You are on page 1of 17

See discussions, stats, and author profiles for this publication at: http://www.researchgate.

net/publication/264974709

100% recycled hot mix asphalt: A review and
analysis
ARTICLE in RESOURCES CONSERVATION AND RECYCLING · JULY 2014
Impact Factor: 2.69 · DOI: 10.1016/j.resconrec.2014.07.007

CITATIONS

3

3 AUTHORS, INCLUDING:
Martins Zaumanis

Rajib B. Mallick

Latvian State Roads

Worcester Polytechnic Institute

23 PUBLICATIONS 53 CITATIONS

82 PUBLICATIONS 408 CITATIONS

SEE PROFILE

SEE PROFILE

Available from: Martins Zaumanis
Retrieved on: 21 August 2015

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ammann RAH 100 plant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Zaumanis). . . . . while cost analysis showed at least 50% savings in material related expenses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .com (M. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RAP processing and mix design .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . United States a r t i c l e i n f o Article history: Received 11 February 2014 Received in revised form 10 July 2014 Accepted 10 July 2014 Available online 1 August 2014 Keywords: 100% RAP recycling Asphalt production State-of-the-art Rejuvenator Asphalt cost Sustainable pavement a b s t r a c t A holistic evaluation of the feasibility of producing 100% recycled mixtures is presented. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . rajib@wpi. .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MA 01609. . . . . . . . . . . . .org/10. . . . . . . . . © 2014 Elsevier B. . . . . . RATech plant . . . . Frank). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .V.2014. . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . .resconrec. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . Rutting . . . Cracking .1. . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . .be/coj-e5mhHEQ). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .: +1 8572648722. . . . . . RAP use and availability . . . Conservation and Recycling 92 (2014) 230–245 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect Resources. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .elsevier. . . . . . . . . . . . .edu (R. . . . . . . . . . 3. . .V. . . . . . . A cradleto-gate analysis of environmental effects indicated 18 kg or 35% CO2 eq savings per t of produced 100% RAP asphalt mixture compared to virgin mix. . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .B. .1. . . . . . . . and mix design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Full Scale Trials of 100% RAP mixtures . . . . info@raptech. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RAP processing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . URL: http://zaumanis. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The recorded performance of 100% RAP mixtures is analyzed along with identification of typical high RAP distresses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ∗ Corresponding author. . . . . . . . . . Alex-Sin manufacturing plant . . . . . . . RAP processing and mix design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . 231 231 231 232 233 233 233 233 233 234 234 235 235 235 235 235 235 235 236 237 237 . . . . 3. . . . . All-RAP Plant . Zaumanis). . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . 100% RAP performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Current operation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Eleven technologies readily available for producing 100% Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP) hot asphalt mixtures are described in the article and the complementary video (http://youtu. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .com/locate/resconrec Review 100% recycled hot mix asphalt: A review and analysis Martins Zaumanis a. . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . 2. . . . . . . . . All rights reserved. . . . . . . . . . . . RAP gradation and aggregate characterization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . E-mail addresses: jeckabs@gmail. . . . . . . Typical distresses associated with high RAP use . . .007 0921-3449/© 2014 Elsevier B. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . 100% RAP production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Linwood. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . http://dx. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Worcester. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Robert Frank b a b Worcester Polytechnic Institute (WPI). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . Mallick). . . . . . . . . . . .doi. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Conservation and Recycling journal homepage: www. . Recommended mix design procedures and the best RAP management strategies are described. . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Resources. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Water susceptibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RapmasterTM plant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. All rights reserved.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Flushing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . 217 Belhaven Avenue. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .∗ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .com (M. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1016/j. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . United States RAP Technologies. . . . . 2. Contents 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .us (R. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Current operation. . . . 3. . . . . . . 100 Institute Road. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Laboratory research results of 100% RAP mixtures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. Mallick a . . . . . . . . . . . . . .07. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . Kaven Hall. . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rajib B. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mix design . . . . .5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NJ 08221. Current operation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100% hot mix recycling closes the materials cycle by fully utilizing the valuable materials found in reclaimed asphalt in high quality applications. . . .be/coj-e5mhHEQ) presents a holistic study to evaluate the technology. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . There are many questions and confusion among researchers and industry regarding the feasibility and necessity for production of total Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP) recycling. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . In the US. . . .M. . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . especially in urbanized areas. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and viability of 100% RAP hot mix asphalt as well as summarizes the recorded performance of such mixes. . . . .703 4. . . . . for road shoulders and rural roads. . . . . . . . . . . . . .687. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . References . . . . 4. . . . . 1997). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2012). . . . . . . . . 2007) and a typical RAP range of batch plants is 10–20% (Kandhal and Mallick. . the data from 19 countries that provided European Asphalt Pavement Association (EAPA) with RAP use statistics shows that 47% of the available RAP was used in hot or warm mix asphalt applications. . . . . . . . . 5.047 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Environmental analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 million tonnes of RAP accepted in 2011. .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . Flame in a separate combustion chamber heats RAP mainly through the hot wall of mixing drum (Bagela. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . road maintenance overwhelm new construction creating great amounts of readily available material that can potentially be re-used for resurfacing of the same road pavements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.593. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Although nationally this is a high re-use rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . .893. . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Most drum plants can accommodate up to 50% RAP (Bonaquist. . . . . . . . . . . . Asphalt recycling is not truly sustainable when it is degraded and used in these lower value applications. . . . . . . Binder content . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . Dose selection . . . In the process heat is directed into the top of the mixing drum. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .391. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . None of them revealed any serious issues with mixture workability or performance. . . . . . Economic analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . .042. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 1 Estimated amount of excess RAP in New Jersey. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . .2. 4. . . Storage of RAP . . . . . 7. . . . . . . Diffusion of recycling agents . . . . . 84% of which were used in asphalt applications. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RAP quality control and variability analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . – RSL is another company producing towable recycling units with up to 25t /h capacity. . . . . . . . include: – “HERA System” is an indirect heating process in which hot gasses heat the outside of satellite tubes in drum. . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .017 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . – “Bagela” recycler is an ultra-portable (towable) drum with up to 10 t/h production capacity. . . Zaumanis et al. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Purcell) for the last six years shows only 41% RAP use in asphalt pavements which has caused excess RAP of 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .464 231 237 238 238 238 239 240 240 240 240 240 241 241 242 242 243 244 244 244 In developed countries. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .976 939. . . . . . . . 5. . . .2. 6. . . Recycling agents . . 2014). but are not described in detail. . . . . . . . Other technologies that are designed for 100% RAP recycling. . . . .2. . . . . .622 1. . . . . . . while 22 million tonnes were used in other applications or stockpiled (EAPA. Summary and discussion . . . . . . . . . . . inside which the asphalt is heated and dried while rotating (RSL. . . . . cold or hot in-place recycling. . . . . . . . . . . . costs. . . . . . . . . . . Estimation by New Jersey Asphalt Pavement Association (data provided by K. Producing mixtures of higher RAP content using conventional plants would require an unrealistically high superheating temperature of virgin aggregates. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . This paper and the complementary video (http://youtu. . . .844 703. . . . . . . . . . . . t RAP used Excess RAP. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . There are multiple technologies readily available for production of 100% recycled hot mix asphalt. . . . . . . . .245 636. . . . . . . . . . . . . 8. . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cost analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . constrains. Establishing 100% RAP recycling asphalt plants can significantly increase the recycling capacity and help reduce the amount of RAP that is wasted in low value applications. . . . . . . . . .552. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . benefits. . . . Conservation and Recycling 92 (2014) 230–245 4. .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2013). . . . . . . . . . . . .149. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Year RAP milled. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and risk dryer fires if RAP feed is interrupted. . . . . . . . . a survey by National Asphalt Pavement Association (NAPA) (Hansen and Copeland. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Supplementary data . . . . All contacted producers pointed out that conventional techniques and equipment can be used for placement and compaction of 100% RAP mixes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . The authors contacted owners/producers of five of these plants and visited two of plant locations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Monaco and J. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. 100% RAP production The maximum amount of reclaimed asphalt is mainly limited by the available production technology. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Introduction Currently in many construction projects asphalt is recycled in unbound base layers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2013) estimates a total of 71. . . . . .3. . These statistics demonstrate that there is enough RAP available for higher RAP use in HMA applications. . . . Break even time . . . . . . . . . . .194 1. . . . . . . . Appendix A. . . .925. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Basic information about these facilities is summarized in Table 2 and the main principles of each technology are summarized later in this section as well as illustrated in the video (http://youtu. . . . Best practices for RAP management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RAP milling and processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . causing blue smoke from volatilization of RAP binder. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .853 359. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . .295 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . In a conventional recycling process superheated virgin materials indirectly heat the RAP aggregates thus imposing limitations on the amount of RAP that can be added. . . . . . . . in urbanized areas the restrictions on the maximum allowed RAP content in mix design and technical capabilities of asphalt plants have created high surplus of RAP. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .844 833. . . . . . . . . . . Performance of specific products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .538 42% 26% 41% 42% 50% 43% 41% 675. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2013). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and adding a relatively small percentage added to new hot mix asphalt. . . . . . . . . . . / Resources. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mixture volumetric and performance-related tests . . . . RAP use and availability In Europe. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . t 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Total 1. . . . . . . . . .3.be/coj-e5mhHEQ). .364 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . inside which the asphalt is heated and dried while rotating (Volker Wessels. . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 million tonnes (Table 1). . . .

