You are on page 1of 19

Draft4

KaitlynBishay
P.3
18December2015

ConsentonCollegeCampuses

Nomeansno.Yesmeansyes.Issuchsimpleterminologyenoughtodefinethedifference
betweenconsensualsexandrapeoncollegecampuses?Thelawseemstothinkso.Butwith
casualsexualassaultoncollegeontheriseoneinfourfemalestudentswillbeavictimof
1
attemptedorcompletedrapeinherfirstyearofcollege
theselawsarenowmorenecessarythan
ever.Humansareaspectrum,andunfortunatelyforthoseinuniversitiesacrossthecountry,this
meansthelawwillnotnecessarilyprotecttheirrightstothefullest.WhiletheadoptionofYes
meansyeslawsinCaliforniacollegesisastepintherightdirection,thegovernmentwillnever
beabletocompletelyquantifywhatisandisnotrape,especiallyinthecaseofhookupculturein
Americasmanycolleges.
Collegecampuseshavebecomeaveritablebreedinggroundfordaterapistsandsexual
assaultinallofitsforms.Whilerapeshouldbeaconcernforbothsexes,thereisacleartrendin
thenumberofmalerapiststofemalevictimsthananyothercombination.Andatanyschool,
rapetestimoniescanbefoundwithaquickGooglesearch,anditbecomesclearmanyschools
arenotabletohelpthevictimsbasedonwhatthelawcovers.Onesuchtestimonyreads
My
experiencewithsexoncampuswastheoppositeofwhatIexpected...Wearprotection,everyone
says,asifthatsallthatmatters.Butcondomsdidntprotectmyheart,andcontraceptiondoesnt
2
paymytherapybills
.Thiswomanwasunabletoexpressherdiscontent,anddidntknowwhat
todo[whenmenweremakingunwantedsexualadvances]andjustwentalongwithit.WhenI
didntwantit,Idprefertogetitoverwithfastinsteadofhavingconflict.Anysenseofexplicit
3
consentwasbecomingmurky
.Manyyoungwomenaregettingthemselvesintodangerous
4
situationsduetotheproliferationofrapeculture
,whichteachesthemthatsayingnoisuseless
and,asaresult,theydont.AnotherexampleofthiscanbeseenintheSteubenvilleHighSchool
Scandal,backin2012.Ayoungwomanwasrapedataparty,andtheevidencewaspostedall
overtheinternet.Oneofherrapistswasreinstatedontheschoolfootballteam,withminimal
5
consequencesfromhisschool,
showingjusthowlittleherschoolcaredabouthersafetyandthe
seriousnessofhiscase.Thiswasthekindofsexualassaultthatwouldnothavebeenreportedby
thoseunderthenomeansnolaw,despitethatthewomandidnotwantit.Shefeltitwouldonly
beworseforherifshespokeupsoshedidnt.Inanareawherewomenarephysicallysmaller
andweakerthantheir(typically)maleaggressors,sayingnotosexualadvancescouldlandthem
inanevenworsestate.
Consentisaprivilege,anditwasbuiltforwealthy,heterosexual,cis,
white,western,ablebodiedmasculinity.Whensocietyhastaught[us]...totakeallattentionas
flattery,andtobetrulygratefulthatanyoneatallcouldwantourbodiesorlove,itisntalways

6
ourchoicetosayyes
.Becauseofthewaysocietyhastaughtwomentoholdthemselves,the
powerdisparitybetweenmenandwomenhasonlywidened.
Inrecentyears,thegovernmenthaspassedmanylawsinordertolimitthenumberof
rapesoncollegecampuses,buthavenotbeenabletogettotherootoftheproblem.InCalifornia
colleges,[a]n
ewlawwillrequireallschoolsthatreceivestatefundingtoadoptanaffirmative
consentstandardintheirsexualassaultpolicies.Thisstandard,alsosometimescalledyes
7.
meansyes,requiresclearandongoingconsent,ratherthanjustanabsenceofresistance
This
lawisgroundbreaking,asmanycollegeshavestandardsofaffirmativeconsent,butthisisthe
firstinstanceinwhichanentirestatehasstandardizeditsviewsonrapeoncampus.Thislaw
picksupwheretheNomeansnolawleavesoff,asittargetsallsexthatisnotmetwithayes
asrape.Whilethismayseemliketoomuch,italsomakessurethatallparticipantsareactively
involvedinthedecisionswithinandaboutsex.Theabsenceofanodoesnotalwaysmeanayes,
andneitherdoesayeswhenparticipantsaretoointoxicated(bydrugsoralcohol)tothinkclearly
andmakedecisions.Therequirementofayesinordertothecontinuationofallsexualactivity
willalsoensurevictimsareclearandcantakeactionagainsttheiraggressors.Theaffirmative
consentstandardwillhelpchangetherevictimizing,insensitivereportingprocedures,instead
8
allowingstudentstoseekhelpandholdperpetratorsaccountable
.InthecaseoftheNomeans
nolawinplacebeforetherecentupheaval,anypersonwhodidnotactivelyprotestsexual
activitywasconsideredawillingparticipant.Now,evenifapersonisokaywiththefirststages
ofsexualactivity,iftheydeterminetheyarenolongercomfortablewithwhatishappening,they
reservetherighttostopactivityandarenotexpectedtocontinueon.Allofthesethingsarea
stepintherightdirectiontoloweringsexualassaultstatisticsoncollegecampuses.
Currently,themostcitedargumentagainsttheyesmeansyeslawisfromstudentswho
believeconsentisnotsexyandkillsthemood.Thiscomplainthasbeencirculatingthemediafor
decadesinresponsetoAntiochCollegesaffirmativeconsentlawinSNLsskitIsItDate
Rape?,whichfeaturestwostudentsanalyzingroboticcollegestudents,mockingthelackof
9
spontaneityundertherule
.However,thisargumentismostlikelyperpetuatedbythesame
peoplewhoaremoreconcernedwithwhatsexwillbringthemratherthanthewellbeingoftheir
partner.Withopendialoguesaboutsexandwhatisworkingandisnotworkinginsexual
encounters,bothpartnerscanworktogethertoensuresexispleasurableforbothparties.
A
personwhoconsentstoonethingmaynotconsenttoanother.Women(andmen)havetofeel
safeindicatingyesandnothroughoutasexualencounter,ratherthangettingthe
10
conversationoutofthewayupfront
.Theyesmeansyeslegislationmakesiteasiertotalk
aboutsexbecauseitisrequired.Therearesexywaystoaskforconsent,butitisalsoimportant
thatthoseinvolvedinsexualactivitiesarematureenoughtohaveconversationsaboutwhatis
andisnotacceptablebeforehand.AstheWashingtonPostsays(albeit,inastiff,awkwardtone),
itisuptothoseinvolvedtomakeconsentsexyandfun.Whetherthatiswithpickuplinesorwith
11
questionseverystepoftheprocess,itisasteptoprotecttherightsofallpeopleoncampus
.

