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TheShotheardacrossallTexas.

ReadaboutthebangthatstartedtheTexasrevolution.
Our first act ofrebellionagainsttheMexicanshashappened,theBattleofGonzalesisshowinghowweasacountryarefightingback.A
Mexican soldier shows thatalthoughthisisawinforTexas,Mexicostillisnttrying
"SincetheordersfromyourLordshipwereformeto
withdrawwithoutcompromisingthehonorofMexicanarms,Ididso."MexicanSoldier.(
https://tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/qeg03
)
The story started when the impresario, Mr. Dewitt, had problems with Indian raids in
his colony. As a response to Dewitts pleasforhelp,theMexicangovernmentgavehima
small cannon in 1831. Now Mexico wants the cannon back. General Santa Anna had
sent 100 of his troops and
Colonel Domingo de Ugartechea
to receive the cannon and
bring it back to him. The Mexican troops were told not to fire, because General Santa
Anna did not want to be responsible for firing the first shot and starting the war from
Texas against Mexico. They met the Texas settlers across the Gonzales River and asked
for the cannon back. A group of men referred to as the old 18 stood acrosstheriverand
stalled for time, saying that their leader was out and would bebackinacoupleofdays.
Meanwhile, Texas buried the cannon in someone's backyard and brought 140 Texan
troops to make a surprise attack on the Mexicans. When Dewitt got there and Mexico
asked for the cannon back, Texas respondedwithawhiteflagandablackcannononitsayingcomeandtakeitasshowninthepicture
with this article. The flag was made out of Dewitts wifes wedding dresses. The Texas army attacks the Mexicans with a very brief
battleinwhichMexicosurrendersandretreatsbacktoSanAntonio.TheTexasarmyisfeelingstrongagainstMexiconow.
Gonzalesisimportant,becauseitisthefirststepintheTexasrevolution.Itwasnotthecannonthatissoimportantthough,itisthat
throughaskingforthecannon,MexicowastestingTexassallegiancetoSantaAnnaandthegovernmentofTexas.Itisinteresting,
becauseIthinkthatTexasknewalsoitwasatest,anditstillflewtheflagcomeandtakeitaboveGonzales.Thiseventmatters
today,becauseitwasthefirststeptoarevolutionwhereTexasstoodupandsaidnothisisnotright.Withoutthefirstsparktothefire,
whichessentiallyGonzaleswas,theremightnothavebeenasbigofanuproarknownastherevolution.Thiseventwasthebeginningof
achainreactionthatgaveTexasitsfreedom.

TexasFightsBack
(ThissectionisabouttheSiegeofSanAntonio)

ReadaboutT
exassecondblowtoSantaAnna
Texas is starting to make some moves in the war for the constitution of 1821. Texas has attacked and seized San Antonio after a long
siegefollowedbyabattle.Thisishowthestorywent.
The Texans have been fired on by their victory at the Battle of San Antonio. The Texans realized that whoever controls San Antonio
controls the gateway to the rest of Texas.Followingthislogic,TexasdecidestotakeSanAntonio,andtheTexasvolunteerarmymarches
to San Antonio on October 13, 1835. The Texans form a simple buteffective
strategy siege San Antonio. This means that the Texans surrounded San
Antonio and kept anything such as supplies and resources getting in or out.
They are able to hold the siege as dictatedinthepictureinthisselectionfor8
weeks. During those eight weeks, small skirmisheshappenbutnorealbattles.
One example of these skirmishes is the grass fight in which the Texas troops
attack a wagon which they think contains valuable resources, butitactually
contains just grass for the Mexican horses. At some point, the Texans had
captured a Mexican soldier that after alotofinterrogatingtoldthemwhatit
was like in the city of San Antonio. His story told the Texans that the
Mexican soldierswerehungryandrestlessandnotatallinfightingcondition.
Texas cluded that they had to attack soon. Texas attacked San Antonio on
December 5, 1835, and they attacked in a very peculiarbuteffectivefashion.
The Texans wenthousetohouseattackingtheMexicansoldiersonebyonefor
four straight days. Mexico fled to the Alamo where they, overwhelmed,
surrendered under a white flag. Mexico said they would never go to San
Antonioagain,whichsomepeoplebelieveisalie.Texasisreallyfiredonrightnowandtheybelievethattheywillwinthiswar.
ThiseventissosignificantbecausethisiswhenTexasgetsupandthrowsapunchatSantaAnna.Theplanwasbeautifulonhowthey
siegeditandthenattackedhousetohouse.Throughthisevent,manyotherTexansgotfiredon,andwhentheydefeatedSantaAnnas
army,Texasstartedtolookandsaywecandothis.Itisinteresting,becausethevictoryhappened,butwhattheTexansdidntknow
wasthatSantaAnnawasnteventryingyet.WhatisalsointerestingisthatTexaswasntfightingforindependence,theywere
fightingfortheconstitutionof1812,butatsomepointtheyrealizedthattheymustbecomeindependentsothattheirrightsare
acknowledged.Thiseventisimportanteventoday,becauseifithadnthappenedthen,theteamswouldnothavebeenattheAlamofor
thebattleoftheAlamoandsoSanJacintowouldnthavecomeoutsogreatandtheTexansmightnothavewon.