000 t Base. binder. temporary.04 g per SCF (Standard Cubic Foot) and 10% opacity limits for conventional asphalt plants established by US federal “Standards of Performance for New Stationary Sources” described in 40 CFR Part 60. Otero (Ammann. – Fiberbed filters remove aerosol mist by Brownian capture and release zero opacity gases to atmosphere. Hanlon. 2013). 2012.08 lb/t 0. 2004) (Fig. Due to differences in ratio of thermal mass and surface area. Therefore.14 lb/t 0. 1992. 2013). wearing and specialty mixes Commercial sites.06 lb/t – Disposable fiberglass pocket filters remove micron size particles with up to 99% control efficiency. / Resources. Since most of the fine dust is encapsulated by RAP binder there is little need for dust collection.02 grains/SFC 0. canton Aargau. LLC E-MAK BAB Belag AG Evergreen Sustainable Pavements – Plant location Long Island City. coarse . local area roads n/a I. 2013.232 M. Conservation and Recycling 92 (2014) 230–245 Table 2 Summary of the described processes. – “RapSaver” is a preheating system comprised of a continuously fed sealed conductive heating system that allows RAP to be heated and dried using a slow moving hollow screw heating auger (Augering. – Air flow is approximately 30. Technology name All-RAP process Ammann RAH 100 Alex-Sin Manufacturing. USA Not in operation Plant type Dryer type Drum plant Conventional counter flow shell dryer Batch plant Counter flow with two phase drum Drum plant Counter flow with extreme oxidized conductor Drum plant Indirect rotary tube dryer Maximal plant output Put into operation Current status 200 t/h 2001 Commercial production ∼300. New York City. Frank (RAP Technologies. – Recirculated water spray cools air stream and condenses hydrocarbons stripped from RAP during drying to form aerosol mist. – Exhaust gases comply with 0. Inc RAP Process Machinery. Inc Rapmaster RATech Plant producer RAPTechnologies. 1994) L. 2013) D. technology development ∼4100 t n/a 100 t/h 1994 Idle Plant manufacturer located in Turkey Batch plant Separate heat generator with indirect heat triangular drier 180 t/h 2011 Commercial production n/a Base Industrial areas Currently not in operation Commercial sites. RAP Technologies employs a multiple stage filtration system (Fig. 2013). 2004) 240 t/h 2010 Commercial production ∼1000 t Base and binder coarse 300 t/h 1992 Idle. 2011. California. Inc (modification of generic plant) Green Asphalt Ammann Alex-Sin Manufacturing. ∼100.000 t Wearing. 2013) Owner of visited plant Amount of 100% RAP mixtures produced to date Asphalt layers produced Main 100% RAP mixture applications Information sources – “Benninghoven” has developed a uniflow large volume drum with a burner that precludes direct contact between the flame and recycled material (Benninghoven. Switzerland Pavement Recycling Systems & Alex Sin Manufacturing Riverside. 1a). Pollutant Emissions PM CO VOC NOx SO2 0. 2013) process uses conventional hot mix asphalt plant components and a special blue smoke filtration system (Frank. R. – The dryer is maintained at slight negative pressure to vent combustion gases and fugitive emissions to the air pollution control device. – “HyRAP” is a direct heating system that uses a parallel flow drum with four point material entry collars for different fractions of RAP (Brooks Construction Company. USA Birmenstorf. Instead. Alexander (Alexander and Sindelar. base.2 lb/t 0. 2. E-MAK.000 ACFM (Actual Cubic Feet per Minute) at 30% moisture. Zaumanis et al. R. 1) to comply with local air quality rules as follows (the recorded emissions are summarized in Table 3): – Inertial separator drops out small quantity of coarse fines that are then manually removed a few times per year.1. All-RAP Plant All-RAP Plant (RAP Technologies. Due to the high energy requirements of microwaves and thermal oxidizer compared to conventional systems the process has only seen limited use (Techapplication. the fine RAP fractions require less time to reach mix temperature than coarse aggregates. Separate cold feed bins for fine and coarse RAP fractions volumetrically meter design blends onto incline conveyers that deliver them to the heating drum. Anderson (RAP Process Machinery.. Frank. binder Table 3 Emissions of NYC plant (RAP Technologies. blue smoke generated by the direct contact of RAP with flame has to be removed prior to releasing combustion gases to the atmosphere. – “Cyclean” is a microwave heating technology that was utilized at the end of 1980s and beginning of 1990s. 2008). 2013). and secondary streets. 2013) (Gencer et al. Federal Highway Administration.

85th Road and 75th street was paved in 2001 along with numerous other streets that are still in service providing record of the durability of 100% RAP mixes on public streets.0 mm sieves. Heat is transferred from drum to RAP by conduction through the metal shell. and mix design RAP is crushed and screened to NMAS of 22 mm. Virgin binder or recycling agent can be added at the mixing zone at the end of the drum though a pipe that penetrates the rear wall. RAP processing and mix design The RAP is run through a screening plant and separated into fractions using 6. The final mixture temperature can be adjusted as required and the maximum stack temperature is 80 ◦ C. and industrial areas. Switzerland. Current operation.M. Rejuvenator can be added to the heated RAP in the asphalt pugmill.4–5. while the fine RAP is introduced at dryer midpoint via a conventional “center entry” RAP collar. 4). A counter flow dryer with two phase drum is used. The diffusion continues during storage. 100% all RAP process plant in New York City.2 l per t of mixture produced has been recorded at ambient temperatures ranging from 10 to 30 ◦ C. The material is metered and transported via conveyor belt to bucket elevators that deliver the cold RAP to heating drum. The drum has a double shell whereby the spent exhaust gases from heat exchange tubes are . Zaumanis et al. Fins are welded on the exterior of the drum at 45◦ angles to aid at churning of air and work as secondary thermal mass conductors. The plant has three cold storage bins for storing different RAP fractions. 100% RAP is used to pave utility trenches. thus RAP is not exposed to weathering. Radiation shields (46 cm wide) are located on the drum perpendicular to flames to prevent drum from heating unevenly. A study that evaluated one site is reported in Section 3. if any. 2. However. A combination of these fractions is used to produce 4. 12. The air recirculation system improves drying efficiency in comparison to conventional systems by 10%. Seven burners are located in a heating chamber and perpendicularly heat rotating drum dryer shell from exterior as demonstrated in Fig. In 2013 a demonstration project of 100% RAP along with conventional asphalt was paved by New York City Department of Transportation (NYC DOT) at Jewel Avenue & 147th Street in Kew Garden Hills. RAP processing. The bunkers are located underground. based on temperature readings. The burners operate between 650 and 900 ◦ C and. RAP is introduced in the drum at the beginning of it. is added in the pugmill and mixed together with RAP for 30–40 s. 2b.5 mm and 19. 2. / Resources. It is sprayed on the hot RAP at the dryer discharge chute as demonstrated in Fig. 1b. 2013).4 mm. The drum is installed on top of the tower to ensure gravitydriven handling of the hot RAP as illustrated in Fig. 2. Hot combustion gases are generated in a dedicated combustion chamber and channeled inside heat exchange tubes that pass through the length of the drum in counter flow direction to the materials (Fig. The RAP is further released to the weight hopper and asphalt pugmill of 3t capacity. 1. In addition. The front third of the drum (cold end) is constructed of aluminum while the rear two-thirds are made of 310 stainless steel. conduction. Alex-Sin manufacturing plant A drum dryer without direct exposure of RAP to flame is used in the “Alex-Sin Manufacturing” plant that is capable of 100% RAP production (Alexander and Sindelar. transportation.2. 2010) RAP is indirectly heated through convection. Current operation. RapmasterTM plant In the RapmasterTM processor (Anderson et al. 12.1. Additional 19 mm material is trucked in from conventional plants to keep up with demand for base mixes.75. RAP fines are used immediately after processing to avoid high moisture content due to precipitation.1. and radiation within the rotating drum from stainless steel heat exchange tubes and heated drum wall surface. The material heating and drying phase of the drum rotates.1 mm. After discharge gravity drives the material into hot storage silo which has a capacity of 28t . and laying of the asphalt. 2. It mechanically mixes with the RAP binder during transportation by drag slat conveyor. The recycling agent type and dose is chosen based on extracted binder penetration test results. The rejuvenator and virgin binder.2. On average the material has around 10% fines and binder penetration of 30–40 × 0. The mix discharge temperature is around 150 ◦ C. Hot combustion gases flow through the heating chamber and enter the drum at 680 ◦ C to move in counter-flow direction. Ammann RAH 100 plant The indirect heating system “RAH 100” is paired with Ammann “Uniglobe 200” plant at the visited location in Birmensdorf. Oversize clumps of pavement are crushed to liberate sand from stone in a manner that avoids generation of excess 70 ␮m material.5 or 19 mm Nominal Maximum Aggregate Size (NMAS) Superpave mixes.3.. Usual RAP discharge temperature is 165–180 ◦ C. The RAP is heated with hot air and is discharged before getting in contact with the flame thus reducing emissions and limiting RAP binder aging. Conservation and Recycling 92 (2014) 230–245 233 Fig.4. 2. Queens (New York City. The burner output is controlled by three infrared readers that are set to maintain the inner drum surface temperature between 480 and 540 ◦ C. while the combustion chamber is static as demonstrated in Fig. breech ports are placed inside the drum to introduce hot air at drum center. are typically set to three different output levels ranging from 100% at the entrance of materials to 50% (or less) of maximum output at the exit of the drum. commercial parking lots. 2011). 1994). ensures low oxygen content to further reduce aging and reduces emissions (Ammann. 2a. currently the plant operates without addition of any recycling agent.3. Fuel use of 3.1. 3.

the main exhaust fan collects gases directly from the plant without a baghouse. using screens of 12. 2010) using vertical elevator. The asphalt from pugmill is transported by a drag slat conveyor to heated silos. 4. and after blending with fresh air are directed to combustion gas exhaust.7 mm and 6. RapmasterTM drying unit overview (a) and heating principle (b). 3. if necessary. Fig.e. the RAP was typically screened to two or three fractions using a high frequency screening system (i. Any recycling . MA in 2003. A second fan draws blue smoke created during heating process to a combustion chamber for incineration. The RapmasterTM producers note that RAP uniformity and consistency after processing was often better than that of virgin aggregates. Zaumanis et al.5. Alex-Sin plant drying unit (a) and cross section (b) of the heating unit (the internal plates (f) have been replaced with “J” flights) (Alexander and Sindelar. “Cyclogen L” recycling agent was typically added at around 0. Springfield. Oversized material was crushed into the necessary fraction. 1994). RATech plant RATech” heating unit can be integrated in existing batch asphalt plant to provide partial or total RAP recycling. RAP processing and mix design The plant is currently idle.1. After heating RAP is released to RATech mixer via weighing unit. When in operation.4. This reduced temperature compared to conventional plants helps limit the aging of RAP binder and lowers the emissions. The driving plates are designed to limit sticking of RAP and reduce segregation. In a demonstration project on Tinkham Street. virgin binder. / Resources. 2. After the hot RAP at around 160 ◦ C is discharged from the drum. a 100% RAP mixture. BAB Belag AG RAH 100 recycling plant (a) and cross-section of heating drum (b) (courtesy of Ammann).4 mm). It uses indirect heating from a separate hot air generator to heat RAP in an originally designed triangle profile drier (Gencer. the pavement was placed along with a virgin mix. A controllable speed spiral conveyor spreads the RAP slowly between the drier’s plates where it is heated through hot surfaces of channels and driving plate surfaces to the desired temperature.6% by weight of mixture to provide the desired performance grade. 5a. 2. Current operation. running back the length of the drum. Since there is no air velocity within the drum and all exhaust gases are isolated from the material. Fig. 2. Conservation and Recycling 92 (2014) 230–245 Fig. Visual observations of the site show equal or less cracking of 100% RAP compared to control sections. it enters post mixer pugmill where it is blended with a recycling agent and. RAP is indirectly heated by hot air of 200–400 ◦ C and directly exposed to 120–200 ◦ C as illustrated in Fig.234 M.

