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# 2nd topic electronics and Devices 1 reviewer

Ripple voltage is caused by the charging and discharging of the filter
capacitor.

The Smaller the ripple voltage, the better the filter.

Clamper: A circuit that adds a dc level to an AC voltage using a diode and a
capacitor.

Clipper: See limiters.

Filter: A capacitor or combination of capacitor and inductor used to reduce
the variation of the output voltage from a rectifier.

Full-wave rectifier: A circuit that converts an AC sinusoidal input voltage
into a pulsating DC voltage with two output pulses occurring for each input
cycle.

Half-wave rectifier: A circuit that convers an AC sinusoidal input voltage
into a pulsating DC output voltage with one output pulses occurring fir each
input cycle.

Limiter: A diode circuit that clips off or removes part of a waveform above
and/or below a specified level.

Power supply: A circuit that convers AC line voltage to DC voltage and
supplies constant power to operate a circuit system.

one part of a power supply. 𝟒𝐕 Ripple Factor : Vr(pp) Vdc Peak-to-peak ripple voltage: 𝟏 𝐕𝐫(𝐩𝐩) = 𝐟∗𝐑𝐋∗𝐂 ∗ 𝐕𝐩(𝐫𝐞𝐜) 𝟏 DC output voltage: 𝑽𝒅𝒄 = (𝟏 − 𝟐𝒇∗𝑹𝑳∗𝑪)𝑽𝒑(𝒓𝒆𝒄) .  Regulator: An electronic circuit or circuit that maintains an essential constant output voltage for a range of input voltage or load values. Ratio of the ripple voltage at the DC output voltage. 𝟕 𝐍(𝐬𝐞𝐜) 𝐍(𝐩𝐫𝐢) ∗ 𝐕(𝐩𝐫𝐢) 𝟐𝑽𝒑 𝝅 Bridge Full-wave output: 𝐕𝐩(𝐨𝐮𝐭) = 𝐕𝐩(𝐬𝐞𝐜) − 𝟏. Formulas Half-wave average Value : 𝐕𝐚𝐯𝐠 = 𝐕𝐏 𝛑 Peak half-wave rectifier output (silicon): Transformer secondary voltage: 𝐕(𝐬𝐞𝐜) = Full-Wave Average value: 𝑽𝒂𝒗𝒈 = 𝐕𝐩(𝐨𝐮𝐭) = 𝐕𝐩(𝐢𝐧) − 𝟎.  Ripple Factor: A measure of effectiveness of a power supply filter in reducing the ripple voltage. *Rectifier: An electronic circuit that converts AC voltage Into DC voltage.

𝟔𝟎𝟗𝒙𝟏𝟎−𝟏𝟗 𝑻 = (𝑨𝒃𝒔𝒐𝒍𝒖𝒕𝒆 𝒕𝒆𝒎𝒑𝒆𝒓𝒂𝒕𝒖𝒓𝒆 + 𝟐𝟕𝟑) 𝑲𝒆𝒍𝒗𝒊𝒏 𝑽𝒃𝒊𝒂𝒔−𝑽𝒇 𝑹𝑳𝒊𝒎𝒊𝒕 .𝑽𝒃𝒊𝒂𝒔 Forward Current ideal diode model: 𝑰𝒇 = 𝑹𝑳𝒊𝒎𝒊𝒕 Forward Current. Practical diode model: 𝑰𝒇 = 𝑽𝑫 𝑰𝑫 = 𝑰𝒔(𝒆𝒏𝑽𝑻 − 𝟏) 𝑽𝒕 = 𝒌𝑻 𝒒 𝒘𝒉𝒆𝒓𝒆: 𝒌 = 𝟏. 𝟑𝟖𝒙𝟏𝟎−𝟐𝟑 𝒒 = 𝟏.