You are on page 1of 8

lgikIf ;dfrf/ / k|:6 ljrf/sf nflu

www.janakhabar.com

x]g{ ge'Ng'xf]nf .

jif{ (, c+s &,

@)&@ ;fn k'; % ut] cfOtaf/ (Dec. 20, 2015)

a/fxf Hjn]/Lsf] Hofblt a9\b}

dsf{ kfg]{ u/]sf], htL{ / Hofnfsf] gfddf


u|fxs 7Ug] u/]sf]nufotsf u'gf;f]
Jofks x' g yfn] s f] 5. a/fxf
Hjn] / Lsf] sf7df8f} F
Go"/f]8l:ylt k;ndf
clxn] b} lgsh;f]
u| f xs
/
Hjn]/LaLr
jfbljjfb x' g ]
u/]sf] Ps u|fxsn]
atfP. a/fxf
Hjn] / Ldf d' V otM
ljb]zdf a;]/ kmls{Psf
/ nfx'/] kl/jf/x? :yfoL u|fxssf]
?kdf lrlgG5g\ t/ ToxL cfgf :yfoL
u|fxsnfO{ ;d]t Hjn]/Ln] clxn] k|ToIf
/ k/f]If?kdf 7Ug] u/]sf] Jofks u'gf;f]
-afFs L clGtd k]h df_

sf7df8f}F . dw];df hf/L cfGbf]ngn]


g]kfnsf /fli6otfdfly uDeL/ k|ZglrGx
v8f u/]sf] Ps sfo{qmdsf aQmfxn]
atfPsf 5g\. g]skf dfcf]jfbL lgs6
b]zeQm ;+3Lo hgjfbL df]rf{, g]kfnn]
sf7df8f}s
+ f] ;+jfb 8anLdf cfof]hgf
u/]sf] dw]; cfGbf]ng / /fli6otfsf]
k|Zg ljifos cGt/lqmof sfo{qmdsf
aQmfxn] ;f] s'/f atfPsf x'g\ . g]skf
;+oQ' msf cWoIf u0f]z zfxn] dw];df
hf/L cfGbf]ngn] g]kfnsf] /fli6otf g}
w/fkdf kg{ ;Sg] eGb} ;g\ !(%) sf]
;'uf}nL ;GwL vf/]h ug{k' g{] atfP.
g]kfnleqsf] ;d:of g]kfnLxn] g}
;dfwfg ug{k' g{] atfpFb} zfxn] ef/tsf]
d'v tfSg' unt ePsf] atfP. hlt

cfGbf]ng u/] klg dw];sf] ;dfGt ju{n]


pTkLl8t dw];L hgtfsf] d'lQm ub{g} ,
/fHo ;Qfn] lje]bdf kf/]sf lxdfn, kxf8
/ dw];df pTkLl8t hgtf Ps x'gk' 5{
zfxn] eg]. pgn] s]xL dw];L df]rf{sf
g]tfxn] ;Qfdf k'Ug dw];L hgtfnfO{
pkof]u ub{} cfPsf] cf/f]k nufP.
sfo{qmddf g]skf dfcf]jfbLsf kf]ln6\Jo"/f]
;b:o OZj/L bfxfn c;f/] sfsf n]
cfkm\gf] kf6L{ dw];L hgtfsf hfoh
dfusf] kIfdf /x] klg lav08gjfbL
;f]r / k|jl[ tsf] lj?4df /x]sf] atfP.
s]xL g]tfxnfO{ ;Qfdf k'ofpg dw];L
hgtfsf] gfddf x'bF } cfPsf 5g\, hf/L
cfGbf]ng klg s]xL g]tfnfO{ ;Qfdf
-afFs L clGtd k]h df_

sf7df8f}F . g]kfn k"jf{wf/ ljsf;


sDkgL -PgkLaL;LPn_ n] @)&#
;fn;Dddf sf7df8f}+ s'nv
] fgLx]6f}8+ f
;'? dfu{ lgdf{ 0 f ul/;Sg] eGb}
g]kfnnufot ljleGg b]zdf /x]sf
g]kfnLx;Fu s/f]8f}+ /sd p7fof].
sDkgLn] !) j6f b]zdf /x]sf ! ;o
*# hgf g]kfnLxaf6 # s/f]8 ^*
nfv k}ofF k|j4{s ;]o/ p7fPsf] 5.
p;n] a]lNhod, hd{gL, cd]l/sf, blIf0f
clk|msf, a]nfot, ci6l] nof, Sofg8f,
?;, blIf0f sf]l/of, ckmuflg:tfg /
hfkfgdf /x]sf g]kfnLxaf6 ;+:yfks
;]o/ p7fPsf] lyof]. t/, xfn;Dd
pQm ;'? dfu{ cfof]hgf lgdf{0fsf]

