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You are on page 1of 70

Energy

Chapter 1: Electric and

Magnetic fields

Lightning occurs when warm air

floats above cool air; starts to

condense and release energy.

As warm air rises, electrons are

transferred to rain drops, creates

charge in cloud.

Bottom = Top = +

Lightning

Electrons move away from cloud,

cause charge separation.

Surface becomes positively charged

and below the surface becomes

negatively charged.

Lightning strikes when electrons

from the cloud are attracted to the

positively charged surface.

Thunderstorms

A huge amount of electrons are

transferred (1018 electrons).

A coulomb of energy = 6.25 x 10 18

electrons.

If an object transfers electrons, the

charge is determined in coulombs.

q = -1.00 or +1.00

Lightning video

a) Voltage

in 2 substances (e.g. A static shock when

you walk on carpet).

Potential energy stored in your finger is

converted to light, sound and energy (why

it hurts).

Determined by:

V = E/q

E = change in energy (J)

q = charge (C)

Electricity

1.5J of energy per coulomb.

transferred per coulomb; if there is a

lot of energy, the voltage is high.

Lightning is dangerous because

voltage and charge (coulombs) are

large values.

John Travoltage

All matter has mass

Energy exists in various forms

Everything in the universe is in motion

Changes in motion are due to forces

Forces act by means of fields

Fields

A field explains why 2 objects affect

each other if not touching.

Fields are spheres of influence.

the fire? Why or why not?

* Force fields anyone? Trekkies?

1) Electric Fields

within which any charged object will

experience a force.

Any charged object surrounds itself with a

field.

Forces experienced may be attractive or

repulsive forces.

Unlike charges repel

2) Magnetic Field

The forces experienced by magnets are

both attractive and repulsive.

Magnets do NOT create electric fields.

They create magnetic fields. Magnets are

not charged. They have poles!

All magnets have a NORTH and a SOUTH

POLE.

Two unlike poles will be attracted to each other.

magnetic properties. Examples: Iron, Cobalt, Nickel

Inside these magnetic substances are tiny magnets called

DOMAINS.

If the domains are unaligned the material is not magnetized.

away from the north pole and towards

the south pole as below.

fields

Uses of Magnets:

Navigation

motors

3) Gravitational Fields

gravitational field

2 masses exert gravitational forces on

each other

Isolated masses also modify the space

around themselves

Any object having mass creates a

gravitational field around itself

Field always points towards the most

massive object!

c) Field lines

Describe the direction of a field

(arrow towards centre) and amount

(more arrows = stronger field).

Can be used for all types of fields:

Magnetic- always N to S.

Gravitational always toward object.

Electric- towards (-) and away from (+).

Compass

Fields can be calculated using

equations when an exact value is

needed.

A field will usually be calculated

using a test body (an object that is

put in the field).

experience if placed in a gravitational field.

As distance from source increases, field strength

decreases.

Gm1

Calculated using: g

where:

g = gravitational field (N/kg)

G = gravitational constant (6.67 x 10-11 Nm2/kg2)

m = mass of source (kg)

r = distance from centre of source (m)

Example

1.

strength of Earth 20 km above the

surface of the Earth?

The mass on an object created by

the field.

Calculate using:

Fg = mg

Fg = force of gravity (N)

m = mass of object (kg)

g = acceleration due to gravity (m/s2).

Example

1740 km and a mass of 7.35 x 1022

kg.

Calculate the gravitational field strength

of the moon.

If an astronaut with a mass of 100kg

was on the moon, what is the force of

gravity on the astronaut?

would experience if placed in an electric

field.

How strong the electric field is of ONE

object with an electrical charge.

Determined using:

k = constant ( 8.99 x 109 Nm2/C2)

r = charge on source (C)

Example

1. Electrons are scraped from your hair

when you comb it, and your comb

develops a charge of -4.0 C. Find

the electrical field strength 1.0 m

from the comb.

The force on an object created by an

electrical field.

Calculated using:

F e = Eq

E = electric field (N/C)

q = charge on object (C)

Example

1.

+.0200C) is 20.0m away from the

next. Calculate the force of the 1st

sphere on the second (the Electrical

field on the planet is 449 500 N/C).

fields

Moving charges (a current of

electricity) create a magnetic field.

Created using a coil of wire; 1 end is

considered to be North and 1 South.

Electrons move from N to S; causes

spinning motion. Lots of electrons

moving and lining up = magnets!

magnets

Electromagnets

Deflection currents

An electron can be

deflected around an

object using a

magnetic field.

This is the basis for

the NASA design to

protect the moon

base.

Electromagnetic Induction

How do we use electrical energy?

Does it need to be converted first?

Electrical energy can not be seen; it

is not easily studied due to this.

Electrical energy is converted into

mechanical energy (moving energy)

and then studied.

a) Motors

Invented by Oersted

Input Energy = Electric

Output Energy = Mechanical

How it works:

An electric current flows

through a wire

This creates a magnet

The magnet is attracted to

another part of the machine

and it moves

Example: Doorbell

Parts of a Motor

Armature: spinning part of motor

(shaft, wire coil, commutator).

Commutator: provides electrical

contact; current flows to coil.

Shaft: supports coil, provides axis of

rotation.

Brush: stationary part that connects

with rotating commutator.

1.

2.

3.

magnetic field; the N of the

wire is attracted to the S of

the magnet = rotation (halfturn).

Brushes and commutator

touch, re-establish current.

Current reverses and coil

continues to spin (N of magnet

and N of coil are at top).

Reaches beginning and

repeats.

b) Generators

Invented by: Faraday

Input Energy = Mechanical

Move a magnet through a coil of wire

OR Move a coil of wire in a magnetic

field

Ie. Output Energy = Electric

generators

Problem: current only flows when

commutator connected to brushes.

