UMTS Air Interface

UMTS Air Interface

U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

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UMTS Air Interface

Contents and Session Aims
•Overview of the Air Interface •Logical, Transport and Physical Channels on the Air Interface •The Dedicated Channels

• This session aims to explain the
protocols and operation of the air interface
!

To give an overview of the UMTS specific operation of the air interface To look at the protocol structure To investigate the Frame and Timeslot structure of the major air interface channels

! !

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UMTS Air Interface

Role of the Air Interface
• • • • •
To provide a number of bearer or physical channels to support data transfer over the radio path. To provide control channels to manage the cell To provide a number of traffic channels at an acceptable error performance and at various rates To provide signalling channels for call set up, etc. In providing all of this to also:
! ! ! !

Ensure an efficient use of the available spectrum Minimise interference to other cells and services Minimise the use of power, particularly from the mobile Provide synchronisation

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UMTS Air Interface

UMTS FDD Air Interface Overview
Parameter
Multiple Access Scheme Duplexing Method Chip Rate Carrier Spacing Carrier Spacing Raster Frame Length Slots per Frame Inter-cell Synchronisation Spreading factor User Data Rate

Value
Direct Sequence CDMA FDD 3.84 Mcps 5 MHz 200 kHz 10 ms 15 None Variable (4-512) 8->384 kbps

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UMTS Air Interface

Multiple Access Scheme
• • •
UMTS FDD mode makes use of a CDMA style multiple access scheme In the case of UMTS this is commonly referred to as Wideband CDMA However there are elements of FDMA and TDMA in UMTS
!

Common channels for paging and packet access share codes between UEs (TDMA) Multiple carriers are used per operator (FDMA)

!

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UMTS Air Interface

Duplexing Method
• UMTS FDD mode makes use of
Frequency Division Duplexing
!

190MHz
2. 2. 1. G 92 z H 1. G 98 z H G 11 z H G 17 z H

The Uplink and Downlink Channels are carried on separate carriers The Uplink band is between 1.92 and 1.98GHz The Downlink band is between 2.11 and 2.17GHz The Uplink/Downlink Separation is 190MHz

• In the case of UMTS in Europe:
!

UMTS Uplink

UMTS Downlink

!

z H 2G 2. z H G 15 2. z H 1G 2. z H G 05 2. z H 2G z H G 95 1. z H 9G 1. z H G 85 1. z H 8G 1.

!

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UMTS Air Interface

Chip Rate
• The chiprate used in UMTS FDD mode is 3.84Mcps • This leads to a carrier bandwidth of approximately 5MHz • This chip rate was chosen because it:
! !

Could be generated simply from existing GSM clock rates Provided a similar bandwidth to cdma2000 to allow shared use of filters etc in UEs You may find some old texts and papers referring to this chip rate

• Note: Initially UMTS was specified as having a chip rate of 4.096Mcps.
!

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UMTS Air Interface

Carrier Spacing and Carrier Spacing Raster
5MHz

• The nominal carrier spacing for
UMTS is 5Hz

• This was chosen to comply with
the American market, where spectrum has been awarded in 5MHz blocks

• It is possible to move the centre
frequency of the carrier on a 200kHz raster
!

200kHz

We can have carrier spacings between 4.4MHz and 5.6MHz This may be set within the license conditions, or to the operators discretion

!

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UMTS Air Interface

Adjacent Channel Interference
• • • •
Adjacent channel interference may have a significant impact on UMTS capacity Required attenuation (by standards)
! !

adjacent carrier 33dB 2nd adjacent carrier 43dB

Since only have 2 or 3 carriers typically at least one adjacent carrier will be transmitted by a third party This can partially be negated by a flexible carrier spacing based upon a 200kHz raster

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UMTS Air Interface

Adjacent Operator Interference

Interference
50dB path loss

Signal
150dB path loss

Close Interferring Microcell

Distant Serving Macrocell

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UMTS Air Interface

UK Spectrum Allocations Example
D E C A A A A C C B B B D D E E

Hutchison One2One

Vodafone

Orange BT Cellnet

20MHz

0.3MHz

14.6MHz

10MHz

14.8MHz

10MHz

10MHz

0.3MHz

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UMTS Air Interface

Radio Frame Structure
• • • • • •
Radio Frame Period = Tf = 10ms Frames are used for channel format control 15 slots, #0…#14 Slots are use for power control 38400 chips Tslot = 2560 chips = 666.7µs
Tslot = 666.7µs = 2560 chips #0 #1 #2 #i Tf = 10ms = 38400 chips #14