Sexualconsentisandalwayswillbeaspectrum.Realistically,theonlywaytoprovewithout
ashadowofadoubtthatrapeisorisnotrapeiswithavideorecordingofallsexualencounters.
However,alsorealistically,mostpeoplewillnotdothis,forvariousreasons.Althoughrapewill
neverbefullyquantified,evenwithallofitsdrawbacks,theYesmeansYeslawisastepin
therightdirectionforallCaliforniacolleges,asitopensdialoguesaboutsexandwhatisandis
notworkingwithinsexualpartners.Italsobringsattentiontotheplightofthevictim,tryingits
besttomoveawayfromrapeculturesvictimblaming.Consentcanandshouldbesexy.
CaliforniasYesmeansYesYeslawisanattempttoshiftthefocusofcampusrelationships
tothewellbeingofothers.

EndNotes
KellyWallace,

StudyHasMoreDisturbingFindingsAboutCampusRapeofFreshmen
Women,
CNN,
lastmodifiedMay20,2015,

http://www.cnn.com/2015/05/20/living
/featrapefreshmenwomennewstudy/
2
AliceOwens,MyRapeConvincedMeThatCampusHookupCultureisReallyMessed
Up,
VerilyMag,
lastmodifiedJuly6,2015,
http://verilymag.com/2015/07/sexualassault

campus
hookupculturedaterape
3
Owens,CampusHookupCulture
4
Rapecultureisdefinedasasocietyinwhichrapeisnormalizedbygendernormsand
relatedsexualities.Itcausessuchphenomenaassexualobjectification,victim
blamingandeventhedismissalofrapesduetoconfusednotionsabout(typically
female)sexuality.Patriarchalsocietiesandtheideathatmenexisttodominate
womenpushthisideaforward,andrapeculturedoesitsbesttoforcewomento
shrinkandbecomesmallandcompliant.
5
DavidMoye,
SteubenvilleRapistMa'likRichmondBackToPlayingHighSchool
Football,
TheHuffingtonPost,
lastmodifiedAugust12,2014,
http://www.huffingtonpost

.com/2014/08/11/
malikrichmond_n_5669903.html
6
JordanBosiljevac,WhyYesCanMeanNo,
TheForum,
lastmodifiedApril30,2015,

http://cmcforum.com/opinion/04302015whyyescanmeanno
7
MeredithClark,CaliforniaGovernorSignsYesMeansYesCampusSexualAssault
Bill,
MSNBC,
lastmodifiedSeptember29,2015,
http://www.msnbc.com/msnbc/california

governor
signsyesmeansyescampussexualassaultbill#54395
8
Clark,CaliforniaGovernor
9
SNL,IsItDateRape?,
NYMag
video,6:33.2015,

http://videos.nymag.com/video/SNLIsItDateRape#c=BB9NHV1
49LVRFTHZ&
t=SNL:'IsItDateRape?'
10
AnnFriedman,OhYesMeansYes:TheJoyofAffirmativeConsent,
TheCut,
lastmodified
October2,2014,
http://nymag.com/thecut/2014/10/ohyesmeansyesthejoyof

affirmativeconsent.html#
11
JustinMoyer,HowCaliforniasYesMeansYesConsentLawCanbeSexy,
The
WashingtonPost,
lastmodifiedSeptember29,2014,
https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/

morningmix/wp/
2014/09/29/howcaliforniasyesmeansyesconsentlawcanbesexy/

Bibliography

Bosiljevac
,Jordan.WhyYesCanMeanNo
TheForum.
LastmodifiedApril30,2015.

http://cmcforum.com/opinion/04302015whyyescanmeanno

Clark,Meredith.CaliforniaGovernorSignsYesMeansYesCampusSexualAssault
BillLastmodifiedSeptember29,2015.
MSNBC.
http://www.msnbc.com/msnbc/california

governor
signsyesmeansyescampussexualassaultbill#54395

Friedman,Ann.OhYesMeansYes:TheJoyofAffirmativeConsent
TheCut.
LastModified
October2,2014.
http://nymag.com/thecut/2014/10/ohyesmeansyesthejoyof

affirmativeconsent.html#

Moye,David.
SteubenvilleRapistMa'likRichmondBackToPlayingHighSchool
Football
TheHuffingtonPost.
LastModifiedAugust12,2014.
http://www.huffington

post.com/2014/08/11/
malikrichmond_n_5669903.html

Moyer,Justin.HowCaliforniasYesMeansYesConsentLawCanbeSexy
TheWashington
Post.
LastmodifiedSeptember29,2014.
https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/morning

mix/wp/
2014/09/29/howcaliforniasyesmeansyesconsentlawcanbesexy/

Owens,Alice.MyRapeConvincedMeThatCampusHookupCultureisReallyMessed
Up
VerilyMag.
LastmodifiedJuly6,2015.
http://verilymag.com/2015/07/sexualassault

campus
hookupculturedaterape

SaturdayNightLive.IsItDateRape?
NYMag
video,6:33.Lastmodified2015.

http://videos.nymag.com/video/SNLIsItDateRape#c=BB9NHV1
49LVRFTHZ&
t=SNL:'IsItDateRape?'

