conceives dams as an all good entity. It is meant to show them how for years the public has been
tricked into thinking that dams pose no negative side effects through use of slanting, selection,
and charging. It has helped open my eyes to the true reality behind dams.
"Boiling Point: Hot Water Killing 50% of Columbia River's Salmon Population." RT English.
TV-Novosti, 31 July 2015. Web. 14 Nov. 2015.

This specific article capitalizes on the dangers the sockeye salmon of the Columbia River face. In
the light of recent warmings, about half of the salmon population has died. This death is due to
the fact that fish are sensitive to temperature and any disturbances can bring about their
mortality. Of the 507,000 estimated fish that once migrated through the Columbia River, more
than 250,000 have died in the river and it is said that an additional 30 percent more may die as
well. This article explains that because of rising temperatures, fishes of all species are in danger
when they are in warmer waters. The science behind their death is the lack of dissolved oxygen.
Water of higher temperature has less dissolved oxygen, which then puts stress on the fish and
killing them. The point of this article is to educate the public on the dangers all species of the
world face when the global climates change.
RT News is a government ran organization in Russia. Ran and funded by the Russian
government, RT News employs articles of current and worldly matters. As a news agency, their
goal is to supply the public with new and current events. The facts are well documented as there
are many others sources that would support the claims made by this article. Compared to my
other sources, this article actually doesnt mention anything about dams or about how dams may
be the cause of the fish dying. This article is meant to support my claims, rather than provide
Although this article does not highlight anything about dams or how they affect the fish
population, I chose to use this source because it highlights the dangers fish assume when they are
in warmer climates. I mean to use this information to show my audience that the warmer water
displaced by dams are capable the same results. This source will help support my claims and help
educate my audience on the other matters that dams influence. Altogether, this article has made
me realized just how much damage dams cause onto the environment and ecology of the rivers
they are placed on.
Brink, Elizabeth. "Remove or Repair?" International Rivers. International Rivers, 1 Jan. 2006.
Web. 15 Nov. 2015.
This article covers the issues of dam removal on the political scale. It recaps on the event of
Katrina and about how those events have emphasized the need for new legislation that causes for
new dam safety policies and programs. Representatives from New York, Utah, and Hawaii in
2006 have introduce legislation to reauthorize the National Dam Safety Program. The legislation
would provide up to $12.7 million a year for four years to assist states in improving their dam
safety programs. In an examination of small dams removed through consensus process in
Wisconsin, it is said that dam removal typically cost two to five times less than estimated repair
costs. The largest obstacle to dam removal is cost, since some dams would cost the owners
seven-figure price tags for demolition. Organizations throughout the United States provide
engineering expertise to significantly lower removal cost and some others offer grant money as
well. Although dam removal is expensive, it may save the owners through the removal of
insurance liability and maintenance and repair costs. The point of this article was to let the public
know about the political efforts that have been made to contribute to dam removal. It also
highlights the fact that dam removal isnt something new and has been on the political scene for

