This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
S.No. Topics Acknowledgments Table of Contents Abstract Introduction About the organization Introduction of Project Scope of study Limitation of study Introduction of Baby Diaper Market Demand India Market World Market Baby Diaper Market-2008 Main Market Players Description of Manufacturing Process Product Recipe Flow Chart of Manufacturing Process Plant Description Layout for the Baby Diaper Manufacturing Plant Machines and Productivity Raw Material Quality Control & Standards Packing Specifications Manpower Requirement Costing Plant and Machinery Suppliers Procedure for using the Baby Diaper Products Page No. ii iii iv 1 1 2 2 3 4 10 10 12 16 17 19 19 21 22 23 25 26 27 29 29 29 31 36
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4
3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4
5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14
About the Organization
Kamtech Associates Private Limited is established in 1997, Kamtech has earned professional repute in providing value added consulting services and solutions with the enhanced customer's satisfaction. With varied domain expertise, international experience with world leading companies and wide network of international alliance partners, they offer clients cost effective high fidelity total consulting solutions that are fined and tuned to each client’s specific requirement to face the growing global business challenges. Kamtech is the first Knowledge Processing Company (KPO) in the Rajasthan state, head quartered in Jaipur. It has now spread its wings across the continents to offer world class dedicated Knowledge Processing Services through its sprawling 24 x 7 operational most modern development centre. It is an ISO 9001:2000 certified leading total solution provider consultancy company. In their development centre, there expert professionals provide round the clock services.
About CEO of the Company
Ajay Kumar Gupta, a meritorious Mechanical Engineer with management qualifications, is the promoter of Kamtech Associates Pvt. Ltd. Mr. Gupta has also joined in as consortium partner with leading consultancy companies like Dastur Co, WSP International, and Black & Veatch in the various infrastructure projects in Rajasthan. He is also the founder member and Honorable NGO in Rajasthan in IT, knowledge and entrepreneurship development sector. Secretary of
Foundation of Information & Technology Transfer Society, first
Services Offered by Kamtech Associates Pvt. Ltd.
Customized Software Module Developments, IT Outsourcing & Consultancy Services, Offshore Development, ERP Software Development and Implementation, Software Requirement Studies & Documentation, Process Mapping, Website / Portal Development, Web Promotion, e-Commerce Solutions, Corporate Training in ERP and other knowledge areas, Project Management, Feasibility Studies, Detailed Project Reports, Policy Research, Quality Checks, Evaluations and Software Quality Testing, CAD/CAM and Engineering Services, Documentation & Implementations of best practices like ISO 9001, CMMI and TQM etc.
Introduction of the Project:
This report has been made for a South African investor Mr. Somnath Poojary, who wants to establish a Baby Diaper Plant. The project demands for a thorough study of market demand of baby diaper in India as well as in World and main market players of this particular product. The project also includes manufacturing process, raw material required for manufacturing of baby diaper, plant layout, manpower required. The quality control & standards required and costing of the project.
Scope of Study:
As more and more women starts working, so the market of Baby Diaper is huge because of the lesser time they will give to their child. Also the living standards of people are growing on a rapid pace. They will spend more money for baby care products.
Increase in population will also reflect the increase of sale in baby diaper. In India only 2% children of the total population are using baby diaper. It predicts a huge scope of baby diaper. Similarly in other countries also except US where the 95.5% children wear baby diaper.
Limitations of Study:
• Unavailability of Relevant Data: As this project report based on secondary data so the data available on internet was not in detail and this has been the main limitation of this report. • Time Constraint: As the time limit for my project was fixed and lots of components were there to be analyzed, As time needed for this report was much more than available, so I was not able to study and analyze each component to utmost depth possible. • Selective study: There are lots of baby diaper companies in the baby care product industry each having too many products. So it was not possible for me to analyze all the data of each company. So I concentrated on few major players in the market. . • Rely On Secondary Sources: As per the policies, baby Diaper Company did not gave the information to unauthorized persons. So I was not able to access primary source and I had to rely on secondary sources.
2.0 Introduction of Baby Diaper :
Diapers are personal hygiene products engineered to absorb and contain urine and faeces of a baby. They are placed and fastened around baby’s legs and bottom to form a leak proof seal, preventing contamination of baby’s clothes. The history of diapers is a story of continuous design improvements and development of new materials. The main duty requirements of diapers are : The device should be comfortable for the baby It should be easy to place and remove on the baby It should have the capacity to absorb urine and semisolid stool It should be capable of being wrapped without spilling contents on removal It should be disposable and affordable It should be of such inert materials as will not affect baby’s delicate skin Types of Baby Diapers
Teen baby diaper, Boy baby diaper, Baby napkin, Big baby diaper, Newborn diaper, Paper diaper, Disposable baby diapers, Girl baby diaper and cotton baby diaper etc.
