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S.No. Topics Page No.

Acknowledgments ii
Table of Contents iii
Abstract iv
1 Introduction 1
1.1 About the organization 1
1.2 Introduction of Project 2
1.3 Scope of study 2
1.4 Limitation of study 3
2 Introduction of Baby Diaper 4
3 Market Demand 10
3.1 India Market 10
3.2 World Market 12
3.3 Baby Diaper Market-2008 16
3.4 Main Market Players 17
4 Description of Manufacturing Process 19
4.1 Product Recipe 19
4.2 Flow Chart of Manufacturing Process 21
5 Plant Description 22
6 Layout for the Baby Diaper Manufacturing Plant 23
7 Machines and Productivity 25
8 Raw Material 26
9 Quality Control & Standards 27
10 Packing Specifications 29
11 Manpower Requirement 29
12 Costing 29
13 Plant and Machinery Suppliers 31
14 Procedure for using the Baby Diaper Products 36
About the Organization
Kamtech Associates Private Limited is established in 1997, Kamtech has earned
professional repute in providing value added consulting services and solutions with the
enhanced customer's satisfaction.

With varied domain expertise, international experience with world leading companies and
wide network of international alliance partners, they offer clients cost effective high fidelity
total consulting solutions that are fined and tuned to each client’s specific requirement to face
the growing global business challenges.

Kamtech is the first Knowledge Processing Company (KPO) in the Rajasthan state, head
quartered in Jaipur. It has now spread its wings across the continents to offer world class
dedicated Knowledge Processing Services through its sprawling 24 x 7 operational most
modern development centre.

It is an ISO 9001:2000 certified leading total solution provider consultancy company. In

their development centre, there expert professionals provide round the clock services.

About CEO of the Company

Ajay Kumar Gupta, a meritorious Mechanical Engineer with

management qualifications, is the promoter of Kamtech Associates
Pvt. Ltd. Mr. Gupta has also joined in as consortium partner with
leading consultancy companies like Dastur Co, WSP International,
and Black & Veatch in the various infrastructure projects in

He is also the founder member and Honorable Secretary of

Foundation of Information & Technology Transfer Society, first
NGO in Rajasthan in IT, knowledge and entrepreneurship development sector.

Services Offered by Kamtech Associates Pvt. Ltd.

 Customized Software Module Developments,

 IT Outsourcing & Consultancy Services,
 Offshore Development,
 ERP Software Development and Implementation,
 Software Requirement Studies & Documentation,
 Process Mapping,
 Website / Portal Development,
 Web Promotion,
 e-Commerce Solutions,
 Corporate Training in ERP and other knowledge areas,
 Project Management,
 Feasibility Studies,
 Detailed Project Reports,
 Policy Research,
 Quality Checks,
 Evaluations and Software Quality Testing,
 CAD/CAM and Engineering Services,
 Documentation & Implementations of best practices like ISO 9001,
 CMMI and TQM etc.

Introduction of the Project:

This report has been made for a South African investor Mr. Somnath Poojary, who wants to
establish a Baby Diaper Plant. The project demands for a thorough study of market
demand of baby diaper in India as well as in World and main market players of this particular
product. The project also includes manufacturing process, raw material required for
manufacturing of baby diaper, plant layout, manpower required. The quality control &
standards required and costing of the project.

Scope of Study:
 As more and more women starts working, so the market of Baby Diaper is huge
because of the lesser time they will give to their child.
 Also the living standards of people are growing on a rapid pace. They will spend
more money for baby care products.

 Increase in population will also reflect the increase of sale in baby diaper.
 In India only 2% children of the total population are using baby diaper. It predicts a
huge scope of baby diaper. Similarly in other countries also except US where the
95.5% children wear baby diaper.

Limitations of Study:
• Unavailability of Relevant Data: As this project report based on secondary data
so the data available on internet was not in detail and this has been the main
limitation of this report.
• Time Constraint: As the time limit for my project was fixed and lots of
components were there to be analyzed, As time needed for this report was much
more than available, so I was not able to study and analyze each component to
utmost depth possible.
• Selective study: There are lots of baby diaper companies in the baby care product
industry each having too many products. So it was not possible for me to analyze
all the data of each company. So I concentrated on few major players in the
market. .
• Rely On Secondary Sources: As per the policies, baby Diaper Company did not
gave the information to unauthorized persons. So I was not able to access primary
source and I had to rely on secondary sources.

2.0 Introduction of Baby Diaper :
Diapers are personal hygiene products engineered to absorb and contain urine and faeces of a
baby. They are placed and fastened around baby’s legs and bottom to form a leak proof seal,
preventing contamination of baby’s clothes.
The history of diapers is a story of continuous design improvements and development of new
materials. The main duty requirements of diapers are :
 The device should be comfortable for the baby
 It should be easy to place and remove on the baby
 It should have the capacity to absorb urine and semisolid stool
 It should be capable of being wrapped without spilling contents on removal
 It should be disposable and affordable
 It should be of such inert materials as will not affect baby’s delicate skin
Types of Baby Diapers
 Teen baby diaper,
 Boy baby diaper,
 Baby napkin,
 Big baby diaper,
 Newborn diaper,
 Paper diaper,
 Disposable baby diapers,
 Girl baby diaper and cotton baby diaper etc.

A quick review to diaper H istory before 1960 A quickreviewatmoderndiaperhistory

M aria A llen
Inventors of SAP
Billy Gene Harper
1870 First
M ass Production
Carlyle Harmon
O f cloth diapers 1966

Vic Mills 1961

Leg Cuffs 1986
Fluff replaced Tissue
1978 “Hourglass Shape ” Modern Diaper 2005

1949 First pin free diaper

Marion Donovan 1946 G eorgeShroder1 949

Figure 1 Stages of Development of Baby Diapers

2.1 General Baby Diaper specification and weight details are as follows:
Series Min Max Product Length /Width Product weight
sap 7
S 405mm 290mm 18-29g
fluff 10 14
sap 9
M 450mm 315mm 22-36g
fluff 13 18
sap 11
L 485mm 335mm 28-45g
fluff 16 22
sap 13
Xl 500mm 350mm 32-52g
fluff 19 26
Table 1: General Baby Diaper Specification and weight Details

2.2 Baby Diaper:

Figure 2: Baby Diaper

2.3 Most baby diapers are made with the following basic components:
1) Polyethylene or cloth-like film: This is used as the back sheet that prevents the liquids
from leaking out of the diaper. The back-sheet can also be given a cloth-like look, by adding

a thin polypropylene non-woven sheet to the film, using either the hot melt process or the
heat and pressure method.

2) Tissue: A special tissue paper that is different from the regular bathroom tissue and has a
higher elasticity and wet strength is another important component of a diaper. The tissue
essentially serves as a carrier for the pad (the pad is the absorbent core of the diaper) and
helps reduce the pin holes created during the compression process carried out by continuous
drum forming systems.

3) Hot Melts: They are used to glue the different components of the diaper, such as the pad
and the elastics. They are made of a mixture of resins and oils. The hot melt adhesive is
applied in molten form and when it cools down it provides the required bonding force to glue
the materials.

4) Hydrophobic Non-woven: It is used as a top sheet for the leg cuffs; it prevents water
from passing through. It is made of polypropylene resin without any added surface
surfactants. The hydrophobic nonwoven prevents leakage out of diaper. By applying a
surfactant to a restricted area, it is possible to make a roll of hydrophobic nonwoven only
partially philic.

5) Hydrophilic Non-woven: It is the main top sheet, the top surface that is in contact with
the baby's skin. It allows the liquids to flow into the diaper core. The difference between
the two non-wovens (philic and phobic) is the surfactant treatment used in the process.

6) Elastics: Used to improve the fit of the diaper, usually made of polyurethane or polyester
foam, synthetic rubber or Lycra (also known with the generic name Spandex). They are used
in cuffs, for the waist and the legs; they can also be used as lateral side panels and in tape

7) Lateral Tapes: In premium diapers, Velcro type materials have been used to provide
mechanical grip, it is also known as the "hook tape". In lower priced diapers, adhesive tapes

made of polypropylene are used. Then there are new versions of elasticized Nonwoven
Velcro Tapes.

8) Frontal Tapes: This is used to facilitate multiple repositioning

of the lateral tape without tearing the back-sheet, it is made of
polypropylene film and attached to the front of the diaper with
adhesive. Its use has helped to reduce the thickness of the poly
film without the risk of potential tears associated with the Figure 3: Polypropylene film in
opening of the lateral tapes from the back-sheet. Baby Diaper

9) Cellulose: Used in the construction of the pad, it gives integrity

and absorbing capacity to the diaper. The capacity of normal
cellulose pulp is around 10 cc of water per gram of pulp when the
diaper is in "free swell".

Figure 4: Cellulose
10) Acquisition and Distribution Layer: Also known with its
abbreviation ADL, it is a sub layer used between the top sheet and the absorbent core.
Sometimes used in full length but mostly preferred as a patch near the target zone where
urine is most likely to be deposited.

11) Sodium Poly-acrylate: Also known as super-absorbent or "SAP" (super absorbent

polymer), Kimberly Clark used to call it SAM (super absorbent material). It is typically used
in fine granular form (like table salt). It helps improve capacity for better retention in a
disposable diaper, allowing the product to be thinner with improved performance and less
usage of pine fluff pulp.

12) Top Sheet surface add-on lotions: In order to create novelties for product
differentiation, several topical lotions are added to the nonwoven top sheet, among others:

Aloe Vera, Vitamin E, Petrolatum, Almond Oil, Vitamin D, Oat Extract, Jojoba, etc. There
is another trend to use antibacterial lotions (such as tertiary ammonia or silver salt
compounds). However, many pediatricians are against its use for obvious reasons.

13) Decorated Films and wetness indicators: For even greater product differentiation,
some diapers use decorated films underneath the cloth-like back-sheet. Some use as many as
nine inks with all kinds of well known characters such as Disney, Sesame Street, Soccer
teams, etc. Another gimmick they use is a wetness indicator. This is typically used for adult
products but some baby diapers also use it.

2.4 Facts & Figures:

• An average diaper weighs between 45 and 50 g and is primarily made of pulp (fluff
pulp), polypropylene, polyethylene, super absorbent polymer (SAP), as well as minor
amounts of tapes, elastics and adhesive materials.
• Nowadays, SAP is used in the diaper core to help hold urine away from the skin and
faecal enzymes. This helps prevent the conditions that lead to diaper rash. The health
benefits of modern diapers based on SAP and other advanced technologies provide
advantages in skin care, dryness, and leakage protection.
• There are several methods used to control the quality of disposable diapers, and most
of these relate to the product's absorbency.
• In the diaper product development area, each major component is tested separately to
assess safety under conditions that are appropriate to the potential exposures
• Approximately 75% of the superabsorbent polymers used worldwide are sold in
diaper products from five major companies. These manufactures include Proctor &
Gamble (P&G), Kimberly-Clark, and other diaper manufacturers.
• The global market for disposable diapers is $20 billion annually.
• Superabsorbent polymers (SAPs), materials comprising long chains of intertwining
molecules with the happy ability to soak up lots of liquid, now dominate the
disposable diaper market.

• Growth for baby diapers is considerably higher in other parts of the world,
particularly in Asia but also in Latin America and Africa. In Europe, approximately
25% of the market for baby diapers consists of retailers’ brands.
• In the United States, Proctor & Gamble is a well-known diaper manufacturer, which
produces the popular Pampers diaper. The superabsorbent polymer used in the
Pampers diaper holds approximately thirty times its own weight in body fluid.
• The P&G Corporation developed a unique three-piece construction diaper to absorb
the moisture and distribute it evenly. The transmission of fluid to the absorbent core
allows the fluid to be engulfed, therefore not passing it back to the skin. P&G diapers
are now sold in more than 80 countries worldwide with $4 billion in sales.

2.5 Mathematical Models for Disposable Diaper Manufacturing

To set up the most economical design for a given diaper market segment, it requires the use
of sophisticated statistical tools and plenty of field data on diaper use. Most diaper
producers rely on simple trial and error for defining the right mix of absorbing materials;
some other companies try to copy the performance of a larger competitor without taking into
account the individual diaper features. The result is either a misuse of the materials or
underperformance of the diaper. The fact of the matter is that even small changes in the core
mix can result in significant changes in leakage performance. The correlation between
diaper leakage and diaper cost is not linear; most of the times it is a polynomial equation(*).
In order to be able to optimize the cost of the diaper for a given market segment, one need to
understand the mathematical correlation between diaper performance and diaper cost. For
each diaper design there is a corresponding mathematical formula that can be optimized to
improve diaper performance without increasing its cost. .

Example of a mathematical correlation between % of leakage (Y) and total retentive capacity
at 5 KPa (X) for a mid-market segment diaper. Using this equation in conjunction with
variable cost, enables to maximize performance at a given cost level when use this very
specific diaper design: Y=5E-09(X)3+8E-06(X)2-.0041(X)+0.7006

3.0 Market Scenario:

According to the survey (2003) on both the domestic and overseas markets conducted by the
Ministry of the Interior of Taiwan, the world averages some 360,000 newborn babies per year
in the world. Each baby at the age ranging from 2.5 years to 3 years uses 5 to 10 diapers per
day, and then the annual consumption of diapers would come to a total of 1.64 billion. And
such a demand will increase in proportion to the increase in the population of the various
markets. At the present time, the market for baby diapers has a considerably large potential
for further development. It is sincerely hoped that far-sighted entrepreneurs will seize,
without hesitation, this excellent opportunity for investment in this line of business.

This industry will not only bring about a comfortable living for the small babies, but also can
stimulate the development of related industries. Investors can earn lucrative profit with the
small capital investment. The main target countries are in America, Europe, the Middle East,
and South-East Asia.

In the wake of constant rise in the GNP and industrialization of developing countries, we can
see a significant increase in the buying power of the target market, as well as an emphasis on
personal sanitation, of local consumers; thus, the marketing of baby diapers should satisfy the
requirements of these consumers for sanitation and convenience.

3.1 Indian Market

In India, cloth is perceived as Grandmother's gold standard for baby's skin despite diapers
providing better protection and skincare. Disposable diapers are considered expensive in

Selling price of baby diaper in Indian Market :

 Huggies for one year Baby : 25 Pieces per Packet @ 330/- per Packet
 Pampers for one year Baby : 25 Pieces per Packet @ 275 /- per Packet

Apart from the premium pricing, the Indian mindset regarding the usage of the product also
needs to be changed. The Indian consumer, in general, has an attitudinal barrier towards
disposables, which is one of the main impediments towards their growth. The Indian mother
is a cost-conscious woman and would like to recycle most of the products used for her
household. The same applies to the products used for her baby too. This acts as a main barrier

towards disposable diapers in India. Also disposable diapers' usage is mainly restricted to
out-of-home occasions, which are relatively few while the baby is in the diaper wearing age.

The Indian Baby diaper market had been growing at 15-20 per cent annually for 2-3 years
until last year, when it reported a decline of five per cent.

Reducing prices and changing technology, market leader Kimberly Clark Lever Pvt Ltd
(KCL) is today offering its Dri-Fit diapers with 50 per cent more
absorbent material using super absorbent material (SAM) for its
Huggies brand. SAM quickly absorbs fluid and converts it into dry
gel-like material, locking fluid in the core of the diaper, keeping the
baby's skin absolutely dry. SAM can absorb fluid up to 100 times Figure 5 Huggies
Kimberly Clark
its weight. This means that one gram of SAM can absorb up to
100 grams of fluid." Besides, Huggies diapers have been incorporated with an outer cover
meant to provide cotton-like comfort and double leak guards. The high leg-cut design was
fashioned keeping the Indian climatic conditions in mind. KCL were introduced in 1997.

Pampers, product of Proctor & Gamble has been present in India

since 1995-96. The distribution was outsourced to Marico for a few
years. With a five per cent share in the diaper market, Pampers' USP is
one of superior performance at an affordable price.
Figure 6 Pampers

In spite of the barriers facing the category's growth, Godrej

Consumer Products decided to acquire the Snuggy brand from
Shogun Industries late last year. Apart from the purpose of having
more brands to ride its distribution chain, Godrej realised the
importance of having a brand name such as Snuggy, which could Figure 7 Snuggy Goderj
lead it to becoming a complete baby care brand.
3.2 World Market

Growth in the baby diaper segment is high in the markets in Asia, Latin America and Africa.
The reason for this is high birth rates and the increasing use of disposable diapers related to
improving standards of living.

Calculating the maximum size of the baby diaper market requires knowing the total birth rate
in the target segment and multiplying the number of babies in this segment by the number of
average diapers used per day (the representative average according to each stage used) and
multiplying that with the number of years in that stage.

In the US, more diapers are used per baby in comparison to Europe or even Japan. Also,
American babies are wearing diapers for a longer period than they used to do a decade ago.
It is estimated that American babies use a total number of 3,700 to 4,200 diapers during their
diaper wearing stage. There are many regions of the world that use less diapers than the USA.
China and Russia are good examples as they are probably the very best at potty training.
They are able to achieve this goal before the age of 20 months, instead of 33 or more required
in the USA. The rest of the world is somewhere in the middle.

Babies use more diapers per day when they are small Babies 0 to 30 months
and much less when they grow older. There are 321 70
million babies in the world with ages in the range of 0 50
to 2.5 in year 2007. This means the world requires 30 2005
15,600 diapers per second if every single baby in the
world used disposable diapers. If a typical diaper 0

machine runs at 6 diapers per second then it will need





















2,600 machines to satisfy the need for the world. A



more reasoned estimate of the total number of baby Graph 1 Babies 0 to 30 Month
diaper machines today is around 550 (not counting the
hundreds of “home garage” micro machines).

According to birth rate trends, it is estimated that for year 2025 the whole world will have
328 million babies at the diaper wearing range of 0 to 2.5 years of age. Assuming the
consumption of diapers per day is further reduced by another 5% due to diaper performance
improvements during this time (a very realistic number); then the total increase for baby
diapers in year 2025 will be actually reduced by 2.9%.

“It’s a very, very competitive market,” said Tracey Stewart, spokesperson for AHPMA, a
U.K.-based trade association for the disposable hygiene item industries. “Last year was the
first time we saw a minor rise in the birth rate in the U.K. so manufacturers are focusing on
shifting the market share for growth. These supermarket price wars work well for consumers
because prices stay down. Nappies are a known value item. There is very little mark-up on
them. An attractive price can draw in the shoppers so retailers are prepared to make little or
no profit because they know they will do the rest of their shopping when they come in to buy

According to statistics provided by market tracker Euromonitor, the world baby diaper was
valued at $21 billion in 2006, up from $18.8 billion in 2002. The most significant growth has
occurred during that period in Western Europe, up to $5.5 billion from under $4 billion in
2002, and Eastern Europe, which increased to $1 billion from $500 million four years ago.
Other key growth areas included Latin America, Australasia and Africa, the Middle East and
Asia-Pacific, which offset decreases in North American sales.

Drop offs in North American sales have been largely caused by flat birth rates, already high
penetration levels and fewer diaper changes per child thanks to technological advances in
diapers. Therefore, individual company growth has come only at the expense of stolen
market-share, which has largely been achieved through price manipulation as well as
marketing and promotional activity.

In fact, one diaper executive described the market as a commodity created by brands and
their pricing strategies where everyone is competing against everybody. Most recently

Procter & Gamble announced it would increase prices of some of its diaper brands while
lowering them for others.
By the end of 2008, there will be a net workforce reduction of about 10%, or approximately
6000 employees, while approximately 20 manufacturing facilities, or 17% of the company’s
worldwide total, will be sold or closed, and an additional four facilities will be streamlined.
In addition, seven other facilities will be expanded as some production capacity from affected
facilities is transferred to them to further improve the scale, productivity and cost position of
those operations. There is a particular focus on Europe aimed at improving business results in
the region. The company intends to consolidate and streamline manufacturing facilities,
further improve operating efficiencies and reduce selling, general and administrative
expenses while reinvesting in key growth opportunities there.

In many countries of Central and Eastern Europe, penetration levels for disposable baby
diapers are as low as 30%, leaving a great deal of room for future market growth. However,
pricing in these countries must be significantly lower than in their Western European markets
—hence the need for less sophisticated diapers. However, the expansion of the European
Union and many of these countries’ inclusion in it have created opportunities for smaller
manufacturers located in the region.

In Latin America, diapers have registered strong growth in most markets, driven by a rise in
the number of women in the workforce and subsequent increased demand for convenient
disposable items. Furthermore, these markets have benefited from aggressive manufacturer
activity, particularly on the part of the sector leader, K-C, which has launched value-added

While diapers and pants registered growth in some developing markets in Asia-Pacific,
driven by increasing pressure on parents’ time, these products continue to be viewed as
expensive luxury items by consumers who continue to favor more economic cloth

Disposable diaper advocates are refuting claims that disposable diapers are a threat to the
environment. These claims have been reinforced by the results of a government-
commissioned life cycle assessment (LCA), coordinated by the U.K. Environment Agency,
that shows through independent analysis that disposable nappies have no greater impact on
the environment than cloth diapers.

Specifically, the study confirms: neither disposable nor cloth diaper systems can claim
overall environmental superiority and the differences in the impacts between diaper systems
are not significant enough to voice support for one diaper type over the other on the basis of
environmental factors alone.

China will have the largest diaper growth in the next 5 years or so, with growth rates in
double digits every year.

Indonesia and Brazil deserve their own mention, having the 4th and the 8th largest population
of babies in the world at this moment.

The other three countries with large population of babies are Nigeria, Ethiopia and Congo;
but their PPP is so low, specially for the 80% middle range of the population (making less
than $600 per year), that disposable diapers are still far away in their future. Quite a different
story in the Northern part of Africa.

North African countries, especially those located near the Mediterranean Sea will experience
large growth in baby diapers in the next several years as all of them have passed the required
minimal threshold PPP. Countries like Morocco, Algeria and Libya are already experiencing
double digit growth and they will continue for the next 5 years or so. Egypt will also have a
good growing trend.

Almost all of the Latin American countries have passed the minimal threshold required for
diaper sales to grow; in particular Colombia is growing very fast. Also Argentina has been

recovering quickly from the past devaluation. Mexico and Brazil have not been growing as
fast. There is little cultural resistance to accept diapers in Latin America today, with only
about 50% market share average; in México market share is already close to 60% with a
poverty level of 40% there is no place to grow other than exports.

Baby Diapers % used by Countries -2006

S.No. Country Market Shrae
1 Brazil 29.5%
2 China 5.5%
3 Egypt 22.2%
4 India 2.0%
5 Indonesia 9.0%
6 Mexico 58.6%
7 Pakistan 4.0%
8 Philippines 21.5%
9 United States 95.5%
10 Vietnam 9.0%
Table 2 Baby Diapers % used by Countries

(*Nigeria , Bangladesh, Ethiopia and Congo excluded )

The above data shows that India, Pakistan & China use less than 6% of baby diaper and have
more birth rate & baby population, so in these nations the market has a huge potential for
baby diaper usage, but it requires proper marketing and lower price of these products .

3.3 Baby diaper market -2008

 In 2008, the yearly average consumption of diapers for young children aged between 0
and 3 neared 625 units per baby- 500 million units overall, taking the market to 60m
 It boasted the biggest growth rate in 2008 among non-comestible consumer goods. On
the market of non-comestible consumer products single-use baby diapers boasted the
biggest growth rate in 2007. According to data from the ACNielsen market research
company, baby diapers posted a 58.1% increase against 2006, but this growth margin
also includes the modification of the sample on which the measurement was carried out.
 In 2007 generated a turnover worth around 60m euros accounting for more than a third
of the paper consumer goods market.
 The most important distribution channels for baby diapers are hypermarkets and
supermarkets. These stores accounted for 58.9% of the diaper volumes sold during the
March 2007-January 2008 period, followed by drugstores, which accounted for 15.3%,
according to MEMRB.
 The volume of diapers sold in the United States alone in year 2007 will be close to 18.6
billion units, around 20.4 billion units will be sold in Europe and 4.9 billion units will
be sold in Mexico in 2007. It is reported that China has the largest incremental sales in
comparison to last year. Many new diaper machines are being installed there.

3.4 Main Market Players :

The following are the main market players in the baby diaper manufacturing:

Kimberly Clark – Lever Ltd.,

( Huggies )
Gat Nos. 934 to 937, Village Sanaswadi,
Taluka Sherur, District Pune India

P&G Plaza ( Pamper & Tampax Brand )

Cardinal Gracias Road,Chakala,
Andheri (E),
Mumbai - 400099
Maharashtra, India.
Tel: (+91 22) 2826 6000
Fax: (+91 22) 6693 9696

Godrej Consumer Products ( Snuggy )

Pirojshanagar, Eastern Expresss Highway,
Vikhroli, Mumbai - 400079, India.
Phone - (022) 25188010, 25188020, 25188030
Fax - (022) 25188040

Concept Diapers Couches Panales

Bapu Khote Steet, Mumbai,
Maharashtra, India
Zip/Postal Code: 400003
Telephone: 0091-22-32453799
Fax: 0091-22-32453799

Actifit India Pvt. Ltd

Office No.20, Hari Market,
Opp.Khar Railway Station,

Khar West, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India
Zip/Postal Code: 400052
Telephone: 91-22-26480097
Fax: 91-22-26480098
Mobile Phone: 00919890945235

73, Solomon, Sherly Rajan Rd.,
Maharashtra, India
Zip/Postal Code: 400 050
Telephone: 91-22-26480730
Fax: 91-22-26480730

Jyoti India Pvt Ltd.

20, Ssi Industrial Area, G. T. Karnal Road,
Delhi, India
Telephone: 91-11-55151709
Fax: 91-11-27377383

4.0 Description of Manufacturing Process:

The manufacturing process of the Diapers is simple and amenable to
line production. It consists of a continues operation in which the
filler paper is ground by a hammer mill to produce a fluffed pulp
which is then supported by a tissue paper. Next a non-woven fabric
is placed and adhesive is applied to bond the materials. The diaper is
cut to the proper dimension, and the fastener and release tapes are
attached at designated points. Thus, the process is:

 Sheets of rolled wood pulp are continuously and

automatically fed to the pulp crusher, which crushes
the supplied pulp into cotton-like fluff.
 The fluffed pulp is then molded into strips.
 Two absorbent layers of cotton are placed on two
sides of the molded strip.
 The entire strip is then cut into required lengths.
 The Waterproof polyethylene film is laid on the sides
of the absorbent layers.
 The entire strip is then wrapped by a non-woven
fabric, which holds the individual strip together.
 The strip is then processed by hot sealing and
embossed with favorite figures.
 The diapers, which are still joined together by the
train diaper are forwarded by a conveyer and
thereafter cut into separate pieces.
 Each diaper is then placed into individual bags and
arrayed in good order for packing.

4.1 Product Recipe

Below is a typical recipe for a baby diaper, the best selling size

Product Specification: Area/Lgth Weight Waste
Raw Items Units Maxi 28 33+9 (Grams)
(Sq. cm, cm). (Grams)
Fluff $/Tonne 20.465 4%
SAP $/Tonne 9.000 4%
Tissue 18gsm $/Tonne 1014.0 1.876 4%
Non-woven $/1000m2 1617.0 3.719 4%
Backsheet $/Tonne 1592.5 3.758 4%
ADL 40gsm $/1000m2 182.0 0.728 4%
Foam elastic $/1000m2 36.0 0.194 4%
Hook Tape $/ m. 5.2 0.600 4%
Loop Frontal $/1000m2 86.0 0.420 4%
Leg Elastic $/Tonne 84.0 0.052 4%
L/Cuff Elastic $/Tonne 39.2 0.024 4%
L/Cuff N/w $/1000m2 490.0 1.127 4%
Elastic Glue $/Tonne 0.300 4%
LC El Glue $/Tonne 0.130 4%
Constr. Glue $/Tonne 0.850 4%
LC Con Glue $/Tonne 0.150 4%
Lotion $/Tonne 0.200 4%
Bags $/unit 28 2%
Boxes $/unit 168 2%
Wrap $/roll 21504 2%
Pallet $/unit 2688 2%

Table3: Product Recipe Baby Diaper

4.2 Flow Chart of Manufacturing Process:

Raw Pulp Crushing Forming of Fiber-

Tissue Layers
(Cotton-Like Fluff)

Wrapping with PE Cutting into Sections Tissue on Two Sides

Films and
Non-Woven Fabric

Hot Sealing & Cutting Sections of Forwarding by

Embossing Diapers Conveyer

Packaging Conveyor The Finished Products


Up to Baby

Flow Chart 1: Baby Diaper Manufacturing Process

5.0 Plant Description:
The manufacturing process of baby
diaper is a line production. The unit
comprises a paper pulp crushing
machine, forming/ wrapping machine,
glue spreading machine and the conveyer
systems, plus counter, control box, and Figure 8: Baby Diaper Machine
alignment machine.

A fluff pulp mill positioned at the right hand end of the machine and
normally counter/stacker at the left hand end to count the diapers and
align them before they are pushed into the manually held bag or into
the automatic packaging machine.

Pulp feeding frame: The electrically controlled lifter, the feeding is

easily operated
Pulp grinder: Grinding system with the reject fiber collecting
device, which can reduce the production cost.
Pad wrapping system: Pliable but strong wrapping and forming
device made from the stainless steel with special specification and
Hot melt adhesive rolling system: The special applying adhesive
Pad conveyor: Convey the pads in 2.5M row, which is convenient
for packing inspection
Drive system: Solid spiral and helical gears of different specification
to match with vari-speed gear shift allowing for reduction of the pulp
mat to the proper thickness at the desired weight.

 Assuming 8 hour per shift with 30 minute

break = 7.5 hours working.
 Weeks holiday shut-down per year
(Assuming 5 day working week and)
 Economy diaper machine producing 250
diapers per minute - 4 sizes
 Guideline 70% efficiency for working time
 Daily production = 250 x 7.5 x 60 x 70% = 78,750 per day.
 Annual production = 240 x 78,750 = 18.9 million diapers per year
for one shift.
6.0 Layout for the Baby Diaper Manufacturing Plant:
The required manufacturing lay out for a typical baby diaper
manufacturing plant is as given in figure and required room & space
details are as follows:

A. Office building
B. Warehouse for raw material
C. Production machinery room (with a capacity for two units at
D. Warehouse for products
E. Room for registry of incoming goods and outgoing goods.
F. Guard house and restroom
G. Washroom
H. Simple maintenance room
I. Washroom for employees
(Locations have given in plant layout as per numbering)

Figure 9 Plant lay out for Diaper Manufacturing Unit
(The details related to the lactations are as per Alphabets numbering given above
A, B, C, ….)
Main machinery specifications and required space of the baby
diaper machines are as follows :
Forming/Wrapping set:
Embossing and conveyer

for the glued finished products:
1407”(L.)×314”(W.)×728” (H.)
Total length: 3464” (L) ×472”
(W.)×728” (H.)

Plant layout for production of baby diaper is characterized by

simplicity, requiring only environmental sanitation and cleanliness.

(1) Unloading facilities:

Plant layout for production of baby diaper is characterized by
simplicity, requiring only environmental sanitation and cleanliness.

(2) Ventilation:
Production plant must be designed with efficient ventilation. In case
of excessively high humidity, use plastic sheeting or wooden damage
(with a thickness over 4”) for separation of raw material and the
products from floor, so as to prevent damage of the materials and

(3) Packing facilities:

If wish to pack the product into a plastic bag, use a pedal-controlled
manual packing machine, or the continuous heat-sealing machine. If
one wishes to pack the product into a paper bag, use a box packing
machine and carton packing machine for higher efficiency.

7.0 Machines and Productivity:
7.1 Machines:
All high speed disposables machines are custom built to suit exact
requirements. They vary greatly in price based on the following main
 Machine speed
 Product features
 Product quality
 Machine reliability/efficiency
The following tables give costs of typical baby diaper and sanitary
napkin machines. These should be treated only as guidelines since
there are many different manufacturers in Americas, Asia and
Europe that offer different levels of machinery and after sales

1. Baby Diaper Machines

Machine speed Product type Minimum Cost
Slow speed -100dpm Economy US $200k

Medium Speed -250dpm Medium /Premium US $400k

High speed -400dpm Premium US $1,400k
Top speed -800dpm Premium US $2,000k
Table 4 Baby Diaper Machines

The common range of prices for diaper machines would be from US

$500,000 to
US $3,000,000.
Sanitary napkin machines range from US $100,000 to
US$1,200,000. The lower priced being slow and inflexible machines
for a simple product. The lowest priced European machine would be
around US $400,000.

2. Second-hand Machines
Second hand machineries are also available in the market. However,
there is more risk involved in the purchase of such a machine
directly from the vendor. Second hand machines are often available,
and would range from US $300,000 to US $1,000,000.

(Machines Prices are based on FOB at Factory Gate)

7.2 Productivity
Approximately 4% waste for the diaper raw materials and 2% for the
packaging. One shift Production. The efficiency is normally assumed
to be circa 70% of available production. This can be exceeded if size
changeovers are minimized and operators are well trained. At the
start of manufacture with untrained staff or with more basic
machines an approximate efficiency of 60% should be assumed.

8.0 Raw Material

This is international industry, with Raw Materials gathered from all
over the world. A good place to meet the suppliers is at the
Nonwoven Exhibitions, which are held annually in three different
parts of the world. The last Asian exhibition, ANEX, was held in
Tokyo in May 2006, in April 2007 the US exhibition IDEA held in
the Miami Beach Convention Centre in Florida, and next year in
May European exhibition, Index, will be held. The cycle of Europe,
Asia and USA then repeats.