some time. This particular article shows both sides of the story when it comes to dams. It tells us
why particular dam removal doesnt happen, but offers solutions to overcome those obstacles.
International Rivers is an organization that promotes social well-being of the environment and
ecology. They particularly fight to help those who are in particular need of a clean and efficient
infrastructure, such as India and Thailand. International Rivers has been around since 1985 and
they have been very proactive in their efforts, being successful in achieving much of their goals.
Elizabeth Brink, the writer of this article is one of the advocates in this organization and what she
rights reflects her own views and the views of the organization meaning that her article is fully
supported by the organization. Being fruitful in their efforts, the organization has accumulated
accolades that make them a reliable source, since they not only write about protecting the
environment, but are actually active themselves. The goal of this article and the organization to is
supply the public with information on dams and other green sources. The facts supplied by this
organization is supported by in other articles, although it may prove difficult to find them. Since
this is more of a news article, the writing does have a popular influence to it, but also has a
scholarly influence to it as well, since it was written with the goals of the organization in mind.
This article provides the counter argument and solutions and compared to my other sources, this
source provides more claims.
Within my paper, this source is meant to help me show solutions to the counter arguments my
readers may have. This is helpful since I now have a means to quell come counter arguments of
my claims. Since this article also provides a counter argument as to why dam removal isnt as
feasible as it sounds, it also provides solutions to those problems. That makes for a stronger
paper and stronger claim as well. Before I stumbled upon this source, I was having a difficult
time thinking up of any counter arguments that my readers may have that werent obvious to
begin with. Obvious being the immediate benefits of electricity and flood control. Once I found
this article I started to see why a dam may be difficult to take down, even if it provides no
economic benefit.
"Dam Safety." Dam Safety. Department of Homeland Security, n.d. Web. 15 Nov. 2015.
This particular site ran be FEMA, the United States Federal Emergency Management Agency,
talks about dam safety and dam failures. They claim that out of 87,000 dams in the United States,
approximately one-third of them pose high or significant hazard of life and property if
failure is to occur. The site also capitalizes on the reasons why a dam may fail. Along with that,
they display information on the benefits of dams and dam ownership in the United States. The
point of the source is to educate the public of various dam statistics.
The site has no particular author or writer since it is the website for FEMA. They are more of a
provider for information, rather than interpreters of facts. Meaning that they are unbiased and
have no point of view. FEMA is particularly reliable since it is a government agency that is
regulated and funded by the government itself. They are supported by numerous sources and they
employ their own research. Compared to my other sources, the site is a mere provider of facts
and is not as biased as other sources may be. They share no point of view.

Within my paper, I hope to use the information they provide to help support my claims. In
contrast, I also hope to use the site as an example of how the government mainly talks about dam
benefits and not much about the negative side effects of them. The only negative claim they
make about dams is in the dams failure. Which is needless to say since it is obvious that dam
failure may be a hazard to life, like how a collapsing building may be a hazard to those inside.
They do not capitalize on the negative effects that these dams have on the environment or
ecology of rivers. As an example, I hope to use this site to show my readers how propaganda,
media, and words may bring a certain connotation to things that dont deserve it. That should
help my try in my claims to the readings we had in class and how they have a correlation. As for
my thoughts, the source has done little to change my perspective, it only enforces my claims.
"Damming Statistics." International Rivers. International Rivers, 22 Oct. 2007. Web. 15 Nov.
This particular source is just a listing of numerous and various damming statistics, so this source
makes no claim. They only provide information on the topics surrounding dams. The point of
this source is to provide the public with information and to help its readers realize all the other
effects of a dams presence.
Backed by the same organization that published Remove or Repair, the statistics listed here are
just as reliable. Multiple sites and sources support and claim the same information listed. It is a
fairly current source and the goal of it is just to provide information. This source would be of the
scholarly attribute since it aims to supply information and educate. Compared to other sources in
my paper, it is very neutral. It provides the backbone of my claims and gives me all the statistics
I need to make my claims factual and not of speculation.
Within my paper, I plan on using most of the statistics listed in the source to support my claims.
This source helps me emphasize to the audience how much of an effect dams have on the
environment and the ecology of the rivers they are placed on. It has brought a lot of information
into my attention and I believe that it will do the same for my readers as well.
Fish, Eric. "The Forgotten Legacy of the Banqiao Dam Collapse." The Economic Observer. The
Economic Observer Online, 08 Feb. 2013. Web. 15 Nov. 2015.
This certain article talks about the forgotten legacy of the Banqiao dam collapse and how
people are worried that the same factors that led to its failure are re-emerging in dams today. The
history lesson that the failure taught in 1975 seems to be re-emerging today. In the events of the
collapse, about 171,000 lives were lost. In an effort to keep the incident under wraps, the Chinese
government quickly covered up the story. Not much is known about the incident because of the
cover-up, so it is still very much under investigation. As well as the history lesson, the article
also speaks about how China intends to increase its total energy capacity by nearly 50 percent as
it simultaneously attempts to increase the non-fossil fuel proportion. Apparently there as also
been a problem with Chinese infrastructure as many of the buildings are built with substandard