u e ie t o e n ia e is o y A quick review to diaper H istory before 1960 A q ickr v wa m d r d p rh t r
M aria A llen
1870 First M ass Production O f cloth diapers
Inventors of SAP Billy Gene Harper Carlyle Harmon
1966 Vic Mills 1961
Fluff replaced Tissue
Leg Cuffs 1986
1978 “Hourglass Shape ”
Modern Diaper 2005
1949 First pin free diaper
Marion Donovan 1946
G eorgeShroder 949 1
Figure 1 Stages of Development of Baby Diapers
2.1 General Baby Diaper specification and weight details are as follows: Series S M L Xl Min sap fluff sap fluff sap fluff sap fluff Max 10 13 16 19 Product 7 14 9 18 11 22 13 26 Length /Width 405mm 450mm 485mm 500mm Product 290mm 315mm 335mm 350mm weight 18-29g 22-36g 28-45g 32-52g
Table 1: General Baby Diaper Specification and weight Details
2.2 Baby Diaper:
Figure 2: Baby Diaper
2.3 Most baby diapers are made with the following basic components: 1) Polyethylene or cloth-like film: This is used as the back sheet that prevents the liquids from leaking out of the diaper. The back-sheet can also be given a cloth-like look, by adding 6
a thin polypropylene non-woven sheet to the film, using either the hot melt process or the heat and pressure method. 2) Tissue: A special tissue paper that is different from the regular bathroom tissue and has a higher elasticity and wet strength is another important component of a diaper. The tissue essentially serves as a carrier for the pad (the pad is the absorbent core of the diaper) and helps reduce the pin holes created during the compression process carried out by continuous drum forming systems. 3) Hot Melts: They are used to glue the different components of the diaper, such as the pad and the elastics. They are made of a mixture of resins and oils. The hot melt adhesive is applied in molten form and when it cools down it provides the required bonding force to glue the materials. 4) Hydrophobic Non-woven: It is used as a top sheet for the leg cuffs; it prevents water from passing through. It is made of polypropylene resin without any added surface surfactants. The hydrophobic nonwoven prevents leakage out of diaper. By applying a surfactant to a restricted area, it is possible to make a roll of hydrophobic nonwoven only partially philic. 5) Hydrophilic Non-woven: It is the main top sheet, the top surface that is in contact with the baby's skin. It allows the liquids to flow into the diaper core. The difference between the two non-wovens (philic and phobic) is the surfactant treatment used in the process. 6) Elastics: Used to improve the fit of the diaper, usually made of polyurethane or polyester foam, synthetic rubber or Lycra (also known with the generic name Spandex). They are used in cuffs, for the waist and the legs; they can also be used as lateral side panels and in tape construction. 7) Lateral Tapes: In premium diapers, Velcro type materials have been used to provide mechanical grip, it is also known as the "hook tape". In lower priced diapers, adhesive tapes 7
made of polypropylene are used. Then there are new versions of elasticized Nonwoven Velcro Tapes. 8) Frontal Tapes: This is used to facilitate multiple repositioning of the lateral tape without tearing the back-sheet, it is made of polypropylene film and attached to the front of the diaper with adhesive. Its use has helped to reduce the thickness of the poly film without the risk of potential tears associated with the opening of the lateral tapes from the back-sheet. 9) Cellulose: Used in the construction of the pad, it gives integrity and absorbing capacity to the diaper. The capacity of normal cellulose pulp is around 10 cc of water per gram of pulp when the diaper is in "free swell". 10) Acquisition and Distribution Layer: Also known with its
Figure 4: Cellulose Figure 3: Polypropylene film in Baby Diaper
abbreviation ADL, it is a sub layer used between the top sheet and the absorbent core. Sometimes used in full length but mostly preferred as a patch near the target zone where urine is most likely to be deposited. 11) Sodium Poly-acrylate: Also known as super-absorbent or "SAP" (super absorbent polymer), Kimberly Clark used to call it SAM (super absorbent material). It is typically used in fine granular form (like table salt). It helps improve capacity for better retention in a disposable diaper, allowing the product to be thinner with improved performance and less usage of pine fluff pulp.
12) Top Sheet surface add-on lotions: In order to create novelties for product differentiation, several topical lotions are added to the nonwoven top sheet, among others:
Aloe Vera, Vitamin E, Petrolatum, Almond Oil, Vitamin D, Oat Extract, Jojoba, etc. There is another trend to use antibacterial lotions (such as tertiary ammonia or silver salt compounds). However, many pediatricians are against its use for obvious reasons. 13) Decorated Films and wetness indicators: For even greater product differentiation, some diapers use decorated films underneath the cloth-like back-sheet. Some use as many as nine inks with all kinds of well known characters such as Disney, Sesame Street, Soccer teams, etc. Another gimmick they use is a wetness indicator. This is typically used for adult products but some baby diapers also use it. 2.4 Facts & Figures:
An average diaper weighs between 45 and 50 g and is primarily made of pulp (fluff pulp), polypropylene, polyethylene, super absorbent polymer (SAP), as well as minor amounts of tapes, elastics and adhesive materials.
Nowadays, SAP is used in the diaper core to help hold urine away from the skin and faecal enzymes. This helps prevent the conditions that lead to diaper rash. The health benefits of modern diapers based on SAP and other advanced technologies provide advantages in skin care, dryness, and leakage protection.
There are several methods used to control the quality of disposable diapers, and most of these relate to the product's absorbency. In the diaper product development area, each major component is tested separately to assess safety under conditions that are appropriate to the potential exposures consumers.
Approximately 75% of the superabsorbent polymers used worldwide are sold in diaper products from five major companies. These manufactures include Proctor & Gamble (P&G), Kimberly-Clark, and other diaper manufacturers.
The global market for disposable diapers is $20 billion annually. Superabsorbent polymers (SAPs), materials comprising long chains of intertwining molecules with the happy ability to soak up lots of liquid, now dominate the disposable diaper market. 9
Growth for baby diapers is considerably higher in other parts of the world, particularly in Asia but also in Latin America and Africa. In Europe, approximately 25% of the market for baby diapers consists of retailers’ brands.
In the United States, Proctor & Gamble is a well-known diaper manufacturer, which produces the popular Pampers diaper. The superabsorbent polymer used in the Pampers diaper holds approximately thirty times its own weight in body fluid.
The P&G Corporation developed a unique three-piece construction diaper to absorb the moisture and distribute it evenly. The transmission of fluid to the absorbent core allows the fluid to be engulfed, therefore not passing it back to the skin. P&G diapers are now sold in more than 80 countries worldwide with $4 billion in sales.