Wallace,Kelly.
StudyHasMoreDisturbingFindingsAboutCampusRapeofFreshmen
Women

CNN
.
LastmodifiedMay20,2015.

http://www.cnn.com/2015/05/20/living
/featrapefreshmenwomennewstudy/

ProblemsPersistedcheckedformatagainstaclassmatewithminimal/noerrorsinthe
bibliography

Draft3
KaitlynBishay
P.3
7December2015

ConsentonCollegeCampuses

Nomeansno.Yesmeansyes.Issuchsimpleterminologyenoughtodefinethedifference
betweenconsensualsexandrapeoncollegecampuses?Thelawseemstothinkso.Butwith
casualsexualassaultoncollegeontheriseoneinfourfemalestudentswillbeavictimof
1
attemptedorcompletedrapeinherfirstyearofcollege
theselawsarenowmorenecessarythan
ever.Humansareaspectrum,andunfortunatelyforthoseinuniversitiesacrossthecountry,this
meansthelawwillnotnecessarilyprotecttheirrightstothefullest.WhiletheadoptionofYes
meansyeslawsinCaliforniacollegesisastepintherightdirection,thegovernmentwillnever
beabletocompletelyquantifywhatisandisnotrape,especiallyinthecaseofhookupculturein
Americasmanycolleges.
Collegecampuseshavebecomeaveritablebreedinggroundfordaterapistsandsexual
assaultinallofitsforms.Whilerapeshouldbeaconcernforbothsexes,thereisacleartrendin
thenumberofmalerapiststofemalevictimsthananyothercombination.Andatanyschool,
rapetestimoniescanbefoundwithaquickGooglesearch,anditbecomesclearmanyschools
arenotabletohelpthevictimsbasedonwhatthelawcovers.Onesuchtestimonyreads
My
experiencewithsexoncampuswastheoppositeofwhatIexpected...Wearprotection,everyone
says,asifthatsallthatmatters.Butcondomsdidntprotectmyheart,andcontraceptiondoesnt
2
paymytherapybills
.Thiswomanwasunabletoexpressherdiscontent,anddidntknowwhat
todo[whenmenweremakingunwantedsexualadvances]andjustwentalongwithit.WhenI
didntwantit,Idprefertogetitoverwithfastinsteadofhavingconflict.Anysenseofexplicit
3
consentwasbecomingmurky
.Manyyoungwomenaregettingthemselvesintodangerous
4
situationsduetotheproliferationofrapeculture
,whichteachesthemthatsayingnoisuseless
and,asaresult,theydont.AnotherexampleofthiscanbeseenintheSteubenvilleHighSchool
Scandal,backin2012.Ayoungwomanwasrapedataparty,andtheevidencewaspostedall
overtheinternet.Oneofherrapistswasreinstatedontheschoolfootballteam,withminimal
5
consequencesfromhisschool,
showingjusthowlittleherschoolcaredabouthersafetyandthe
seriousnessofhiscase.Thiswasthekindofsexualassaultthatwouldnothavebeenreportedby
thoseunderthenomeansnolaw,despitethatthewomandidnotwantit.Shefeltitwouldonly
beworseforherifshespokeupsoshedidnt.Inanareawherewomenarephysicallysmaller
andweakerthantheir(typically)maleaggressors,sayingnotosexualadvancescouldlandthem

inanevenworsestate.
Consentisaprivilege,anditwasbuiltforwealthy,heterosexual,cis,
white,western,ablebodiedmasculinity.Whensocietyhastaught[us]...totakeallattentionas
flattery,andtobetrulygratefulthatanyoneatallcouldwantourbodiesorlove,itisntalways
6
ourchoicetosayyes
.Becauseofthewaysocietyhastaughtwomentoholdthemselves,the
powerdisparitybetweenmenandwomenhasonlywidened.
Inrecentyears,thegovernmenthaspassedmanylawsinordertolimitthenumberof
rapesoncollegecampuses,buthavenotbeenabletogettotherootoftheproblem.InCalifornia
colleges,[a]n
ewlawwillrequireallschoolsthatreceivestatefundingtoadoptanaffirmative
consentstandardintheirsexualassaultpolicies.Thisstandard,alsosometimescalledyes
7.
meansyes,requiresclearandongoingconsent,ratherthanjustanabsenceofresistance
This
lawisgroundbreaking,asmanycollegeshavestandardsofaffirmativeconsent,butthisisthe
firstinstanceinwhichanentirestatehasstandardizeditsviewsonrapeoncampus.Thislaw
picksupwheretheNomeansnolawleavesoff,asittargetsallsexthatisnotmetwithayes
asrape.Whilethismayseemliketoomuch,italsomakessurethatallparticipantsareactively
involvedinthedecisionswithinandaboutsex.Theabsenceofanodoesnotalwaysmeanayes,
andneitherdoesayeswhenparticipantsaretoointoxicated(bydrugsoralcohol)tothinkclearly
andmakedecisions.Therequirementofayesinordertothecontinuationofallsexualactivity
willalsoensurevictimsareclearandcantakeactionagainsttheiraggressors.Theaffirmative
consentstandardwillhelpchangetherevictimizing,insensitivereportingprocedures,instead
8
allowingstudentstoseekhelpandholdperpetratorsaccountable
.InthecaseoftheNomeans
nolawinplacebeforetherecentupheaval,anypersonwhodidnotactivelyprotestsexual
activitywasconsideredawillingparticipant.Now,evenifapersonisokaywiththefirststages
ofsexualactivity,iftheydeterminetheyarenolongercomfortablewithwhatishappening,they
reservetherighttostopactivityandarenotexpectedtocontinueon.Allofthesethingsarea
stepintherightdirectiontoloweringsexualassaultstatisticsoncollegecampuses.
Currently,themostcitedargumentagainsttheyesmeansyeslawisfromstudentswho
believeconsentisnotsexyandkillsthemood.Thiscomplainthasbeencirculatingthemediafor
decadesinresponsetoAntiochCollegesaffirmativeconsentlawinSNLsskitIsItDate
Rape?,whichfeaturestwostudentsanalyzingroboticcollegestudents,mockingthelackof
9
spontaneityundertherule
.However,thisargumentismostlikelyperpetuatedbythesame
peoplewhoaremoreconcernedwithwhatsexwillbringthemratherthanthewellbeingoftheir
partner.Withopendialoguesaboutsexandwhatisworkingandisnotworkinginsexual
encounters,bothpartnerscanworktogethertoensuresexispleasurableforbothparties.
A
personwhoconsentstoonethingmaynotconsenttoanother.Women(andmen)havetofeel
safeindicatingyesandnothroughoutasexualencounter,ratherthangettingthe
10
conversationoutofthewayupfront
.Theyesmeansyeslegislationmakesiteasiertotalk
aboutsexbecauseitisrequired.Therearesexywaystoaskforconsent,butitisalsoimportant
thatthoseinvolvedinsexualactivitiesarematureenoughtohaveconversationsaboutwhatis
andisnotacceptablebeforehand.AstheWashingtonPostsays(albeit,inastiff,awkwardtone),

