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Unit C: Electromagnetic

Energy
Chapter 1: Electric and
Magnetic fields

1.1: Field Lines


Lightning occurs when warm air
floats above cool air; starts to
condense and release energy.
As warm air rises, electrons are
transferred to rain drops, creates
charge in cloud.

Bottom = Top = +

Lightning
Electrons move away from cloud,
cause charge separation.
Surface becomes positively charged
and below the surface becomes
negatively charged.
Lightning strikes when electrons
from the cloud are attracted to the
positively charged surface.

Thunderstorms

Why is lightning dangerous?


A huge amount of electrons are
transferred (1018 electrons).
A coulomb of energy = 6.25 x 10 18
electrons.
If an object transfers electrons, the
charge is determined in coulombs.
q = -1.00 or +1.00

Lightning video

a) Voltage

Describes the electric potential difference


in 2 substances (e.g. A static shock when
you walk on carpet).
Potential energy stored in your finger is
converted to light, sound and energy (why
it hurts).
Determined by:
V = E/q

Where V = voltage. (V)


E = change in energy (J)
q = charge (C)
Electricity

Energy and charge

What does 1.5V mean?


1.5J of energy per coulomb.

Voltage is related to energy


transferred per coulomb; if there is a
lot of energy, the voltage is high.
Lightning is dangerous because
voltage and charge (coulombs) are
large values.

John Travoltage

b) Forces and fields

Basic Principles accepted as fact:


All matter has mass
Energy exists in various forms
Everything in the universe is in motion
Changes in motion are due to forces
Forces act by means of fields

Fields
A field explains why 2 objects affect
each other if not touching.
Fields are spheres of influence.

Are scalar (sound, heat) no direction.

Campfire is it the same at all points around


the fire? Why or why not?

Are vectors (gravitational) has direction.


* Force fields anyone? Trekkies?

1) Electric Fields

A region of space around a charged object


within which any charged object will
experience a force.
Any charged object surrounds itself with a
field.
Forces experienced may be attractive or
repulsive forces.

Like charges attract


Unlike charges repel

Electric Field Applet

2) Magnetic Field

Magnets also create fields.


The forces experienced by magnets are
both attractive and repulsive.
Magnets do NOT create electric fields.
They create magnetic fields. Magnets are
not charged. They have poles!
All magnets have a NORTH and a SOUTH
POLE.

Two like poles will repel each other.


Two unlike poles will be attracted to each other.

What makes some metals magnetic?

Some metals called Ferromagnetic substances have strong


magnetic properties. Examples: Iron, Cobalt, Nickel
Inside these magnetic substances are tiny magnets called
DOMAINS.

If the domains are aligned the material is magnetized.


If the domains are unaligned the material is not magnetized.

Drawing Magnetic Fields

The electric field created by a magnet is


away from the north pole and towards
the south pole as below.

fields

Uses of Magnets:

Navigation

generating electric currents


motors

3) Gravitational Fields

The modified space around a mass is a


gravitational field
2 masses exert gravitational forces on
each other
Isolated masses also modify the space
around themselves
Any object having mass creates a
gravitational field around itself
Field always points towards the most
massive object!

The Gravitational Field

c) Field lines
Describe the direction of a field
(arrow towards centre) and amount
(more arrows = stronger field).
Can be used for all types of fields:

Magnetic- always N to S.
Gravitational always toward object.
Electric- towards (-) and away from (+).

Which is (+)? Which is (-)?

Compass

1.2) Equations for fields


Fields can be calculated using
equations when an exact value is
needed.
A field will usually be calculated
using a test body (an object that is
put in the field).

a) Gravitational Field (g)

The force per unit mass that an object would


experience if placed in a gravitational field.
As distance from source increases, field strength
decreases.
Gm1
Calculated using: g

where:
g = gravitational field (N/kg)
G = gravitational constant (6.67 x 10-11 Nm2/kg2)
m = mass of source (kg)
r = distance from centre of source (m)

Example
1.

What is the gravitational field


strength of Earth 20 km above the
surface of the Earth?

Gravitational Force (Fg)


The mass on an object created by
the field.
Calculate using:

Fg = mg
Fg = force of gravity (N)
m = mass of object (kg)
g = acceleration due to gravity (m/s2).

Example

The moon has an average radius of


1740 km and a mass of 7.35 x 1022
kg.
Calculate the gravitational field strength
of the moon.
If an astronaut with a mass of 100kg
was on the moon, what is the force of
gravity on the astronaut?

b) Electrical Field Strength (E)

The force per unit charge that an object


would experience if placed in an electric
field.
How strong the electric field is of ONE
object with an electrical charge.
Determined using:

Where: E = electric field strength (N/C)


k = constant ( 8.99 x 109 Nm2/C2)
r = charge on source (C)

Example
1. Electrons are scraped from your hair
when you comb it, and your comb
develops a charge of -4.0 C. Find
the electrical field strength 1.0 m
from the comb.