2.5 Mathematical Models for Disposable Diaper Manufacturing To set up the most economical design for a given diaper market segment, it requires the use of sophisticated statistical tools and plenty of field data on diaper use. Most diaper producers rely on simple trial and error for defining the right mix of absorbing materials; some other companies try to copy the performance of a larger competitor without taking into account the individual diaper features. The result is either a misuse of the materials or underperformance of the diaper. The fact of the matter is that even small changes in the core mix can result in significant changes in leakage performance. The correlation between diaper leakage and diaper cost is not linear; most of the times it is a polynomial equation(*). In order to be able to optimize the cost of the diaper for a given market segment, one need to understand the mathematical correlation between diaper performance and diaper cost. For each diaper design there is a corresponding mathematical formula that can be optimized to improve diaper performance without increasing its cost. . Example of a mathematical correlation between % of leakage (Y) and total retentive capacity at 5 KPa (X) for a mid-market segment diaper. Using this equation in conjunction with variable cost, enables to maximize performance at a given cost level when use this very specific diaper design: 3.0 Market Scenario: According to the survey (2003) on both the domestic and overseas markets conducted by the Ministry of the Interior of Taiwan, the world averages some 360,000 newborn babies per year 10
in the world. Each baby at the age ranging from 2.5 years to 3 years uses 5 to 10 diapers per day, and then the annual consumption of diapers would come to a total of 1.64 billion. And such a demand will increase in proportion to the increase in the population of the various markets. At the present time, the market for baby diapers has a considerably large potential for further development. It is sincerely hoped that far-sighted entrepreneurs will seize, without hesitation, this excellent opportunity for investment in this line of business. This industry will not only bring about a comfortable living for the small babies, but also can stimulate the development of related industries. Investors can earn lucrative profit with the small capital investment. The main target countries are in America, Europe, the Middle East, and South-East Asia. In the wake of constant rise in the GNP and industrialization of developing countries, we can see a significant increase in the buying power of the target market, as well as an emphasis on personal sanitation, of local consumers; thus, the marketing of baby diapers should satisfy the requirements of these consumers for sanitation and convenience.
3.1 Indian Market
In India, cloth is perceived as Grandmother's gold standard for baby's skin despite diapers providing better protection and skincare. Disposable diapers are considered expensive in India. Selling price of baby diaper in Indian Market :
Huggies for one year Baby : 25 Pieces per Packet @ 330/- per Packet Pampers for one year Baby : 25 Pieces per Packet @ 275 /- per Packet
Apart from the premium pricing, the Indian mindset regarding the usage of the product also needs to be changed. The Indian consumer, in general, has an attitudinal barrier towards disposables, which is one of the main impediments towards their growth. The Indian mother is a cost-conscious woman and would like to recycle most of the products used for her household. The same applies to the products used for her baby too. This acts as a main barrier
towards disposable diapers in India. Also disposable diapers' usage is mainly restricted to out-of-home occasions, which are relatively few while the baby is in the diaper wearing age. The Indian Baby diaper market had been growing at 15-20 per cent annually for 2-3 years until last year, when it reported a decline of five per cent. Reducing prices and changing technology, market leader Kimberly Clark Lever Pvt Ltd (KCL) is today offering its Dri-Fit diapers with 50 per cent more absorbent material using super absorbent material (SAM) for its Huggies brand. SAM quickly absorbs fluid and converts it into dry gel-like material, locking fluid in the core of the diaper, keeping the baby's skin absolutely dry. SAM can absorb fluid up to 100 times its weight. This means that one gram of SAM can absorb up to
Figure 5 Huggies Kimberly Clark
100 grams of fluid." Besides, Huggies diapers have been incorporated with an outer cover meant to provide cotton-like comfort and double leak guards. The high leg-cut design was fashioned keeping the Indian climatic conditions in mind. KCL were introduced in 1997. Pampers, product of Proctor & Gamble has been present in India since 1995-96. The distribution was outsourced to Marico for a few years. With a five per cent share in the diaper market, Pampers' USP is one of superior performance at an affordable price. In spite of the barriers facing the category's growth, Godrej Consumer Products decided to acquire the Snuggy brand from Shogun Industries late last year. Apart from the purpose of having more brands to ride its distribution chain, Godrej realised the importance of having a brand name such as Snuggy, which could lead it to becoming a complete baby care brand.
Figure 7 Snuggy Goderj Figure 6 Pampers P&G
3.2 World Market
Growth in the baby diaper segment is high in the markets in Asia, Latin America and Africa. The reason for this is high birth rates and the increasing use of disposable diapers related to improving standards of living. Calculating the maximum size of the baby diaper market requires knowing the total birth rate in the target segment and multiplying the number of babies in this segment by the number of average diapers used per day (the representative average according to each stage used) and multiplying that with the number of years in that stage. In the US, more diapers are used per baby in comparison to Europe or even Japan. Also, American babies are wearing diapers for a longer period than they used to do a decade ago. It is estimated that American babies use a total number of 3,700 to 4,200 diapers during their diaper wearing stage. There are many regions of the world that use less diapers than the USA. China and Russia are good examples as they are probably the very best at potty training. They are able to achieve this goal before the age of 20 months, instead of 33 or more required in the USA. The rest of the world is somewhere in the middle. Babies use more diapers per day when they are small and much less when they grow older. There are 321 million babies in the world with ages in the range of 0 to 2.5 in year 2007. This means the world requires 15,600 diapers per second if every single baby in the world used disposable diapers. If a typical diaper machine runs at 6 diapers per second then it will need 2,600 machines to satisfy the need for the world. A more reasoned estimate of the total number of baby diaper machines today is around 550 (not counting the hundreds of “home garage” micro machines).