2006). For example. including organic oil. / Resources. Mogawer et al. Karlsson and Isacsson.1. resulting in reduction of the friction of wearing course and compromised pavement performance. McDaniel et al. the trends in most cases are likely to remain similar. 2012). The hot RAP is kept in a heated silo until ready for discharge. 2013) evaluated the use of 55% RAP mixes and showed that stiffness. 3. adhesion additive should be used (DeKold and Amirkhanian. The stiff. a migration of oils toward the surface of the asphalt layer has been noticed. Although the findings of such studies cannot be directly attributed to 100% RAP mixtures. Water susceptibility Since the RAP aggregates are already covered with asphalt. and two products (WVO and aromatic extract) ensured . and pressure of the circulating air is controlled automatically. The temperature of air when it reaches air filter has dropped to 90–95 ◦ C. The production capacity of the plant significantly varies based on the RAP moisture content. distilled tall oil. waste vegetable oil (WVO) and waste vegetable grease. Cracking The distresses in high RAP mixtures are mostly associated with the aged binder. (2012). less elastic binder in RAP typically increases mixture stiffness (Al-Qadi et al. Tran et al. Shah et al. These are some of the main reasons for reluctance for government agencies to allow very high RAP content (Mogawer et al. 2012. 100% RAP performance 3. 2012. 2000.1... 2012). increased by 25–60% compared to virgin mixtures. 3.. Two main factors must be taken into account to avoid forming of plastic deformations: – The recycling agent dose must be carefully chosen not to over soften the binder. 2006. Most recycling agents also reduced critical mixture cracking temperature.. flow rate. which consists of combustion space and burner (Fig. If the milled pavement had stripping problems.. as well as Sargious and Mushule (1991) have all indicated increased fatigue life of mixtures containing at least 40% RAP compared to conventional mixtures. Willis et al. 3. typical distresses of traditional very high RAP content mixtures are reviewed. Contrary to general perception.1. Typical distresses associated with high RAP use Before describing the few studies that have evaluated 100% recycled asphalt. 1997). Therefore. The temperature. These results may be partially explained by reduced tensile strains in the mixture due to increased stiffness and improved bond between binder and aggregates.1. Rutting Multiple studies have shown that the resistance to rutting resistance is likely to be very good for high RAP mixes because of the presence of aged binder (McDaniel et al.. laboratory evaluation of mixtures where diffusion has not finalized can create “false positive” results. – Sufficient recycling agent diffusion into the binder film must have occurred before opening to traffic. 2006). Yet. 1992). Flushing In field studies with the use of incompatible products or excessive dose of recycling agents.3. the studies by Al-Qadi et al.. 3.1.2. except WEO. Both conventional petroleum and novel organic recycling agents were tested. the recycling agents are aimed at reduction of the mix stiffness and may cause increased rutting if inappropriately used. aromatic extract. Conservation and Recycling 92 (2014) 230–245 235 Fig. Karlsson and Isacsson.. Huang et al. 2010.. 2012. 2005). 2007. 5. Insufficient diffusion will form soft outer layer of binder film (Shah et al. 1992). the authors predict that finalization of recycling agent diffusion would likely neglect this effect over time. West et al. there is less chance of water penetration in the particles. 2007.2. 2012) which may lead to increased dynamics of developing permanent deformations in early stages of pavement life until equilibrium is reached (Potter and Mercer. Zaumanis et al. However. 3. 5b). reduced the aged binder performance grade (PG) temperature from −12 ◦ C of RAP binder to the required −22 ◦ C. 1997.. The released hot air from the burner is mixed with controlled amount of cold air and fed into circulation channels of triangle drier at the required temperature. The tests of extracted binder showed that the products at 12% dose.4. Terrel et al. (2012). Laboratory research results of 100% RAP mixtures A doctorate research by Zaumanis (2014) compared recycling agents for 100% RAP HMA mixtures. (2005) concluded that the hardened binder forms a stiff micro layer at the interface of RAP which reduces the stress and strain concentration within the HMA and could improve fatigue resistance. 2013) and therefore can cause fatigue damage (Daniel et al. 2011) and low temperature brittleness (West et al. additives or virgin bitumen are added in at this stage and 45 s mixing time is suggested. Silva et al..1.. generally high recycled asphalt mixtures are expected to have similar or better moisture susceptibility compared to conventional asphalt (Mogawer et al. 3. (2008).. (2004. The hot air that is used to bring RAP to the desired process temperature is obtained from heat generator.M. Huang et al. It will drop from 180t/h for 1% moisture to around 80t/h for 5% moisture content. speed. National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) study 9–46 (West et al. West et al. Karlsson and Isacsson.. 2011. waste engine oil (WEO). This has been described as unstable rejuvenation resulting in bleeding or flushing (Kandhal and Mallick. calculated from creep compliance and tensile strength test results. Therefore. 2012.. as measured by dynamic modulus at different temperatures and frequencies. In addition. Shu et al.. RATech triangle drier (a) and heat generator (b).

The quality control results demonstrated good consistency of air voids.1 mm and 474 mm2 /s respectively. The effectiveness of reducing the RAP binder consistency to the target of virgin binder varied by a factor of twelve between the different recycling agents. Two of the products were not able to ensure binder softening to the required level at a reasonable dosage rate. Full Scale Trials of 100% RAP mixtures The study by Mallick et al. except the highest temperature (54.1 and 1 Hz). which is an indicator of low temperature stiffness. 100% RAP pavement on 75th street in NYC. Conservation and Recycling 92 (2014) 230–245 cracking temperature similar to virgin mixture. The authors concluded that mixture performance results were even better than those of conventional HMA with using either of the recycling agents.5 mm Superpave gradation specification for use in base course. Zaumanis et al. Stiffness of the rejuvenated 100% RAP mixture. 6. Zywiak. Howard et al. The RAP was re-graded to meet 12. it was found that both of them satisfied this requirement at 5% dose from binder mass. The observed problems of pavement performance. .5 mm NMAS aggregate design (6F mix designation by NYC DOT). showed superior performance. in summer of 2012 the authors performed a visual inspection tour of the 100% RAP sites in NYC DOT demonstration projects at Woodhaven 85th Road and 75th Street. FHWA demonstration project No.6 and 11. Federal Highway Administration.236 M. As measured by a four point bending test. but only five of them ensured equal or higher strength. Samples were also cored from 7 year old 100% RAP pavement where Renoil was used as recycling agent. Creep compliance and tensile strength of mixtures were tested at −10 ◦ C with the different recycling agents. The authors concluded that four of the tested products (organic blend. Tinkham Street in Springfield.4 ◦ C) and the lowest loading frequencies (0. as expected due to aged RAP binder. 1980. measured by resilient modulus test. while the rejuvenated mixes demonstrated similar result to conventional mixture having the same binder grade. The few 100% RAP field research projects that could be found in the literature are listed in Table 4. 1982. Henely. RAP content in most projects was limited to around 30–70% (Hellriegel. Compared to RAP mix without a recycling agent a decrease in dynamic modulus value (reduced stiffness) was noted in most temperatures and frequencies.3. (2010) presents results of full scale application of 100% RAP wearing coarse in New York City (NYC). 1995). A laboratory study by Silva et al. / Resources. “Renoil” recycling agent was used to restore the RAP binder grade to PG 70-28.9% Reclamite recycling agent (from mixture mass). consistency. Instead of extracting binder from RAP. All mixtures had high resistance of water damage. Due to the available technology at the time. The authors also concluded that workability of virgin mix cannot be reached with any of the products. Marshall stability and flow.2%). 2009. measured as indirect tensile strength ratio (ITSR). the stiffness of mixture has been reduced. The wheel tracking test results of the unmodified mixture. refined tallow. production and emissions at the Fig. the researchers chose a hard binder grade to replicate aged binder and performed testing using two rejuvenating agents: “ACF Iterlene 1000” and used motor oil. which had penetration of 14 × 0. and distilled tall oil) reduced low temperature brittleness and at the same time provided binder consistency similar to that of target virgin binder. All products provided similar or reduced stiffness compared to unmodified RAP mixture.1 mm and softening point of 68 ◦ C to penetration grade of 20/30 and respective required softening point of 55–63 ◦ C.1 mm at 25 ◦ C and kinematic viscosity of 2054 mm2 /s at 135 ◦ C while the virgin binder had 85 × 0. Due to scarce availability of research reports.1. A study by Mallick et al. phase angle increased and fatigue resistance improved with the addition of recycling agents. showed similar results for both 15% and 100% RAP mixtures. The 12. (2012) evaluated the potential of 100% RAP hot mix recycling with the use of recycling agents. Overall at 12% dose waste vegetable products outperformed other recycling agents in most of the tests. The air void content at four of six core locations was similar to control section while at the others two it was high (9. 3. Historically. The authors compared these results with reports from multiple other studies to conclude that the stiffness of 100% RAP rejuvenated mixes is very similar or lower than that of conventional HMA.. Doses of 9% and 18% from binder mass were used. The extracted RAP binder was severely aged having penetration of 16 × 0. Creep compliance at −10 ◦ C. 39 in the 1970s and beginning of the 1980s was aimed at reducing energy use and asphalt costs by maximizing the recycling. These wearing coarses were paved in 2001 using Marshall mix design with 12. Through addition of three doses of recycling agents.. The high temperature rutting potential was in all cases within the required specification limits for Hamburg wheel tracking test (Zaumanis et al. 2014a). MA was paved in 2003 using 100% RAP mixture along with control virgin mixture and both sections are performing well. (2013) evaluated the use of nine recycling agents for softening extracted RAP binder and improving 100% RAP mixture low temperature properties. was lower than that of concurrently paved 15% RAP mixture that was used as control. Woodhaven at construction (2001) and in 2012. A study by Zaumanis et al. Low temperature cracking potential was evaluated through the use of creep compliance and indirect tensile strength test to conclude that reduced embrittlement was obtained after introduction of Reclamite. aromatic extract. a significant effort was placed on research of high use of RAP. 6). due to oil crisis in the 1970s and consecutive increase in binder cost.5 mm NMAS dense-graded mixture was produced using the asphalt plant described in Section 2. The aim was to reduce viscosity of the binder. No differences in pavement performance compared to control sections of virgin mixtures were noted (Fig. 1980. (2010) evaluated 100% RAP hot mix asphalt produced with addition of 0.

S. Kvasnak et al.75% Paxole Central. Utah 1975 Surface 1. Bloomquist et al. drum dryer (Federal Highway Administration. 1993) 0% and 4% unspecified recycling agent very high RAP projects significantly reduced the research and trust in high RAP content mixtures (Howard et al. – Choose less effective recycling agent. 1980) Georgia 1991 Unspecified Good performance after 17 months of service (Bloomquist et al... 4.. in-place density showed low air voids (0–2. fine aggregate sand equivalent. 1980) Interstate 15. Holden. Mission.0% AC-10 Loop 374. Texas 1975 Surface – (Little and Epps. Central.5% AR-8000 0. 2007). since they usually contain higher binder content (Khedaywi and White.. However. 50..1. 84.5% Cyclogen Central. The binder is then extracted from the mixture to determine its properties and choose the necessary recycling agent type and dose. hot pug mix Central.0% flux oil 1. For example. Snyder.5% AC-10 Central. 2007). A comfortable approach of using low RAP content (10–25%) has been adopted since then and is reality even nowadays...S. virgin binder and aggregates can be added. solvent extraction is preferred. Bonaquist has noted that many of the isolated failures with high RAP contents have occurred when unprocessed RAP was produced in asphalt plants that were not designed to handle such mixtures (Bonaquist. binder content can be increased by either of the following actions (lower content can be achieved by opposite steps): – Choose source RAP with higher binder content. Little and Epps. mixture volumetric and performance-property requirements while efficiently utilizing the available material. 1980) (Little and Epps. Conservation and Recycling 92 (2014) 230–245 237 Table 4 Historic 100% RAP plant-produced hot mix asphalt projects. especially with respect to design of optimal binder content. drum dryer U. 1995. Mix design The traditional mix design methodology. 2013. First. Texas 1976 Base 4. LA abrasion. 7. the aggregates are tested for required properties and the chosen RAP fractions are combined in an initial mixture composition. 2013). Organic products tend to be more effective at a select dose compared to petroleum products (Zaumanis et al. 1980) determining aggregate fractured faces. Arizona 1978 Base and surface 2. has to be modified for very high content RAP mixtures. 4. 4. Arnold et al. drum dryer “Cyclean” (Federal Highway Administration. Henderson. Project Construction year Layer Additive dose and type Plant type Performance Source Interstate 8. The asphalt is mixed and compacted in laboratory to determine the required volumetric and performance-related properties. Zaumanis et al. binder content. Sentinel. 2012.0% AC-5 2..M. 1993). 2014b. Nevada 1974 Surface 1. 2012). Little and Epps. – Increase fines content in the mixture. 2009.. 2013. Dony et al.1% air voids Section required heavy maintenance and was removed in 1986 – – (Little and Epps. 7. RAP gradation and aggregate characterization The basic principle for ensuring good performing asphalt pavement is to apply the same requirements to the RAP aggregates as those that are specified for virgin mineral aggregates (Willis et al. Choice of recycling agent and its dose is another significant aspect. 2012). 1980) U. A study by NCAT and University of Nevada Reno (West et al. 1995. care should be given to ensure sufficient blending of RAP and virgin binder as well as homogeneous coating of virgin and RAP aggregates. 100% RAP mixture design. 2010) suggests that either ignition oven test or solvent extraction can be used for extraction before Fig. / Resources. The mix designer will have to make compromises when choosing how to process the reclaimed asphalt and what size fractions best satisfy the mixture gradation. and bulk specific gravity (except aggregates that undergo significant changes in ignition oven). If due to properties of milled RAP (especially fines and binder content) the design of mixture with 100% RAP is not possible (Gencer et al.3%) although the mixture was designed with 4.6% Reclamite 3. The steps are repeated by taking appropriate modification if correspondence to the specification requirements is not ensured at any stage. .2. Brock and Richmond. For soundness testing and aggregate gradation. drum dryer Likely due to overdose of rejuvenator. 1995. Binder content Several parameters will impact the binder content in 100% RAP mixtures and optimization can be performed by changing them alone or together. The authors’ proposed mix design principles for dense-graded 100% RAP mixtures are summarized in Fig.

Research by Zaumanis et al. resulting in improved cracking resistance without adversely affecting rutting resistance (Tran et al. 2007.. and make the RAP binder effectively “available” to the mixture. Mixing of the recovered RAP binder with recycling agent to determine the rejuvenated binder grade is considered the best approach at this time for selection of appropriate recycling agent dose. 2012. Recycling agent should soften the binder in order to produce a workable mixture that can be easily paved and compacted to the required density without the hazard of producing harmful emissions. restore the properties of asphalt binder for another service period. The research by Asli et al. Tran et al. – The modifier starts to penetrate into the aged binder. The recycling agent diffusion process in RAP binder film is illustrated in Fig.2. especially rutting. – Add virgin binder. 4. storage. Dose selection The dose of recycling agents should be selected to meet the target grade of the aged RAP binder. 4.. This can cause plastic deformations of the pavement. the mixture will be soft and under asphalted (Al-Qadi et al. The viscosity for any dose can be predicted using Refutas equation (Zaumanis et al. – Equilibrium is approached over the majority of the aged binder film. Carpenter and Wolosick. For these reasons. and Ma et al. However. Lei et al. 2007). research by Burke and Hesp (2011) and Hesp and Shurvell (2010) has shown that conformity to PG did not prevent pavement premature excessive thermal cracking when WEO bottoms (residue) was used as recycling agent.. The research by Zaumanis et al. A report by NCAT (West et al. (2011).. – If traffic is allowed on pavement where recycling agent diffusion is not complete. Zaumanis and Mallick. – Incompatible recycling agent or overdose can cause lack of binder cohesion and reduce adhesion with the aggregate thus leading to premature pavement deterioration.. Shirodkar et al. 8 as described by Carpenter and Wolosick (1980): – The modifier forms a very low-viscosity layer that surrounds the aggregate. 1987).3.1.. Bennert and Dongre. 2011. 2012). Tran et al. Such method is used in majority of the research studies (West et al. While this provides better characterization of binder properties than viscosity alone. however. 2009.. assumption of “black rock” situation when the RAP binder actually contributes to the mixture performance will lead to soft mixture because of high bitumen content (Howard et al. 2011. decreasing the amount of raw modifier on the binder. It can continue during the service life until equilibrium is reached (Huang et al. its concentration in the outer layer of binder film . The binder rheology has to be altered to reduce fatigue and low temperature cracking potential without over softening the binder to cause rutting problems. Recycling agents should allow the production of high RAP content mixture by rapidly diffusing into the RAP binder and mobilizing the aged asphalt in order to produce uniformly coated mixtures. and compaction (Kuang et al. (2014). Sufficient adhesion and cohesion have to be provided in the mix to prevent moisture damage and raveling. it has been reported by multiple studies (Huang et al. which is coated with a very high viscosity aged asphalt cement.3. There are several drawbacks of determining recycling agent dose based on binder performance alone.. 1980). Diffusion of recycling agents Diffusion speed of the recycling agent into the hard RAP binder depends on binder and recycling agent properties and occurs most rapidly at elevated temperatures during mixing.. Care should be given to comply with the performance specification requirements. 1980. which can lead to cracking and raveling failures of the pavement. especially susceptibility to water damage.. Part of the RAP binder in fact may not be activated and stays as “black rock” (Huang et al. but does not ensure binder rejuvenation. Major part of diffusion process should be completed before the traffic is allowed to avoid reduction of friction and increased susceptibility to rutting.3. Zaumanis and Mallick. – Softening of binder to reach the desired viscosity. 2011) suggests using centrifuge extraction over other methods for recovery of the RAP binder from high RAP mixtures.238 M. (2012). 2007.. 2013. (2010) have all shown that the change in Superpave performance grade (both high and low) is almost linear at different doses of the same recycling agent. – Many recycling agents will also allow aged binder to reach the desired performance grade (PG). Noureldin and Wood. Due to weathering the outer micro-layer of RAP binder is typically harder compared to the inner layers (Carpenter and Wolosick. Zaumanis et al. 2003). – The penetration continues and the viscosity of the inner layer is lowered and gradually the viscosity of the outer layer is increased. In this research. 2013). 2014a). The recycling agent diffusion can significantly affect performance of the asphalt mixture as follows: – In mix design assumption of full binder activation while the binder is actually behaving as partial “black rock”. as follows: – Short term. (2012) and Lin et al. 2012. as follows: – The entire RAP binder is extracted and blended with recycling agent thus assuming full activation of RAP binder in the mixture. 4. 2013. (2014b) demonstrated with six different recycling agents that the dose calculated to reach the penetration of virgin binder also ensures conformity to the performance grade of the same binder.. It is necessary to carefully select the recycling agent to provide the necessary short and long term properties. 2012. – Long term. penetration or softening point can be achieved by various oils. 2005. Tran et al. determination of relevant mixture performance-related properties should be considered and is discussed in Section 4.4. Conservation and Recycling 92 (2014) 230–245 – Increase recycling agent dose. a method for rejuvenator dose optimization was developed to account for the RAP binder variability due to source and age of the material. transportation. Silva et al... showed linear penetration increase. (2013) showed that penetration increases exponentially with higher recycling agent content and softening efficiency of organic products is generally much higher than that of petroleum recycling agents. Shirodkar et al. / Resources. (2014b) and Dony et al. 2011). 2010) that part of RAP binder stays inherent and does not actively contribute to mix properties (often referred to as “black rock”). Al-Qadi et al. Recycling agents A successful use of recycling agents should reverse the RAP binder aging process.. Karlsson and Isacsson. 2014). Karlsson and Isacsson (2003) argued that the diffusion rate is governed by the viscosity of the maltene phase instead of the entire recycled binder.. 2005.. – Alternatively. Research by Zaumanis et al.. Al-Qadi et al. (2014b). Zaumanis et al. Recycling agents should reconstitute chemical and physical properties of the aged binder and maintain stability for another service period. 2005.