Electrical Force (Fe)


The force on an object created by an
electrical field.
Calculated using:
F e = Eq

Where: Fe = electrical force (N)


E = electric field (N/C)
q = charge on object (C)

Example
1.

The centre of one sphere( charge =


+.0200C) is 20.0m away from the
next. Calculate the force of the 1st
sphere on the second (the Electrical
field on the planet is 449 500 N/C).

c) Moving Charges and magnetic


fields
Moving charges (a current of
electricity) create a magnetic field.
Created using a coil of wire; 1 end is
considered to be North and 1 South.
Electrons move from N to S; causes
spinning motion. Lots of electrons
moving and lining up = magnets!

magnets
Electromagnets

Deflection currents
An electron can be
deflected around an
object using a
magnetic field.
This is the basis for
the NASA design to
protect the moon
base.

Electromagnetic Induction

1.3) Motors and Generators


How do we use electrical energy?
Does it need to be converted first?
Electrical energy can not be seen; it
is not easily studied due to this.
Electrical energy is converted into
mechanical energy (moving energy)
and then studied.

a) Motors

Invented by Oersted
Input Energy = Electric
Output Energy = Mechanical
How it works:
An electric current flows
through a wire
This creates a magnet
The magnet is attracted to
another part of the machine
and it moves

Example: Doorbell

Parts of a Motor
Armature: spinning part of motor
(shaft, wire coil, commutator).
Commutator: provides electrical
contact; current flows to coil.
Shaft: supports coil, provides axis of
rotation.
Brush: stationary part that connects
with rotating commutator.

How a motor works


1.

2.

3.

An electrical current creates a


magnetic field; the N of the
wire is attracted to the S of
the magnet = rotation (halfturn).
Brushes and commutator
touch, re-establish current.
Current reverses and coil
continues to spin (N of magnet
and N of coil are at top).
Reaches beginning and
repeats.

b) Generators
Invented by: Faraday
Input Energy = Mechanical

You have to move something!


Move a magnet through a coil of wire
OR Move a coil of wire in a magnetic
field

Result: an electric current is created


Ie. Output Energy = Electric

generators

From motor to generator


Problem: current only flows when
commutator connected to brushes.
Solutions:

Wrap more wire around core (increase


current).
Split-ring design (increase contact
time).

AC Vs. DC

DC = Direct Current
electrons flow in a continuous loop in
ONE DIRECTION only
Example: from a battery
Can NOT be used with transformers

AC = Alternating Current
Electrons flow in one direction in the
circuit and then they flow the other
way
Example from a generator
Can be used with transformers

AC

DC

AC generators

DC generators

Why AC?

AC generators are used to power all


household appliances.
To maximize the energy output:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Increase # of turns in wire.


Spin armature as fast as possible.
Use strong magnets.
Use iron core inside wire.

1.4- Electric Circuits


Circuits are used to transport
electricity to an object.
You can measure Current (I) using
an ammeter; Voltage (V) using a
voltmeter.
There are 2 types of circuits:

Series- only one path for electricity to


flow.
Parallel- more than 1 path for electricity
to flow.

Multimeters and circuits

Electric Circuits

Generating current in circuits

Electric fields exist around any charged object and


between charged objects
Conductors permit the movement of electrons
If you have electric conductors in contact with
oppositely charged poles of a battery, electrons will
move from the negative pole to the positive pole.
The movement of electrons is called an electric
current.
Current is the amount of electrical charge moving
past a point in a specific time.
Any continuous set of conductors or a network of
conductors is called a Circuit.

a) Resistance

A resistor is anything that reduces the


current flow in a circuit.
Used to regulate the speed of a motor or
ensure safe limits are maintained.

Resistance is the ratio of voltage to


current.
R = V/I
Where: R = resistance (ohms) ()
V = voltage (Volts) (V)
I = current (Ampere) (I)

Examples

A car headlight uses a current of


5.0A from the cars 12.0 V battery.
Is this a DC or AC source?
What is the resistance of the headlight
when it is on?

Resistance

Factors that affect resistance


cross-sectional area of a conductor
bigger cross section = less resistance
the longer the conductor the greater
the resistance
temperature: increases as
temperature increases.

Measuring resistance
Use a multimeter, set dial to
ohmmeter.
To use:

Set dial to ohmmeter.