70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0
Babies 0 to 30 months (Millions)
In di a Ch in In a do ne si a Pa kis Un ta ite n d St at es Br az il Me xi Ph co ili pp in es Eg yp t Vi et na m
Graph 1 Babies 0 to 30 Month
According to birth rate trends, it is estimated that for year 2025 the whole world will have 328 million babies at the diaper wearing range of 0 to 2.5 years of age. Assuming the consumption of diapers per day is further reduced by another 5% due to diaper performance improvements during this time (a very realistic number); then the total increase for baby diapers in year 2025 will be actually reduced by 2.9%. “It’s a very, very competitive market,” said Tracey Stewart, spokesperson for AHPMA, a U.K.-based trade association for the disposable hygiene item industries. “Last year was the first time we saw a minor rise in the birth rate in the U.K. so manufacturers are focusing on shifting the market share for growth. These supermarket price wars work well for consumers because prices stay down. Nappies are a known value item. There is very little mark-up on them. An attractive price can draw in the shoppers so retailers are prepared to make little or no profit because they know they will do the rest of their shopping when they come in to buy diapers.” According to statistics provided by market tracker Euromonitor, the world baby diaper was valued at $21 billion in 2006, up from $18.8 billion in 2002. The most significant growth has occurred during that period in Western Europe, up to $5.5 billion from under $4 billion in 2002, and Eastern Europe, which increased to $1 billion from $500 million four years ago. Other key growth areas included Latin America, Australasia and Africa, the Middle East and Asia-Pacific, which offset decreases in North American sales. Drop offs in North American sales have been largely caused by flat birth rates, already high penetration levels and fewer diaper changes per child thanks to technological advances in diapers. Therefore, individual company growth has come only at the expense of stolen market-share, which has largely been achieved through price manipulation as well as marketing and promotional activity. In fact, one diaper executive described the market as a commodity created by brands and their pricing strategies where everyone is competing against everybody. Most recently
Procter & Gamble announced it would increase prices of some of its diaper brands while lowering them for others. By the end of 2008, there will be a net workforce reduction of about 10%, or approximately 6000 employees, while approximately 20 manufacturing facilities, or 17% of the company’s worldwide total, will be sold or closed, and an additional four facilities will be streamlined. In addition, seven other facilities will be expanded as some production capacity from affected facilities is transferred to them to further improve the scale, productivity and cost position of those operations. There is a particular focus on Europe aimed at improving business results in the region. The company intends to consolidate and streamline manufacturing facilities, further improve operating efficiencies and reduce selling, general and administrative expenses while reinvesting in key growth opportunities there. In many countries of Central and Eastern Europe, penetration levels for disposable baby diapers are as low as 30%, leaving a great deal of room for future market growth. However, pricing in these countries must be significantly lower than in their Western European markets —hence the need for less sophisticated diapers. However, the expansion of the European Union and many of these countries’ inclusion in it have created opportunities for smaller manufacturers located in the region. In Latin America, diapers have registered strong growth in most markets, driven by a rise in the number of women in the workforce and subsequent increased demand for convenient disposable items. Furthermore, these markets have benefited from aggressive manufacturer activity, particularly on the part of the sector leader, K-C, which has launched value-added products. While diapers and pants registered growth in some developing markets in Asia-Pacific, driven by increasing pressure on parents’ time, these products continue to be viewed as expensive luxury items by consumers who continue to favor more economic cloth alternatives.
Disposable diaper advocates are refuting claims that disposable diapers are a threat to the environment. These claims have been reinforced by the results of a governmentcommissioned life cycle assessment (LCA), coordinated by the U.K. Environment Agency, that shows through independent analysis that disposable nappies have no greater impact on the environment than cloth diapers. Specifically, the study confirms: neither disposable nor cloth diaper systems can claim overall environmental superiority and the differences in the impacts between diaper systems are not significant enough to voice support for one diaper type over the other on the basis of environmental factors alone. China will have the largest diaper growth in the next 5 years or so, with growth rates in double digits every year. Indonesia and Brazil deserve their own mention, having the 4th and the 8th largest population of babies in the world at this moment. The other three countries with large population of babies are Nigeria, Ethiopia and Congo; but their PPP is so low, specially for the 80% middle range of the population (making less than $600 per year), that disposable diapers are still far away in their future. Quite a different story in the Northern part of Africa. North African countries, especially those located near the Mediterranean Sea will experience large growth in baby diapers in the next several years as all of them have passed the required minimal threshold PPP. Countries like Morocco, Algeria and Libya are already experiencing double digit growth and they will continue for the next 5 years or so. Egypt will also have a good growing trend. Almost all of the Latin American countries have passed the minimal threshold required for diaper sales to grow; in particular Colombia is growing very fast. Also Argentina has been
recovering quickly from the past devaluation. Mexico and Brazil have not been growing as fast. There is little cultural resistance to accept diapers in Latin America today, with only about 50% market share average; in México market share is already close to 60% with a poverty level of 40% there is no place to grow other than exports. Baby Diapers % used by Countries -2006 S.No. Country Market Shrae 2006 1 Brazil 29.5% 2 China 5.5% 3 Egypt 22.2% 4 India 2.0% 5 Indonesia 9.0% 6 Mexico 58.6% 7 Pakistan 4.0% 8 Philippines 21.5% 9 United States 95.5% 10 Vietnam 9.0%
Table 2 Baby Diapers % used by Countries (*Nigeria , Bangladesh, Ethiopia and Congo excluded )
The above data shows that India, Pakistan & China use less than 6% of baby diaper and have more birth rate & baby population, so in these nations the market has a huge potential for baby diaper usage, but it requires proper marketing and lower price of these products . 3.3 Baby diaper market -2008
In 2008, the yearly average consumption of diapers for young children aged between 0 and 3 neared 625 units per baby- 500 million units overall, taking the market to 60m euros. It boasted the biggest growth rate in 2008 among non-comestible consumer goods. On the market of non-comestible consumer products single-use baby diapers boasted the biggest growth rate in 2007. According to data from the ACNielsen market research company, baby diapers posted a 58.1% increase against 2006, but this growth margin also includes the modification of the sample on which the measurement was carried out. In 2007 generated a turnover worth around 60m euros accounting for more than a third of the paper consumer goods market. 17
The most important distribution channels for baby diapers are hypermarkets and supermarkets. These stores accounted for 58.9% of the diaper volumes sold during the March 2007-January 2008 period, followed by drugstores, which accounted for 15.3%, according to MEMRB. The volume of diapers sold in the United States alone in year 2007 will be close to 18.6 billion units, around 20.4 billion units will be sold in Europe and 4.9 billion units will be sold in Mexico in 2007. It is reported that China has the largest incremental sales in comparison to last year. Many new diaper machines are being installed there.