s'g} ;'/;f/ g} ePsf] 5}g. sDkgLn]


xfn;Dd #@ s/f]8 k}ofF ;+:yfks
;]o/sf nflu p7fPsf] PgkLaL;LPnsf
k|d'v sfo{sf/L clws[t 8f= ;'j0f{
ah| f rfo{ atfpF 5 g\ . pgn] #@
s/f]8dWo] @* s/f]8 #@ nfv k}ofF
b]zd} /x]sf / # s/f]8 ^* nfv k}ofF
ljb]zdf /x]sf g]kfnLxaf6 k|j4{s
;]o / p7fOPsf] hfgsf/L lbP.
sDkgLn] cleofg g} ;~rfng
;j{;fwf/0fnufot lab]zdf /x]sf
g]kfnL hgtf;Fu k|j4{s ;]o/ p7fof].
z]o/ p7fpg clwsf+z b]zdf sDkgLsf
cWoIf s'zs'df/ hf]zL g} k'us
] f lyP
-afFs L clGtd k]h df_

sf7df8f} F . g] k fn ljB' t \
k|flws/0fn] lgdf{0f ul//x]sf hnljB't\
cfof]hgf e"sDk / OGwg cefjsf
sf/0f tf]lsPsf] ;dodf k"/f gx'g]
ePsf 5g\. e"sDksf sf/0f g/fd|/L
k|efljt ePsf cfof]hgf k'gM ;'?
gx'Fb} ef/tsf] c3f]lift gfsfaGbLsf]
yk df/df k/]sf 5g\. k|flws/0fn]
xfn rd]lnof, dflyNnf] lqz'nL y|L P,
s'n]vfgL t];|f] / /fx'3f6 hnljB't\
cfof]hgf lgdf{0f ul//x]sf] 5. tL
cfof]hgfdWo] ;sf/fTds kxn ug{]
xf] eg] #@ d]ufjf6 Ifdtfsf] rd]lnof
/ !$ d]ufjf6 Ifdtfsf] s'n]vfgL
t];|f] cfufdL Ps jif{leq lgdf{0f
;DkGg x'g ;Sg] b] lvPsf 5g\.
7]sb] f/ efu]sf sf/0f ;d:ofdf k/]sf]
/fx'3f6 / e"sDkn] g/fd|/L k|efljt
kf/]sf] dflyNnf] lqz'nL y|L P eg]
cfufdL tLg jif{leq klg k"/f ug{

sf7df8f}F. >d tyf /f]huf/


dGqfnon] k|mL le;f / k|mL l6s]6 s8fOsf
;fy nfu' ug{] tof/L yfn]sf] 5 .
dGqfnon] Dofgkfj/ Joj;foLn] k|mL
le;f / k|mL l6s]6 elgP klg dgkl/
/sd c;'ng gf5f]8k] 5L o:tf] sbd
rfNg yfn]sf] xf]. ;/sf/n] lqe'jg
cGt/f{li6o ladfg:ynd} k|mL le;f /
k|mL l6s]6 sfof{Gjog eP/gePsf]
cg'udg ug{] ePsf] 5. To;sf nflu
5'} 8]:s g} :yfkgf ug{] tof/L ePsf]
dGqfnon] hgfPsf] 5. k|mL le;f gkfP/
7lug]xn] ca ;/sf/L 8]:sdf ph'/L
ug{ ;Sg]5g\. o;/L ladfg:yndf g}
hfr x'g] ePk5L a9L k};f p7fpg]
Dofgkfj/ sDkgLsf] 7uL wGbf klg
ljdfg:yn d} 5tf5'Nn x'g] ePsf] 5.
dGqfnosf] 8]:sn] k|mL le;f / l6s]6
;'ljwf gkfPsfnfO{ o:tf] ;'ljwf pknAw
u/fpg nfu]sf] xf]. To;sf nflu
cg'udg sfof{ljlw lgdf{0fsf] sfd
clGtd r/0fdf k'u]sf] dGqfnosf
;x;lrj ;"ok{ ;| fb >]i7n] atfP. >]i7n]