material. This act is called tofu construction. Old dams raise even greater fears as many of
them were built before standards approved.
The Economic Observer is a news outlet based in Beijing. As a news outlet, their primary goal is
to spread the news of current events and supply the public with a certain perspective. The very
article that was published by the group is very well supported and documented. The source itself
fits both scholarly and popular profiles, as it aims to produce readers and educate them on the
matter. Compared to my other sources, this one is much more specific. Since the article is mainly
about the dam failure, is allows me to use it as evidence for my claims.
Within my paper, the article is meant to show my audience the direct result of absolute dam
failure. This source is helpful for acting as a history lesson that reinforces my claims. I hope that
by employing the information in this article, my readers will be able to grasps the seriousness of
dam failure. That is exactly how it changed my thoughts on this topic. After reading the article
and much like it, I became more aware of how deadly dams may be.
Kibret, Solomon, et al. "Malaria Impact of Large Dams in Sub-Saharan Africa: Maps, Estimates
and Predictions." Malaria Journal 14.1 (2015): 1-12. Academic Search Complete. Web.
19 Nov. 2015.
In this scientific journal, research was done to see the infection rate of malaria in the areas
surrounding reservoirs. Of 1268 existing dams in sub-Saharan Africa, 723 are in malarious areas.
Approximately 15 million individuals live in close proximity and are in danger of contraction.
Annually, 1.1 million people are infected with malaria. Their conclusion was that, in sub-Saharan
Africa, dams contribute significantly to malaria risks.
As this source is of the scholarly profile, the creators of this journal used various references to
support their claims. Along with a strong table of reference, the journal is a result of research
done in sub-Saharan Africa. The goal of this source is to educate the readers of the content on the
matters of malaria in sub-Saharan Africa. It is meant to be used as a reference and it is very
objective. Compared to my other sources, this is one of the only sources I have that is actual
research. Everything else I have used as a source have only talk about past research or talked
about current events.
Within my paper, I hope to use this journal as evidence of how dams are negatively effecting
human lives. That dams are just a hazard to animal and environmental health, but ours as well.
This will serve well to appeal to logos as people are generally afraid of diseases. Prior to my
research, I had never thought about how dams could be contributing to new cases of diseases. It
just wasnt a thought that occurred in my mind.
Snmez, Mehmet Emin. "Barajlarn Mekn zerindeki Olumsuz Etkileri Ve Trkiye'den
rnekler." University Of Gaziantep Journal of Social Sciences 11.1 (2012): 213-231.

Academic Search Complete. Web. 16 Nov. 2015.

In this research journal, they conclude that dams as the main form of irrigation, utility and
drinking water bears important disadvantages such as narrowing down agricultural production
areas, siltation, distortion of ecosystem, and migration. They capitalize on how human heritage is
lost when valleys become flooded with waters from the reservoirs, since many anthropological
artifacts are often located near rivers. Many archaeological settings are flooded by dams and
many people are displaced by rising waters. On top of that, certain plants are endangered due to
flood waters as they are only found by rivers. The main argument of this source is that dams are
much more detrimental to the environment than people perceive them to be.
Since this is a research paper, the journal is backed up by various sources. Within its own
research numerous sources state the same claims as the journal does. Outside of the paper, the
facts are well documented and widely accepted. The goal of this source is to educate its readers
on this certain aspect of dams. Along with that is aims to serve as a reference for others as well.
It is of a scholarly profile and compared to my other sources, this is one of only two research
journals I could find that had significant information. It is one of the more objective sources I
have and serves well as evidence.
This source should help me prove to my readers that dams are much more detrimental than is
what is currently conceived with the general public. It helps me shape my argument by acting as
evidence that I can use to support my claims. Like other sources, this journal has brought to my
attention the depth of how badly dams affect the environment.