3.4 Main Market Players : The following are the main market players in the baby diaper manufacturing:
Kimberly Clark – Lever Ltd., ( Huggies ) Gat Nos. 934 to 937, Village Sanaswadi, Taluka Sherur, District Pune India P&G Plaza ( Pamper & Tampax Brand ) Cardinal Gracias Road,Chakala, Andheri (E), Mumbai - 400099 Maharashtra, India. Tel: (+91 22) 2826 6000 Fax: (+91 22) 6693 9696 Godrej Consumer Products ( Snuggy ) Pirojshanagar, Eastern Expresss Highway, Vikhroli, Mumbai - 400079, India. Phone - (022) 25188010, 25188020, 25188030 Fax - (022) 25188040 Concept Diapers Couches Panales Bapu Khote Steet, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India Zip/Postal Code: 400003 Telephone: 0091-22-32453799 Fax: 0091-22-32453799 Actifit India Pvt. Ltd Office No.20, Hari Market, Opp.Khar Railway Station, 18
Khar West, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India Zip/Postal Code: 400052 Telephone: 91-22-26480097 Fax: 91-22-26480098 Mobile Phone: 00919890945235 Herbochem 73, Solomon, Sherly Rajan Rd., Bandra(W),,Mumbai Maharashtra, India Zip/Postal Code: 400 050 Telephone: 91-22-26480730 Fax: 91-22-26480730 Jyoti India Pvt Ltd. 20, Ssi Industrial Area, G. T. Karnal Road, Delhi, India Telephone: 91-11-55151709 Fax: 91-11-27377383
4.0 Description of Manufacturing Process: 19
The manufacturing process of the Diapers is simple and amenable to line production. It consists of a continues operation in which the filler paper is ground by a hammer mill to produce a fluffed pulp which is then supported by a tissue paper. Next a non-woven fabric is placed and adhesive is applied to bond the materials. The diaper is cut to the proper dimension, and the fastener and release tapes are attached at designated points. Thus, the process is: Sheets of rolled wood pulp are continuously and automatically fed to the pulp crusher, which crushes the supplied pulp into cotton-like fluff.
The fluffed pulp is then molded into strips. Two absorbent layers of cotton are placed on two sides of the molded strip. The entire strip is then cut into required lengths. The Waterproof polyethylene film is laid on the sides of the absorbent layers. The entire strip is then wrapped by a non-woven fabric, which holds the individual strip together. The strip is then processed by hot sealing and embossed with favorite figures. The diapers, which are still joined together by the train diaper are forwarded by a conveyer and thereafter cut into separate pieces. Each diaper is then placed into individual bags and arrayed in good order for packing.
Below is a typical recipe for a baby diaper, the best selling size worldwide:
Product Specification: Raw Items Units Fluff SAP Tissue 18gsm Non-woven Backsheet ADL 40gsm Foam elastic Hook Tape Loop Frontal Leg Elastic L/Cuff Elastic L/Cuff N/w Elastic Glue LC El Glue Constr. Glue LC Con Glue Lotion Bags Boxes Wrap Pallet $/Tonne $/Tonne $/Tonne $/1000m2 $/Tonne $/1000m2 $/1000m2 $/ m. $/1000m2 $/Tonne $/Tonne $/1000m2 $/Tonne $/Tonne $/Tonne $/Tonne $/Tonne $/unit $/unit $/roll $/unit
Area/Lgth Maxi 28 (Sq. cm, cm).
Weight 33+9 (Grams) 20.465 9.000
Waste (Grams) 4% 4% 4% 4% 4% 4% 4% 4% 4% 4% 4% 4% 4% 4% 4% 4% 4% 2% 2% 2% 2%
1014.0 1617.0 1592.5 182.0 36.0 5.2 86.0 84.0 39.2 490.0
1.876 3.719 3.758 0.728 0.194 0.600 0.420 0.052 0.024 1.127 0.300 0.130 0.850 0.150 0.200
28 168 21504 2688
Table3: Product Recipe Baby Diaper
Flow Chart of Manufacturing Process:
Forming of FiberTissue Layers (Cotton-Like Fluff)
Wrapping with PE Films and Non-Woven Fabric
Cutting into Sections
Tissue on Two Sides
Hot Sealing & Embossing
Cutting Sections of Diapers
Forwarding by Conveyer
Packaging and Storage
The Finished Products
Market and Up to Baby
Flow Chart 1: Baby Diaper Manufacturing Process
5.0 Plant Description: The manufacturing process of baby diaper is a line production. The unit comprises a paper pulp crushing machine, forming/ wrapping machine, glue spreading machine and the conveyer systems, plus counter, control box, and alignment machine. A fluff pulp mill positioned at the right hand end of the machine and normally counter/stacker at the left hand end to count the diapers and align them before they are pushed into the manually held bag or into the automatic packaging machine. Pulp feeding frame: The electrically controlled lifter, the feeding is easily operated Pulp grinder: Grinding system with the reject fiber collecting device, which can reduce the production cost. Pad wrapping system: Pliable but strong wrapping and forming device made from the stainless steel with special specification and designs. Hot melt adhesive rolling system: The special applying adhesive device. Pad conveyor: Convey the pads in 2.5M row, which is convenient for packing inspection Drive system: Solid spiral and helical gears of different specification to match with vari-speed gear shift allowing for reduction of the pulp mat to the proper thickness at the desired weight.