eg] ca ljdfg:ynd} dn]l;of;lxt


vf8L d'ns
' xdf hfg nfu]sfx;Fu
k|mL le;fsf] ;'ljwf kfP/ gkfPsf] ;f]lwg]
5 / sfuhx x]l/g]5. pgLxsf]
ph'/Lsf cfwf/df k|mL le;fsf] ;'ljwf
pknAw u/fpF5f}+ / Dofgkfj/ sDkgLnfO{
sf/jfxL;d]t ug{]5f}+. dGqfnon]
sfo{ljlw agfpg j}b]lzs /f]huf/
dxfzfvfnfO{ lhDd]jf/L lbPsf] 5.
dxfzfvfn] sfo{ljlw agfpg 5nkmn
cl3 a9fPsf] 5 / sfo{ ljlwdf
Dofgkfj/xn] Nopg] l8dfG8 n]6/b]lv
sfdbf/nfO{ lbg] >d :jLs[lt;Dd klg
cg'udg ug{] Joj:yf ul/Fb5
} . o:t}
Dofgkfj/xdf 58\s] cg'udg ug{] /
j}bl] zs /f]huf/df hfg]xnfO{ klg
nlIft u/]/ cg'udg a9fpg] ;/sf/sf]
of]hgf 5. ljb]zL sDkgL;Fu k|mL le;f
/ k|mL l6s]6 klg lng] / sfdbf/;Fu
klg 7"nf] b/df /sd c;'Ng] ubf{
Dofgkfj/ Joj;foLx bf]xf]/f] kmfObfdf
5g\. To;}n] ;/sf/n] l8dfG8 n]6/df
klg lgu/fgL a9fpg nfu]sf] xf]. k|mL

le;f / k|mL l6s]6sf] ;DaGwdf aflx/


cfPh:tf] u'gf;f] dGqfnodf cfPsf]
5}g. Joj;foLx OdfGbf/ eP of:tf]
;d:of cfpFbg} lyof]. To;}n] cg'udg
u/]/ o;nfO{ ;xh kdf sfof{Gjog
ug{] xfd|f] of]hgf xf]. ;x;lrj >]i7n]
eg].
o;}u/L ;/sf/n] Joj;foLn] ljb]z
hfg] sfdbf/nfO{ 7Ug] ultnf] dfWod
ag] s f] j} b ] l zs /f] h uf/ P] g /
lgodfjnLdf ;+zf]wgsf] tof/L klg
u/]sf] 5. ;/sf/n] nfu" u/]sf] lgz'Ns
l6s6sf] Joj:yfnfO{ /f]huf/ Joj;foLn]
j}bl] zs /f]huf/ lgodfjnL @)^$sf]
lgod !@ df 6]s/] nTofO/x]sf 5g\.
lgodfjnLsf] bkmf !@ sf] s df
Dofgkfj/nfO{ lbOPsf] >d :jLs[lt #
jif{;Dd sfod /xg] Joj:yf 5. o;}df
6]s/] Dofgkfj/ Joj;foLn] sfdbf/nfO{
7lu/x]sf] kfOPsfn] dGqfnon] ;xdltdf
o;nfO{ ;+zf]wg ug{] tof/L klg u/]sf]
xf]. >d tyf /f]huf/ dGqfnon]
-afFs L clGtd k]h df_

;'?dfu{df nufgL afn'jfsf] kfgL aGb}

;'Gg ge'Ng'xf]nf .

df]bLnfO{ gfsfaGbL lgNg' g cf]sNg'

sf7df8f}F . g]kfnnufot ljb]zdf


;d]t gfd sdfPsf] k'/fgf] uxgf k;n
a/fxf Hjn]/Ln] kl5Nnf] ;dodf
ab\ d f;L u/] s f] eGb}
u| fxsx?n] u' gf;f] ug{
yfn]sf 5g\. sf7df8f}F
pkTosfsf ljleGg
:yfgdf / pkTosf
aflx/ k|foM ;a} k|dv
'
;x/x?df zfvf /x]sf]
;fy}
xs,
a]nfotnufotsf b]zx?df
;d]t zfvfdfkm{t\ sf/f]af/ ub}{
cfO/x]sf] a/fxf Hjn]/Ln] u|fxssf] dg
lhTg'eGbf u|fxsx?nfO{ lr8\ofpg] sfd
u/]sf] u|fxsx?sf] u'gf;f] /x]sf] 5.
xfn a/fxf Hjn]/Ln] u'0f:t/df 7Ug]
u/]sf], gfktf}ndf ;d]t u|fxs?nfO{

dw]; cfGbf]n gaf6 /fli6otfdfly vt/f

d"No ?= !).