TheMassacreoftheFearless
ReadaboutthebrutalwaysofSantaAnna
In this article I must write about a very tragic event that has unfolded in San Antonio. Texas will always remember this event as the
battleoftheAlamo,anditwillmotivatetheTexasArmytofightatitshardest.
Texas was aware that Mexico would come back at some point in time and that they should be ready for them in San Antonio. San
Antonio, Texas realizes, is a big deal to Mexico, because theywanttoshowownershipofthemostpowerfultowninTexasandwhoever
controls San Antonio controls something of the sort of a gate to the rest of Texas. Knowing this, Texas knowsitmustsomehowhavea
place to defend San Antonio, so after checking
all options they find a place that will best suit
them, the Alamo. The Alamo was a mission
which wasusedasamethodofSpaintocolonize
the people of Texas and whatthemissionwould
do is it would transform the Native Americans
into Spanish loyal citizens. It is important to
rememberthattheAlamowasntdesignedtobea
fort, but to be a place where natives went to
church, grew crops, learned to speak Spanish, learned how to usetools,andaplacewheretheywerehoused.JamesBowiewasincharge
of the volunteer army that prepared to Alamo to become a fort, and a man named William Travis was in chargeoftheTexasarmythat

came to help the volunteer army. The Texans were scheduling that the Mexicanarmywouldcomeinthelateormiddlespringinacouple
months, little didtheyknowthattheMexicanarmyisalreadyonitsway.JamesBowiefallssickshortlybeforetheMexicanarmyarrived
and James gave the control of the volunteer army to William Travis.ThereisonespecialsoldierattheAlamowhoisconsideredtobethe
best shooter in all of Texas his name is Davy Crockett. Santa Anna himself arrives on February 23, 1836 taking the Texan army by
surprise. Along with Santa Anna is an army of 4 to 6 thousand well trained men against the Alamos 157 poorly trained volunteer
soldiers. Almost the minute SantaAnnagetsthere,heraisesapureredflagsayingdeathtothetraitors.Travisasksforreinforcements,he
gets none. Travis asks his men if they want to leave or stay and surely die fighting. Every last man says he will fight except for one.
Travis as a final plea for help signs a letter signed victory or death. Travis sends Quan Seguin tosendhislettertoTexasandasaresult
gets reinforcements,butthereareonly32menfromGonzalesbringinghiscountto189men.MeanwhileMexicohassiegedtheAlamoand
every night, atsunset,theyplayasongcalledtheDeGwelomeaningslitthroat.AfterthatsongcannonfirehappensandtheTexanshold
tightonlylosing7men.After13daysMexicoattacks.
The attack comes as a surprise on the thirteenth day at 5:00a.m.SantaAnnahadplannedbeforehandtheattacksandhadexclaimedin
his meeting to his generals at2:00a.m.thattheliveofhissoldierwasthatofnothingbutchickens.Thebattleisashortoneconsistingof
three phases. Travis is one of the firstonestodiefightingforhiscountry.AtthethirdphaseofattackingtheMexicanarmygoesintothe
Alamo and massacres everyone, later burning them up in huge piles. Santa Anna let a couple women go, including Susanna Dickinson
(Travisswife)tospreadthefearofthegreatandmightySantaAnna.SantaAnnaalsoletacoupleslavesgo,includingTravisslave.
ThebattleoftheAlamoandthesiegeofSanAntonioareoftenconfused,buttheyaretwoverydifferentevents.AlthoughtheTexans
lostthisbattle,itisstillveryimportant.SantaAnnathoughtthatthiseventwoulddiscouragetheTexanssoheactuallysentawomen
totelltherestofTexasfearthegreatandmightyhandofSantaAnnaandthepowerofMexico.Themessagedidtheoppositeofwhat
SantaAnnahadintended.TheTexansgotnotscaredbutmadandreadyforbattle.Theeventissoimportantthatthecryatthefinal
battlewasremembertheAlamo.Itisinterestingbecauseeventhoughtheyknewthattheyweresurelygoingtolosetheydidnotgo
homeunderawhiteflagunharmed,theyfoughtforwhattheylovedanddiedattheAlamo.Theeventisoneofthemostimportantin
Texashistoryeventoday,becauseitremindsuswhatwestandforandwhatourvaluesare.