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UMTS Air Interface

Superframe Structure
• •
72 Radio Frames make a Superframe Superframe Period Tsf = 720ms Superframes are used for

#0

#1

#2

#i Tsf = 720ms

#71

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UMTS Air Interface

Inter Cell Synchronisation
• • • •
Cells in a UMTS network are not synchronised in time with each other. This removes the need for tight synchronisation between the base stations There is no need for GPS receivers at sites
!

This makes implementation of picocells and their integration with the network more simple as satellite LoS is not required

3rd Party Transmission requirement are less stringent

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UMTS Air Interface

Spreading Factor and User Data Rates
• • •
UMTS has been designed to provide flexibility to allow the user to use multiple services, some of which we cannot foresee at the moment Rather than having a fixed bit rate and spreading factor, each of the channels on the user interface has a range of bit rates that can be used This makes the channels more complicated than for GSM…but certainly more flexible

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UMTS Air Interface

Air Interface Access Stratum
L3
Radio Resource Control RRC Control Plane Signalling User Plane Information

Radio Link Control RLC

L2
Medium Access Control MAC

Logical Channels

Transport Channels

L1

Physcial Layer

Physical Channels

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UMTS Air Interface

Radio Resource Control Layer
• The RRC layer forms the lower
part of the OSI layer 3

• It is responsible for:
! ! ! ! ! !

L3

Radio Resource Control RRC

Control Plane Signalling

User Plane Information

Bearer Control Monitoring Power Control Measurement Reporting Paging Broadcast Control
L1
Physical Layer Physical Channels Radio Link Control RLC

L2
Medium Access Control MAC

Logical Channels

Transport Channels

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UMTS Air Interface

Radio Resource Control Layer Functional Entities
• •
The RRC layer resides at the RNC serving a cell or UE The RRC Layer can be split into 3 functional entities
!

Dedicated Control Functional Entity (DCFE)
" One per UE in connection " All functions and signalling specific to a single UE

!

Paging and Notification control Functional Entity (PNFE)
" One per cell " Paging of idle mode UEs

!

Broadcast Control Functional Entities (BCFE)
" One per cell " Broadcasting of system information

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UMTS Air Interface

Radio Link Control Layer
• The RLC layer forms the upper part
of the OSI layer 2

• It is responsible for:
! !

L3

Radio Resource Control RRC

Control Plane Signalling

User Plane Information

Logical Link Control Acknowledged and unacknowledged data transfer
Radio Link Control RLC

L2
Medium Access Control MAC

Logical Channels

Transport Channels

L1

Physical Layer

Physical Channels

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UMTS Air Interface

The Medium Access Control Layer
• The MAC Layer forms the lower
part of layer 2

• It is responsible for:
! ! ! !

L3

Radio Resource Control RRC

Control Plane Signalling

User Plane Information

Random Access Physical Link Control Ciphering Multiplexing and Channel Mapping to the Physical Layer
L1 L2
Medium Access Control MAC Transport Channels Physical Layer Physical Channels Radio Link Control RLC Logical Channels

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UMTS Air Interface

• • •

Medium Access Control Layer Functional Entities
MAC-b
!

Handles the broadcast channel (BCH) and is located in the Node-B in the UTRAN

MAC-c/sh
!

Handles the common and shared channels and is located in the RNC in the UTRAN

MAC-d
!

Handles the dedicated channels and is located in the RNC

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UMTS Air Interface

The Physical Layer
• The Physical Layer forms layer 1 of
the OSI protocol stack

• It is responsible for:
!

