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Fandl, Kevin J. "Putting States Out Of The Immigration Law Enforcement Business.

Harvard Law & Policy Review 9.2 (2015): 529-552. Academic Search Complete. Web. 21
Nov. 2015.

This source focused on the issue of immigration on a national level, although the effects
of immigration are usually felt within a local level, the policies regarding how
immigration should be dealt with are implemented on a federal level. This source goes on
to speak about how the supreme court struck down Arizonas Anti Immigration
Smuggling Law in 2014, and how the supreme court also struck down Alabamas strict
law HB 56. After this, many states were wondering what they would be able to do to
lessen the effects of immigration in their state. This source argues that the law
immigration law enforcement should be left up to the federal government and that states
need to limit their actions to just complying with federal law as far as handling illegal
immigrants in America.
This article was written by Kevin J Fandl. Dr. Fandl received his Ph.D. at George
Mason University, and he received his masters at American University. Dr. Fandl is
currently an assistant professor of legal studies and strategic global management over at
Temple University. Clearly this man is certified to speak on a matter of immigration,
what is remarkable is that Dr. Fandl is the former counsel to the assistant secretary for
U.S. immigration enforcement. Dr. Fandl gives lessons all around the world on issues that
bridge anywhere between law and public policy. This is an academic source, and the goal
of the source is to prompt the reader to realize that the gravity of the immigration issue
here in America, and that this is a situation that has historically been handled by the
federal government, our founding fathers realized this, and the author of this article, Dr.
Fandl realizes it as well. This scholarly article may be slightly biased to the idea that
states should not carry out their own individual immigration laws, but that it should be
handled by the federal government. Dr. Fandl documents all of his facts at the bottom of
each page of his article. This scholarly source compares with other sources in my
bibliography in an abstract way, it disagrees with them about how president Obama
handles immigration.
This source fits into my research because it deals with the struggles faced by
immigrants every day here in America, this source is helpful to me because it also claims
that immigrants are detained and treated unfairly, not that I would know because I was
never an illegal immigrant anywhere. However, in my paper I will be speaking a lot about
how the illegal immigrants are treated, so this will fit into my research quite well. Also,
this source has made me question even more than I had before about this topic. Because
of the fact that this source claims that president Obama enacted laws to help protect
immigrant families, I am very confused because doctor Hing (from one of my previous
annotations) disagrees and says that the Obama administration conducts silent raids in
cities with a high Latino demographic. It is very strange to me when two credible,
academic sources disagree.

Torrey, Philip L. "Rethinking Immigration's Mandatory Detention Regime: Politics,

Profit, And The Meaning Of "Custody." University Of Michigan Journal Of Law Reform
48.4 (2015): 879-913. Academic Search Complete. Web. 21 Nov. 2015.

This article focuses on the ridiculous practices that take place in American society
when it comes to tracking down, detaining, and deporting Mexican citizens. According to
this document, the department of homeland security spends two billion dollars annually.
All of that money goes to tracking, detaining, and deporting illegal immigrants.
What interesting is that this source explains that the department of homeland security has
alternative methods to handling the immigration issue in America. There are programs
including check-ins, computer monitoring sessions, and curfews, these programs can be
ran for just 70 cents a day. Whereas, detaining an illegal immigrant for just one day costs
Altogether, this article prompts its reader to re evaluate the practices taking place in
immigration detention facilities. If America decided to show some amnesty towards
citizens of other nations that are visiting our nation by implementing the alternative
programs available by the department of homeland security, as a nation, America would
save $1,999,665,400 in taxpayers money.
This article was written by Phillip L. Torrey. If you have never heard of him, he is
a lecturer on law over at Harvard law school. He is also a clinical instructor at the
Harvard immigration and refugee clinical program. He is also the supervising attorney at
the Harvard immigration project. However, before Dr. Torrey ever served at Harvard, he
graduated with honors from the university of Connecticut. Now the goal of this source is
to get the reader to rethink the cruel and unusual measures being taken by the American
immigration enforcement of homeland security. This research is very objective as it goes
well into the history of immigration here in America, the author puts fourth all of the
information for the reader to view. This source is scholarly, because I found it straight off
of ebsco host, and it was written by a lecturer at Harvard University. This source
compares with the others in my bibliography, except this one may be the longest.
This source is helpful to my paper because I am in the affirmation of showing
amnesty towards illegal immigrants In this country, no only would it be less costly to
show some amnesty towards illegal immigrants, it is also morally Irresponsible to treat
them like criminals. This source is very helpful in shaping my argument, it provides very
valuable information and statistics that I can use when putting my value claim paper
together, statistics such as the fact that the department of homeland security gets two
billion dollars a year to catch and detain illegal immigrants when they could just as
simply implement their alternative check ins. This source absolutely did not change the
way that I think about my research paper. However this source has helped me narrow my
topic, just from "offering amnesty to illegal immigrants" to "the department of homeland
security should offer amnesty to illegal immigrants by implementing their alternative
programs and routine check ins."