TheReasonfortheFight

ReadabouttheactthatthatgavetheTexansareasontofight.
Washington on the Brazos, March 2, 1836 is when the colonists declared independence and later on March 16, 1836 the delegates of
Texas signed their constitution. Sam Houston is mostly responsible for holdingthismeeting.Hedecidedtoholdthemeetingalthoughthe
Texan soldiers in the battle of theAlamo,whichwashappeningatthesametime,neededdesperatereinforcements,becausehefoundthat
Texas needed to form a plan, if they lose or if they win. In this meeting, Sam Houstonwasappointedheadofmilitaryforces,andmany
other positions of power were appointed like a temporary president etc. Thedelegatesalsodecidedtomakeadeclarationofindependence
against Mexico no longer fight for theconstitutionof1824butforfreedom.TheirdeclarationwaswrittenbyGeorgeChildressonMarch
2, 1836. A couple days later, a constitution was drafted, almost mirroring the United States Constitution. The TexasConstitutionwas
written by a man named Lorenzo DeZavala.ItisimportanttorealizethatthepeoplefightingforTexasattheAlamodonotknowthat
thiseventishappeningbutwhentheyhearthenewstheywontbesurprised.
ThiseventisimportantbecauseitwillgiveTexassomethingtofightfor.Texaswillnowrealizethatitisnolongerfightingforthe
Mexicanconstitutionwhichtheyhavebeenfightingfor,butthatitisfightingforTexasindependence.Theydothisbecausetheysee
thatMexicoistoobrokentobefixed,butthattheymightbeabletostarttheirownhealedcountry.Itisinterestingthatthiseventeven
tookplace,becauseeveryonewassopreoccupiedwithenforcingthebattleattheAlamoandtoprepareforupcomingbattles.Luckily,
SamHoustoninsistedtoholdthismeetingtoformatemporarygovernmentandtofigureoutwhattheywerefightingfor,butindoing
sotheAlamodidnotreceivereinforcementsandsuffered.Thiseventisstillimportanttoday,becauseifithadn'thappened,thenTexas
wouldmaybestillbefightingfortheMexicanconstitutionandiftheyhaddonethat,itcanbearguedthatTexasmighthavelostto
GeneralSantaAnna.Andifthatwasso,thenTexaswouldnothavebecomewhatitisnow.

TheMistakeThatCostManny
Readaboutmistakesthatinseriescostmanylives

Although the story is about the Goliad Massacre, the story starts a couple days later at Coleto Creek March 1920, 1836. Here is how
Fannin managed to get to Coleto Creek. The Alamo has already fallen and the Texans at ColetoCreekhavealreadyheardthenews.The
leader of the men stationed at Coleto Creek is a man named James Fannin. Houston had order for Fannin to follow his stepsandhead

