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Testing Enclosures for Ingress Protection

Testing Enclosures for Ingress Protection

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Published by Prithviraj Daga
The testing will assess the protection of the equipment against ingress of solid bodies and/or liquids,
varying over differing degrees of protection, depending upon the requirements you place on your
product. We will then measure the effects of this exposure, and give the product an appropriate IP
rating.
The testing will assess the protection of the equipment against ingress of solid bodies and/or liquids,
varying over differing degrees of protection, depending upon the requirements you place on your
product. We will then measure the effects of this exposure, and give the product an appropriate IP
rating.

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Published by: Prithviraj Daga on Apr 03, 2010
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Testing Enclosures for Ingress Protection

In testing enclosures for ingress protection, as with every service we offer, Sira has the expertise and experience to provide the support you have been looking for in terms of both technical excellence and customer care. The Sira UKAS accredited laboratory is fully equipped to conduct Ingress Protection tests specified

Above: An IPX6 Test in BS EN 60529:1992 (IEC 529:1989). For our full testing capability please click here The testing will assess the protection of the equipment against ingress of solid bodies and/or liquids, varying over differing degrees of protection, depending upon the requirements you place on your product. We will then measure the effects of this exposure, and give the product an appropriate IP rating.

The level of protection of a product is signified by a number (i.e. IP67) where the first number is the ingress protection against solid bodies, and the second number is protection against liquids. Typically, testing takes around 2 weeks from receipt of samples, and fixed price quotations are offered.

Protection of Equipment Against ingress of solid bodies and liquids

Degree of Protection

Protected Against IP0X IP1X Non-protected Access to hazardous parts with the back of a hand. Solid foreign objects of > 50 mm.

Definition An access probe, sphere of 50 mm, shall have adequate clearance from hazardous parts. An object probe, sphere of 50 mm, shall not fully penetrate. A jointed test finger of 12 mm, 80 mm length, shall have adequate clearance from hazardous parts An object probe, sphere of 12.5 mm, shall not fully penetrate. An access probe of 2.5 mm shall not penetrate.

IP2X

Access to hazardous parts with finger. Solid foreign objects of > 12.5 mm.

IP3X

Access to hazardous parts with a tool. Solid foreign objects of > 2.5 mm.

An object probe of 2.5 mm shall not penetrate at all. An access probe of 1.0 mm shall not penetrate.

IP4X

Access to hazardous parts with a wire. Solid foreign objects of > 1.0 mm.

An object probe of 1.0 mm shall not penetrate at all. An access probe of 1.0 mm shall not penetrate.

IP5X

Access to hazardous parts with a wire. Dust (protected).

Ingress of dust is not totally prevented, but dust shall not penetrate in a sufficient quantity to interfere with satisfactory operation of the

apparatus or to impair safety. IP6X Hazardous parts with a wire. Dust (tight). IPX0 IPX1 Non-protected. Vertically falling water drops. An access probe of 1.0 mm shall not penetrate. No ingress of dust. Vertically falling drops shall have no harmful effects. Vertically falling drops shall have no harmful effects when the enclosure is tilted at any angle up to 15° on either side of the vertical. Water sprayed at an angle up to 60° on either side of the vertical shall have no harmful effects. Water splashed against the enclosure from any direction shall have no harmful effects. Water projected in jets against the enclosure from any direction shall have no harmful effects. Water projected in powerful jets against the enclosure from any direction shall have no harmful effects. Ingress of water in quantities causing harmful effects shall be prevented when the enclosure is immersed in 1m of water for 30 minutes. Ingress of water in quantities causing harmful effects shall be prevented when the enclosure is continuously immersed in water under conditions which shall be agreed between manufacturer and user (>IPX7).

IPX2

Vertically falling water drops when enclosure tilted up to 15° .

IPX3

Spraying water.

IPX4

Splashing water.

IPX5

Water jets.

IPX6

Powerful water jets.

IPX7

The effects of temporary immersion in water.

IPX8

The effects of continuous immersion in water.