Hing, Bill Ong. "Ethics, Morality, And Disruption Of U.S. Immigration Laws." Kansas
Law Review 63.4 (2015): 981-1044. Academic Search Complete. Web. 21 Nov. 2015.
This source speaks about the dangers faced to illegal immigrants seeking to cross
the border from Mexico to America. In this document the author points out all of the
many issues that take place when immigrants travel across the border, first of all, Let's
focus on the issue of unaccompanied children showing up at the border. This is a serious
issue, and it happens more than the average American realizes, according to the Ku Klux
Klan, those children should be "popped" (shot) and left where they are, in the middle of
the desert. To warn others of the impending danger that they face if they try to make it to
America. Of course our nation does not care for these children found in the desert, under
the Obama administration, removal proceedings of these unaccompanied children were
expedited. This source takes a look also at how the government tries to deal with
immigration issues here in the states. With midnight raids, these raids tear families apart,
cost money, and leave people without jobs, or a means of financial support. Finally, this
source also looks at ways that our current presidential administration tries to stop
immigration, and also how the Clinton administration tried to stop immigration in 1994.
When he first signed "operation gatekeeper."
America spent a lot more money,
There were no changes in the rate of illegal immigrants found in America,
But the rate of Mexican citizens dying in the desert nearly doubled.
This source is academic, as it was written by professor Bill Ong Hing, professor
Hing is the professor of law at the University of San Francisco. He has graduated from
the university of California, Davis. By those facts it is safe to say that professor Hing is
qualified to speak about immigration laws and practices being mandated by the
Administration of president Obama .This source is current because it expresses valid
criticism towards the current American presidential administration.
The goal of this source is to prompt those who find out nations immigration a policies
immoral to engage in "disruptive actions until our leases come up with a more morally
sound strategy to deal with the issue of immigration. This resource seems objective
because everything that professor Hing says is the truth. However, this source does have
a goal, so because of this it may be considered biased. Although the facts are all well
documented and this article is scholarly, it does not compare well with the majority of the
other sources in my bibliography because it is quite a long source
This source is very helpful to me because it not only pouts out the twisted advice given to
immigration enforcement by the Ku Klux Klan. Not only did they suggest that American
border patrol should leave Mexican children murdered at our borders in the desert, but
they also suggested that we should leave them there for others to see so that future
immigrants will "take us seriously." In as disgusting as this is, I want my readers who
stand in the affirmation of strict border control to fully understand what they are taking
part in when they say that they want to see stricter border control policies when there are
unaccompanied children showing up on the border trying to escape their reality in their
harsh, gang ridden, corrupt country. This helps me shape my argument because I have a

grounds to connect people who support strict border policies and the KKK. I can gain
leverage off of the fact that the Ku Klux Klan agrees with the border policies, and I can
create a guilty transfer by association.

BENNETT, MICAH. "A Family Tradition: Giving Meaning To Family Unity

And Decreasing Illegal Immigration Through Anthropology." Indiana
Law Journal 89.2 (2014): 885-909. Academic Search Complete. Web. 21
Nov. 2015.
This article is focused on the Department of Homeland Securitys
definition of family when dealing with immigrants. It tells the story if
a Mexican immigrant named Ivan. Ivan came from Mexico, and he
legally made it across the border. However, unfortunately, he had to
leave his wife and five children behind. Ivan made sure that he was
able to get his family across the border onto American soil, the legal
way. After much time passed, Ivan succeeded in bringing his wife, and
four of his five children (ages seventeen, sixteen, thirteen, and three)
across the border into America. The only problem is that his oldest
child was now twenty-one years old. And the family had to leave her
behind because she was too old to fit the description of family
according to American Immigration Enforcement. The family
underwent considerable stress, unfortunately this is a type of situation
that occurs quite often with Mexican citizens who seek to become
citizens of America.
This source is reliable because it was accessed from ebsco host, and it was prepared for
publication by the Indiana Law Journal. This source is recent because it was published in
2014. There is one problem that I have with this source, the author. The authors name is
Micah Bennett, and despite his work being published by the Indiana Law Journal, I cant
find his information or biography anywhere when I search his name online. But because
his work is published by the Indiana Law Journal, there is a transfer of ethos by the
publisher. This article does have a goal, so it may be considered somewhat biased.
However, I view this source to be objective due to the fact that all of its facts are well
documented. The goal of this article is to display the immoral practices and policies
implemented by the American government regarding immigration. This source compares
with other sources in my bibliography because it focuses on the familial aspect
immigration controversy and it takes a deeper look at what happens to families that get
torn apart by immigration.
I can use this source in my annotated bibliography to add an emotional appeal. Also this
source will help me formulate my argument, because this source focuses heavily on the
fact that a more flexible definition of family in U.S. immigration is needed. As a matter
of fact, the laws standing with the department of homeland security (as far as families are
concerned) now are not only outdated, but they are dividing families instead of uniting
them. Sometimes families are divided forever because of these laws. As a result, some
people feel the need to work around the law in order to be with those that they love. This
furthers the problem of illegal immigration. All that this source brings to the table helps
me to put my argument together that the U.S. needs to come up with different and more
innovative methods of decreasing illegal immigration. So that America can combat illegal
immigration in a way that will benefit both, the families, and the U.S.