itisuptothoseinvolvedtomakeconsentsexyandfun.Whetherthatiswithpickuplinesorwith
11
questionseverystepoftheprocess,itisasteptoprotecttherightsofallpeopleoncampus
.
Sexualconsentisandalwayswillbeaspectrum.Realistically,theonlywaytoprovewithout
ashadowofadoubtthatrapeisorisnotrapeiswithavideorecordingofallsexualencounters.
However,alsorealistically,mostpeoplewillnotdothis,forvariousreasons.Althoughrapewill
neverbefullyquantified,evenwithallofitsdrawbacks,theYesmeansYeslawisastepin
therightdirectionforallCaliforniacolleges,asitopensdialoguesaboutsexandwhatisandis
notworkingwithinsexualpartners.Italsobringsattentiontotheplightofthevictim,tryingits
besttomoveawayfromrapeculturesvictimblaming.Consentcanandshouldbesexy.
CaliforniasYesmeansYesYeslawisanattempttoshiftthefocusofcampusrelationships
tothewellbeingofothers.

Endnotes(shouldbeEndNotes)
1
KellyWallace,

StudyHasMoreDisturbingFindingsAboutCampusRapeofFreshmen
Women
.

CNN,
lastmodifiedMay20,2015,

http://www.cnn.com/2015/05/20/living
/featrapefreshmenwomennewstudy/
2
AliceOwens,MyRapeConvincedMeThatCampusHookupCultureisReallyMessed
Up
.

VerilyMag,
lastmodifiedJuly6,2015,
http://verilymag.com/2015/07/sexualassault

campus
hookupculturedaterape
3
Owens,CampusHookupCulture
4
Rapecultureisdefinedasasocietyinwhichrapeisnormalizedbygendernormsand
relatedsexualities.Itcausessuchphenomenaassexualobjectification,victim
blamingandeventhedismissalofrapesduetoconfusednotionsabout(typically
female)sexuality.Patriarchalsocietiesandtheideathatmenexisttodominate
womenpushthisideaforward,andrapeculturedoesitsbesttoforcewomento
shrinkandbecomesmallandcompliant.
5
DavidMoye,
SteubenvilleRapistMa'likRichmondBackToPlayingHighSchool
Football
,

TheHuffingtonPost,
last
Modified
August12,2014,
http://www.huffingtonpost

.com/2014/08/11/
malikrichmond_n_5669903.html
6
JordanBosiljevac,WhyYesCanMeanNo
.

TheForum,
lastmodifiedApril30,2015,

http://cmcforum.com/opinion/04302015whyyescanmeanno
7
MeredithClark,CaliforniaGovernorSignsYesMeansYesCampusSexualAssault
Bill
.

MSNBC,
lastmodifiedSeptember29,2015,
http://www.msnbc.com/msnbc/california

governor
signsyesmeansyescampussexualassaultbill#54395
8
Clark,CaliforniaGovernor
9
SNL,IsItDateRape?
,

NYMag
video,6:33.2015,

http://videos.nymag.com/video/SNLIsItDateRape#c=BB9NHV1
49LVRFTHZ&
t=SNL:'IsItDateRape?'

AnnFriedman,OhYesMeansYes:TheJoyofAffirmativeConsen
t.

TheCut,
lastmodified
October2,2014,
http://nymag.com/thecut/2014/10/ohyesmeansyesthejoyof

affirmativeconsent.html#
11
JustinMoyer,HowCaliforniasYesMeansYesConsentLawCanbeSexy
.

The
WashingtonPost,
lastmodifiedSeptember29,2014,
https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/

morningmix/wp/
2014/09/29/howcaliforniasyesmeansyesconsentlawcanbesexy/

Bibliography

Bosiljevac
,Jordan.WhyYesCanMeanNo
.

TheForum.
LastmodifiedApril30,2015.

http://cmcforum.com/opinion/04302015whyyescanmeanno

Clark,Meredith.CaliforniaGovernorSignsYesMeansYesCampusSexualAssault
Bill
.
LastmodifiedSeptember29,2015.
MSNBC.
http://www.msnbc.com/msnbc/california

governor
signsyesmeansyescampussexualassaultbill#54395

Friedman,Ann.OhYesMeansYes:TheJoyofAffirmativeConsent
.

TheCut.
LastModified
October2,2014.
http://nymag.com/thecut/2014/10/ohyesmeansyesthejoyof

affirmativeconsent.html#

Moye,David.
SteubenvilleRapistMa'likRichmondBackToPlayingHighSchool
Football
TheHuffingtonPost.
LastModifiedAugust12,2014.
http://www.huffington

post.com/2014/08/11/
malikrichmond_n_5669903.html

Moyer,Justin.HowCaliforniasYesMeansYesConsentLawCanbeSexy
.

TheWashington
Post.
LastmodifiedSeptember29,2014.
https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/morning

mix/wp/
2014/09/29/howcaliforniasyesmeansyesconsentlawcanbesexy/

Owens,Alice.MyRapeConvincedMeThatCampusHookupCultureisReallyMessed
U
p.

VerilyMag.
LastmodifiedJuly6,2015.
http://verilymag.com/2015/07/sexualassault

campus
hookupculturedaterape

SaturdayNightLive.IsItDateRape?
.

NYMag
video,6:33.
Lastmodified
2015.
10


http://videos.nymag.com/video/SNLIsItDateRape#c=BB9NHV1
49LVRFTHZ&
t=SNL:'IsItDateRape?'

Wallace,Kelly.
StudyHasMoreDisturbingFindingsAboutCampusRapeofFreshmen
Women
.

CNN
.
LastmodifiedMay20,2015.

http://www.cnn.com/2015/05/20/living
/featrapefreshmenwomennewstudy/

ALLSITESHAVEDATES
FOOTNOTESCORRESPONDTOBIBLIOGRAPHY
ALLREFERENCESHAVEBEENACCOUNTEDFORPREVIOUSLY
AllIcouldfindwereminorpunctuationerrors&onecapitalizationerror

Goodgreen
Badred
Yesatleast10citationsareused.
Superscriptsusedconsecutivelyandeffectively

Footnote/Endnoteerror

noaccessdateforwebsite,
couldnotfindthiserror.
Therewasatleastonediscussionfootnote.,
Missinginformationincompletereferences.,
YourFootnotesdonotmatchyourBibliography.
minimalornowritingerrors(didnotfocusonthis)
Theessayiswellargued,
Thediscussionfootnotemadesensetobeoutsidethemainessay.
Aminimumofsourceswereusedinthepaper.,
Allthesourcesinthispaperarecredibleandacademic.
minimalornoerrorsinbibliography
averagewriting

Theendnotesneedwork.

Yourargumentmakessenseandwaspersuasive.

Iknewmyproblemswerethesameonespointedout,andspentmytimelookingatmysources,
somycorrectionsareverysimilartoGens
Rainbowcolorstomatchendnotes/bibliography

Draft2

KaitlynBishay
P.3
12November2015

ConsentonCollegeCampuses

Nomeansno.Yesmeansyes.Issuchsimpleterminologyenoughtodefinethedifference
betweenconsensualsexandrapeoncollegecampuses?Thelawseemstothinkso.Butwith
casualsexualassaultoncollegeontheriseoneinfourfemalestudentswillbeavictimof
1
attemptedorcompletedrapeinherfirstyearofcollege
theselawsarenowmorenecessarythan
ever.Humansareaspectrum,andunfortunatelyforthoseinuniversitiesacrossthecountry,this
meansthelawwillnotnecessarilyprotecttheirrightstothefullest.WhiletheadoptionofYes
meansyeslawsinCaliforniacollegesisastepintherightdirection,thegovernmentwillnever
beabletocompletelyquantifywhatisandisnotrape,especiallyinthecaseofhookupculturein
Americasmanycolleges.
Collegecampuseshavebecomeaveritablebreedinggroundfordaterapistsandsexual
assaultinallofitsforms.Whilerapeshouldbeaconcernforbothsexes,thereisacleartrendin
thenumberofmalerapiststofemalevictimsthananyothercombination.Andatanyschool,
rapetestimoniescanbefoundwithaquickGooglesearch,anditbecomesclearmanyschools
arenotabletohelpthevictimsbasedonwhatthelawcovers.Onesuchtestimonyreads
My
experiencewithsexoncampuswastheoppositeofwhatIexpected...Wearprotection,everyone
says,asifthatsallthatmatters.Butcondomsdidntprotectmyheart,andcontraceptiondoesnt
2
paymytherapybills
.Thiswomanwasunabletoexpressherdiscontent,anddidntknowwhat
todo[whenmenweremakingunwantedsexualadvances]andjustwentalongwithit.WhenI
didntwantit,Idprefertogetitoverwithfastinsteadofhavingconflict.Anysenseofexplicit
3
consentwasbecomingmurky
.Manyyoungwomenaregettingthemselvesintodangerous
4
situationsduetotheproliferationofrapeculture
,whichteachesthemthatsayingnoisuseless
and,asaresult,theydont.AnotherexampleofthiscanbeseenintheSteubenvilleHighSchool
Scandal,backin2012.Ayoungwomanwasrapedataparty,andtheevidencewaspostedall
overtheinternet.Oneofherrapistswasreinstatedontheschoolfootballteam,withminimal
5
consequencesfromhisschool,
showingjusthowlittleherschoolcaredabouthersafetyandthe
seriousnessofhiscase.Thiswasthekindofsexualassaultthatwouldnothavebeenreportedby
thoseunderthenomeansnolaw,despitethatthewomandidnotwantit.Shefeltitwouldonly
beworseforherifshespokeupsoshedidnt.Inanareawherewomenarephysicallysmaller
andweakerthantheir(typically)maleaggressors,sayingnotosexualadvancescouldlandthem
inanevenworsestate.
Consentisaprivilege,anditwasbuiltforwealthy,heterosexual,cis,
white,western,ablebodiedmasculinity.Whensocietyhastaught[us]...totakeallattentionas

flattery,andtobetrulygratefulthatanyoneatallcouldwantourbodiesorlove,itisntalways
6
ourchoicetosayyes
.Becauseofthewaysocietyhastaughtwomentoholdthemselves,the
powerdisparitybetweenmenandwomenhasonlywidened.
Inrecentyears,thegovernmenthaspassedmanylawsinordertolimitthenumberof
rapesoncollegecampuses,buthavenotbeenabletogettotherootoftheproblem.InCalifornia
colleges,[a]n
ewlawwillrequireallschoolsthatreceivestatefundingtoadoptanaffirmative
consentstandardintheirsexualassaultpolicies.Thisstandard,alsosometimescalledyes
7.
meansyes,requiresclearandongoingconsent,ratherthanjustanabsenceofresistance
This
lawisgroundbreaking,asmanycollegeshavestandardsofaffirmativeconsent,butthisisthe
firstinstanceinwhichanentirestatehasstandardizeditsviewsonrapeoncampus.Thislaw
picksupwheretheNomeansnolawleavesoff,asittargetsallsexthatisnotmetwithayes
asrape.Whilethismayseemliketoomuch,italsomakessurethatallparticipantsareactively
involvedinthedecisionswithinandaboutsex.Theabsenceofanodoesnotalwaysmeanayes,
andneitherdoesayeswhenparticipantsaretoointoxicated(bydrugsoralcohol)tothinkclearly
andmakedecisions.Therequirementofayesinordertothecontinuationofallsexualactivity
willalsoensurevictimsareclearandcantakeactionagainsttheiraggressors.Theaffirmative
consentstandardwillhelpchangetherevictimizing,insensitivereportingprocedures,instead
8
allowingstudentstoseekhelpandholdperpetratorsaccountable
.InthecaseoftheNomeans
nolawinplacebeforetherecentupheaval,anypersonwhodidnotactivelyprotestsexual
activitywasconsideredawillingparticipant.Now,evenifapersonisokaywiththefirststages
ofsexualactivity,iftheydeterminetheyarenolongercomfortablewithwhatishappening,they
reservetherighttostopactivityandarenotexpectedtocontinueon.Allofthesethingsarea
stepintherightdirectiontoloweringsexualassaultstatisticsoncollegecampuses.
Currently,themostcitedargumentagainsttheyesmeansyeslawisfromstudentswho
believeconsentisnotsexyandkillsthemood.Thiscomplainthasbeencirculatingthemediafor
decadesinresponsetoAntiochCollegesaffirmativeconsentlawinSNLsskitIsItDate
Rape?,whichfeaturestwostudentsanalyzingroboticcollegestudents,mockingthelackof
9
spontaneityundertherule
.However,thisargumentismostlikelyperpetuatedbythesame
peoplewhoaremoreconcernedwithwhatsexwillbringthemratherthanthewellbeingoftheir
partner.Withopendialoguesaboutsexandwhatisworkingandisnotworkinginsexual
encounters,bothpartnerscanworktogethertoensuresexispleasurableforbothparties.
A
personwhoconsentstoonethingmaynotconsenttoanother.Women(andmen)havetofeel
safeindicatingyesandnothroughoutasexualencounter,ratherthangettingthe
10
conversationoutofthewayupfront
.Theyesmeansyeslegislationmakesiteasiertotalk
aboutsexbecauseitisrequired.Therearesexywaystoaskforconsent,butitisalsoimportant
thatthoseinvolvedinsexualactivitiesarematureenoughtohaveconversationsaboutwhatis
andisnotacceptablebeforehand.AstheWashingtonPostsays(albeit,inastiff,awkwardtone),
itisuptothoseinvolvedtomakeconsentsexyandfun.Whetherthatiswithpickuplinesorwith
11
questionseverystepoftheprocess,itisasteptoprotecttherightsofallpeopleoncampus
.

Sexualconsentisandalwayswillbeaspectrum.Realistically,theonlywaytoprovewithout
ashadowofadoubtthatrapeisorisnotrapeiswithavideorecordingofallsexualencounters.
However,alsorealistically,mostpeoplewillnotdothis,forvariousreasons.Althoughrapewill
neverbefullyquantified,evenwithallofitsdrawbacks,theYesmeansYeslawisastepin
therightdirectionforallCaliforniacolleges,asitopensdialoguesaboutsexandwhatisandis
notworkingwithinsexualpartners.Italsobringsattentiontotheplightofthevictim,tryingits
besttomoveawayfromrapeculturesvictimblaming.Consentcanandshouldbesexy.
CaliforniasYesmeansYesYeslawisanattempttoshiftthefocusofcampusrelationships
tothewellbeingofothers.


Endnotes
(formattingruined,butformattingwasnttheissue)

NEEDNAME,
StudyHasMoreDisturbingFindingsAboutCampusRapeofFreshmen
Women.
NEEDNAMEOFPUBLISHER,
L
astmodifiedMay20,2015,
http://www.cnn.com/2015/05/20/living
/featrapefreshmenwomennewstudy/
2
NEEDNAME,
MyRapeConvincedMeThatCampusHookupCultureisReallyMessed
Up.

NEEDNAMEOFPUBLISHER,
LastmodifiedJuly6,2015,
http://verilymag.com/2015/07/sexualassault

campus
hookupculturedaterape
3

NEEDNAME,
CampusHookupCulture

WRONGFORMAT,NOQUOTESNEEDED
4
Rapecultureisdefinedasasocietyinwhichrapeisnormalizedbygendernormsand
relatedsexualities.Itcausessuchphenomenaassexualobjectification,victim
blamingandeventhedismissalofrapesduetoconfusednotionsabout(typically
female)sexuality.Patriarchalsocietiesandtheideathatmenexisttodominate
womenpushthisideaforward,andrapeculturedoesitsbesttoforcewomento
shrinkandbecomesmallandcompliant.
5
NEEDNAME,

SteubenvilleRapistMa'likRichmondBackToPlayingHighSchool
Football

NEEDNAMEOFPUBLISHER,
LastModifiedAugust12,2014.
http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2014/08/11/
malikrichmond_n_5669903.html
6

NEEDNAME,
WhyYesCanMeanNo.
NEEDNAMEOFPUBLISHER,

Lastmodified
April30,2015,

http://cmcforum.com/opinion/04302015whyyescanmeanno
7

NEEDNAME,
CaliforniaGovernorSignsYesMeansYes

NEEDNAMEOFPUBLISHER,
CampusSexualAssaultBill.LastmodifiedSeptember29,2015,
http://www.msnbc.com/msnbc/california

governor
signsyesmeansyescampussexualassaultbill#54395
8

NEEDNAME,
CaliforniaGovernor
WRONGFORMAT,NOQUOTESNEEDED
9

NEEDNAME,
IsItDateRape?
.
NYMag
video,6:33.

http://videos.nymag.com/video/SNLIsItDateRape#c=BB9NHV1
49LVRFTHZ&
t=SNL:'IsItDateRape?'
10
NEEDNAME,
OhYesMeansYes:TheJoyofAffirmativeConsent.

NEEDNAMEOF
PUBLISHER,

LastModified
October2,2014,
http://nymag.com/thecut/2014/10/ohyesmeansyesthejoyof

affirmativeconsent.html#
11
NEEDNAME,

HowCaliforniasYesMeansYesConsentLawCanbeSexy.

NEED
NAMEOFPUBLISHER,
LastmodifiedSeptember29,2014,
https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/morningmixwp/
2014/09/29/howcaliforniasyesmeans
yesconsentlawcanbesexy/
1

Bibliography

Bosiljevac
,Jordan.
WhyYesCanMeanNo.

NEEDNAMEOFPUBLISHER.
Lastmodified
April30,2015.

http://cmcforum.com/opinion/04302015whyyescanmeanno

Clark,Meredith.
CaliforniaGovernorSignsYesMeansYes

NEEDNAMEOFPUBLISHER.
CampusSexualAssault
Bill.LastmodifiedSeptember29,2015.
http://www.msnbc.com/msnbc/california

governor
signsyesmeansyescampussexualassaultbill#54395

Friedman,Ann.
OhYesMeansYes:TheJoyofAffirmativeConsent
.
NEEDNAMEOF
PUBLISHER.
LastModified
October2,2014.
http://nymag.com/thecut/2014/10/ohyesmeansyesthejoyof

affirmativeconsent.html#

Moye,David.
SteubenvilleRapistMa'likRichmondBackToPlayingHighSchool
Football
NEEDNAMEOFPUBLISHER.
LastModifiedAugust12,2014.
http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2014/08/11/
malikrichmond_n_5669903.html

Moyer,Justin.
HowCaliforniasYesMeansYesConsentLawCanbeSexy.