sf7df8f}F . ef/tLo k|wfgdGqL g/]Gb|


df]bLn] g]kfndf gfsfaGbL u/]kl5 pgL
clxn] ljZje/ dhfssf kfq ag]sf
5g\. g]kfnsf] ;+ljwfgdfly 7f8f]
x:tIf]k ug{ g;s] klg dw]zL df]rf{nfO{
prfn]/ g]kfnnfO{ c;kmn /fi6 agfpg
pBt ef/tLo k|wfgdGqL g/]Gb| df]bL
cGttM cfkm}F c;kmn aGg] ePsf 5g\.
clxn] g/] G b| df] b Lsf lj?4df
ef/tnufot ljleGg b]zdf Jofks
l6sfl6Kk0fL x'g] u/]sf] 5. cfk"mnfO{
ljZjs} cAan s"6gLlts 7fGg] df]bLnfO{
g]kfndfly u/]sf] gfsfaGbL clxn] lgNg'
g cf]sNg' ePsf] 5. oxL g]kfndfly
nufPsf] gfsfaGbLn] df]bLn] clxn];Dd
sdfPsf] OHhtdf 7"nf] wAaf nfUg k'us
] f]
5 eg] JolQmut?kd} df]bLdfly cf}n
F f
78\ofpg] hdft ef/tnufot ljZjd}
a9L /x]sf] ;dfrf/x? b}lgs ;fj{hlgs
x'g yfn]sf] 5.
o;}qmddf, ef/tLo k|wfgdGqL g/]Gb|
df]bLn] ljb]z e|d0fdf sLlt{dfg g}
agfpg yfn] klg cGt/f{li6o hutdf
ef/tsf] 5lj s:tf] 5 eGg]af/] Ps

c:6l] nog klqsfdf k|sflzt sf6{g' n]


k|i6 kf/]sf] 5. lb c:6l] nog b}lgs
klqsfdf k|sflzt sf6{g' df ef/tLo
gful/s ef]sd/Laf6 u|:t ePsf] /
;f]nf/ Kofgn vfP/ ef]s 6fg{ vf]hs
] f]

b]vfOPsf] 5. k]l/;df ;DkGg hnjfo'


kl/jt{g;DaGwL ;Dd]ng ;lsP;Fu}
o:tf] sf6{g' k|sflzt ePsf] xf]. k|Voft
sf6{l' g:6 lan lnsn] tof/ kf/]sf] ;f]
sf6{g' df ku/L / wf]tL nufPsf s]xL

k|flws/0fsf cfof]hgf cnkq


g;lsg] b]lvPsf] 5. Joj:yflksf
;+;b\ dftxtsf] s[lif tyf hn;|f]t
;ldltsf] cfhsf] a}7sdf pknAw
u/fOPsf] tYofcg';f/ ;'? dfu{
v'lDrPsf sf/0f ;d:ofdf k/]sf]
rd]lnof hnljB't\ cfof]hgfdf cGo
sfd hf/L /x]klg kl5Nnf] lbgdf
OGwg ;6 k|d'v ;d:ofsf] kdf
b] l vPsf] 5. ;f] cfof] h gfsf]
e'QmfgLdf clgoldttf ePsf] eGb}
;+;b\sf] ;fj{hlgs n]vf ;ldltn]
tTsfn e'QmfgL glbg ;/sf/nfO{
lgb{]zg lbPkl5 yk ;d:of ePsf]
g]kfn ljB't\ k|flws/0fn] hgfPsf] 5.
cgfjZoskdf e' Q mfgL lbg
nfluPsf] ? Ps ca{ gf} s/f]8 /sd
lbg] k|lqmof g} unt ePsf] eGb} n]vf
;ldltn] e'QmfgL ug{ /f]s nufPsf]
lyof].
o:t} DofUbLdf cfof]hgf:yn

/x]sf] /fx'3f6 hnljB't\ cfof]hgfsf]


ef/tLo 7]s]bf/ cfOeLcf/l;Pn sfd
k"/f gu/Lsg cfof]hgf:yn 5f8]sf
sf/0f Ifdtf clej[l4 u/]/ gofF 7]Ssf
k| lqmof ;' ? ug{] tof/Ldf /x]s f]
k|flws/0fn] hgfPsf] 5. k|flws/0fsf
pTkfbg lgb{]zgfnosf k|d'v tyf
pksfo{ s f/L lgb{ ] z s z] / l;+ x
ef6sfcg' ;f/ e' QmfgL k| lqmofdf
b]lvPsf] ;d:of xn x'g] / OGwg
pknAw x'g] xf] eg] cfufdL jif{
dl\ ; /df rd] l nof hnljB' t \
cfof]hgf ;DkGg x'g ;Sg]5. ;f]
cfof]hgfsf] v'lDrPsf] *$# ld6/
;'?dWo] @$) ld6/ dfq} ;'wf/ ug{
afFsL /x]sf] / ef}lts lgdf{0fsf] sfd
hf/L /x]sf] pxfFn] hfgsf/L lbP .
dflyNnf] lqz'nL y|L Psf] kx'Fr
dfu{dWo] kfFr lsnf]ld6/ ;8ssf]
-afFs L clGtd k]h df_