Abraham, Spencer, and Mike DeWine. "Immigration panic hurts nation." Christian
Science Monitor 18 Mar. 1996: 20. Academic Search Complete. Web. 21 Nov. 2015.
This source was written to bring attention to the idea that many policy-makers are
shutting American doors to hardworking people who are playing by the rules and are
seeking to find a better life. In this article, the authors explain that this is an entire nation
of immigrants, and that detaining and deporting illegal immigrants not only destroys
families, but it waists money, stunts future economic growth, and sends a number of
potential great minds away. The essay states that one third of American Nobel prize
winners are from other countries.
This source is scholarly because it was found on Ebsco host, albeit slightly opinionated,
this source was written by Christian people. This source might be considered slightly
outdated for some standards. However, it was released shortly after Bill Clinton signed
operation gatekeeper. And the American borders saw immediate militarization. The
goal of this source is to show that illegal immigration is a problem that can be handled by
simply making it easier to get into America faster than before. This source does not
document its information well, and the authors all go by their last name. I would consider
this source to be popular. However, it is still credible because it was found on Ebsco.
This source fits into my research because it agrees with my stance on the American
policies towards illegal immigration. This article asserts that all of the panic and hysteria
surrounding immigration is totally unjustified and that the best way to handle this
situation is to punish those who break laws when they are in America, but not cripple
lady liberty and arrest and detain human beings just for being in a state that once
belonged to their own people. This source has not changed the way that I view this topic.
Strangely enough this source does not fit into my research because it is so short in length.

Alan, Gomez, @alangomez, and TODAY USA. "A historic shift in Mexican
migration." USA Today n.d.: Academic Search Complete. Web. 22 Nov.
This article was about the strange shift in immigration patterns. For the first time in
nearly forty years, more Mexican citizens are migrating back to Mexico, than are coming
here to America. Between the years 2009 and 2014, around 870,000 Mexicans came to
American, while one million returned home. (this source does not analyze whether the
harsh immigration policies had anything to do with it) American politicians are
developing more modernized methods to cope with and enforce this rapidly developing
nations immigration enforcement. Mark Hugo Lopez, who is the director of Hispanic
research at USA TODAY said that the reason so many Mexican citizens are leaving is
because of the recession that struck the American economy during the early two
thousands, making it harder to find jobs. That paired with immigrations made it
increasingly difficult for many Mexicans to find a way to live in the USA.
This source is reliable because it came from USA TODAY, and it was discovered on
Ebsco Host. This source is current because it was created on November 20, 2015. The
author is Alan Gomez, he is the immigration reporter at USA TODAY. The goal of this
article was to inform the public about the current change in immigration trends. However
this article seems completely objective, as I cannot distinguish whether it has any ulterior
motives. This source does not document its facts. However this source seems to be
scholarly and popular, because it appeared on ebsco host, but it is also from a popular
news agency. This source compares with other sources in my bibliography because it is
the only source that claims that more Mexican citizens are leaving America, than are
coming to America.
This source fits into my research because it adds some diversity, I can say something
more to my paper than simply cry, MEXICAN PEOPLE ARE TREATED UNFAIRLY!
but this article explains that there is more to this story. Under the circumstance that more
Mexican citizens leaving America than are coming to America, I believe that it is safe to
say that our strict border enforcement policies may have something to do with this.
However, this article ads something different to my paper, it briefly points out the fact
that many Central American citizens travel up through Mexico. This source has slightly
changed how I view this topic in that more Mexican citizens are going back to Mexico, I
dont know whether that is as a result of deportation or their own free will, I feel as
though there is still so much that I dont know about this issue.