IP-classification
Good enclosure of electrical or electronic equipment intended to operate in difficult environments, where dust, corrosive substances, moisture or water can penetrate, is of the utmost importance in reducing the risks of electric shock, fire or explosion. Minimum requirements are set out in documents such as product standards for electrical safety and in standards for equipment used in potentially explosive atmospheres. There are also encapsulation requirements applicable to products with high reliability requirements and where the entry of dust could cause problems. IP-classification testing is normally carried out in accordance with the global IEC 60529 standard or its European equivalent, EN 60529, which has also been adopted as Swedish Standard SS EN 60529.

Degree of protection against solid foreign objects (1st number)

IP 1X The test for IP1X enclosures involves pressing a 50 mm diameter sphere with a force of 50 N against all openings in the enclosure. The item is approved if the sphere does not fully enter the enclosure and if there is a satisfactory distance from dangerous live parts and moving parts. IP 2X IP 2X testing involves pressing a standardised 12 mm diameter test finger with a force of 10 N, and a 12,5 mm sphere with a force of 30 N, against all openings in the enclosure. For acceptance, the sphere must not fully enter the enclosure and there must be a satisfactory distance between the test finger and dangerous live parts and moving parts IP 3X IP 3X testing involves pressing a standardised test probe, in the form of a 2,5 mm steel wire, against all openings in the enclosure, with a force of 3 N. For acceptance, the probe must not enter the enclosure. IP 4X IP 4X testing involves pressing a standardised test probe, in the form of a 1 mm steel wire, against all openings in the enclosure, with a force of 1 N. For acceptance, the probe must not enter the enclosure.

IP 5X Items to be tested for IP 5X enclosures are exposed to fine-grained circulating talcum powder in a dust chamber for 2- 8 hours, with the exposure time being determined by the test conditions for the specific item. This test is performed with a maximum depressure of 20 mbar inside the item under test, and with a maximum extraction rateof 60 volumes/hour.

If specific product standards so permit, testing is performed without depressure for eight hours. In addition to the dust test, a 1 mm steel wire is pressed with a force of 1 N against all openings in the enclosure.

For acceptance for Class IP 5X, dust must not penetrate into the item in such quantities, or in such a position, as to prevent satisfactory operation of the item or to present a safety risk. There must also be a safe distance from the wire to live or moving parts. IP 6X Items to be tested for IP 6X enclosures are exposed to fine-grained circulating talcum powder in a dust chamber for 2- 8 hours, with the exposure time being determined by the test conditions for the specific item. This test is performed with a maximum depressure of 20 mbar inside the item under test, and with a maximum extraction rateof 60 volumes/hour.

Degree of protection against water (2nd number)

IP X1 The enclosure is exposed to dripping water, with a flow rate of 1 mm/min, for ten minutes. Acceptance for Class IPX1 requires no water to have penetrated into the item in such a quantity, or in such a position, as to prevent satisfactory operation of the item or to present a safety risk

IP X2 The enclosure is exposed to dripping water during 4 x 2.5 minutes, with a flow rate of 3 mm/min. The enclosure is tested in four fixed inclinations 15o from normal position. Acceptance for Class IP X2 requires no water to have penetrated into the item in such a quantity, or in such a position, as to prevent satisfactory operation of the item or to present a safety risk

IP X3 The enclosure is exposed to water spray from an oscillating tube nozzle, with each spray jet giving a flow rate of 0.07 l/min, for ten minutes. Alternatively, a standardised spray nozzle, producing a spray of 10 l/min, may be used. If this spray nozzle is used, the exposure time is 1 min/m², with a minimum of five minutes. Regardless of the type of test equipment, water spraying is limited to ±60° from the vertical. Acceptance for Class IP X3 requires no water to have penetrated into the item in such a quantity, or in such a position, as to prevent satisfactory operation of the item or to present a safety risk.

IP X4 The enclosure is exposed to water spray from an oscillating tube, with each spray nozzle giving a flow rate of 0.07 l/min, for ten minutes. Alternatively, a standardised spray nozzle, producing a spray of 10 l/min, may be used. If this spray nozzle is used, the exposure time is 1 min/m², with a minimum of five minutes. Water is splashed against the enclosure from all directions. Acceptance for Class IP X4 requires no water to have penetrated into the item in such a quantity, or in such a position, as to prevent satisfactory operation of the item or to present a safety risk.