NEEDNAME
OFPUBLISHER.
Last
modifiedSeptember29,2014.
https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/morningmix/

wp/
2014/09/29/howcaliforniasyesmeansyesconsentlawcanbesexy/

Owens,Alice.
MyRapeConvincedMeThatCampusHookupCultureisReallyMessed
Up.

NEEDNAMEOFPUBLISHER.
LastmodifiedJuly6,2015.
http://verilymag.com/2015/07/sexualassault

campus
hookupculturedaterape

SaturdayNightLive.
IsItDateRape?
.
NYMag
video,6:33.

http://videos.nymag.com/video/SNLIsItDateRape#c=BB9NHV1
49LVRFTHZ&
t=SNL:'IsItDateRape?'

Wallace,Kelly.
StudyHasMoreDisturbingFindingsAboutCampusRapeofFreshmen
Women.

NEEDNAMEOFPUBLISHER.
LastmodifiedMay20,2015.
http://www.cnn.com/2015/05/20/living
/featrapefreshmenwomennewstudy/

Pleaseusethefollowingconsiderationswhendoingyourpartner'speerresponseforthe"College
Relationships"essay.
PeerPartner:ZoeForest
Doestheessayhaveatleast11superscriptnotationsinthetextofthepaper?
8
Dothesesuperscriptscorrespondtothe11Footnotesthatappearatthebottomofthepage?
nofootnotes
DotheseFootnotescorrespondtoatleast5Bibliographicentriesattheendofthepaper?no
footnotes
Isthenumberingofthesuperscriptssequential(1,2,3,4,5,etc)
Yes
Wereatleast11citationsusedinthepaper?Weretheydonecorrectly?
8citations,donecorrectly
IsthereatleastoneDiscussionFootnote?
No
DoyouunderstandwhytheDiscussionFootnoteinformationdoesNOTbelonginthetextofthe
paper?
sure
Werethereatleast5CREDIBLEsourcescited?Weretheylistedcorrectly?
yes
Wastheintroductioninteresting?Wasiteffective?Wasthethesisstatedwell?
interesting,effective,introducedthetopicandargumentwell,couldbestronger
Didtheessaymakesense?Wasitlogical?yes,itwasverylogicalandmadeinterestingpoints,
discussedthelawonasociallevel,notjustpolitical
Wastheessaywrittenwell?Wasitinterestingtoreadorwasitboring?
itwasinteresting,couldbewrittenstronger(strongerdictionorsyntax)
Whatsuggestionsdoyouhaveto"kickitupanotch"?
strongerdiction,syntax.Moresophisticated
Didyourpartnerdefend,challengeorqualifythispracticewellenoughforyoutounderstand
it?yes,shediscussedmanyvalidpointsofwhythelawisgood
DidyoupartnerargueapositionontheCaliforniaLawwell?Wereyouconvincedbyyour
partner'sargument?
therewasaclearstance,convincingarguments
Wastheessaywrittenwitha"voice"ofacollege?itwasmorehighschoolwriting
WastheChicago1formattingdonewell?
no
Spellingerrors?
notreally
Grammaticalerrors?no


Draft1

KaitlynBishay
P.3
11/3/15
ConsentonCollegeCampuses
Nomeansno.Yesmeansyes.Issuchsimpleterminologyenoughtodefinethedifference
betweenconsensualsexandrapeoncollegecampuses?Thelawseemstothinkso.Butwith
casualsexualassaultoncollegeontheriseoneinfourfemalestudentswillbeavictimof
1
attemptedorcompletedrapeinherfirstyearof
college
theselawsarenowmorenecessarythan
ever.Humansareaspectrum,andunfortunatelyforthoseinuniversitiesacrossthecountry,this
meansthelawwillnotnecessarilyprotecttheirrightstothefullest.WhiletheadoptionofYes
meansyeslawsinCaliforniacollegesisastepintherightdirection,thegovernmentwillnever
beabletocompletelyquantifywhatisandisnotrape,especiallyinthecaseofhookupculturein
Americasmanycolleges.
Collegecampuseshavebecomeaveritablebreedinggroundfordaterapistsandsexual
assaultinallofitsforms.Whilerapeshouldbeaconcernforbothsexes,thereisacleartrendin
thenumberofmalerapiststofemalevictimsthananyothercombination.Andatanyschool,
rapetestimoniescanbefoundwithaquickGooglesearch,anditbecomesclearmanyschools
arenotabletohelpthevictimsbasedonwhatthelawcovers.Onesuchtestimonyreads
My
experiencewithsexoncampuswastheoppositeofwhatIexpected...Wearprotection,everyone
says,asifthatsallthatmatters.Butcondomsdidntprotectmyheart,andcontraceptiondoesnt
2
paymytherapy
bills
.Manyyoungwomenaregoingi
ntocollegeasaresultof
rapeculture
(kindofconfusing)
,whichteachesthemthatsayingnoisuselessand,asaresult,theydont.This
womanwasunabletoexpressherdiscontent,anddidntknowwhattodo[whenmenwere
makingunwantedsexualadvances]andjustwentalongwithit.WhenIdidntwantit,Idprefer
togetitoverwithfastinsteadofhavingconflict.Anysenseofexplicitconsentwasbecoming
3
murky
.Thiswasthekindofsexualassaultthatwouldnothavebeenreportedbythoseunder
thenomeansnolaw,despitethatthewomandidnotwantit.Shefeltitwouldonlybeworse
forherifshespokeupsoshedidnt.Inanareawherewomenarephysicallysmallerand
weakerthantheir(typically)maleaggressors,sayingnotosexualadvancescouldlandthemin
anevenworsestate.
Consentisaprivilege,anditwasbuiltforwealthy,heterosexual,cis,
white,western,ablebodiedmasculinity.Whensocietyhastaught[us]...totakeallattentionas
flattery,andtobetrulygratefulthatanyoneatallcouldwantourbodiesorlove,itisntalways
4
ourchoicetosay
yes
.Becauseofthewaysocietyhastaughtwomentoholdthemselves,the
powerdisparitybetweenmenandwomenhasonlywidened.
Inrecentyears,thegovernmenthaspassedmanylawsinordertolimitthenumberof
rapesoncollegecampuses,buthavenotbeenabletogettotherootoftheproblem.InCalifornia