Attach leads (red = +, black = - ).
Switch off power to circuit.
Connect meter and measure value.

b) Creating circuits

Schematic diagrams
are used to represent
circuits; key
components are
indicated using
symbols.

1) Series circuits
When cells are arranged in series,
energy output is increased.
If 1 bulb fails then the whole circuit
fails (eg. Christmas lights).
Total voltage is determined by:

VT = V1 + V2 + V3

Total resistance is determined by:


RT = R1 + R2 + R3

2) Parallel circuits

Cells (batteries) last longer than in series.


Connected with more than 1 path for the
electrons to flow; can turn on/off single
parts of the circuit.
Current increases as more paths added;
resistance is halved.
Total voltage is identical:
VT = V 1 = V 2 = V 3

Total resistance determined by:


1
1
1
1
RT = R1 + R2 + R3

Electric
Circuits

Circuit Builder
Voltage and current

c) Ohms law

V IR
V = Potential Difference / Voltage (V)
I = Current (A)
R = Resistance ()

Parallel Example

Multiloop Circuits

Series Example

Please see example problems on pages 379-381.

d) Combined circuits

In all practical circuits,


both parallel and series
circuits are used.
Kitchen devices are
connected in parallel(you can turn off the
blender but not the
fridge).
Each device has a series
circuit used to switch it
on or off.

circuits

1.5) Transmitting electrical energy


All electrical devices use energy; that
energy needs to be transported to
the device.
Every device has a power rating =
energy consumed per second.
Determined using:

Power (W) = Energy (J) /time (s)

Power in electrical systems


Power rating describes the maximum
safe input of electricity to a device.
Equation can be reworked so that:

Ee
P
and Ee qV
t
so
Vq
q
P
but I
t
t
So
P IV

Where:

P = power (Watts)
I = Current (Amps)
V = Voltage (Volts)

Speakers
An AC device that works
only if the current
changes directions.
Coli supplies the
resistance to the circuit.
Example:

Calculate the voltage


applies across the speaker. (
R = 4.0, I = 2.00A).
Calculate the Power
consumed by the speaker.

a) Power
In many cases Power needs to be
calculated when Voltage is unknown.
Use the following formula:

P = VR and V =IR so.

P = I 2R
Where:
P = Power (Watts)
I = Current (Amps)
R = Resistance (Ohms)

Example

The volume is turned up in a car with


a 4.0 resistor so that 4.50A of
alternating current flows to the
speaker. Calculate the Power
consumed by the speaker.

b) Billing energy
Energy companies bill for the
electricity used through meters.
Unit of energy used by companies =
kilowatt hour (kWh).
Formula used to determine:

E = Pt
Where: E = Energy (kWh)
P = Power (kW)
t = time (h)

Las Vegas uses 400,000


kWh per year =
$40,000,000.

kilowatt Hour calculations

A lava lamp rated at 1000W operates


for 60.0min in a typical week.
Calculate the energy consumed in kWh.
Calculate the energy in Joules (hint, put
time in seconds).
If the price of electricity is 9.3 kWh, how
much does it cost per year?

c) Power Transmission

P = IV
To transmit lots of power we need either a
high voltage or a high current
High voltage is dangerous but . . .
If current is high in power lines lots of
electrical energy is lost as heat.
To transmit power efficiently we need to
use unsafe high voltages.
Solution: Use AC current and
Transformers!
What is one advantage of AC over DC
current?

Summary of Power
Transmission
Power Generation

Transformers
step up voltage
Transport of
electricity can use
a low current and
a high voltage
which is efficient

Transformers
step down voltage to a safe level before the
electricity enters homes

d) Transformers

2 coils of wire:
Primary:

receives input voltage from source.


Current and voltage remain in coil because it is
insolated.

Secondary:

primary coil creates current and voltage.


supplies output voltage.

Primary and secondary coils are not


connected; secondary coil is affected only
if current is changing (AC).

Changing voltage

Transformers can change the voltage of an


electrical supply by:
stepping it up (increasing it)
stepping it down (decreasing it)

step up transformers: more secondary coils


than primary coils
step down transformers: fewer secondary
coils than primary coils
Np = Vp
Ns

Vs

* See page 3 in data book

Which transformer steps up


voltage?

What happens to current when voltage is stepped up?


Hint: Power stays the same!
Transformer videos

Transformer Calculations

Find the formulas to use with transformer


problems in your data booklet
Example: A transformer has 50 primary coils and
72 turns in the secondary coil. If the voltage
going to the transformer is 2250 V, what is the
voltage leaving the transformer?

If the current leaving the transformer above is 50


A, what was the current as it entered the
transformer?

e) Ideal Transformer
An ideal transformer is one that does
not lose energy.
Uses the formula: