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8.044 Statistical Physics I
Spring 2008

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044 L26B1 .Thermal Radiation Radiation in thermal equilibrium with its surroundings E0 B0 k k· i(   E = E0 e r−ωt) ω = c|k|  = B0 ei(k·r−ωt) B 1k × E0 /c B0 =  8.

u( ν.044 L26B2 .T) Peaks near hν = 3kB T (h/kB ∼ 5 × 10−11 K-sec) ν 8.Time average energy flux  0 |2 u = 12 0|E jE = (cu)  1k Time average pressure (⊥ to k) P =u Time average energy density Thermal radiation has a continuous distribution of frequencies.

black holes 8.Spectral Region ν (Hz) T (K) Radio 106 5 × 10−5 Microwave 1010 0. × 1015 2 × 104 sun’s surface Ultraviolet 1016 5 × 105 X ray 1018 5 × 107 γ ray 1021 5 × 1010 Visible 1 2 Thermal Rad.5 cosmic background Infrared 1013 5 × 102 room temp.044 L26B3 .

T) ENERGY ABSORBED ENERGY INCIDENT ISOTROPIC EMISSIVE POWER e( ν.ABSORPTIVITY α( ν.T) ENERGY EMITTED AREA ISOTROPIC 8.044 L26B4 .

044 L26B5 . IN AND OUT OF CAVITY B TB CAVITY A TA CAVITY B FILTER: FREQUENCY OR POLARIZATION ASSUME TA = T B AND THERMAL EQUILIBRIUM 8.THERMAL RADIATION: PROPERTIES 2 ENERGY FLUXES.

044 L26B6 .CONCLUSIONS: • u(ν. T ) is independent of shape and wall material • u(ν. T ) is unpolarized 8. T ) is isotropic • u(ν.

044 L26B7 .CONSIDER AN OBJECT IN THE CAVITY. IN THERMAL EQUILIBRIUM COMPUTE THE ENERGY FLUX T dA t c∆ θ n ∆A 8.

 ∆E = (E in cylinder) p(θ.044 L26B8 . T ) 8. φ) dθ dφ  =  sin θ 1 (u ∆A cos θ c∆t) 2 2π = c u ∆A ∆t  π/2 0  dθ dφ  2π 1 cos θ sin θ dθ dφ 0 2π  2    1/4 1 ⇒ energy flux onto dA = 14 c u(ν.

Momentum Flux Plane wave momentum density |∆p| = 2|p⊥| since 1k p  = uc  p ⊥ in = − p⊥ out 8.044 L26B9 .

T ) ∆A ∆t  π/2 0 cos2 θ sin θ dθ  1/3 =  2π  0 1 dφ 2π   1 1 u(ν. T ) ∆A ∆t 3 ⇒ P (T ) = 1 3  ∞ 0 u(ν.044 L26B10 .|∆p|ν =   2 cos θ  c (E in cylinder) p(θ. φ) dθ dφ = u(ν. T ) dν 8.

8. Eout = Ein e dA = α ( 14 c u(ν. T ) 4 This ratio has a universal form for all materials. The result is known as KIRCHOFF’S LAW.044 L26B11 .Apply detailed balance to the object in the cavity. T ) 1 c u(ν. T )) dA e(ν. T ) ⇒ = α(ν.

044 L26B12 . T ) = 1 4 c u(ν. T ) 8. T ) OVEN CAVITY AT T Measure e(ν.Black Body Radiation If α ≡ 1 ≡ “Black” Then e(ν. T ) and obtain u(ν.