IP X5 The enclosure is subjected to a jet of water from a 6,3 mm diameter nozzle at a distance of 2,5 - 3 m from the item under test. The water flow rate is 12,5 l/min, applied for a time of 1 min/m², with a minimum of three minutes. Acceptance for Class IP X5 requires no water to have penetrated into the item in such a quantity, or in such a position, as to prevent satisfactory operation of the item or to present a safety risk. IP X6 The enclosure is subjected to a jet of water from a 12,5 mm diameter nozzle at a distance of 2,5 - 3 m from the item under test. The water flow rate is 100 l/min, applied for a time of 1 min/m², with a minimum of three minutes. Acceptance for Class IP X6 requires no water to have penetrated into the item in such a quantity, or in such a position, as to prevent satisfactory operation of the item or to present a safety risk. IP X7

The test is made by completely immersing the enclosure in water in its service position. The enclosure is immersed to the depth of one metre with the duration time of thirty minutes. Acceptance for Class IP X7 requires no water to have penetrated into the item in such a quantity, or in such a position, as to prevent satisfactory operation of the item or to present a safety risk. IP X8 The test is made by completely immersing the enclosure in water. Test conditions are subject to agreement between manufacturer and user. Acceptance for Class IP X8 requires no water to have penetrated into the item in such a quantity, or in such a position, as to prevent satisfactory operation of the item or to present a safety risk.

IP Code
The IP Code (or International Protection Rating[1], sometimes also interpreted as Ingress Protection Rating) consists of the letters IP followed by two digits and an optional letter. As defined in international standard IEC 60529, it classifies the degrees of protection provided against the intrusion of solid objects (including body parts like hands and fingers), dust, accidental contact, and water in electrical enclosures.[2] The standard aims to provide users more detailed information than vague marketing terms such as waterproof. The digits (characteristic numerals) indicate conformity with the conditions summarized in the tables below. Where there is no protection rating with regard to one of the criteria, the digit is replaced with the letter X. For example, an electrical socket rated IP22 is protected against insertion of fingers and will not be damaged or become unsafe during a specified test in which it is exposed to vertically or nearly vertically dripping water. IP22 or IP2X are typical minimum requirements for the design of electrical accessories for indoor use.

Contents
[hide]
• • • • • • • • •

1 First digit 2 Second digit 3 Additional letters 4 Mechanical impact resistance 5 IP69K 6 NEMA Rating 7 References 8 See also 9 External links

First digit
The first digit indicates the level of protection that the enclosure provides against access to hazardous parts (e.g., electrical conductors, moving parts) and the ingress of solid foreign objects.

Level

Object size protected against

Effective against

0

No protection against contact and ingress of objects

1

>50 mm

Any large surface of the body, such as the back of a hand, but no protection against deliberate contact with a body part

2 3 4 5 6

>12.5 mm >2.5 mm >1 mm dust protected dust tight

Fingers or similar objects Tools, thick wires, etc. Most wires, screws, etc. Ingress of dust is not entirely prevented, but it must not enter in sufficient quantity to interfere with the satisfactory operation of the equipment; complete protection against contact No ingress of dust; complete protection against contact

Second digit
Protection of the equipment inside the enclosure against harmful ingress of water.

Level

Protected against

Details

0

not protected

— Dripping water (vertically falling drops) shall have no harmful effect.

1

dripping water

2 3 4 5 6 7

dripping water Vertically dripping water shall have no harmful effect when the when tilted up to enclosure is tilted at an angle up to 15° from its normal position. 15° spraying water splashing water water jets powerful water jets Water falling as a spray at any angle up to 60° from the vertical shall have no harmful effect. Water splashing against the enclosure from any direction shall have no harmful effect. Water projected by a nozzle against enclosure from any direction shall have no harmful effects. Water projected in powerful jets against the enclosure from any direction shall have no harmful effects.