“Reclamite” has been reported as a recycling agent that provides good performance in multiple sites (Mallick et al. Artamendi et al. Other research has shown that the best rejuvenation can be attained with high amount of maltene constituents – naphthenic or polar aromatic fractions (Xu et al. 2006).. 1986) and research by Tran et al. Peterson et al. “Cyclogen” has been used for production of 100% RAP pavements in Arizona (Jimenez and Meier. 2013): – Increase the mixing and storage time to ensure longer time for mingling between materials. 2014. 2000) and it has been used for more than 50 years (Brownridge. Roberts et al.. (2014) showed that AFM images after using one of the rejuvenators resemble those of the source un-aged binder and concluded that the chemo-physical mechanisms in this study demonstrate true rejuvenation. was also improved but not to the level of virgin binder.M.. . Boyer.3. – Incomplete diffusion can cause problems in predicting the pavement performance in laboratory. In both research rejuvenators improved the rheology of aged binder and in some cases the performance was similar to that of the source virgin binder. – Use warm mix asphalt (WMA) additive (without lowering temperature) to reduce the viscosity and increase lubricity of binder. 2010). ensure Fig.. Binder chemical composition at different states (Brownridge. Several products were already discussed previously in Section 3. Bailey et al. (2011). / Resources.. including engineered and generic products having both petroleum and organic origins. 2014) attempted to evaluate microstructure of rejuvenated binder using atomic force microscopy (AFM) images. Zaumanis and Mallick. No single recycling agent will be suited for all applications.3. especially for long-term properties. The fatigue resistance of 50% RAP binder mixture plus 12% of recycling agent. Aromatics. will be high and can lead to increased rutting due to this soft film dominating performance of pavement (Potter and Mercer. Similarly Nahar et al. – Raise the mixing and compaction temperature to facilitate diffusion and blending. 2012b. 2010).. noted that for neither of two vegetable oils used in her study. General performance indications of some recycling agents that have been used for plant-produced hot mix asphalt are summarized here.1).. however. Zaumanis et al. measured with the LAS test described by Hintz et al. Xu et al. has performed laboratory and field trials of vegetable oils (both virgin and waste) as recycling agents (Bailey and Zoorob. 2014. lube stock. Conservation and Recycling 92 (2014) 230–245 239 Fig. Rejuvenators should provide homogeneous system where asphaltenes are well peptized/dissolved and prevented from precipitation or flocculation.. The stability of the system in aging depends on the solubility. 2012. molecular size and to a large extent on molecular shape (Karlsson and Isacsson. Roberts et al. (2014) indicated that these results were qualitatively consistent with the AFM micro-mechanical parameters and the changes in binders’ chemical composition (SARA). 1980) (discussed in Section 3. which are highly incompatible with binders and increases aging (Tran et al. Performance of specific products Multiple different recycling agents are available in the market. 2009) and low content of saturates. 2007. 2011) and concluded that the use of such oils can reduce the viscosity to reach the target grade. The study by Bailey and Zoorob (2012a). 9. 8. SARA (Saturates. lubricating or crankcase oil or slurry oil. (2012) has shown that this product can be used for improving the low temperature cracking resistance of RAP binder to a level of virgin binder. 4. Two studies (Nahar et al. like fatigue (Carpenter and Wolosick. Xu et al. (1996) defined the softening agents as asphalt flux oils. The use of petroleum products has been most widely reported for rejuvenation. 2006). Resins. 9. Brownridge (2010) demonstrated that application of engineered rejuvenator can almost entirely restore the chemical composition of aged asphalt as illustrated in Fig. virgin binder) the following actions can be considered (Bonaquist. 1997). Different types of organic oils have also been tested as recycling. 2014). 2010. Recycling agent diffusion into binder film and binder layer viscosities. To improve the blending and diffusion of RAP and the added materials (recycling agent. while softening agents are solely aimed at lowering the viscosity of RAP binder (Karlsson and Isacsson. Asphaltenes) analysis provided meaningful results thus questioning the application of the test method. the rejuvenating agents were defined as lube extracts and extender oils.

. 2007.. confidence and availability of criteria on the use of specific methods. (2013) similarly concluded that vegetable oil and aromatic oil can be successfully used to soften the binder to the required consistency grade (penetration.. 5. production of 100% RAP mixture will require processing of RAP in order to provide several fractions. 2013). 2014. should be avoided in order to reduce generation of excessive fines content that is usually already present from milling operation (West. and distilled tall oil are efficient in improving RAP cracking resistance. Conservation and Recycling 92 (2014) 230–245 similar rheology to virgin binder as measured with DSR. Mixture volumetric and performance-related tests Ensuring the required voids in mineral aggregate (VMA) is the most important volumetric parameter to ensure mix durability (West et al. Al-Qadi et al. 2013) results show that even a small error caused by the RAP extraction or burning process could cause the VMA to be off by ±0. 2007). and VMA (Newcomb et al. 2007). / Resources. anticipated failure modes as well as the experience. Estakhri et al. Zaumanis et al. 2011). McDaniel et al. The tests should be chosen based on the climatic conditions.4% at a 50% RAP content.240 M. performance related tests are recommended to further assess the mix design. storage. It will cause higher drying and heating costs. However. 2011). Because of the possible uncertainty in calculation of volumetric properties and the small experience of high RAP and recycling agent use. Storage of RAP RAP stockpiles should be treated just like any virgin aggregate stockpiles to avoid contamination and separation of different materials (Brock and Richmond. In a later study (Zaumanis et al. 2013). 2007). Brock and Richmond. Moisture content can be reduced by the following actions. 1984.4.... 1999).2. 2013. 2012). slow forward speed or fast drum rotation will generate more undesirable fines. West et al. Use of tall conical stockpiles. If failures that typically occur later in pavement life need to be evaluated (e. 2007). cracking).. likely because of most binder softening at the tested dose. The mixture workability. Before testing of performance-related properties. In most cases. 2010): – – – – Covered stockpiles under a roof.. would greatly benefit the quality of final product. Too high fines content can significantly restrict the RAP mixture design by not meeting the mixture aggregate size distribution requirements.3. depth and speed will all influence the quality of RAP (Kerkhof. reduce the mixture stiffness to a level of virgin sample and improve the resistance to aging compared to virgin binder by 20%. 2012). the RAP should be pre-heated at the design temperature between 1. recent findings show that consistency of RAP from a single project (and with adequate handling from multiple projects) is mostly uniform even without fractionation and RAP is generally more consistent than virgin aggregates (West.. Zhou et al. 2000). in the order of most to least effective (Zaumanis and Mallick. 5. Brock and Richmond. 2012). Road constructions where the different layers have aggregates or binder of various quality or grade should be removed by partial milling. Best practices for RAP management Vertical integration of the materials RAP supply chain. 2013). and increase emissions by 10% for every 1% moisture increase (Prowell et al. If RAP from different sources is stored in the same stockpile it can be blended to increase homogeneity before processing or feeding into the cold feeder (West. Special attention should be given to minimize fines content. Zaumanis et al. 2012. distilled tall oil and petroleum product aromatic extract are likely to improve the overall performance of 100% RAP mix. Choice of the milling apparatus. The startup waste should not be mixed together with RAP material (Brock and Richmond. it is important to provide enough time for diffusion of the recycling agent. 2013. 1996). 2013).1. 5. This was explained by slow oxidation of fatty acid unsaturations present in the vegetable oil (siccativation phenomenon). 2013). RAP quality control and variability analysis The studies in 1980s and 1990s have concluded that RAP exhibits variability in composition (Kallas.. long term laboratory aging is also necessary (McDaniel et al. For example.. since that might significantly affect the test results. Gordon et al. This error would magnify at 100% recycling. 2014a) the authors concluded that waste vegetable products. 5. and quality control operations.g. dust to binder ratio. (2013) showed based on low temperature mixture tests and binder softening efficiency that organic blend.. “Hydrogreen”. Alternatively fan can be used for drying at room temperature. A summary of most advanced performancerelated test methods and pass/fail criteria (for select tests) for high RAP mixes is available in NCHRP Report 752 (West et al. RAP should be well characterized for mix design and quality control purposes. To obtain dry RAP without further aging the material. 2013). Screening of the material provides flexibility to the mix designer for ensuring the necessary particle size distribution and give control over the binder and fines content (Hansen and Copeland. Kerkhof. The material should be sampled from multiple locations around RAP stockpile by using back-dragging technique to determine its properties and variability (West et al. RAP milling and processing Asphalt pavement can be milled in partial or full depth. (2009) concluded that recycled cooking oil is a good candidate for improving the low-temperature grade. it can be placed in an oven at 110 ◦ C for up to 6 h (West et al. . 2007). 2011). Solaimanian and Tahmoressi. however. The best practices of RAP management are discussed below. refined tallow. however. for high RAP content mixtures the required aggregate and binder properties should be determined as well (Newcomb et al. Use of paved.. 2013. Dony et al. All tested products were able to reduce the binder penetration to level of virgin binder and passed the mixture rut resistance requirement at the selected dose of 12%. The authors also concluded that binder that was modified with vegetable oil exhibited the highest hardening during short term aging (RTFO). reduce the plant production rate (E-MAK. Before mixing samples. While for small contents of RAP it may be enough to determine the binder content and aggregate gradation.. Calculation of VMA requires the use of Gsb (bulk specific gravity) of the RAP aggregates and NCHRP Report 752 (West et al. Moisture content in RAP is an important factor that can limit the maximum RAP content.5 and 3 h in order to ensure homogeneous temperature while having the least effect on the properties of RAP binder (West et al. “SmartPave System” designers indicate that generally the RAP milled with upward cut milling heads stay within 10% of original gradation (RAP Process Machinery. Crushing. Waste vegetable products provided the most reduction in mixture stiffness. 2013). 4... air voids.. sloped storage area.. in order to later allow the use of RAP in higher value layers (Arnold et al. processing. softening point). 2012. Copeland. 2008. Crushing and screening of RAP in small portions at the day of use (West et al. including the milling. was not affected with the addition of these oils. 2002.

