Materials are used to build load-bearing structures. An engineer needs to know if the material will survive the conditions that the structure will see in service. Important factors that adversely affect the toughness of a structure include low-test temperatures, extra loading and high strain rates due to over pressurization or impacts and the effect of stress concentrations such as notches and cracks. These all tend to encourage fracture. To some extent, the complex interaction of these factors can be included in the design process by using fracture mechanics theory. Tests for the impact toughness, such as the Charpy Impact Test , were developed before fracture mechanics theory was available. The impact test is a method for evaluating the relative toughness of engineering materials. The Charpy impact test continues to be used nowadays as an economical quality control method to assess the notch sensitivity and impact toughness of engineering materials. It is usually used to test the toughness of metals. Similar tests can be used for polymers, ceramics and composites. The charpy impact test measures the energy absorbed by the high strain rate fracture of a standard notched specimen. In the Charpy Impact Test, the specimen is supported as a simple beam with a notch in the center. The specimen is supported so that the notch is on the vertical face away from the point of impact. Figure 3 and 4 show the dimensions of the Charpy Impact Test specimen and the positions of the striking edge of the pendulum and the specimen in the anvil. The specimen is broken by the impact of a heavy pendulum hammer, falling through a fixed distance (constant potential energy) to strike the specimen at a fixed velocity (constant kinetic energy). Tough materials absorb

a lot of energy when fractured and brittle materials absorb very little energy. The Izod pendulum test configuration served as the standard in impact testing in the plastics and metals industry for many years. The problems with the Izod pendulum test involve several parameters which can drastically alter the results if not strictly controlled.

Position of the Charpy Impact Test specimen on the impact test machine

To test selected specimens under conditions of shock loading at fixed temperature. Also to measure the energy absorbed in breaking a notched specimen.

Difference between Izod and Charpy Methods
Izod vs. Charpy Methods The izod test involved the striker, the testing material, and the pendulum. The striker was fixed at the end of the pendulum. The test material was fastened at a vertical position at the bottom, and the notch was facing the striker. The striker swings downward, hitting the test material in the middle, at the bottom of it’s swing, and is left free at the top. The notch is placed to concentrate the stress, and provoke delicate failure. It lowers distortion and decreases the ductile fracture. The test was done easily and quickly to examine the quality of the materials, and test whether it meets the specific force of collision properties. It is also used to evaluate the materials for overall hardiness. It is not applicable to compound materials because of the influence of complicated and inconsistent failure modes. The notch is very important because it can affect the result of the test. The making of the notch has been a problem. Initially, the radius of the notch is crucial. The radius should not change. It has an essential effect on the competence of the sample to absorb the collision. The blades in the notch can overheat the polymers, and deteriorate the materials surrounding the notch, which could lead to an inaccurate test result. The Izod method chose a short projection, supported at one end, to produce better steel tools for cutting metal. The Charpy method includes striking an appropriate test material with a striker fastened at the end of a pendulum. The test material is secured horizontally in place at both ends, and the striker hits the center of the test material, behind a machined notch. The notch is positioned away from the striker, fastened in a pendulum. The test material usually measures 55×10x10

millimeters. The Charpy method has a machined notch across one of the larger faces. There are two types of charpy notch, a Vnotch or a U-notch. The V-notch, or the AV-shaped notch, measures 2 millimeters deep, with a 45 degree angle and 0.25 millimeter radius, parallel to the base. The U-notch, or keyhole notch, is 5 millimeters deep notch, with a 1 millimeter radius at the bottom of the notch. Higher speeds and collision energy could be achieved in a vertical style fall. This method proved to be reliable, and gave qualitative collision data. Summary: 1. In the Izod method, the test material was placed in a vertical position, while in the Charpy method, the test material was placed horizontally. 2. The notch in the izod test is facing the striker, fastened in a pendulum, while in the charpy test; the notch is positioned away from the striker. 3. In the Charpy method, there are two kinds of notches, the Vnotch and the U-notch, while in the Izod method; there is only one kind of notch.

Ductile fracture is better because of the following reasons: a) More energy needed in the ductile fracture because it is a tough material b) Brittle fracture happens quickly without warning while the ductile fracture took a longer time before the whole process to happen

Error source: 1. Use sensors to measure resistance of air so that we could calculate the energy losses by friction more accurate. 2. Try to place the centre of the notch on the specimen to be at the centre of the impacting load. 3. The data collected should be taken carefully vertically so that to minimize the error from reading it.

4. Using modern testing equipments that use digital readers and load amplifiers to reach the most accurate data.

Conclusion: From the Charpy and izod impact test, brass undergoes brittle fracture while the brass undergoes ductile fracture. More energy is absorbed by steel shows that it is more suitable to be use in the structural construction that expose to high load for example: car body.

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