Figure 8: Baby Diaper Machine
Assuming 8 hour per shift with 30 minute
break = 7.5 hours working. 23
Weeks holiday shut-down per year Economy diaper machine producing 250
(Assuming 5 day working week and)
diapers per minute - 4 sizes
Guideline 70% efficiency for working time Daily production = 250 x 7.5 x 60 x 70% = 78,750 per day. Annual production = 240 x 78,750 = 18.9 million diapers per year for one shift. 6.0 Layout for the Baby Diaper Manufacturing Plant: The required manufacturing lay out for a typical baby diaper manufacturing plant is as given in figure and required room & space details are as follows: A. Office building B. Warehouse for raw material C. Production machinery room (with a capacity for two units at least) D. Warehouse for products E. Room for registry of incoming goods and outgoing goods. F. Guard house and restroom G. Washroom H. Simple maintenance room I. Washroom for employees
(Locations have given in plant layout as per numbering)
Figure 9 Plant lay out for Diaper Manufacturing Unit (The details related to the lactations are as per Alphabets numbering given above A, B, C, ….)
Main machinery specifications and required space of the baby diaper machines are as follows : Crusher: 787”(L.)×433”(W)×728”(H) Forming/Wrapping set: 984”(L.)×314”(W)×(728”(H) Embossing and conveyer 25
for the glued finished products: 1407”(L.)×314”(W.)×728” (H.) Total length: (W.)×728” (H.) Plant layout for production of baby diaper is characterized by simplicity, requiring only environmental sanitation and cleanliness. (1) Unloading facilities: Plant layout for production of baby diaper is characterized by simplicity, requiring only environmental sanitation and cleanliness. (2) Ventilation: Production plant must be designed with efficient ventilation. In case of excessively high humidity, use plastic sheeting or wooden damage (with a thickness over 4”) for separation of raw material and the products from floor, so as to prevent damage of the materials and products. 3464” (L) ×472”
(3) Packing facilities: If wish to pack the product into a plastic bag, use a pedal-controlled manual packing machine, or the continuous heat-sealing machine. If one wishes to pack the product into a paper bag, use a box packing machine and carton packing machine for higher efficiency.
7.0 Machines and Productivity: 7.1 Machines: All high speed disposables machines are custom built to suit exact requirements. They vary greatly in price based on the following main parameters:
Machine speed Product features Product quality Machine reliability/efficiency The following tables give costs of typical baby diaper and sanitary napkin machines. These should be treated only as guidelines since there are many different manufacturers in Americas, Asia and Europe that offer different levels of machinery and after sales support.
1. Baby Diaper Machines Machine speed Slow speed -100dpm Medium Speed -250dpm High speed -400dpm Top speed -800dpm
Table 4 Baby Diaper Machines
Product type Economy Medium /Premium Premium Premium
Minimum Cost US $200k US $400k US $1,400k US $2,000k
The common range of prices for diaper machines would be from US $500,000 to US $3,000,000. Sanitary napkin machines range from US $100,000 to US$1,200,000. The lower priced being slow and inflexible machines for a simple product. The lowest priced European machine would be around US $400,000. 27
2. Second-hand Machines Second hand machineries are also available in the market. However, there is more risk involved in the purchase of such a machine directly from the vendor. Second hand machines are often available, and would range from US $300,000 to US $1,000,000.
(Machines Prices are based on FOB at Factory Gate)
7.2 Productivity Approximately 4% waste for the diaper raw materials and 2% for the packaging. One shift Production. The efficiency is normally assumed to be circa 70% of available production. This can be exceeded if size changeovers are minimized and operators are well trained. At the start of manufacture with untrained staff or with more basic machines an approximate efficiency of 60% should be assumed.
8.0 Raw Material This is international industry, with Raw Materials gathered from all over the world. A good place to meet the suppliers is at the Nonwoven Exhibitions, which are held annually in three different parts of the world. The last Asian exhibition, ANEX, was held in Tokyo in May 2006, in April 2007 the US exhibition IDEA held in the Miami Beach Convention Centre in Florida, and next year in May European exhibition, Index, will be held. The cycle of Europe, Asia and USA then repeats.
Baby diaper size: long 320mm; width 110mm; thickness: 8-10mm;
(the weight is adjustable)
For this product range the raw material requirement is as follows : 28
Pulp : fluff pulp ,thickness 1-2mm, width Tissue: 18gm/square meter standard width P.E. Film: the thickness 0.0015mm, width Non-woven fabric: good thermo-bonding Hot melt gum: Pressure sensitive and Release paper: good release, width 19-
16-18gm/square meter, standard
endurance, good stickiness, white adhesive.
9.0 Quality Control & Standards 9.1 Pad Integrity tests A pad integrity test is required for consistency checks and as a development parameter. This test is required for several factors Fibre length Fibre entanglement Pad compression Pad embossing Adhesion to roll materials Superabsorbent distribution Core shape 29
Core structure Drum forming consistency 9.1.1 Vertical Light box Integrity Display tester: In Integrity Test we used a Vertical Light box for regular product inspection. The details of the internal materials can be seen without difficulty. Even spray glues can be seen due to excellent light level The product can be quickly and easily turned to view from other side without unfastening the clamps. The product can be tensioned laterally as well as vertically Figure 10 Vertical Light box Integrity due to the friction grip between clamps and cross bar. Display tester:
9.1.2 Result & Analysis: As in Graph 1 the daily or weekly drop height graph will give indications of two quality parameters: 1. Consistency of the pad formation. 2. Any cassette defects can be quickly identified. Improved consistency of pad formation will be reflected by a narrowing of the range of results. Improvement in the pad integrity: A rise in the average line (red line above) indicates general improvement of the pad integrity of the product. 30
Graph 2 Daily Integrity test result
9.2 Consistency test for
Drum forming SAP and fluff homogeneity Glue application Compression / embossing Bi-folding damage Package compaction
9.3 Development test
Removal or reduction of tissue layer Improvement of adhesive bond Change of embossing or compression Change of absorbent core structure Changes in fluff and SAP content 9.4 Comparison test
Comparison with other brands in dry and wet states Comparison with other pad structures
9.5 Quality Standards Quality Management System ISO 9001:2000 is the main quality standard required for this type of Industries with hygiene conditions & clean environment.