Emissions. 2011) (Chappat and Bilal.. testing. RAP use reduces the binder consumption and thus proportionally decreases the environmental effect. Huang et al. (2013) demonstrated that even at a relatively low RAP rate of 15% the environmental benefits from recycling are higher than those achieved by application of WMA technologies resulting in temperature decrease of 30–35 ◦ C compared to HMA. the existing state of practice for 100% recycling does not allow for conclusive evidence on the long-term performance of such pavements. It is also assumed that 100% RAP mix does not require any virgin binder addition. Fig. including production of constituent materials. Process Energy use Source Emissions Source Sand and gravel production Crushed stone production RAP processing Bitumena and recycling agentb production Hot mix asphalt production Laying Transport 5. 10. construction.. According to “Re-Road” project (Waymen et al. The emission data from Table 5 was used to estimate the cradle-to-gate emissions and energy use of virgin mix versus 100% RAP mixture. 2012.5 MJ/t 1749 MJ/t 275 MJ/t 9 MJ/t 0. In practice this is often the case. Lee et al. A comprehensive view of 100% RAP pavement is necessary to cover the environmental effects during entire life cycle of asphalt.9 MJ/t -km (Willburn and Goonan.M. 2003) 4 CO2 eq 285 CO2 eq 22 CO2 eq 0. Switching to 100% recycling would also require significant investments for modification of production technology that must be put into the equation. Recycling agent production assumed equal to bitumen production. the European Commission sponsored project Re-Road (Waymen et al. RAP processing. 10 demonstrate that 18 kg of CO2 equivalent and 20% energy per t of paved mixture can be saved by producing asphalt from 100% reclaimed material. RAP Process Machinery.8 MJ/t 54 MJ/t 16. since any lost binder is replaced by the addition of recycling agent. 1998) 10 CO2 eq (Chappat and Bilal. 2013). For simplicity. For example. Therefore the energy use and emissions from different processes that are summarized in Table 5 were considered applicable to both virgin and 100% RAP mixtures. 70% crushed stone and 5% bitumen was used in the calculations as a representation of a typical virgin mix.. 2013. (2012) concludes that at 30% RAP rate the pavement the service life has to be 80–90% from that of virgin mix to ensure environmental benefits. Milling of old pavement was not considered as part of process since it is an integral part of reconstruction and would be done irrespective of the type of mixture paved. 2013. 2003) a b (Eurobitume. The RAP price compared to that is very low ranging from USD 15 to USD 30 (Howard et al. Environmental analysis Most life cycle studies clearly indicate that use of high content RAP reduce the emissions and energy use (Lee et al. 7. 2012) and the practical experience reported by 100% RAP mixture producers.. (2012) suggests that reduction of durability of pavement from 20 to 14 years would increase the global warming potential by 13%. 2009) and in urban areas the RAP can often be obtained free of charge due to excess of the material. The only variables in the process are energy use for production of constituent materials. / Resources. 6. Economic analysis The cost of binder has tripled during the last decade as illustrated in Fig. asphalt production. The developers of the different technologies also claim that emissions are similar to traditional asphalt plants (RAP Technologies.. which at the same time is the most reliable part of any life cycle calculation. including raw material production. Research by Waymen et al.06 CO2 eq In Europe: oil extraction 1090 MJ/t + bitumen production 510 MJ/t + pipeline transport 49 MJ/t + storage 100 MJ/t. 2014). maintenance and end of life solutions. For hot mix pavements. Volker Wessels. the main two main processes that are responsible for GHG emissions and energy use are binder and asphalt production (Chappat and Bilal. hauling and paving. 2012) and Vidal et al. asphalt production phase. the transport distance was considered equal and consists of 50 km distance from quarry/RAP site to asphalt plant plus 50 km asphalt plant to paving site. Pavement durability is the largest unknown in such estimations and can have a large impact on the conclusions of life cycle effects compared to conventional pavement (Aurangzeb et al. Thus the analysis is currently limited to unit inventory or cradle-to-gate analysis. laying and transportation. The calculation results in Fig. the energy use at asphalt production and paving operations can be assumed independent of recycled asphalt content rate. Aurangzeb et al. A mixture containing 25% sand. 2003) (McRobert. These savings must be quantified to account for additional expenses related to RAP processing. 2010) (Chappat and Bilal. 11. . Zaumanis et al. 2014)..6 CO2 eq 0.. 100% RAP mixture is considered having 12% recycling agent added from binder mass. 2009). 2003. and use of recycling agent. Conservation and Recycling 92 (2014) 230–245 241 Table 5 Energy use for material production. Hence major savings can be realized through replacement of virgin by the RAP binder. Unfortunately.

who owns Ammann 100% RAP capable plant in Switzerland. Cost analysis A simple calculation was performed to assess the materials related costs for production of mixtures with increased RAP content. These expenses may vary depending on the technology in use and the location of the contractor. Break even time for 100% recycling technology investment. These calculation results are consistent with the estimates of 100% RAP producers: – Ammann demonstrates more than 40% savings in material related expenses for 100% RAP mixture production compared to 0% RAP mixture (Ammann. Conservation and Recycling 92 (2014) 230–245 Costs per t of asphalt $70 $60 RAP Disposal $50 $40 RAP $30 Aggregate 50-70% $20 Polluon Control Rejuvenator Tesng RAP Processing Binder $10 Burner Fuel $0 0% 25% 50% 75% 100% RAP content Fig. on the other hand may have shortage of RAP and asphalt producers will need to purchase it.30/t $3. Otero. Material related costs of hot mix recycling. For example. including rutting. staff wages. from commercial testing facility were obtained and the calculation based on the proposed frequencies shows 1. large metropolitan areas often have surplus of RAP from city streets and the contractors will often pay for disposing it. Break even time Switching to production of 100% RAP mixture would require investment in plant technology.g. Table 6 Material related costs. Rural areas.00/t $5. indicates savings of approximately USD 11 for every 10% increase in RAP content. Clearly. Mixture performance-related test frequency was assumed equal to RAP binder performance grading (once per 4500t ). Expense position Cost Aggregate Binder Recycling agent RAP purchasing RAP disposal RAP processing Burner fuel Pollution control $19. According to guidelines from NCHRP Report 735 (West et al. Testing is another additional expense. thus the “RAP disposal” position in Table 6. Zaumanis et al. The operational expenses that are likely to remain constant (e.7% (RAP binder 5. The testing expenses. Fig. 7.48 USD expenses per t of produced asphalt.2.47/t $2. / Resources. Fig. 2013). The assumptions for costs that were used for calculation are listed in Table 6 and include all major positions that are expected to change with increased RAP use.. the major part of the costs comes from binder expenses and as the cost of oil continues to rise. – I. 2013) RAP binder content and gradation should be tested once per 900t and specific gravity once per 2700t . 2013) claims 30% or higher savings in production related costs compared to HMA produced with primarily virgin aggregates.00/t $1. low temperature and top down cracking.30/l $11. 11.1. such as asphalt production Fig. 12. The material related costs must be paired with a mix design to perform a calculation of savings per unit of produced mixture. Binder Price Index (Pensilvania Asphalt Pavement Association.242 M. – Smart PAVE system (RAP Process Machinery.1% + recycling agent 0. . rent) were not included in the calculation.50/t $3. Aggregate content of 94.75/t@100%RAP 7. 2013).6%) was used for calculations. Depending on the market situation with availability of RAP. 12 summarizes the calculation results of material related costs per t of produced asphalt ranging from 0% to 100% RAP content.3% and binder content of 5. 13. the costs of per t of 100% RAP mixture would be reduced between 32 and 48 USD or 50 and 70% compared to virgin mix.80/t $704. a representative from “BAB Belag”. the benefit of using high RAP mixtures will only increase.

000 t per year rate was performed as well. or adding virgin binder. – Profit margin per t of mix. However. the durability performance of 100% RAP pavements remains the major question. These failures have been associated with the recycling agent diffusion and effect on adhesion. 13. for example. Vertical integration of the materials supply chain control would greatly benefit the quality of final product. Summary and discussion In recent years the industry focus has been placed on increasing the amount of RAP in mix asphalt production. using recycling agents of different efficiency. even a reduction of asphalt price by as much as USD 20 compared to low RAP mix would still promise the contractor at least USD 12 profit per t of produced mixture (see Fig. These expenses will vary greatly depending on the chosen technology and readily available equipment. The profit per t of mix will likely not be directly related to the savings calculated earlier. etc. The literature survey confirmed the general wisdom that the stiffness of high RAP mixtures is higher than for virgin. Greenroads. The specification criteria for RAP aggregates should be equal to virgin materials. This article demonstrates the availability of the necessary tools and know-how for production of such mixtures. production rate.000 t/year. and possible RAP storage upgrade. but the workability in most cases remained lower than that of virgin binder. limit contamination. Reaching country average might be a high target for a new technology and therefore a calculation at 30. Before production RAP should be processed in the necessary fractions to allow design of mixture gradation. Care should be given to allow finalization of recycling agent diffusion before performing testing to avoid false results. The binder has to be extracted from RAP to verify its properties and determine the necessary recycling agent type and dose to ensure correspondence 243 to the specification requirements. Ten of the technologies require installation of a new drying/heating system and one is designed to retrofit existing drum plants with a different filtration system. this might be beneficial for structural design purposes of specialty applications.). would allow the contractor to break even in just one year at the US average yearly production rate of 90. The material related expenses would be stabilized at constant level by removing the dependence on the increasing binder price. RAP processing units. This asks for further research to evaluate the performance in laboratory and most importantly in full scale demonstration projects. at least until proved that the quality and longevity of 100% RAP pavement is equal to that of conventional asphalt. 12). including aggregate gradation and specific gravity as well as binder content and properties. While typically undesirable. Modification is required to the existing asphalt plants. These technologies allow production of mixture at the conventional production temperatures and paving can be performed using existing equipment and techniques.000 t (EAPA. – Production rate. Zaumanis et al.M. minimize moisture content and ensure RAP homogeneity. The newly developed production technologies. Eleven plant technologies readily available for 100% hot mix recycling were identified and five of them are described in detail as well as demonstrated in the complementary video (http://youtu. 100% recycling can provide true sustainability by closing the materials cycle and allowing to use the reclaimed asphalt in the same high value application as conventional asphalt. 2. Such reduction in environmental effect and implementation of innovative production process would greatly benefit the agencies that have applied certification systems for sustainable construction practices (LEED. Successful cases should allow for legislation of such mixtures by road shareholders for paving on public roads. Three different investment levels (1. will greatly benefit the confidence in use of 100% RAP mixtures and allow performance-based specification.000 t and initial investment in plant technology of 1 million USD. . especially cracking tests. improved mix design in conjunction with modern performance-related testing methods are likely to neglect such problems. but the current state-of-the-art technologies and the know-how might allow to leapfrog the intermediate steps and take advantage of total RAP recycling. / Resources. but are equality likely caused by immature production technology and use of unprocessed RAP.be/coj-e5mhHEQ). Most of the reluctance for the use of recycling agents stems from isolated unsuccessful projects in 1970s and 1980s which showed rutting and raveling problems. modifying the RAP fines content. and 5 million USD) and profit margins ranging from USD 0 to 40 per t of mix were used for calculation of time to break even and the results are illustrated in Fig. Most of the research has been aimed at development of practices for up to 40% RAP in hot mix design. Three assumptions have to be made to perform a simple calculation on time to break even: – The investment amount. Switching to 100% RAP production would enable material related cost savings of 50–70% compared to virgin mixture. At such margin. Conservation and Recycling 92 (2014) 230–245 related equipment. A reduction in emissions of 18 kg CO2 eq per t of paved mixture can be achieved by switching to 100% RAP asphalt. Until then the application is limited mainly to lower level roads and privately owned construction sites where the asphalt costs are driving demand. The binder content can be modified by switching between RAP sources. Advances in performance related test methods. Starting from the milling process of old pavement the goals should be to minimize fines content. For production of conventional asphalt the stiffness has to be reduced to avoid fatigue and thermal cracking. most notably in respect to binder content and use of recycling agents. including perpetual pavements and high modulus asphalt concrete (HMAC). A quality control procedure should be implemented to verify the properties and variability of RAP stockpiles. Such margin. while minimizing excess material. Various recycling agents have shown to be able to modify the aged binder to a level that corresponds to the required Superpave or empirical binder grade. The conventional mix design methodology will have to be modified for designing 100% RAP mixtures. 8. The average annual production rate of a plant located in the US in 2011 was 95. Laboratory research studies of 100% RAP mixtures have shown that appropriate choice of recycling agent type and dose can reduce the stiffness of aged RAP mixture to the level of virgin mixture while providing high rutting resistance. mostly due to embedded energy necessary for production of constituent materials. for example. An important challenge for production of 100% recycled mixture is ensuring high quality input material. 2012). time to reach break-even point would be less than three years for 1 million USD investment and 30. This is a result of tripled binder costs during the last decade that came at a time of extremely strained funding for road construction and maintenance. Both drum and batch production systems have been used to produce 100% RAP mixtures. However. Thus price reduction of as much as USD 20 per t of asphalt would still provide the contractor a profit of at least USD 12 per t of produced asphalt. Both petroleum and organic products have been successfully used. adequate RAP management. separate materials of different values. The designed mixture should be tested for conventional volumetric properties and performance-related specification requirements may be added.