L3

Radio Resource Control RRC

Control Plane Signalling

User Plane Information

Carrying traffic and signalling across the air interface
L2

Radio Link Control RLC Logical Channels Medium Access Control MAC Transport Channels

L1

Physical Layer Physical Channels

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UMTS Air Interface

Protocol Termination in the Access Stratum
RRC RRC

RLC

RLC

MAC

MAC

Physical User Equipment

Physical Node-B Radio Network Controller

Note: Some Layer 2 functionality regarding the broadcast functionality resides in the Node-B

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UMTS Air Interface

UMTS Channel Types and Functions

There are three types of channel across the air interface and access stratum that we are interested in:
!

Logical Channels
" Between the RLC and MAC layers

!

Transport Channels
" Between the MAC and Physical layers

!

Physical Channels
" Between Physical Layers at the Node-B and UE

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UMTS Air Interface

Major Logical Channels in UMTS

Control Channels
! ! ! !

BCCH PCCH CCCH DCCH

Broadcast Control Channel Paging Control Channel Common Control Channel Dedicated Control Channel

Traffic Channels
! !

DTCH CTCH

Dedicated Traffic Channel Common Traffic Channel

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UMTS Air Interface

Logical Control Channels
• • • •
The Broadcast Control Channel (BCCH) is a downlink channel for broadcasting system control information The Paging Control Channel (PCH) is a downlink channel that transfers paging information The Dedicated Control Channel (DCCH) is a point-to-point bidirectional channel transmitting control information between a specific UE and the UTRAN The Common Control Channel (CCCH) is a bi-directional channel transmitting control information between Ues and the UTRAN

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UMTS Air Interface

Logical Traffic Channels
• •
The Dedicated Traffic Channel (DCH) is a point-to-point channel dedicated to a single UE for the transfer of user information The Common Traffic Channel (CTCH) is a point-to-point unidirectional channel for transfer of user information to a group of UEs

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UMTS Air Interface

Major Transport Channels for UMTS

Common Control Channels
! ! ! ! !

BCH FACH PCH RACH CPCH

Broadcast Channel Forward Access Channel Paging Channel Random Access Channel Common Packet Channel

Dedicated Channels
! !

DCH DSCH

Dedicated Channel Downlink Shared Channel

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UMTS Air Interface

Common Transport Channels
• The Broadcast Channel (BCH) is a cell-wide channel that is used to
broadcast system and cell-specific information. The BCH is always transmitted over the entire cell with a low fixed bit rate.

• The Paging Channel (PCH) is a cell-wide channel that is used to carry
control information to a UE when the system does not know the location cell of the UE

• The Forward Access Channel (FACH) is a downlink channel that is used to
carry control information to a UE when the system knows the location cell of the UE. May also carry short user packets.

• The Random Access Channel (RACH) is an uplink control channel from the
UE. May also carry short user packets

• The Common Packet Channel (CPCH) is a contention based uplink channel
used for transmission of bursty data traffic.

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UMTS Air Interface

Dedicated Transport Channels
• •
The Downlink Shared Channel (DSCH) is a downlink channel shared by several UEs carrying dedicated control or traffic data. The Dedicated Channel (DCH) is a channel dedicated to one UE used in uplink or downlink.

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UMTS Air Interface

Major Physical Channels for UMTS

Common Control Channels
! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

P-CCPCH S-CCPCH P-SCH S-SCH CPICH AICH PICH PDSCH PRACH PCPCH AP-AICH CD/CA-ICH DPDCH DPCCH

Primary Common Control Physical Channels (DL) Secondary Common Control Physical Channels (DL) Primary Synchronisation Channel (DL) Secondary Synchronisation Channel (DL) Common Pilot Channel (DL) Acquisition Indicator Channel (DL) Paging Indicator Channel (DL) Physical Downlink Shared Channel (DL) Physical Random Access Channel (UL) Physical Common Packet Channel (UL) Access Preamble Acquisition Indicator Channel (DL) Collision Detection/Channel Assignment Indicator Channel (DL) Dedicated Physical Data Channel (DL & UL) Dedicated Physical Control Channel (DL & UL)

Dedicated Channels
! !