colleges,[a]n
ewlawwillrequireallschoolsthatreceivestatefundingtoadoptanaffirmative
consentstandardintheirsexualassaultpolicies.Thisstandard,alsosometimescalledyes
5
meansyes,requiresclearandongoingconsent,ratherthanjustanabsenceof
resistance
.
This
lawisgroundbreaking,asmanycollegeshavestandardsofaffirmativeconsent,butthisisthe
firstinstanceinwhichanentirestatehasstandardizeditsviewsonrapeoncampus.Thislaw
picksupwheretheNomeansnolawleavesoff,asittargetsallsexthatisnotmetwithayes
asrape.Whilethismayseemliketoomuch,italsomakessurethatallparticipantsareactively
involvedinthedecisionswithinandaboutsex.Theabsenceofanodoesnotalwaysmeanayes,
andneitherdoesayeswhenparticipantsaretoointoxicated(bydrugsoralcohol)tothinkclearly
andmakedecisions.Therequirementofayesinordertothecontinuationofallsexualactivity
willalsoensurevictimsareclearandcantakeactionagainsttheiraggressors.Theaffirmative
consentstandardwillhelpchangetherevictimizing,insensitivereportingprocedures,instead
6
allowingstudentstoseekhelpandholdperpetrators
accountable
.InthecaseoftheNomeans
nolawinplacebeforetherecentupheaval,anypersonwhodidnotactivelyprotestsexual
activitywasconsideredawillingparticipant.Now,evenifapersonisokaywiththefirststages
ofsexualactivity,iftheydeterminetheyarenolongercomfortablewithwhatishappening,they
reservetherighttostopactivityandarenotexpectedtocontinueon.Allofthesethingsarea
stepintherightdirectiontoloweringsexualassaultstatisticsoncollegecampuses.
Currently,thelargestargumentagainsttheyesmeansyeslawisfromstudentswho
believeconsentisnotsexyandkillsthemood.However,thisargumentismostlikely
perpetuatedbythesamepeoplewhoaremoreconcernedwithwhatsexwillbringthemrather
thanthewellbeingoftheirpartner.Withopendialoguesaboutsexandwhatisworkingandis
notworkinginsexualencounters,bothpartnerscanworktogethertoensuresexispleasurable
forbothparties.
Apersonwhoconsentstoonethingmaynotconsenttoanother.Women(and
men)havetofeelsafeindicatingyesandnothroughoutasexualencounter,ratherthan
7
gettingtheconversationoutofthewayup
front
.Theyesmeansyeslegislationmakesit
easiertotalkaboutsexbecauseitisrequired.Therearesexywaystoaskforconsent,butitis
alsoimportantthatthoseinvolvedinsexualactivitiesarematureenoughtohaveconversations
aboutwhatisandisnotacceptablebeforehand.AstheWashingtonPostsays(albeit,inastiff,
awkwardtone),itisuptothoseinvolvedtomakeconsentsexyandfun.Whetherthatiswith
pickuplinesorwithquestionseverystepoftheprocess,itisasteptoprotecttherightsofall
8
peopleon
campus
.

Triedtousefootnotes:
1.
2.
3.

Californiagovernorsignsyesmeansyescampussexualassaultbill,lastmodifiedSeptember29,2015,
http://www.msnbc.com/msnbc/californiagovernor
signsyesmeansyescampussexualassaultbill#54395
Californiagovernorsignsyesmeansyescampussexualassaultbill,lastmodifiedSeptember29,2015,
http://www.msnbc.com/msnbc/californiagovernor
signsyesmeansyescampussexualassaultbill#54395
Californiagovernorsignsyesmeansyescampussexualassaultbill,lastmodifiedSeptember29,2015,
http://www.msnbc.com/msnbc/californiagovernor
signsyesmeansyescampussexualassaultbill#54395

4.

Californiagovernorsignsyesmeansyescampussexualassaultbill,lastmodifiedSeptember29,2015,
http://www.msnbc.com/msnbc/californiagovernor
signsyesmeansyescampussexualassaultbill#54395
5. Californiagovernorsignsyesmeansyescampussexualassaultbill,lastmodifiedSeptember29,2015,
http://www.msnbc.com/msnbc/californiagovernor
signsyesmeansyescampussexualassaultbill#54395
6. Californiagovernorsignsyesmeansyescampussexualassaultbill,lastmodifiedSeptember29,2015,
http://www.msnbc.com/msnbc/californiagovernor
signsyesmeansyescampussexualassaultbill#54395
(Gotconfusedstopped.)

Bibliography

Bosiljevac
,Jordan.WhyYesCanMeanNo.LastmodifiedApril30,2015.

http://cmcforum.com/opinion/04302015whyyescanmeanno

Clark,Meredith.Californiagovernorsignsyesmeansyescampussexualassaultbill.
LastmodifiedSeptember29,2015.
http://www.msnbc.com/msnbc/california

governor
signsyesmeansyescampussexualassaultbill#54395

Friedman,Ann.OhYesMeansYes:TheJoyofAffirmativeConsent.LastModified
October2,2014.
http://nymag.com/thecut/2014/10/ohyesmeansyesthejoyof

affirmativeconsent.html#

Moyer,Justin.HowCaliforniasyesmeansyesconsentlawcanbesexy.Last
modifiedSeptember29,2014.
https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/morningmix/

wp/
2014/09/29/howcaliforniasyesmeansyesconsentlawcanbesexy/

Owens,Alice.Myrapeconvincedmethatcampushookupcultureisreallymessedup.
LastmodifiedJuly6,2015.
http://verilymag.com/2015/07/sexualassaultcampus
hookupculturedaterape

Wallace,Kelly.
Studyhasmoredisturbingfindingsaboutcampusrapeoffreshmen
women.LastmodifiedMay20,2015.

http://www.cnn.com/2015/05/20/living
/featrapefreshmenwomennewstudy/