10.0 Packing Specifications:
The standard packing system for shipment is to dismantle the units into 3 sections each, packed into a wooden case and put into a 20’ container.
Standard: 360mm(L.)×105mm(W.)× 16mm(Thickness)Max. 160 pieces/min Newborn baby: 320mm(L.)×105mm(W.)× 15mm(Thickness) Max. 150 pieces/min
11.0 Manpower Requirement: For One shift Production, One (1) operator (for operation of the machine and handling of materials) and 3 to 4 packing workers. Training is essential for each operator for smooth and efficient operation of plant and usually provides by the machines supplier. 12.0 Costing: Product: Baby diaper Size: long 320mm; width 110mm; thickness: 8-10mm; (the weight is
Assuming 8 hour per shift with 30 minute Weeks holiday shut-down per year Economy diaper machine producing 250 Guideline 70% efficiency for working time
break = 7.5 hours working.
(Assuming 5 day working week and)
diapers per minute - 4 sizes
Daily production = 250 x 7.5 x 60 x 70% = 78,750 per day. Annual production = 240 x 78,750 = 18.9 million diapers per year for one shift. For this product range the raw material requirement is as follows:
Pulp : fluff pulp ,thickness 1-2mm, width
380-410mm(500gmm2 up) 32
Tissue: 18gm/square meter standard width P.E. Film: the thickness 0.0015mm, width Non-woven fabric: good thermo-bonding Hot melt gum: Pressure sensitive and Release paper: good release, width 19-
16-18gm/square meter, standard
endurance, good stickiness, white adhesive.
50mm(standard) 12.1 Power consumption and the Related Facilities: Voltage: 200V-400V, 50/60Hz Horse Power Requirement for: Crusher Blower Air compressor Conveyer system Electric heating tube
Table 4 Horse Power Requirement
4 poles 10 HP 2 poles 1/2 HP 4 poles 1/2 HP 4 poles 5 HP 640 W
1 set 1 set 1 set 1 set 4 pieces
12.2 Direct cost: Description Raw material 10 sheets of plastic bags for packing Paper box (for 4 dozens diapers) Director labor (5 persons at US$400/month) Electricity bill (3,000KW) Monthly maintenance
Table 5 Direct Cost Calculation
Amount US $ 31,685 4,375 3,906 2,000 300 100
12.3 Indirect cost: Two months, inventory of raw material is essential: Description Interest expenses (at the monthly rate of 1%: US$31,685×2×1%) Machinery depreciation: 10-year life span (US$60,000/120 months) Overhead 33 Amount US $ 633.70 500 3,000
Plastic bands for packing (2 meters per carton) Grand total Average unit cost per piece
Table 6 Indirect Cost Calculation
200 46,449.95 US$0.01858
13.0 Plant Machinery and Raw Material Suppliers: The technology and plant machineries are easily available worldwide. The machines are purchased on the turnkey basis from one company with technology tie up, with all other facilities like training of operators, maintenance provision and also on sharing basis. Some plant and machinery manufactures and raw material suppliers are as follows: 13.1 Pulp Georgia-Pacific Corporation 133 Peachtree St., N.E. Atlanta, GA 30303 ,(404) 652-4000 Corporate Headquarters ,(404) 652-4000 Cmpc Headquarters Building Agustinas 1343, 3rd floor, Santiago, Chile P.O. Box 307 V, Correo 21, Santiago, Chile Telephone: (56-2) 441 2030 Fax: (56-2) 698 2179 E Mail: email@example.com,firstname.lastname@example.org CMPC Europe Limited Contact: Claudio Ojeda, Sales Director - Europe. 5 Dukes Gate, Acton Lane, Chiswick, London, W4 5DX United Kingdom Telephone: (44-20) 8996 9960 Fax: (44-20) 8996 9967 APP Indonesia Products, Sales & Marketing Customer Service Department (CSD) for Indonesia region : Jabotabek Telp. 0-800-1-368-368 (Toll Free) Email : CSD_CMI@app.co.id 34
Email : email@example.com Email : APP-Central_Procurement@app.co.id PaperAge Magazine David Cooper VP Sales & Marketing Europe Telephone: (49) 30 3064 71 0 Facsimile: (49) 30 3064 71 99 firstname.lastname@example.org 13.2 SAP Degussa Krefeld Geschäftsbereich Superabsorber Stockhausen GmbH Bäkerpfad 25 47805 Krefeld Deutschland T: +49-2151-38-3462 F: +49-2151-38-1292 email@example.com Formosa Plastics Corporation Kaohsiung Plant ,39,Chung San Third Road, Kaohsiung (07)3331101 ,Jenwu Plant 100, Shwei Gwan Road, Jenwu Syang, Kaohsiung-Hsien (07)3711411 E Mail : firstname.lastname@example.org Sanyo Chemical Industries Head Office & Research Laboratory 11-1, Ikkyo Nomoto-cho, Higashiyama-ku, Kyoto 605-0995, Japan Tel: +81-75-541-4311 Fax: +81-75-551-2557 13.3 NONWOVENS Fibertex A/S · Svendborgvej 2 · 9220 Aalborg Denmark · Tel. +45 96 35 35 35 · Fax +45 98 15 85 55 · E Mail : email@example.com Advanced Fabrics (SAAF) P.O.Box 1065 Al-Ahsa 31982 Kingdom of Saudi Arabia 35