1492:36–45. Porot (Arizona Chemicals). IL: Illinois Center of Transportation. 26 April 1994.fehrl.850 B1. 2011. Springfield. Hanlon LC.244 M.2180:19–29. Investigations on bitumen rejuvenator diffusion and structural stability.11(December):541–53. Hot mix asphalt manufacturing system and method.007. Brussels. Zoorob SE. Reclaimed asphalt concretes with high recycling rates: changes in reclaimed binder properties according to rejuvenating agent. or fable. Naidoo (Asphalt&Wax Innovations). Karlsson R. Brock J. Kingery WR. Copeland A. 2007. Laramie. Transp Res Rec: J Transp Res Board 2010. in the online version. Laboratory study of fatigue characteristics of HMA mixtures containing RAP. 2014. Oden M. Available at: http://www. 13–5. El-Korchi (WPI). Yu J. Zhou B.72:463–501.792 B1. Ruth B. Tia M. 1984. Kandhal PM. 12 August 2010. DC: Federal Highway Administration. Ahmadinia E. Bahia H. Asphalt in figures 2011. Int J Pavement Eng 2010. Huang B. Anderson (Evergreen Sustainable Pavements). E-MAK Machine Construction Industry & Trading Co. Bailey HK. Inc. Hellriegel EJ. Bennert T.com/recycled. Gordon C. in the laboratory and field. Howard IL. J Clean Prod 2009. Brooks Construction Company. In: 5th Euroasphalt & Eurobitume congress.e-mak. Nolting M. and H. Boisvert DM.2207:99–106. Bailey HK. B. Hybrid life cycle assessment for asphalt mixtures with high RAP content. Frank R. Life cycle inventory: bitumen. Chattanooga. Naidoo (Asphalt&Wax Innovations). Golalipour A. Prediction of effect of bio-based and refined waste oil modifiers on rheological properties of asphalt binders. Development of a life cycle assessment tool for construction and maintenance of asphalt pavements.pdf [accessed 21.2014. 2nd annual asphalt pavement industry survey on reclaimed asphalt pavement. Federal Highway Administration. T. L. 2012. West R.41:175–81. Temperature control in an indirectly heated recycled asphalt product heater. 2007. Asphalt rejuvenators fact. Huang Y. Carpenter SH.17: 283–96. Pine WJ. Aurangzeb Q. J. Anderson RW. R. In: 5th Euroasphlat & Eurobitume congress.13]. Investigation on physical properties of waste cooking oil – rejuvenated bitumen binder. VA: U. Loria L.10. Bailey H. at http://dx. Brussels. 1993. Phoenix. P. Ammann. RATech [online]. Isacsson U. Dongre R. Spiegelman C. Supplementary data Supplementary data associated with this article can be found. 2013. References Alexander DJ.11. Penetration testing of waste engine oil residue modified asphalt cements. Asphalt Institute [online]. Bloomquist D. Washington. Asli H. Drouadaine I. Conservation and Recycling 92 (2014) 230–245 Acknowledgements The authors would like to thank everyone who helped to organize visits to the asphalt plants and provided valuable insights on moving toward 100% recycling. Hanlon (Evergreen Sustainable Pavements).10. Zaumanis et al. Department of Transportation.totalasphalt. and commercial rejuvenating agent delivered from crude oil in paving asphalt modification. Rejuvenation of bituminous mixtures containing reclaimed asphalt with used vegetable oil. Eurobitume. Otero (Walo.13].13]. Monaco (NJ APA). 1995. Burke K. June. Warm waste asphalt recycling in Belgium – 30 years of experience and full confidence in the future.S. In: International symposium on design and construction of long lasting asphalt pavements. In: 1st conference of Transportation Research Group of India (CTRG). Evaluation of recycled asphalt concrete pavements. Navaro J. Ward (RSL). Phillips P. Tran N. Bailey (TRL). 2004.com/docs/products/AsphaltRejuvenators Fact-or-Fable. DeKold SP. Doyle JD. J Assoc Asphalt Paving Technol 2003. 2009. A. Transp Res Rec 1995. KY: Federal Highway Agency. X-ray fluorescence detection of waste engine oil residue in asphalt and its effect on cracking in service.html [accessed 26. HyRAP. 2012. 2008. Appendix A. Michael J. Washington. the 100% recycled asphalt pavement [online]. A new approach for evaluating rejuvenator diffusing into aged bitumen. Hurley (AMS). In: Developing technology for our customers requirements. Jimenez JA. L. DC: FHWA. Asphalt mixing plants. Karlsson R. and warm-mix asphalt usage: 2009–2011.203. Estakhri C. Kunduraciodlu G.11. Asphalt recyclers [online]. DC: Federal Highway Administration. Damm. G. Susanna H. IL: Illinois Center for Transportation. 1986. Flexible pavement mixture design using reclaimed asphalt concrete. Hesp SA. 2 March 2010. Transp Res Rec: J Transp Res Board 2011. In: CSCE 2009 annual general conference. 1980. com/index. 2000. Bagela. Resour Conserv Recycl 2014. Little D. Laboratory testing and economic analysis of high RAP warm mixed asphalt. Ames. M. 21 December 2004. 1997. Hesp SA. 13–5. Gencer MN. Development and analysis of laboratory techniques for simulating segregation. Bahia HU. Bituminous concrete pavement recycling. Springfield. Gencer SE. Chen K-Y. G. Tabatabaee HA. Velasques R. Lei Z. Karapahin M. Available at: http://augertech. Arnold CJ. In: 5th Euroasphalt & Eurobitume congress. In: Transportation Research Board 93rd annual meeting. L. Available at: http://www. User guidelines for waste and by-product materials in pavement construction. 2012. Hintz C. 2010. Asphalt recycling possibilities on the asphalt mixing plant [online]. Al-Qadi IL.asp?SectionID=87 [accessed 13. 2009.brooks1st.18(1):81–92. 2013. / Resources. Laboratory investigation of mixing hot-mix asphalt with reclaimed asphalt pavement.07. Khedaywi TS. Aurangzeb Q.1016/ j. J Wuhan Univ Technol – Mater 2011. Available at: http://www. Constr Build Mater 2013. Johnson C. Allen B. Ammann. Unlocking the full potential of reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) – high quality asphalt courses incorporating more then 90% RAP: a case study.37:398–405. Material-related aspects of asphalt recycling-state-of-the-art.doi. The environmental road of the future. Chou C-P. Partl (EMPA). Denck C. Engineering and environmental asphaltic of recycled materials for highway construction. Reuse of moisture-damaged asphaltic concrete pavements. IA: Iowa Department of Transportation. reclaimed asphalt shingles. 2012a. 2011. Belgium: European Asphalt Pavement Association.org/10.13]. evaluating the effect of voids in mineral aggregate.83:77–86. Bieder (Ammann). EAPA. In: Transportation Research Board 91st annual meeting. Washington. p. Brownridge J. Prowell (AMS). Trepaner J. Riebensehl G. Kvasnak A. Pavement recycling guidelines for state and local governments – participant’s reference book. K. Meier WR. 2011. Egan B.11. Amirkhanian SN. Backcalculation method to determine effective asphalt binder properties of recycled asphalt pavement mixtures. The use of vegetable oil in asphalt mixtures. Henely RP. COLAS. Bilal J. In: 5th Euroasphalt & Eurobitume congress. Shurvell HF.com/ rap saver/rap saver. Alexander (Alex-Sin Manufacturing). June. Available at: http://www. p. Modification and validation of the linear amplitude sweep test for binder fatigue.2180:30–5. Chappat M. July. Li G. K. Bulk specific gravity of reclaimed asphalt pavement aggregate.832. MS: Mississippi Department of Transportation. Chen X. Reclaimed asphalt pavement in asphalt mixtures: state of the practise. Reclaimed asphalt pavement – a literature review. Copeland A.htm [accessed 22. Carpenter S. recycled oil. Lee N. Kerkhof EVd. Gajewski B. Available at: http://www. Isacsson R. J Mater Civil Eng 2006.669. Recycled hot-mix asphalt concrete in Florida: a variability study. 2011. The use of vegetable oil as a rejuvenator for asphalt mixtures.W.resconrec. 2012. RAP saver [online]. Bird R. Zoorob SE. Transp Res Rec 1980:15–22. Transp Res Rec: J Transp Res Board 2010. Carpenter SH. Pochily JL.12(September (5)):11–3. Pavement recycling executive summary and report.php?option=com content&task=view&id=34&Itemid=54 [accessed 17. Poulikakos (EMPA). A method and system for hot asphalt recycling. . The role of an asphalt rejuvenator in pavement preservation: use and need for asphalt rejuvenation. Hansen KR. Yang R. In: Compendium of papers from the first international conference on pavement preservation. Al-Qadi IL. Zanzotto L. Vukosaviljevic D. Belgium: Eurobitume. Lexington. Can more reclaimed asphalt pavement be added? Study of extracted binder properties from plant produced mixtures with up to 25% reclaimed asphalt pavement. Jackson. Feng Z.com/en/products/ratech. Ozer H. Memis M. Sindelar RA.100. Mallick RB. Benninghoven. 2012b. Milling and recycling. Colin J. Karim MR.13]. Gencer MN. Austin.533 A. Modifier influence in the characterization of hot-mix recycled material. DC: Federal Highway Administration.05. WY: Western Research Institute. 1999. Zhang Z.J. TX: International Center for Aggregates Research. Can I run more RAP? Hot Mix Asphalt Technol 2007. D. Lanham. United States Patent US20. 2003.13]. Richmond J. 1980. Yang G. 2011. Recycled asphalt concrete mix design. 2012. Bonaquist R. United States Patent US5. Constr Build Mater 2012. Transp Res Rec: J Transp Res Board 2010.462 A1. Huang B. Hajj EY.305. Diamond G. Martin GF. including T. Cooley ALJ.13]. represents BAB Belag). Comparison of renewable oil. Available at: http://bagela.benninghoven.org/?m=32&mode=download&id file=15190 [accessed 14. Benefits in energy savings and CO2 reduction by using reclaimed asphalt pavement. Shu X. Bruneau D. Elseifi MA. Transp Res Rec 1992. Arlington. MD: National Asphalt Pavement Association. In: 5th Euroasphalt & Eurobitume congress. White TD. Purcell (NJ APA).11. Wollenhaupt (R2R). Impact of high RAP contents on structural and performance properties of asphalt mixtures. March. Heidrich O. Boyer RE. Transp Res Rec 2005:37–45. Kallas BF. I. AZ: Arizona Department of Transportation. A new method for hot recycling of asphalt. Combined direct and indirect rotary dryer with reclaimer. Federal Highway Administration.de/en/productssolutions/asphalt-recyclers. Artamendi I.1337:79–88. Al-Qadi IL.htm [accessed 26. Asphalt recycling [online]. Dony A. Augering Technologies. Daniel JS. In: 5th international conference bituminous mixtures and pavements. United States Patent US6.21(1). TN: ASTEC.2179:75–84. 2012. Washington. K. United States Patent US7. Wolosick J. Zargar M. Kuang D.