farther east, but Fannin refused the offer because he did not want to retreat and look like a coward but he insisted on taking his
position at Goliad (his first mistake). One of the reasons he did this was that Mexico had already taken San Antonio, andFanninalso
knewthattheMexicanarmyhadtakenmanyothercitiesalongthegatetoTexas, andFanninknowsthatifMexicotakesGoliad,then
they will basically have all ofTexasinasiegefromMexico.FanninhearsnewsthattheMexicanarmyisinthearea,butheassumesthat
they are still miles away so he takes a couple days to decide if he should prepare Goliad to fight with his 450 troops or flea like Sam
Houston told him to (his second mistake). A couple days later, Fannin gets information that the Mexican Army is in the city and the
Texans are badly equipped to fight, so Fannin rushes all his troops out of Goliad and they barelymissabattlewiththeMexicanArmy.
He fleas east like SamHoustonhadtoldhimtolongagobutatColetoCreekawagonwheelbrakes.ThinkingthattheMexicanarmywill
bebusywithGoliadandnotchasingafterthem,Fannindecidestotakealunchbreakinanopenfield(histhirdmistake).
Suddenly, the Mexicans come out of nowhere and spring a surprise attack on the unprepared Texas army. Because the Texans areinan
open field, the Mexicans are able to surround them on all sides like a really
quick siege. The Texans are immediately forced into combat and collapse their
wagons, destroy their supplies, and kill their cows so they can hide behind
them. The fighting stops at night and Texas is 75 menshortandsoverymany
more wounded and without supplies they cant eat and they cant heal the
wounded. Fannin looks at the damage that has been done and the next
morning holds a meeting with his officers. The officers decides to go under a
white flag. When the Mexicans awake, Texas surrenders but onlybecausethe
Mexican general Urrea promised to treat themasprisonersofwarandnotkill
any soldiers. The Texans are brought back to Goliad which by now has been
overtaken by the Mexican army, thereby sealing off Texas from getting help
from other countries, but what Mexico does not know is that the United
StatesisgivingtheTexanshelp,althoughtheysaidtheywouldnt.
The Texans gather as prisoners in the Goliad Mission and are held there for a week. When Urea tells Santa Anna what he has done,
expecting Santa Anna to be proud of him, Santa Anna writes back a letterandisfurious.HesaysthatMexicowilltakenoprisonersof
these filthy men and orders Urea to kill all the Texans at his camp. someofthewordsinhisletteris
.......existinglaws......markedthemas
pirates and outlaws.....The prisoners of Goliad were condemned by law.......They surrendered unconditionally....I could not, therefore, pardon those
unfortunates....had anysuch[capitulation]existed...itwouldhaveaffordedmeanopportunitytopetition,inthenameofhumanity,theindulgenceof
Congress Gen. Santa Anna
On March 27, 1836 ( a palm Sunday) Urea orders the Texans toleavethemissionbecausetheywillhavea
recess break. The Texans get split up into three groups and line them up with Mexican soldiers across from them. On command the
MexicansoldiersfireupontheunarmedTexans.
Some of the soldiers purposely missed the Texans and gave them an opportunity to run so that couple of Texans escaped but some died
later without food or supplies in the wilderness, but many soldiersweresavedbyawomanwhoisnowcometobeknownastheangelof
Goliad. The report came back to Santa Anna and he announced to the public that every last man had been killed at the Massacre of
Goliad.
ThiseventisimportanttotheTexansbecausethisisthefinalblowthattheTexanswilltakefromgeneralSantaAnna.Laterthebattle
cryforthefinalbattlewillnolongerjustberememberthealamoasitwasbeforebutitwillalsoincluderememberGoliadtoremind
thepeoplefightingfortexasoftheinjusticethatthemanSantaAnnahasdonetotheTexanskillingthemandmassacringthemforno
apparentreasonexcepttogreatenhispower.TheeventofgoliadhappenedmanleybecauseFannindidnotlistentotheorderofGeneral
SamHoustonanddidfoolishmistakesthatcouldhavebeenpreventablebutthenagainalltheTexanswouldhavestilllived.Thereal
personthatistotakeblameforthishideouseventisGeneralSantaAnnabecausewithouthisoverruletheTexanswouldhavelivedto
beprisonersofwarandthenmostlikelyreleasedacouplemonthsoryearslater.ThiseventshowedtheTexanswhattheyarefightingfor
andwhotheyarefightingagainst.Thiswillberememberedgreatlyinhistory.