ef/tLon] ;+oQ' m /fi6;3+ f/f pknAw


u/fOPsf] ;f]nf/ Kofgn vfg] k|of;
ul//x]sf] b]vfOPsf] 5. ef/tdf
ef]sd/L a9\b} uPsf] tyf ef/tLonfO{
vfg]s'/f afx]s c? a:t'sf] rf;f]
gePsf] ;Gb]z ;f] sf6{g' dfkm{t lbg
vf]lhPsf] 5. sf6{'gdf Ps a[4n]
cfFksf] crf/;Fu ;f]nf/ Kofgnsf] 6'qmf
vfg] sf]l;; ul//x]sf] b]lvG5.
o;cl3 cd]l/sL cvaf/ Go"of]s{
6fOD;n] klg k]l/; hnjfo' ;Dd]ngdf
ef/tsf] e"ldsfaf/] Ps sf6{g' k|sflzt
u/]sf] lyof]. ;f] sf6{g' df ef/tnfO{
xfQLsf] ?kdf c+lst ub{} k]l/; hnjfo'
;Dd]ng sf] /]n cufl8 xfQL t]l;{Psf]
b]vfOPsf] lyof].
o;}aLr, ef/tsf] /fhwfgL lbNnLsf
d' V odGqL c/ljGb s] h /Ljfnn]
k|wfgdGqL g/]Gb| df]bLnfO{ sfo/ /
dgf]/f]uLsf] ;+1f lbFb} s6" cfnf]rgf
u/]sf 5g\. cfkm\gf] sfof{nodf s]Gb|Lo
hfFr Ao"/f] -;LaLcfO{_ n] 5fkf df/]kl5
qm'4 ag]sf s]h/Ljfnn] k|wfgdGqL
-afFs L clGtd k]h df_

;'la;'n] Nofof]
cfsif{s ckm/
sf7df8f}F . ;'la;' s]jng]6 k|flnn]
cfkm\ g f] !% cf} F jflif{ s f] T;jsf]
z'ecj;/df ;'la;' !% cf}F Plge;{/L
ckm/ u|fxsx ;dIf k|:t't u/]sf]
5. o; of]hgfcGtu{t sDkgLn]

l/6]n u|fxssf nflu OG6/g]6 /


lSno/ l6eL ;]jfdf cfsif{s %
Kofs]h k|:t't u/]sf] 5. Kofs]hx
a]Unf a]Un} ;]jf -OG6/g]6, lSno/
l6eL_ tyf b'a} ;]jf -OG6/g]6 /
lSno/ l6eL_ ;dfj]z u/L tof/
kfl/Psf 5g\. / u|fxsxn] ;f]
cg';f/sf Kofs]h $ xhf/ ( ;o
(( k}ofFbl] v !@ xhf/ ( ;o ((
k}ofF;Dd k|fKt ug{ ;Sg]5g\.
Kofs]hx qmdzM 4999 Clear TV
Offer, 9999 Internet Offer, 9999

-afFs L clGtd k]h df_

k|mL le;f / k|mL l6s]6df 7Ug]nfO{ 7]ufg nufOg] gfsfaGbL cGTosf nflu e/fO{sf] rf/ ;"q
sf7df8f}F. k"j{k|wfgdGqL 8f=
afa'/fd e/fO{n] tTsfn b]zsf] ;d:of
;dfwfg ug{] rf/ a'bF ] ;"q cl3 ;f/]sf
5g\. t/fO{{ dw];df hf/L cfGbf]ng /
;Ldf gfsfdf ef/tn] u/]sf] c3f]lift
gfsfaGbL cGTosf nflu eGb} e/fO{n]
;dfwfgsf ;"q cl3 ;f/]sf x'g\ . pgn]
km];a's k]hdfkm{t rf/ dlxgfb]lv
t/fO{{ dw]; cfGbf]ng, tLg dlxgfb]lvsf]
c3f]lift ef/tLo gfsfaGbL, b' O{
dlxgfb]lvsf] gjul7t ;/sf/sf]
rL/lgGb|f -leqL ;Qf n'5fr'8F L_ sf]
df/df e"sDkkLl8tnufot ;j{;fwf/0f
hgtf ca y]Ug} g;Sg] hLjgd/0fsf]
bf];fFwdf k'us
] f], b]zsf] cy{tGq bzsf}+
k5fl8 ws]lnPsf] / xfn;Dd k|fKt
nf]stflGqs pknlAw;d]t u'Dg] vt/f
a9\b} uPsf] c;fdfGo uDeL/ l:ytLdf
tTsfn lgsf;sf lglDt eGb}
;dfwfgsf pkfo ;'emfPsf x'g\ . klxnf]
gDa/df pgn] ;/sf/ / ;/sf/ ;Da4
bnxn] ;Ldf+sgnufotsf ;a} ;d:of