Shirazi M. Tao M.org/10. Sustainable aggregates – CO2 emission factor study. Determining optimum rejuvenator dose for asphalt recycling based on superpave performance grade specifications. Volker Wessels.com/post/58267624381/100-recycled [accessed 15. Mater Struct 2011. Summary of NCAT survey of RAP management practices and RAP variability.10. West RC. Constr Build Mater 2014b.18(3):428–35. Laboratory evaluation of fatigue characteristics of recycled asphalt mixture. Mallick RB. Oliveira JR. Ma T. In: Proceedings of the Association of Asphalt Paving Technologists. Transp Res Rec: J Transp Res Board 2013. Techapplicatoin. West R. Auburn. Zhou F.2014. RSL Asphalt Recycling Machines. Prowell BD. Tomlinson C. Kendhal P. MD: National Asphalt Pavement Association Research and Education Foundation. evaluation.html [accessed 16. European Commission.25(January (1)):150–5. Austin.13]. 1998. Available at: http://en. Transp Res Rec: J Transp Res Board 2007. 2002. Recommended use of reclaimed asphalt pavement in the superpave mix design method. Epps JA.2370:17–25. Compound rejuvenation of polymer modified asphalt binder. Warm-Mix asphalt: best practices. Evaluation of different recycling agents for restoring aged asphalt binder and performance of 100% recycled asphalt. Soleymani H. Aggregates from natural and recycled sources.893331. Zaumanis M. Schlangen E. Use of reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) under superpave specifications: a regional pooled fund study. Transp Res Rec 1987. 2012. Review of very high content reclaimed asphalt use in plant produced pavements: state-of-the-art.doi.asp [accessed 05. Evaluation of certain structural characteristics of recycled pavement material. Mogawer WS. 1996. December. NCHRP. Zaumanis M. Conservation and Recycling 92 (2014) 230–245 Lin P-S. 2007.. Noureldin AS.74:101–14. Zaumanis M.10. Performance characteristics of plant produced high RAP mixtures. Available at: http://www. TX: Texas Department of Transportation. Zaumanis M. 2010.13]. Lanham. Potter J. MD: National Asphalt Pavement Association. http://dx. Lunham. Daniel JS. August. and construction. Transp Pooled Fund Progr 2012.rslplant. West R. 245 Shu X. Mallick RB.us [accessed 15. Price Inex [online].035 [in press]. DC: 93rd annual meeting of the Transportation Research Board. 2013. Evaluation of rejuvenator’s effectiveness with conventional mix testing for 100% reclaimed asphalt pavement mixtures. Roberts F.conbuildmat. Mehta YA. Transp Res Rec 1996. Austerman A. Frank R. 3rd ed. Marasteanu M. Worcester. 2010. A comparison of virgin and recycled asphalt pavements using long-term pavement performance SPS-5 data. Willburn D. http://dx.1080/10298436. mixture design and construction. Evergreen Sustainable Pavements [online]. Brown ER. Int J Pavement Eng 2014. dos Santos S. RAP stockpile management and procession in Texas: state of the practice and proposed guidelines. Parry T. Huber GA. Raaberg J. Nahar S.S.13]. Behaviour of recycled asphalt pavement at low temperatures. National Cooperative Highway Research Program.10. 2008. Huang B.1543:89–96. Bergmen R. A study to determine the degree of partial blending of reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) binder for high RAP hot mix asphalt. Anderson MR. vol.and high-temperature properties of plant-produced RAP mixtures. Glover C. Fuel 2014. 2011. Norton A. AL: National Center for Asphalt Technology. Waymen M. Pensilvania Asphalt Pavement Association. Zaumanis et al. MD: NAPA. Peterson G. Zywiak SJ. Reclaimed asphalt pavement management: best practices. New Hampshire: Federal Highway Administration. Bullin JA. Bennert T. Turner P. Demonstration Project No. Kennedy T. Turning back time: rheological and microstructural assessment of rejuvenated bitumen. Zhao Y.tumblr. 2nd ed. Can J Civil Eng 1991. In: Annual meeting of the Transportation Research Board. 10–4. Investigation of properties of plantproduced RAP mixtures. January.doi. van de Ven M. microscopic and chemical characterization of the rejuvenating effect on asphalt binders. Qiu J. 3rd ed.M. HERA system [online]. Lee DY. O’Sullivan K. Kennedy T.1362:56–65.. Huber G. Available at: http://raptech. February.co. Roberts F. Constr Build Mater 2008.12. 1 July 2013 [online]. Effect of rejuvenator on performance properties of HMA mixtures with high RAP and RAS contents.2014.06. and materials management practices for hot mix asphalt with high reclaimed asphalt pavement content. August. Peterson R.org/Price Index. Rubio MC. Auburn.volkerwessels.13]. Huang X. et al. 2. Auburn. Available at: http://www.13]. Hurley GC. Resour Conserv Recycl 2013. RAP Technologies. January. J Wuhan Univ Technol – Mater Sci 2010. Life cycle assessment of hot mix asphalt and zeolite-based warm mix asphalt with reclaimed asphalt pavement. U. Shah A. Das G.038. Lunham. Hot mix asphalt materials. Auburn. Poulikakos L. AL: National Center for Asphalt Technology.uk/ [accessed 10. 39. Kandhal PS. Taylor AJ. Maghsoodloo S. 2009. 2012. 2014. Available at: http://www. Moliner E. Full-scale performance trials and accelerated testing of hot-mix recycling in the UK.fuel. Wood LE. Lee DY. Mallick R. 2010. Shah A. Little DN. Australia: ARRB. Are totally recycled hot mix asphalt a sustainable alternative for road paving? Resour Conserv Recycl 2012. Huang Y. In: Eighth international conference on asphalt pavements. AL: National Center of Asphalt Technology. Wu T-L. Terrel R. The all RAP process [online].14].22:1323–30. Brown ER. 2014.05. Frank R.1463:38–46. 2012.1016/j. RSL website [online]. Life cycle assessment of reclaimed asphalt. McDaniel RS. 2012. Fritchen D.1115:61. AL: National Center for Asphalt Technology. Microwave process for asphalt pavement recycling. Mater Struct 2014a.smartpavesystem. McDaniel R. Zaumanis M. Jesus CM. Frank R. Effect of composition on asphalt recycling agent performance.. Epps JA. Bonaquist R. Booshehrian A. Turer P. Willis JR. Frank B. Brown ER. / Resources. Mushule N. Mallick RB. Willis JR. New York City DOT. Sargious M. Padula FdG. Hot mix asphalt materials. 1997. MA: Worcester Polytechnic Institute. July. Mallick R. Scullion T.1617/s11527-014-0332-5 [in press].1998:103–11. Designing HMA mixtures with high RAP content: a practical guide. Xu X. 2000.org/10. Tahmoressi M. http://dx. Chou B-Y. The Daily Pothole. Newcomb DE. Goonan T. Investigation of low. In: RILEM conference. Michael J. Improved mix design. Zaumanis M. mixture design.07. Davison R.org/10. Vidal R. Lunham. [Doctorate dissertation] 100% recycled hot mix asphalt and the use of rejuvenators [Doctorate dissertation]. Zaumanis M. . Transp Res Rec 2014. Joint Transportation Research Program. West RC. Constr Build Mater 2011. May. McRobert J. Variability analysis of hot-mix asphalt concrete containing high percentage of reclaimed asphalt pavement. et al. Schitter G. 2013.. Julian G. Transp Res Rec 1992. 2011. Taylor A. RAP Process Machinery. McLean. Frank R. Martinez G. Andersson-Skold Y. Solaimanian M.11. Soleymani H. 2012. 1982. Willis R. Finite element modeling of rejuvenator diffusion in RAP binder film – simulation of plant mixing process. Why not use rejuvenator for 100% RAP recycling? In: Transportation Research Board annual meeting. McDaniel RS. p. Hu S. Joseph P. Tran NH. Gallivan VL. Shah A. Mallick R. Bendigo. McDaniel RS. Mercer J. Department of he Interior.doi.44:911–21. Turochy R.com/index. Silva HM.60:38–48. Vukosavljevic D. Recycling asphalt pavements.25(6):1070–6. 1992.2014. Available at: http://thedailypothole. Sonpal K. Rheological. Effects of recycling agents on aged asphalt binders and reclaimed asphalt concrete. Shirodkar P.pahotmix. Chang C-W.13(1):183–208. http://dx.doi.com/ en/projects/detail/hera-system [accessed 11. 1980. Washington. VA: Federal Highway Administration. Group. MD: National Asphalt Pavement Association. 2013. Rejuvenator diffusion in binder film for hot-mix recycled asphalt pavement. Effects of changing virgin binder grade and content on RAP mixture properties. Hussain BU. Five year experience on low temperature performance of recycled hot mix. Aaron N.1016/j.org/10. et al.