Baby diaper size: long 320mm; width 110mm; thickness: 8-10mm;
(the weight is adjustable)
For this product range the raw material requirement is as follows :

 Pulp : fluff pulp ,thickness 1-2mm, width
380-410mm(500gmm2 up)
 Tissue: 18gm/square meter standard width
 P.E. Film: the thickness 0.0015mm, width
 Non-woven fabric: good thermo-bonding
16-18gm/square meter, standard
 Hot melt gum: Pressure sensitive and
endurance, good stickiness, white adhesive.
 Release paper: good release, width 19-

9.0 Quality Control & Standards

9.1 Pad Integrity tests
A pad integrity test is required for consistency checks and as a
development parameter.
This test is required for several factors
 Fibre length
 Fibre entanglement
 Pad compression
 Pad embossing
 Adhesion to roll materials
 Superabsorbent distribution
 Core shape

 Core structure
 Drum forming consistency

9.1.1 Vertical Light box Integrity Display tester:

In Integrity Test we used a Vertical Light box for regular
product inspection. The details of the internal materials
can be seen without difficulty. Even spray glues can be
seen due to excellent light level

The product can be quickly and easily turned to view

from other side without unfastening the clamps. The
product can be tensioned laterally as well as vertically Figure 10 Vertical Light box Integrity
due to the friction grip between clamps and cross bar. Display tester:

9.1.2 Result & Analysis:

As in Graph 1 the daily or weekly drop
height graph will give indications of two
quality parameters:

1. Consistency of the pad formation.

2. Any cassette defects can be quickly

Graph 2 Daily Integrity test result
identified. Improved consistency of
pad formation will be reflected by a narrowing of the range of

Improvement in the pad integrity: A rise in the average line (red line
above) indicates general improvement of the pad integrity of the

9.2 Consistency test for
 Drum forming
 SAP and fluff homogeneity
 Glue application
 Compression / embossing
 Bi-folding damage
 Package compaction

9.3 Development test

 Removal or reduction of tissue layer
 Improvement of adhesive bond
 Change of embossing or compression
 Change of absorbent core structure
 Changes in fluff and SAP content

9.4 Comparison test

 Comparison with other brands in dry and wet states
 Comparison with other pad structures

9.5 Quality Standards

Quality Management System ISO 9001:2000 is the main quality
standard required for this type of Industries with hygiene conditions
& clean environment.

10.0 Packing Specifications:

The standard packing system for shipment is to dismantle the units
into 3 sections each, packed into a wooden case and put into a 20’

Size measurements:
 Standard: 360mm(L.)×105mm(W.)× 16mm(Thickness)Max. 160
 Newborn baby: 320mm(L.)×105mm(W.)× 15mm(Thickness) Max.
150 pieces/min

11.0 Manpower Requirement:

For One shift Production, One (1) operator (for operation of the
machine and handling of materials) and 3 to 4 packing workers.
Training is essential for each operator for smooth and efficient
operation of plant and usually provides by the machines supplier.

12.0 Costing:
Product: Baby diaper
Size: long 320mm; width 110mm; thickness: 8-10mm; (the weight is
 Assuming 8 hour per shift with 30 minute
break = 7.5 hours working.
 Weeks holiday shut-down per year
(Assuming 5 day working week and)
 Economy diaper machine producing 250
diapers per minute - 4 sizes
 Guideline 70% efficiency for working time

 Daily production = 250 x 7.5 x 60 x 70% = 78,750 per day.

 Annual production = 240 x 78,750 = 18.9 million diapers per year
for one shift.

For this product range the raw material requirement is as follows:

 Pulp : fluff pulp ,thickness 1-2mm, width
380-410mm(500gmm2 up)
 Tissue: 18gm/square meter standard width
 P.E. Film: the thickness 0.0015mm, width
 Non-woven fabric: good thermo-bonding
16-18gm/square meter, standard
 Hot melt gum: Pressure sensitive and
endurance, good stickiness, white adhesive.
 Release paper: good release, width 19-
12.1 Power consumption and the Related Facilities:
Voltage: 200V-400V, 50/60Hz
Horse Power Requirement for:
Crusher 4 poles 10 HP 1 set
Blower 2 poles 1/2 HP 1 set
Air compressor 4 poles 1/2 HP 1 set
Conveyer system 4 poles 5 HP 1 set
Electric heating tube 640 W 4 pieces
Table 4 Horse Power Requirement
12.2 Direct cost:
Description Amount US $
Raw material 31,685
10 sheets of plastic bags for packing 4,375
Paper box (for 4 dozens diapers) 3,906
Director labor (5 persons at US$400/month) 2,000
Electricity bill (3,000KW) 300
Monthly maintenance 100
Table 5 Direct Cost Calculation
12.3 Indirect cost:
Two months, inventory of raw material is essential:
Description Amount US $
Interest expenses
(at the monthly rate of 1%: US$31,685×2×1%) 633.70
Machinery depreciation: 10-year life span (US$60,000/120 500
Overhead 3,000

Plastic bands for packing (2 meters per carton) 200
Grand total 46,449.95
Average unit cost per piece US$0.01858
Table 6 Indirect Cost Calculation

13.0 Plant Machinery and Raw Material Suppliers:

The technology and plant machineries are easily available

worldwide. The machines are purchased on the turnkey basis from
one company with technology tie up, with all other facilities like
training of operators, maintenance provision and also on sharing
basis. Some plant and machinery manufactures and raw material
suppliers are as follows:

13.1 Pulp

Georgia-Pacific Corporation
133 Peachtree St., N.E.
Atlanta, GA 30303 ,(404) 652-4000
Corporate Headquarters ,(404) 652-4000

Cmpc Headquarters Building

Agustinas 1343, 3rd floor, Santiago, Chile
P.O. Box 307 V, Correo 21, Santiago, Chile
Telephone: (56-2) 441 2030
Fax: (56-2) 698 2179
E Mail:,

CMPC Europe Limited

Contact: Claudio Ojeda, Sales Director - Europe.
5 Dukes Gate, Acton Lane, Chiswick,
London, W4 5DX
United Kingdom
Telephone: (44-20) 8996 9960
Fax: (44-20) 8996 9967

APP Indonesia
Products, Sales & Marketing
Customer Service Department (CSD)
for Indonesia region : Jabotabek
Telp. 0-800-1-368-368 (Toll Free)
Email :

Email :
Email :

PaperAge Magazine
David Cooper
VP Sales & Marketing
Telephone: (49) 30 3064 71 0
Facsimile: (49) 30 3064 71 99
13.2 SAP