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UMTS Air Interface

Common Physical Channels for UMTS
• • • • • •
The Primary-Common Control Physical Channels (P-CCPCH) is used to carry broadcast information across the cell The Secondary-Common Control Physical Channels (S-CCPCH) is used to carry paging and forward access information across the cell The Primary-Synchronisation Channel (P-SCH) is used during cell search to provide timing information The Secondary-Synchronisation Channel (S-SCH) is used during cell search to provide information about the primary scrambling codes in use in the cell The Common Pilot Channel (CPICH) is used to provide the phase reference for downlink channels The Acquisition Indicator Channel (AICH) is used to acknowledge random access requests

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UMTS Air Interface

Common Physical Channels for UMTS
• • • • • •
The Paging Indicator Channel (PICH) is used to enable discontinuous reception of the SCPCCH The Physical Downlink Shared Channel (PDSCH) carries traffic to one or more users The Physical Random Access Channel (PRACH) is a contention based channel used for random access and to transmit small packets of information The Physical Common Packet Channel (PCPCH) is an extension to the RACH used to carry larger packets of information on the uplink The Access Preamble Acquisition Indicator Channel (AP-AICH) is used to indicate the reception of a preamble signature for Random Access The Collision Detection/Channel Assignment Indicator Channel (CD/CA-ICH) is used to indicate collisions and channel assignment for packet access

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UMTS Air Interface

Dedicated Channels
• •
The Dedicated Physical Data Channel (DPDCH) is used to carry user information The Dedicated Physical Control Channel (DPCCH) is used to carry dedicated control information regarding its associated DCHs

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UMTS Air Interface

Mapping of Logical Channels to Transport Channels
Logical Channels
BCCH PCCH DCCH CCCH CTCH DTCH

BCH

PCH

CPCH

RACH

FACH

DSCH

DCH

Transport Channels

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UMTS Air Interface

Mapping of Transport Channels to Physical Channels
Transport Channels
RACH CPCH BCH PCH FACH DSCH DCH
PICH AICH DPCCH DPDCH PDSCH S-CCPCH P-CCPCH PCPCH PRACH P-SCH S-SCH CPICH AP-AICH CD/CA-ICH Spreading/Modulation

Physical Channels

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UMTS Air Interface

UMTS Air Interface Physical Resource
• Code Plane
! !

Separation within cell by channelisation codes Separation between cell by scrambling codes Multiple carriers available IQ multiplexing of channels on the UL Adaptive antennas Time multiplexing of channels on DL Packet Access

• Frequency Plane
!

• Phase Plane
!

• Space Plane
!

• Time Plane
! !

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UMTS Air Interface

Codes in UMTS
• •
We have already talked generically about codes in CDMA In UMTS there are a number of different types of codes:
!

Synchronisation Codes
" To enable an unsynchronised UE to synchronise and determine the scrambling code of the cell

!

Channelisation Codes
" To spread and channelise within a UE or cell

!

Scrambling Codes
" To separate the UEs and cells

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UMTS Air Interface

Synchronisation Codes
• • •
These are short duration Gold codes They have length 256 chips and duration 66.67µs There is 1 primary code and 64 secondary codes

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UMTS Air Interface

Channelisation Codes
• • • •
These are short Orthogonal Variable Spreading Factor (OVSF) codes They are of length 4 - 512 chips long (1.04-133.34µs) dependant upon the channel and required bit rate of the service There are between 4 and 512 codes dependant on the length of the code OVSF codes are orthogonal

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UMTS Air Interface

OVSF codes

Orthogonal Variable Spreading Factor Codes can be defined by a code tree:
Cch,4,0 =(1,1,1,1) Cch,2,0 = (1,1) Cch,4,1 = (1,1,-1,-1) Cch,1,0 = (1) Cch,4,2 = (1,-1,1,-1) Cch,2,1 = (1,-1) Cch,4,3 = (1,-1,-1,1) SF = 1 SF = 2 SF = 4

Where
! !