Alden, Edward. "Immigration And Border Control." CATO Journal 32.1

(2012): 107-124. Academic Search Complete. Web. 22 Nov. 2015.
This article takes a deeper look at immigration through the context of
terrorism at countless points this article points out the negative effects
that terrorism has had on American immigration enforcement. This
source looks at the fact that America has been beefing up its
immigration enforcement as well, within the last twenty years
Has increased the size of border patrol to less than 3,000 members, to greater than 21,000
members. Of course this article also explains that the ridiculous American immigration
enforcement policies have also deterred many highly skilled foreign citizens from coming
onto American soil, so they leave, in search of more hospitable countries. But on the
other side, this article prompts its reader to analyze the fact that the majority of
immigrants are unskilled. At this time the US borders are far more difficult to cross
illegally than at any other time in history, due to this, evading border patrol has become
even more difficult, expensive, and uncertain than ever before. Despite this, people still
wish to come to America illegally.
This article was written by Edward Alden. Alden is the director at the council on foreign
relations, the former Washington bureau chief of the Financial Times, and Alden was
previously the Canadian bureau chief for the Financial Times based in Canada as well.
Alden was also the managing editor of the newsletter, Inside US Trade. By this long
track record I believe that Edward Alden is certainly qualified to speak on this subject.
The goal of this source is to explain that the United States is in dire need of a more
flexible legal immigration system that is closer to the state of the American economy.
This research is objective because everything stated is factual, and every source is well
documented. This source does not compare with others in my bibliography because the
author is not particularly concerned with the lives of the immigrants, but more so on the
road that led America here. Finally, this source is scholarly, as it did contain a good
amount of jargon that I did not initially understand.
This article fits into my research because it focuses on the historical context of
immigration here in America, and it also explains how things have changed juristically
after nine eleven. This source is helpful to me because It prompts its readers to reconsider
their own understanding of what they call, national security and issues of border
control as this article points out, the close attachment in the mind of the public is mainly
because of the circumstances that took place on September 11, 2001. During this case, all
of the attackers came into the USA from foreign lands. To combat this, American officials
stepped up the border enforcement, which only raised the bar for illegal immigrants to
hurdle over to get into this country, but that does not stop terrorism, as terrorism is

dynamic and there are many other ways to terrorize American citizens. That having been
said, increasing border security along the southern border is not a great idea. This source
has not changed the way that I view this topic.

Hsiang, Grace. ""FOBs" vs. "Twinkies":The New Discrimination Is

Intraracial." 2013. Language Awareness. Boston: Bedford/St.
Martin's, 2013. 342-44. Print.

This source is focuses on the issues faced by many Asian Americans when trying to cope
and assimilate into American society. After a class full of Asian students had been asked a
question regarding their experiences with racism, all of them began to express how it had
simply been at the hands of other Asians. There are many slurs that might be heard, such
as fresh off the boat or FOB an Asian may be called FOB when he or she is not at
all assimilated into American society. However, if that same Asian were to have been,
whitewashed or too assimilated into American society, they maybe called a Twinkie,
because those are white on the inside. In many cases, those two subdivisions of the
same race will not socialize, or even speak with one another. Members of one group will
choose to cling to their heritage, or lifestyle while ignoring members of the other group.
This source was written by Grace Hsiang. Hsiang was born in California in 1986. She
graduated from UC Irvine. Looking past all of her accomplishments, Hsiang is qualified
to speak about this issue because she is Asian and she understands the struggle of
growing up in a foreign land. This source is reliable because it comes from Hsiangs
personal life experience, and to my knowledge, Hsiang has no reason to lie. The goal of
this source is to celebrate humanity, and to celebrate your differences, but not to let them
divide people. This source is popular, because it comes from the book, language
awareness which was not written for experts in any field, but for undergraduate students.
This article does not really compare with anything else from my bibliography because it
deals with Asian citizens, and Asian youth acclimating to American society.
This source fits into my research because it focuses on the language of prejudice, and
how many people can be prejudice against another human being, sometimes even if they
share similar ethnic backgrounds. This source is helpful because with it I will be able to
show a prime example of prejudice language, and working off of that I will then dive into
the history of immigration here in America, and I will show my readers how the
immigration enforcement came to become this way. This source has not changed the way
that I view my topic, I still believe that Mexican citizens are treated like prisoners when
they should not have been, I will also analyze some of the stereotypes associated with