;+ljwfg ;+zf]wgdfkm{t\ Kofs]hdf xn


ug{] 7f]; k|lta4tf;lxt :jtGq
JolQmxsf]
dWo:ytfdf
cfGbf]ngsf/Lx;Fu uDeL/ / ;fy{s
jftf{ yfngL ug{k' g{] hgfPsf 5g\.
To:t} bf];f| ] gDa/df cfGbf]ngsf/L
zlQmxn] cfkm\gf] dfu / cfGbf]ng
sfod /fVb} cfGbf]ngsf] k abNg'kg{d] f
pgn] hf]8 lbPsf 5g\. o;sf nflu
cfdx8\tfnaGb / ;Ldf cj/f]wsf] ;f
;/sf/k|zf;g s]lGb|t jf ;Tofu|x
k|sl[ tsf cfGbf]ng ug{ ;lsg] pgsf]
;'emfj 5. To:t} cfGbf]ngsf] s]Gb|
/fhwfgL agfpg] / ;Demf}tf geP;Dd
;+;b/;bg ;+3if{ hf/L /fVg] ljsNk
pgn] cl3 ;f/]sf 5g\. t];f| ] gDa/df
gful/s cu'jfnufot ;a} ;d'bfo v;cfo{, cflbjf;L, hghflt, dw];L,
yf?_ / ;/f]sf/jfnfxsf] ;+oQ' m kxn
g]tT[ jdf /fhwfgLdf ;d:of ;dfwfgd'vL
k|efjsf/L ;Tofu|x k|sl[ tsf sfo{qmd
ug{] ljsNk pgn] ;'emfPsf 5g\. rf}yf]

gDa/df pgn] ef/t ;/sf/;F u


pRr:t/Lo s'6gLlts ;+jfb ug{] /
ef/tn] c3f]lift kdf u/]sf] gfsfaGbL
c3f]lift kd} lkmtf{ lng] pgsf] ;'emfj
5.
o;}aLr, gofF /fhgLlts zlQm
u7gsf] cleofgdf h'6s
] f k"j{ k|wfgdGqL
8f= afa'/fd e/fO{n] cfkm\gf] cleofgdf
rf/ a'bF ] ;xdlt h'6fPsf 5g\. ljleGg
JolQmTj;Fusf] 5nkmndf o:tf] ;xdlt
h' 6 ] s f] e/fO{ s f] ;lrjfnon]
lj1lKtdfkm{t hgfPsf] xf]. e/fO{sf]
;lrjfnon] hf/L u/]sf] lj1lKtdf
elgPsf] 5, gofF ljrf/, /fhgLlt,
;';+:sf/, ;+:s[lt;lxtsf] j}slNks
/fhgLlts zlQmsf] ;f]r /fVg] zlQm
tyf JolQmxaLr 5nkmn ;DkGg
eof]. 5nkmndf ;xefuLxn] j}slNks
ljrf/, ;';+:sf/, ;+:s[lt;lxtsf]
j}slNks /fhgLlts zlQmsf] vfFrf] 5
eGg] s' /fdf ;xdlt hgfPsf] ;f]
-afFs L clGtd k]h df_

@)&@ ;fn k'; % ut] cfOtaf/

ltdL ltd|f] tl/sfn] n8, xfdL xfd|f] tl/sfn] n8\5f}

s= dfcf]T;] t'