SF = Spreading Factor of code (maximum 512 for UMTS) k = code number = 0<=k<=SF-1

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UMTS Air Interface

Code Usage Efficiency
• Any codes further down the trunk
of a branch in use cannot be used

• By filling up branches of the code
tree before starting new branches a greater capacity can be achieved

• Any codes further out from the
branch in use cannot be reused

• Multiple code trees can be used
from a cell but at an increased level of interference between channels

C ch,4,0 =(1,1,1,1) C ch,2,0 = (1,1)

IN USE
Cch,1,0 = (1)

Cch,4,0 =(1,1,1,1) Cch,2,0 = (1,1)

IN USE IN USE

C ch,4,1 = (1,1,-1,-1) C ch,1,0 = (1) C ch,4,2 = (1,-1,1,-1) C ch,2,1 = (1,1) Cch,2,1 = (1,1)

Cch,4,1 = (1,1,-1,-1)

Cch,4,2 = (1,-1,1,-1)

C ch,4,3 = (1,-1,-1,1) SF = 4

IN USE
SF = 1 SF = 2

Cch,4,3 = (1,-1,-1,1) SF = 4

SF = 1

SF = 2

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UMTS Air Interface

Multiple Code Trees
• • • •
We can actually use multiple code trees if we run out of OVSF codes on the downlink This is achieved by introducing a second scrambling code However codes on the two code trees will only be separated by the scrambling codes, which are not orthogonal This reduces interference rejection

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UMTS Air Interface

Scrambling Codes

Downlink Scrambling codes are complex valued Gold codes
!

They are a 38400 chip segment from a 218 chip code, duration 10ms (1 frame) There are 512 primary codes and 15 secondary codes associated with each primary code
" Long codes are complex valued Gold codes and are a 38400 chip segment from a 225 chip code, duration 10ms (1 frame)
– There are 16,777,216 codes…

!

Uplink Scrambling codes can be long or short codes

" Short codes are complex valued S(2) codes and 256 chips long, duration 66.67µs
– There are again 16,777,216 codes

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UMTS Air Interface

The Primary Synchronisation Channel
• • • •
P-SCH

The P-SCH transmits the Primary Synchronisation Code This is a 256 chip sequence and is the same in all cells in the network The channel is transmitted at the start of a timeslot, for the first 66.67µs There is only ever one P-SCH per cell

P-SCH

P-SCH

P-SCH

256 chips 66.67µs

2560 chips 666.7µs

Timeslot # 0

Timeslot # 1

Timeslot # 2

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UMTS Air Interface

The Secondary Synchronisation Channel
• • • • •
The S-SCH transmits the Secondary Synchronisation Code This is a 256 chip sequence and is one of 64 possible SSCs The channel is transmitted at the start of a timeslot, for the first 66.67µs, at the same time as the P-SCH The SSC indicates which group of downlink scrambling codes is in use at the cell There is only ever one S-SCH per cell
PSC PSC PSC

P-SCH

256 chips 66.67µs

S-SCH

SSC

SSC

SSC

2560 chips 666.7µs

Timeslot # 0

Timeslot # 1

Timeslot # 2

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UMTS Air Interface

The Primary Common Control Physical Channel
• • • •
Primary CCPCH is transmitted continuously at constant power from each cell Uses one of the 512 Primary Scrambling Codes Channelisation code is same for all Primary CCPCHs There is only one P-CCPCH per cell
PSC PSC PSC

P-SCH

256 chips 66.67µs

S-SCH P-CCPCH

SSC

2560 chips 666.7µs
Data (10 bits) Pilot (8 bits)

SSC

2304 chips 600µs
Data (10 bits) Pilot (8 bits)

SSC

Data (10 bits)

Pilot (8 bits)

30 kbps, SF=256

Timeslot # 0

Timeslot # 1

Timeslot # 2

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UMTS Air Interface

The Secondary Common Control Physical Channel
• • • • • •
The cell communicates with UEs through the PCH and FACH
!

These are carried on the Secondary-CCPCH

The SF is variable, set in the BCH, indicated on the P-CCPCH and is between 4 and 256 Fixed power
!

This is why the channels are multiplexed to avoid simultaneous transmission

TFCI, Transport Format Combination Indicator, is optional but must be supported by all UEs Similarly Pilot bits are optional There may be more than one S-CCPCH per cell, and frames may be offset in time by multiples of 256 chips
!

E.g.one may be used to carry the FACH and one to carry the PCH

S-CCPCH

TFCI (0 - 8 bits per slot)

Data (10 - 1272 bits per slot)
1 timeslot 2560 chips, 666.7µs

Pilot (0 - 16 bits per slot)

30-1920 kbps, SF=4-256

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UMTS Air Interface

The Physical Random Access Channel

The PRACH consists of two parts
!