Degussa Krefeld
Geschäftsbereich Superabsorber
Stockhausen GmbH
Bäkerpfad 25
47805 Krefeld
T: +49-2151-38-3462
F: +49-2151-38-1292

Formosa Plastics Corporation

Kaohsiung Plant ,39,Chung San Third Road, Kaohsiung
(07)3331101 ,Jenwu Plant
100, Shwei Gwan Road,
Jenwu Syang, Kaohsiung-Hsien (07)3711411
E Mail :

Sanyo Chemical Industries

Head Office & Research Laboratory
11-1, Ikkyo Nomoto-cho, Higashiyama-ku, Kyoto 605-0995, Japan
Tel: +81-75-541-4311 Fax: +81-75-551-2557

Fibertex A/S · Svendborgvej 2 ·
9220 Aalborg Denmark ·
Tel. +45 96 35 35 35 ·
Fax +45 98 15 85 55 ·
E Mail :

Advanced Fabrics (SAAF)

P.O.Box 1065 Al-Ahsa 31982
Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Tel:+966 3 532 4000
Fax: +966 3 532 4004
Toll Free: 800 306 9999

First Quality Nonwovens, Inc.

FQN General Contact
80 Cuttermill Road
Suite 500
Great Neck, NY 11021
Texbond s.p.a.
Via Fornaci 15/17
38068 Rovereto (TN)
Tel. centralino+39 0464 481811
Fax centralino+39 0464 433366
Fax uff. Commerciale+39 0464 436981
Fax uff. Spedizioni+39 0464 481800
Mogul Tekstil Sanayi Ve Ticaret Limited Sirketi
Mr Srkan Ggus
2. organize Snayi Blgesi 27120
Bspinar - Gziantep/turkey
Phone nr:+90 (342) 337-1499 / 337-1598
Fax nr :+90 (342) 337-1413
Email :


Adhesive Research
Adhesives Research Pte Ltd
Maxwell Road
#12-08B Maxwell House
Singapore 069113
Phone: (65) 6774 9580
Fax: (65) 6777 7261

Adhesives Research Shanghai Representative Office

Suite 3908, Plaza 66, Tower 1
1266 Nanjing West Road
Shanghai, China 200040
Phone: (86) 21 61038526
Fax: (86) 21 61038527

Helkel International
Ernst Primosch
Corporate Vice President Corporate Communications
Headquarters, Düsseldorf / Germany
Phone: 0049-211-797-3533
Fax: 0049-211-798-2484

13.5 Bags

A-Pac Manufacturing, Inc.

2719 Courier N.W.
Grand Rapids, MI 49544
Phone: 616-791-7222
Fax: 800-272-2331

ZI 235 rue des Frères Lumière - BP 502
Tél: (+33) 3 84 85 81 00
Fax: (+33) 3 84 24 20 87
Flexico 1, route de Méru
BP 70429 - Hénonville
60544 Méru Cedex
Tel: +33 (0)3 44 49 49 49
Fax : +33 (0)3 44 49 88 51
E-mail :

Multibolsas Plásticas, S.A. de C.V.

Camino Principal A Barrón No.48,
Col. Benito Juárez Barrón Nicolás Romero Edo. de
México Cp. 54469
Fax: 2168-4900 con 20 líneas

13.6 Plant & Machine Manufactures:

Astute Machine Industry Co. Ltd.

Address: No. 41, Alley 5, Lane 317 Yen Ping Rd.,
Sec.1, Hsinchu 30024, Taiwan, Republic of China
Tel: 886-35-254197-8, 252665
Tel: 34529 ASTUTE
Fax: 886-35-253846

Yuxiang Sanitary Industries Company Ltd.

Add:B Unit, 16Floor, Jinyuan Bldg,
Hubin South No.57, Xiamen 361004, China
Tel: (86)592 2207316 Fax: (86)592 2226816(manual)


CH Non- Food Import-Export Corporation

Tortola - British Virgin Islands
Fax: +1 206 337-0754

American Diaper Machinery, Inc.

PMB 175
6326 Lake Oconee Pkwy
Greensboro, Georgia 30642, USA
Tel./fax: 706-467-2104 (please call before sending fax),
Public fax: 06-453-4909
Cellular: 706-817-867

Curt G. Joa, Inc.

920-467-6136 ph
920-467-2924 fax

Kappa Tecnologies S.r.l.

Via P.U. Frasca, 11
66013 Chieti Scalo (CH) - Italy
Tel. ++39.0871.552927 / 551523 / 573996
Fax. ++39.0871.552928

W+D Machinery Company

9101 Quivira Road
Overland Park, Kansas 66215-3992, USA
Phone: (913) 492-9880
Fax: (913) 492-0691

Diaper Industry Consultant

Mailing Address:
Villa Chipinque 101
Col. Villa Chipinque

Garza Garcia, N.L.
México 66297
Telephones:+52 81 83030945+52 81 83030688
Mobile Phone(International): +52 1 81 12773173
Mobile Phone (local):044 81 12773173

14.0 Procedure to use the baby Diaper Products:

First, lay a new teen baby diaper on a changing table or on a dry
towel. Then place baby, lay on back, on top of the fresh diaper. Hold
baby’s feet together and very gently lift them up, raising the baby's
bottom. Subsequently, fold over the soiled section of the old teen
baby diaper and set the old diaper aside. Clean baby’s buttocks
gently from the front to back with baby wipe and lower
baby’s bottom onto the clean boy baby diaper. Pat the area
and dry with a towel. If necessary, apply diaper rash cream
to the area. Position the front of the boy baby diaper just
under the baby's abdomen. Bring the tabs around from the
back of the diaper and fasten them to the front. It is ok. It is
very convenient and practicable to use these products baby
napkin, big baby diaper, disposable baby diapers, baby
diaper covers, newborn diaper, teen baby diaper, boy baby
diaper, girl baby diaper, paper diaper, cotton baby diaper
Figure 11 The Market
and so on in home, public room or other places in demand.