Ingress of water in harmful quantity shall not be possible when immersion up to the enclosure is immersed in water under defined conditions of 1m pressure and time (up to 1 m of submersion). The equipment is suitable for continuous immersion in water under conditions which shall be specified by the manufacturer. NOTE: Normally, this will mean that the equipment is hermetically sealed. However, with certain types of equipment, it can mean that water can enter but only in such a manner that produces no harmful effects.

8

immersion beyond 1 m

Additional letters
The standard defines additional letters that can be appended to classify only the level of protection against access to hazardous parts by persons:

Level Protected against access to hazardous parts with

A

back of hand

B

finger

C

tool

D

wire

Further letters can be appended to provide additional information related to the protection of the device:

Letter

Meaning

H

high voltage device

M

device moving during water test

S

device standing still during water test

W

weather conditions

Mechanical impact resistance
An additional number has sometimes been used to specify the resistance of equipment to mechanical impact. This mechanical impact is identified by the energy needed to qualify a specified resistance level, which is measured in joules (J). This has now been superseded by the separate IK number specified in EN 50102. Although dropped from the 3rd edition of IEC 60529 onwards, and not present in the EN version, older enclosure specifications will sometimes be seen with an optional third IP digit denoting impact resistance. Newer products are likely to be given an IK rating instead. However there is not an exact correspondence of values between the old and new standards.

OLD IP Level Impact energy Equivalent drop mass and height

0

1 2 3

0.225 J 0.375 J 0.5 J

150 g dropped from 15 cm 250 g dropped from 15 cm 250 g dropped from 20 cm

5 7 9 IK number

2J 6J 20.0 J Impact energy (joules)

500 g dropped from 40 cm 1.5 kg dropped from 40 cm 5.0 kg dropped from 40 cm

Equivalent impact

00

unprotected no test

01

0.150

drop of 200 gram object from 7.5 cm height

02

0.200

drop of 200 gram object from 10 cm height

03

0.350

drop of 200 gram object from 17.5 cm height

04

0.500

drop of 200 gram object from 25 cm height

05

0.700

drop of 200 gram object from 35 cm height

06

1.00

drop of 500 gram object from 20 cm height

07

2.00

drop of 500 gram object from 40 cm height

08

5.00

drop of 1.7 kg object from 29.5 cm height

09

10.0

drop of 5 kg object from 20 cm height

10

20.0

drop of 5 kg object from 40 cm height

IP69K
German standard DIN 40050-9 extends the IEC 60529 rating system described above with an IP69K rating for high-pressure, high-temperature wash-down applications.[3] Such enclosures must not only be dust tight (IP6X), but also able to withstand high-pressure and steam cleaning. The test specifies a spray nozzle that is fed with 80°C water at 8–10 MPa (80–100 bar) and a flow rate of 14–16 L/min. The nozzle is held 10–15 cm from the tested device at angles of 0°, 30°, 60° and 90° for 30 s each. The test device sits on a turntable that rotates once every 12 s (5 rpm). The IP69K test specification was initially developed for road vehicles, especially those that need regular intensive cleaning (dump trucks, cement mixers, etc.), but also finds use in other areas (e.g., food industry).

NEMA Rating
The National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) in the United States also publishes protection ratings for enclosures similar to the IP rating system published by the International Electro-technical Commission (IEC). NEMA however also dictates other product features not addressed by IP codes, such as corrosion resistance, gasket aging, and construction practices. For this reason while it is possible to map IP Codes to NEMA ratings that satisfy or exceed the IP Code criteria, it is not possible to map NEMA ratings to IP codes, as the IP Code does not mandate the additional requirements. The table to the right indicates the minimum NEMA rating that satisfies a given IP code, but can only be used in that way, not to map IP to NEMA.[4]. North American enclosure rating systems are defined in NEMA 250, UL 50, UL 508, and CSA C22.2 No. 94.

IP Code IP20 IP54 IP65 IP67 IP68

Min NEMA Enclosure rating to satisfy IP Code 1 3 4, 4X 6 6P

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