A preamble
" To initiate access

!

A message
" Which can contain a request for a dedicated channel or a small packet of user data
2 frames = 20 ms

PRACH 1 PRACH preamble = 4096 chips

Message 1 PRACH slot = 2 normal timeslots

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UMTS Air Interface

The PRACH Preamble
• • • • •
Selected from one of 16 preambles available on the cell The preamble is 1ms in length Power of transmitted preamble is based on an estimate of downlink loss from CPICH received signal strength It then randomly selects a slot from 15 over 2 Frames (slotted ALOHA) In no acknowledge then reselects signature and increases power by 1dB and tries again

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UMTS Air Interface

The PRACH Message
• The message is either 15 or 30 slots in length
!

Determined by which slot the preamble was sent in

• Power as successful preamble • Data and control are code multiplexed

Data PRACH message Control

Data (10 - 80 bits per slot)

15 - 120 kbps, SF=32-256

Pilot (8 bits per slot)
1 timeslot 2560 chips, 666.7µs

TFCI (2 bits per slot)

15 kbps, SF=256

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UMTS Air Interface

AICH
• The AICH indicates whether the PRACH preamble has been received • If the Node-B receives the preamble it mirrors the preamble signature
back on the AICH
2 frames = 20 ms PRACH 1 PRACH preamble = 4096 chips AICH 1 PRACH preamble = 4096 chips Message 1 PRACH slot = 1.25ms

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UMTS Air Interface

PCPCH
• • • • •
Similar to the the PRACH Additionally a collision detection preamble is sent The AI-ICH responds to the PCPCH access preamble The CD/CA-ICH responds to the collision detection preamble The message part has the same structure as an uplink DPCH
Pj Pj

P1 P0

Message Part

4096 chips

0 or 8 slots Access Preamble Collision Detection Preamble

N*10 msec Control Part Data part

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UMTS Air Interface

PICH
• The PICH is the Paging Indication Channel, used to inform the UE that it
should listen to the PCH

• Fixed rate (SF=256) • N Paging Indicators {PI0, …, PIN-1} are transmitted in each PICH frame,
where N=18, 36, 72, or 144.

• These are mapped to 300 transmitted bits
288 bits for paging indication b0 b1 12 bits (undefined) b287 b288 b299

One radio frame (10 ms)

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UMTS Air Interface

Dedicated Physical Channel (DPCH)

Consists of two parts:
!

DPDCH (Dedicated Physical Data Channel)
" Carries the user data

!

DPCCH (Dedicated Physical Control Channel)
" Carries control information (pilot bits, power control and optional rate information)

It is different on uplink and downlink
!

Uplink
" Data and control code multiplexed to avoid DTX based EMC problems

!

Downlink
" Data and control time multiplexed DTX based EMC not a problem

UE

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UMTS Air Interface

DCH Control Fields

Pilot
!

A predetermined bit pattern utilised by the rake receiver to estimate channel conditions (5,6,7or 8 bits per slot) Also used for coherent demodulation of the remaining data on the DCH This is an optional field Used where different formats (multiplexing or spreading factor) are used on a frame by frame basis (0 or 2 bits per slot) 2 bits per slot indicating an increase or decrease power Used for diversity working (0,1,2 bits per slot)

!

TFCI - Transport Format Combination Indicator
! !

• •

TPC - Transmit Power Control
!

FBI - Feedback Indicator
!

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UMTS Air Interface

Downlink-Dedicated Physical Channel..Frame/Slot Structure
The dedicated transport channel (DCH), is transmitted in time-multiplex with control information generated at Layer 1 (known pilot bits, TPC commands, and an optional TFCI)

• k = 0..7 • Bits per Slot, Ndata = 10*2k bits
!

• Spreading Factor, SF = 256/2k
!

SF = 512 - 4 Rb = 15 - 1920kbps
DPCCH Pilot N pilot bits

Ndata = 10 - 1280 bits

• Channel Bit Rate, Rb = 15*2k kbps
!

DPDCH Data1 N data1 bits

DPCCH TPC N TPC bits TFCI N TFCI bits
k

DPDCH Data2 N data2 bits bits (k=0 ..7)

T slot = 2560 chips, 10*2

Slot #0

Slot #1

Slot #i One radio frame, T f = 10 ms

Slot #14

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UMTS Air Interface

Downlink Spreading and Modulation
15*2K kbps cscramb DPDCH/DPCCH
Serial Parallel

cos(ωt) ω I
Pulse Shaping

cch Q
Pulse Shaping

sin(ωt) ω

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UMTS Air Interface

Downlink Variable Rate (DTX based) 10 ms

R = 60kbps Pilot+TPC+TFCI Data

R = 0kbps

R = 30kbps

R = 60kbps

Note: that this diagram does not reflect the true multiplexing on the downlink

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UMTS Air Interface

Used to carry the DCH transport channel. • Spreading Factor, SF = 256/2k • k = 0..6 SF = 256 - 4 • Bits per Slot, Ndata = 10*2k bits • Channel Bit Rate, Rb = 15*2k kbps Ndata = 10 - 640 bits
! ! !

Uplink Dedicated Physical Data Channel..Frame/Slot Structure

Rb = 15 - 960kbps

DPDCH T slot = 2560 chips, N

Data N data bits
data

= 10*2 k bits (k=0 ..6)

Slot #0

Slot #1

Slot # i 1 radio frame: T f = 10 ms

Slot #14

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UMTS Air Interface

UL-DPCCH(3)..Slot/Frame Structure
• Used to carry control information generated at Layer 1. • Channel Bit Rate • The Layer 1 control information
consists of:
! ! !

Rb = 15 kbps SF = 256

known pilot bits transmit power-control (TPC) commands feedback information (FBI) optional transport-format combination indicator (TFCI).
DPCCH Pilot N pilot bits

• Spreading Factor
!

! !

• Bits per slot = 10
TFCI N TFCI bits FBI N FBI bits TPC N TPC bits

T slot = 2560 chips, 10 bits

Slot #0

Slot #1

Slot # i 1 radio frame: T f = 10 ms

Slot #14

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UMTS Air Interface

Uplink Spreading and Modulation
cDPDCH DPDCH I+jQ Imag
Pulse Shaping

cos(ωt) ω Real cscramb
Pulse Shaping

cDPCCH DPCCH

sin(ωt) ω

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UMTS Air Interface

Uplink Dedicated Channel Multiplexing
• • • • •
One DPCCH and up to 6 DPDCH are spread by real valued sequences DPCCH is spread by channelisation code cc DPDCH is spread by channelisation code cd,n where 1<=n<=6 After channelisation real valued signals are weighted by βc and βd, at least one of which has amplitude 1 Only one DPCCH allowed per link

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UMTS Air Interface

Uplink Dedicated Channel Multiplexing
cd,1 βd DPDCH1 cd,3 DPDCH3 cd,5 DPDCH5 βd βd

Σ

I

Sdpch,n I+jQ cd,2 βd S

DPDCH2 cd,4 DPDCH4 cd,6 DPDCH6 cc DPCCH βc βd βd

Σ

Q

j

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UMTS Air Interface

Uplink Variable Rate (VSF based)
10 ms

R = 60kbps Pilot+TPC+TFCI+FBI

R = 30kbps Data

R = 0kbps

R = 0kbps

R = 30kbps

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UMTS Air Interface

Why does UMTS need the CPICH?
• •
UMTS already has the SCHs and pilot bits... Why does it need a pilot channel?
! ! !

Handover measurements and cell selection/reselection To aid channel estimation for dedicated channels To provide channel estimation reference for common channels

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UMTS Air Interface

A Multi-Rate Channelised Transmitter
Power Control

60kbps Bit Stream

x4

Pulse Shaping and Modulation

c1
x2

s1
x1

30kbps Bit Stream

c2
15kbps Bit Stream

All the channels are spread to the same chip rate and then added together. Note: to achieve the same Eb/No we must modify the power per chip before combining the chip streams

c3

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UMTS Air Interface

Questions
• • • •
Which other physical channels are similar to the AICH? What are the two parts of the PRACH channel? Which layers do the Transport channels connect? Where is the MAC layer terminated?

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