Solutions:

current).

Split-ring design (increase contact

time).

AC Vs. DC

DC = Direct Current

electrons flow in a continuous loop in

ONE DIRECTION only

Example: from a battery

Can NOT be used with transformers

AC = Alternating Current

Electrons flow in one direction in the

circuit and then they flow the other

way

Example from a generator

Can be used with transformers

AC

DC

AC generators

DC generators

Why AC?

household appliances.

To maximize the energy output:

1.

2.

3.

4.

Spin armature as fast as possible.

Use strong magnets.

Use iron core inside wire.

Circuits are used to transport

electricity to an object.

You can measure Current (I) using

an ammeter; Voltage (V) using a

voltmeter.

There are 2 types of circuits:

flow.

Parallel- more than 1 path for electricity

to flow.

Electric Circuits

between charged objects

Conductors permit the movement of electrons

If you have electric conductors in contact with

oppositely charged poles of a battery, electrons will

move from the negative pole to the positive pole.

The movement of electrons is called an electric

current.

Current is the amount of electrical charge moving

past a point in a specific time.

Any continuous set of conductors or a network of

conductors is called a Circuit.

a) Resistance

current flow in a circuit.

Used to regulate the speed of a motor or

ensure safe limits are maintained.

current.

R = V/I

Where: R = resistance (ohms) ()

V = voltage (Volts) (V)

I = current (Ampere) (I)

Examples

5.0A from the cars 12.0 V battery.

Is this a DC or AC source?

What is the resistance of the headlight

when it is on?

Resistance

cross-sectional area of a conductor

bigger cross section = less resistance

the longer the conductor the greater

the resistance

temperature: increases as

temperature increases.

Measuring resistance

Use a multimeter, set dial to

ohmmeter.

To use:

Attach leads (red = +, black = - ).

Switch off power to circuit.

Connect meter and measure value.

b) Creating circuits

Schematic diagrams

are used to represent

circuits; key

components are

indicated using

symbols.

1) Series circuits

When cells are arranged in series,

energy output is increased.

If 1 bulb fails then the whole circuit

fails (eg. Christmas lights).

Total voltage is determined by:

VT = V1 + V2 + V3

RT = R1 + R2 + R3

2) Parallel circuits

Connected with more than 1 path for the

electrons to flow; can turn on/off single

parts of the circuit.

Current increases as more paths added;

resistance is halved.

Total voltage is identical:

VT = V 1 = V 2 = V 3

1

1

1

1

RT = R1 + R2 + R3

Electric

Circuits

Circuit Builder

Voltage and current

c) Ohms law

V IR

V = Potential Difference / Voltage (V)

I = Current (A)

R = Resistance ()

Parallel Example

Multiloop Circuits

Series Example

d) Combined circuits

both parallel and series

circuits are used.

Kitchen devices are

connected in parallel(you can turn off the

blender but not the

fridge).

Each device has a series

circuit used to switch it

on or off.

circuits

All electrical devices use energy; that

energy needs to be transported to

the device.

Every device has a power rating =

energy consumed per second.

Determined using:

Power rating describes the maximum

safe input of electricity to a device.

Equation can be reworked so that:

Ee

P

and Ee qV

t

so

Vq

q

P

but I

t

t

So

P IV

Where:

P = power (Watts)

I = Current (Amps)

V = Voltage (Volts)

Speakers

An AC device that works

only if the current

changes directions.

Coli supplies the

resistance to the circuit.

Example:

applies across the speaker. (

R = 4.0, I = 2.00A).

Calculate the Power

consumed by the speaker.

a) Power

In many cases Power needs to be

calculated when Voltage is unknown.

Use the following formula:

P = I 2R

Where:

P = Power (Watts)

I = Current (Amps)

R = Resistance (Ohms)

Example

a 4.0 resistor so that 4.50A of

alternating current flows to the

speaker. Calculate the Power

consumed by the speaker.

b) Billing energy

Energy companies bill for the

electricity used through meters.

Unit of energy used by companies =

kilowatt hour (kWh).

Formula used to determine:

E = Pt

Where: E = Energy (kWh)

P = Power (kW)

t = time (h)

kWh per year =

$40,000,000.

for 60.0min in a typical week.

Calculate the energy consumed in kWh.

Calculate the energy in Joules (hint, put

time in seconds).

If the price of electricity is 9.3 kWh, how

much does it cost per year?

c) Power Transmission

P = IV

To transmit lots of power we need either a

high voltage or a high current

High voltage is dangerous but . . .

If current is high in power lines lots of

electrical energy is lost as heat.

To transmit power efficiently we need to

use unsafe high voltages.

Solution: Use AC current and

Transformers!

What is one advantage of AC over DC

current?

Summary of Power

Transmission

Power Generation

Transformers

step up voltage

Transport of

electricity can use

a low current and

a high voltage

which is efficient

Transformers

step down voltage to a safe level before the

electricity enters homes

d) Transformers

2 coils of wire:

Primary:

Current and voltage remain in coil because it is

insolated.

Secondary:

supplies output voltage.

connected; secondary coil is affected only

if current is changing (AC).

Changing voltage

electrical supply by:

stepping it up (increasing it)

stepping it down (decreasing it)

than primary coils

step down transformers: fewer secondary

coils than primary coils

Np = Vp

Ns

Vs

voltage?

Hint: Power stays the same!

Transformer videos

Transformer Calculations

problems in your data booklet

Example: A transformer has 50 primary coils and

72 turns in the secondary coil. If the voltage

going to the transformer is 2250 V, what is the

voltage leaving the transformer?

A, what was the current as it entered the

transformer?

e) Ideal Transformer

An ideal transformer is one that does

not lose energy.

Uses the formula:

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