TheLastStand

ReadaboutthefinalbattlebetweenthedictatorofMexicoandtheGeneraloftheTexasArmy.
ThebattleofSanJacintoisabeautifulstoryabouthowtheTexansachievewhattheyaimfor,andthestoryshowsthesmartstrategiesof
SamHoustonandhoweverythingjustclicksinplacefortheTexasdefenders.
To tell the story of San Jacinto,ImustfirstexplainhowSamHoustonandhistroopsgottotheareawiththeinformationneededtowin
the war. In order to win a war, a country must take over the government of the other country and have them sign a peace treaty. The
government for the Texans is at Washington on the Brazos, but for Mexico their army is marching around in the form of Santa Anna.
When Santa Anna defeated the people at the Alamo, he split his army intothreeparts,onetomarchsouthtoovertakethegatetoTexas
(the same army that met with Fannin), one to go north east to Washington on the Brazos to take over the Texan government,andone
carrying Santa Anna himself to follow Sam Houston and his armyouteasttodefeatthearmyofTexas.SamHoustonthoughhasaplan
that is often referred to as therunawayscrape.SamHoustongathershiswholeremainingarmyandtellsthemtofollowhimouteast.On
the way, Sam Houston trains his improfessional army to become awelltrainedarmy.Onenight,SamHoustonsofficerstellhimthathis
army is getting restless and if they pursue any further they will surely lose many of their troops. Sam Houston reveals his plan to his
officers and it all starts with that SantaAnnaconsidershimselfNapoleonofthewest. In1815Napoleonruledfrancetakingoverparts
of it as he wentalongitsland.TherewasamanwhowentbytheDukeofWellington.HealwayskeptaheadofNapoleonfollowinghim
from the front. The reason he was doing this was he was waiting for Napoleon to make a mistake and the Duke of Wellington was
looking for the perfect place. When he came across the battleground he knew that in hissoulthiswastheperfectplacetostartabattle,
also Napoleon had made a mistake in his planning. It was time, the Duke of Wellington defeated Napoleonandwassubjectedtobeat
faulttohisfall.SamHoustonsperfectplaceandSantaAnnasmistakewerecomingsoontoo.
Sam Houston had found his perfect place days later in San Jacinto, when he saw it he knew that it was the perfect place to end the
revolution. It was positioned between manny rivers so that the only way of escaping or entering as an army was a bridge. Also forthe
Texas numbers they would be able to hide in the trees but Santa Annas
armies would notbeabletocompletelyhideinthetrees.Asanadditionaladd
on there was a hill in the middleofthefieldsoSantaAnnawouldnotknow
thattheTexansweretherebuttheTexanswouldbequicklyabletoattackthe
Mexican troops onanopenfield.ThepositionwasperfectnowallthatTexas
needed was for Santa Anna tomakeamistakeandtheluckybreakcameasa
happy surprise for the Texans. Houston chance came with a man nicknamed
Deaf Smith. To beabletokeeptrackoftheMexicanarmyHoustonsentspies
such as Deaf Smith regularly to keeptrackofmanleySantaAnnasposition.
Deaf Smith caught 2 of Santa Annas men carrying a message from Santa
Anna telling his officers what to doforthebattle.SamHoustonsoonknows
the exact battle plan of Mexico and Santa Anna doesnt even know. With
the perfect place for the battle, a plan to counter Santa Annas battle plan,
and 918 well trained troops while because Santa Anna split up his men he nowinsteadof6,000menheonlyhas1,200.somepeoplesay
Houstonwonevenbeforethefightingbegan.
San Jacinto battleground, April 21 1836, Santa Annas army of 1200 is already in place just like the Texans have planned.Theyknow
that battle is comingsoonandthatSamHoustonisinaradiusof50miles,whattheydontknowthoughisthatTexasisindeedjustover
the hill. A couple days ago after Santa Annas army got renforcement of over 200 from general Cos and Texas learns that more
reinforcements are coming Texas makes a radical move. Texas decides to have Deaf Smith and a couple other men cut down the bridge
making it so that Mexico can no long get renforcement but alsoneitherTexasnorMexicocanfleefromtheareauntilthewarhasended.
Many people confront Houstons actions as DO OR DIE. Houstonstartstoplanwhenheshouldattackandafterseveralhoursofhard
thinking with his officers he finds a chink in the Mexican time plan that will be able to give them yet another benefit to win thewar.
Houston decides to attack during the Mexican siesta atimeineveryMexicansdaywheretheylaydownandhavepeacewiththeworld.
For many this means a name but for others it means a silent card game or time to study the sun. Now in a do or die situation with
everythingredSamHoustonisready.
3:00 p.m all the Mexican are resting even Santa Anna is occupied with other matters, the Mexicans have no idea what is about to
happen. Suddenly out of nowhere for the Mexicans the Texas army, well trained, comes charging at them. Unprepared the Mexican
soldiers scramble to get their guns and military clothes on, Santa Anna and his officers try to get control overthesituationbutitistoo
late. The Texans army is already there slaughteringtheMexicanarmydozensatatime.SantaAnnaboltsandleaveshisofficersandmen
in the dust. The battle only lasted 18 minutesinthattimeabout630MexicanSoldierwerekilledbuttherewereonly9Texancasualties.
In fear Santa Anna runs and finds a dead soldier onthegroundwhohestripsofalloutergarmentsanddresseshimselfupasasoldierof

the Mexican army, he runs up a tree a hides there. The Texanssearchtheareaandgather730Mexicanprisonersthatinsteadoffighting


had run off. As some Texan men bring in three of the last soldiers the rest of the 700 or so prisoners stood up and saluted. The Texans
thereby foundoutthatoneofthementhattheyhadcapturedandwasbringingin
was Santa Anna. He almost got away and he might of if his own men had not
betrayedhim.
The representatives of Texas and Santa Anna met and signed two treaties. One
treaty was focused onthatthewarwasover.Mexicowouldtakealltheirsoldiers
back to Mexico and Texas would release all its prisoners to go free to Mexico.
TherealsowasnevertobeawarbetweenSantaAnnaandTexas.Theothertreaty
said that Mexico would recognize Texas as an independent nation and that the
border of Texas and Mexico would be theRioGrande.Thesetreaties wouldlater
bothbebrokenbutthatsanotherstory.
One woman summed up this battles worth after it had happened
".........waving his hatandshouting"SanJacinto!SanJacinto!TheMexicans
are whipped and Santa Anna a prisoner." The scene that followed beggars description. People embraced, laughed and wept and prayed, all in one
breath. As the moon rose over the vast flower-decked prairie, the softsouthernwindcarriedpeacetotiredheartsandgratefulslumber.Asbattlesgo,
San Jacinto was but a skirmish; butwithwhatmightyconsequences!Thelivesandthelibertyofafewhundredpioneersatstakeandanempirewon!
Look to it, you Texans of today, withhappyhomes,midfieldsofsmilingplenty,thatthebloodoftheAlamo,Goliad,andSanJacintosealedforever.
Texas, one andindivisible!--Ms.KateScurryTerrell.
ThiseventisimportantbecausenowTexasisanindependantnation.Itisnowabletoto
do what the first Texas settlers intended to do live inpeaceunderaconstitution,havehugeamountsofcheapland,andmostimportant
to start a new beginning, just this time there is no one whocantakethatjoyandpassionawayfromthem.Texascannowchosewhatit
thinks is right and wrong and it is able to chose what constitution they want to live under. The battle of San Jacinto gave peoplethis
freedom and joy. The only reason we have that freedom and joy even today is because of the brave men stood up and said thats not
right brave menthatfoughtforwhattheybelievedwasright,andbravementhatorganizedandplannedthisbreathtakingwarbetween
a dictator andthesebravemen.Manyof thebravemenlosttheirlivesbuttheydiedknowingthatTexaswasworthfightingfor.Andyet
still men todaylikethemeninthestoryIhavetoldyoufightforwhattheybelieveasright.Manypeopleeventodaygooutknowingthat
theywilldiebutgooutontothefieldhopingthattheymightmakeadifference.ThatiswhatthestoryofTexasisallabout.

Resources:
h ttp://www.tam u .e du /facu lty/ccbn /de witt/goliadm e x.h tm #san tan n a
h ttps://tsh aon lin e .org/h an dbook /on lin e /article s/qe g03