jif{ (, c+s &, k'; % ut] cfOtaf/ @)&@

;DkfbsLo

;/sf/ M ls u/ ls af6f] 5f]8\


ef/tsf] gfsfaGbL / t/fO{sf] cfGbf]ngn] b]z / hghLjg
c:tJo:t ePsf] 5. cefj, dxFuL / sfnf]ahf/Ln] cfsfz
5f]Psf] 5. hghLjg lbgk|ltlbg si6s/ aGb} uPsf] 5.
t/, ;/sf/n] 7f];?kdf s'g} sbd rfNg ;s]sf] 5}g.
k|wfgdGqL s]kL cf]nLn] ;/sf/sf] afu8f]/ ;Dxfn]kl5 tTsfn
ug]{ sfo{sf] nfd} ;"rL ;'gfPsf lyP. t/, clxn];Dd hgtfn]
s'g} klg ljifodf /fxt cg'ej ug{ kfPsf 5}gg\. k|wfgdGqL
cf]nLsf] k|lta4tf af]nLd} ;Lldt x'g k'us
] f] 5. t/, klg
k|wfgdGqL cf]nL nfh gdfgL hgtfdfem cem} yk cfZjf;gsf
kf]sfx? afF8\gd} d:t 5g\. clxn]sf] ;+s6do cj:yfdf
g]kfnL hgtf k|wfgdGqL cf]nLsf 7"nf7"nf cfZjf;gsf]
kf]sf ;'Gg] kIfdf 5}gg\. pgLx?nfO{ clxn] 7"nf] cfZjf;g
xf]Og, ;fFemlaxfgsf] r'Nxf] aNg] Joj:yf ul/lbP sfkmL x'G5.
clxn]sf] ;/sf/af6 hgtfn] of]eGbf a9L ck]Iff klg u/]sf
5}gg\. Pdfn], Pdfcf]jfbL, dfn], d;fn], d08n], u0ftGqjfbL,
/fhtGqjfbL clg ;+3Lotflj/f]wLx?sf] ;+nUgtfdf ag]sf]
of] lvr8L ;/sf/n] b]z / hgtfsf] lglDt s'g} 7f]; sfo{
ug{ ;Sb}g eGg] cfd;r]t gful/sn] a'lem;s]sf 5g\. of]
lvr8L ;/sf/n] cGttM b]z / hgtfnfO{ e8\vfnf]df xfNg]
lglZrt 5. logLx? hgtfsf ;xL dfusf] ;Daf]wg ug]j{ fnf
5}gg\ / To:tf] x}l;ot klg /fVb}gg\. olb of] ;/sf/ ;fFRr}
b]z / hgtfk|lt Odfgbf/ ePsf] eP clxn];Dd gfsfaGbLlj?4
ljsNk lgl:s;SYof] / dw]zsf] ;d:of klg ;dfwfg
eO;SYof]. of] ;a} s'/fsf] ;'g'jfO{ gx'g' / b]z lbgk|ltlbg
;+s6u|:t cj:yflt/ ws]lng' / hgtf lbgk|ltlbg k|tfl8t
x'gd' f ;/sf/ g} d'Vo bf]ifL 5. t;y{, ;/sf/n] ls b]z /
hgtfnfO{ lgsfz lbg' kof] ls af6f] 5f]8\g' kof].
cfd:jfledfgL gful/ssf] wf/0ff oxL 5, r]tgf eof.

Joj;flos s[lif tyf Jofkf/ cfof]hgfsf] k|lta4tf


sf7df8f}F . Joj;flos s[lif tyf Jofkf/ cfof]hgfsf] d'Vo p2]Zo g]kfnsf
@% j6f lhNNff -wg'iff, ;nf{xL, dxf]Q/L, /f}tx6, af/f, k;f{, lrtjg, wflb,
sf7df8f},F nlntk'/, sfe]kn
| f~rf]s, gjnk/f;L, tgxF,' ndh', sf:sL, :ofhf,
kfNkf, kGb]xL, slknj:t', bf, ;'vt{ ] , afFs,] alb{of, s}nfnL / s~rgk'/_
lglb{i6 s[lif pkhxsf] d"No z[v
\ nfdf cfa4 ;fgf s[ifs, s[lif Joj;foL tyf
pBdLsf] k|lt:kwf{Tds Ifdtfdf ;'wf/ ug{' /x]sf] 5. of] cfof]hgf @)^%
>fj0faf6 ;~rflnt 5. of] p2]Zo k|fKt ug{ cfof]hgfaf6 ;Dkfbg ul/g]
sfo{x lgDg s'/fdf s]lGb|t x'g5
] g\
!_ s[ifs ;d"x / ;xsf/L ;+:yfxnfO{ nfek|b ahf/d'vL pTkfbgdf ;xefuL
x'g ;xof]u ug{] . ;fy} cfjZos k|ljlw, ;"rgf, ;]jf / ;fj{hlgs k"jf{wf/sf]
Joj:yfdfkm{t\ ahf/df kxFr
' / s[lif Joj;fo cfa4tfdf ;'wf/ Nofpg].
@_ d"No z[v
\ nfsf] b[li6n] pTkfbs, Jofkf/L, k|zf]wgstf{ / cGo ;/f]sf/jfnfxnfO{
;d]t ;d]6L pBf]udf cfwfl/t ;fem]bf/Ltfsf] ljsf; ug{] .
#_ s[lif / vfB Jofkf/df ljBdfg afwf Jojwfg 36fpg] Pj+ s[ifsx / s[lif
Joj;foLxsf] bIftf clej[l4 ub{} cfGtl/s Pj+ cGt/f{li6o ahf/sf] u'0f:t/
cg'ksf] :jR5 / :j:y vfB j:t'xsf] pTkfbg ug{ ;xof]u ug{] .
;Nnf3f/L, dxf/fhuGh, sf7df8f}F
kmf]g M (&&)!$)!&&^%, ofS; M (&&)!$#&#@#^
Email:mail@pact.gov.np,Website:www.pact.gov.np