Tel:+966 3 532 4000 Fax: +966 3 532 4004 Toll Free: 800 306 9999 e-mail:firstname.lastname@example.org First Quality Nonwovens, Inc. FQN General Contact 80 Cuttermill Road Suite 500 Great Neck, NY 11021 Texbond s.p.a. Via Fornaci 15/17 38068 Rovereto (TN) Tel. centralino+39 0464 481811 Fax centralino+39 0464 433366 Fax uff. Commerciale+39 0464 436981 Fax uff. Spedizioni+39 0464 481800 Eemail@example.com Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Mogul Tekstil Sanayi Ve Ticaret Limited Sirketi Mr Srkan Ggus 2. organize Snayi Blgesi 27120 Bspinar - Gziantep/turkey Phone nr:+90 (342) 337-1499 / 337-1598 Fax nr :+90 (342) 337-1413 Email : email@example.com 13.4 HOT MELTS Adhesive Research Adhesives Research Pte Ltd Maxwell Road #12-08B Maxwell House Singapore 069113 Phone: (65) 6774 9580 Fax: (65) 6777 7261 Adhesives Research Shanghai Representative Office Suite 3908, Plaza 66, Tower 1 1266 Nanjing West Road Shanghai, China 200040 Phone: (86) 21 61038526 Fax: (86) 21 61038527 Helkel International Ernst Primosch Corporate Vice President Corporate Communications 36
Location: Headquarters, Düsseldorf / Germany Phone: 0049-211-797-3533 Fax: 0049-211-798-2484 13.5 Bags A-Pac Manufacturing, Inc. 2719 Courier N.W. Grand Rapids, MI 49544 Phone: 616-791-7222 Fax: 800-272-2331 Moreau ZI 235 rue des Frères Lumière - BP 502 39001 LONS-LE-SAUNIER - FRANCE Tél: (+33) 3 84 85 81 00 Fax: (+33) 3 84 24 20 87 Flexico 1, route de Méru BP 70429 - Hénonville 60544 Méru Cedex Tel: +33 (0)3 44 49 49 49 Fax : +33 (0)3 44 49 88 51 E-mail : firstname.lastname@example.org Multibolsas Plásticas, S.A. de C.V. Camino Principal A Barrón No.48, Col. Benito Juárez Barrón Nicolás Romero Edo. de México Cp. 54469 Fax: 2168-4900 con 20 líneas E-mail: email@example.com 13.6 Plant & Machine Manufactures: Astute Machine Industry Co. Ltd. Address: No. 41, Alley 5, Lane 317 Yen Ping Rd., Sec.1, Hsinchu 30024, Taiwan, Republic of China Tel: 886-35-254197-8, 252665 Tel: 34529 ASTUTE Fax: 886-35-253846 Yuxiang Sanitary Industries Company Ltd. Add:B Unit, 16Floor, Jinyuan Bldg, Hubin South No.57, Xiamen 361004, China Tel: (86)592 2207316 Fax: (86)592 2226816(manual) 37
Email:firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com et ww.jwc.diytrade.com CH Non- Food Import-Export Corporation Tortola - British Virgin Islands Fax: +1 206 337-0754 E-mail firstname.lastname@example.org www.nonwovens-industry.com www.marketingtechnologyservice.com www.nonwovens.com American Diaper Machinery, Inc. PMB 175 6326 Lake Oconee Pkwy Greensboro, Georgia 30642, USA Tel./fax: 706-467-2104 (please call before sending fax), Public fax: 06-453-4909 Cellular: 706-817-867 E-mail: email@example.com firstname.lastname@example.org Curt G. Joa, Inc. 100 CROCKER AVE SHEBOYGAN FALLS WI 53085-1141 920-467-6136 ph 920-467-2924 fax email: email@example.com Kappa Tecnologies S.r.l. Via P.U. Frasca, 11 66013 Chieti Scalo (CH) - Italy Tel. ++39.0871.552927 / 551523 / 573996 Fax. ++39.0871.552928 e.mail: firstname.lastname@example.org W+D Machinery Company 9101 Quivira Road Overland Park, Kansas 66215-3992, USA Phone: (913) 492-9880 Fax: (913) 492-0691 Diaper Industry Consultant Mailing Address: Villa Chipinque 101 Col. Villa Chipinque 38
Garza Garcia, N.L. México 66297 Telephones:+52 81 83030945+52 81 83030688 Mobile Phone(International): +52 1 81 12773173 Mobile Phone (local):044 81 12773173 Email: email@example.com
14.0 Procedure to use the baby Diaper Products: First, lay a new teen baby diaper on a changing table or on a dry towel. Then place baby, lay on back, on top of the fresh diaper. Hold baby’s feet together and very gently lift them up, raising the baby's bottom. Subsequently, fold over the soiled section of the old teen baby diaper and set the old diaper aside. Clean baby’s buttocks gently from the front to back with baby wipe and lower baby’s bottom onto the clean boy baby diaper. Pat the area and dry with a towel. If necessary, apply diaper rash cream to the area. Position the front of the boy baby diaper just under the baby's abdomen. Bring the tabs around from the back of the diaper and fasten them to the front. It is ok. It is very convenient and practicable to use these products baby napkin, big baby diaper, disposable baby diapers, baby diaper covers, newborn diaper, teen baby diaper, boy baby diaper, girl baby diaper, paper diaper, cotton baby diaper and so on in home, public room or other places in demand.
Figure 11 The Market
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.