l8; xf]d / g]kfnL ldl8of

sl/a $ aif{ cufl8b] l v


g]kfndf ;~rflnt ef/tLo Ph]G;Lsf]
kdf /x]sf] l8; xf]d ldl8of g]6j{s
k|flnnfO{ g]kfnsf] 6k Snf; skf]/{ ]6
cGtu{tsf] ldl8ofsf kdf dflgFb}
cfPsf] lyof]. Joj:yfkgsf] lx;fan]
h'emf?, l;h{gfTds / gofF ljrf/df
cfwfl/t eGg] df]6f]sf ;fy g]kfndf
;'? u/]sf] s]xL aif{d} h+unL Rofp;/L
k}mlnPsf] l8; xf]dn] kl5Nnf] ;do
lgs} ljjfb lgDTofPsf] lyof]. yf]/}
g]kfnL, w]/} lxGbL / clnslt c+u|]hL
Rofgnx ld;fP/ ;~rflnt
ul/Psf] :of6fnfO{6af6 k| ;fl/t
elgg] l8; xf]d :of6fnfO{6af6
geP/ ef/tLo e" l dsf] ;f} o {
sDkgaf6 ;~rflnt x' G 5, t/
b]vfpgsf] nflu :of6fnfO{6sf] dfWod
agfPsf] eP klg l8; xf]d cfh;Dd
cGt/f{li6o ldl8of k|flnsf] dfkb08
k'/f gu/]sf] cf/f]kdf btf{ x'g ;s]sf]
5}g. g]kfnsf] lxdfnL e"efub]lv
pQ/ blIf0f;Dd / t/fO{{ kmfF6;Dd
;a}nfO{ ;dfgvfn] 6]lnlehg b[Zo
lbg] elgg] l8; xf]ddf sl/asl/a
;osf] xf/fxf/Ldf lxGbL Rofgnx
dfq} k|;f/0f x'G5.
;dfg / ;Gt'lnt cgj/t /
lg/Gt/ k| ; f/0f ul/g] elgg]
6]lnlehg l8; xf]dn] slQ;Dd b'Mv
lbG5 eGg] l8; xf]d h8fg u/]sf
;a}nfO{ yfxf 5. Pp6f 36gf :d/0f
u/f}+, g]kfndf hGd]sf uf}td a'4
ef/tdf hGd]sf] eg]/ hLjg k|zf/0f
ubf{ l8; xf]dsf lj?4df g]kfndf
gf/fafhL eP klg l8; xf]dn] lh6Lle
elgg] Rofgn aGb gu/]/ k|zf/0f
afkt $) dlxgfsf] ljB't z'Ns
sl/a @) s/f]8 ef/tnfO{ gltg{]
;xdlt u/]sf] lyof]. o:tf] l8;
xf]dnfO{ ef/tn] gfsfaGbL uof],
o;sf] nflu ef/tLo Rofgn s]xL
;do aGb ul/lbg cfu|x ubf{ aGb
ug{ g6]g{' eg]sf] /fi6b|f]x g} xf] c?
xf]Og.
Pp6f ldl8ofsdL{sf] k]zfut
lx;fan] l8; xf] d k| l t ePsf]
cfqmd0fn] Tolt w]/} cfgGb kSs}
klg lbPg. t/ ha ha b] z
;+s6df 3]l/G5, hgtf kL8fdf x'G5g\,
/fhgLlts cl:y/tf a9\5 / b]zsf]
cl:dtf, :jflwgtf / /fli6 otf
;+s6df k5{ Tolta]nf ldl8ofn]
hgtfsf] cfqmf]znfO{ dGb agfpg
;Sg' k5{, b]zsf] :jflwgtfsf] af/]df,
/fli6otfsf] af/]df af]Ng ;Sg'k5{,
n]Vg ;Sg'k5{ b'O{ rf/ cIf/x
b]zsf] gfddf, JoQm ug{'k5{ Ps b'O{
;DkfbsLox hgtfnfO{ phf{ lbg]
u/L. t/ g] k fnL ldl8ofx
slxn] s fxLF af] Ng' k g{ ] eGbf w] /}
af]lnlbG5g\, slxn]sfxL+ n]Vg'kg{] eGbf
yf]/} sGh';foL u/]/ n]lvlbG5g\,
cfjZos eGbf w] / } /fi6 j fbL
alglbG5g\ cgL ha af]Ng'k5{ ta
r'k a:5g\, ha n]Vg'k5{ ta lgliqmo
aG5g . cfh b] z ef/tLo
gfsfaGbLaf6 cfqmfGt alg/x]sf] 5.
dw]; cfGbf]ngn] lgsf; kfPsf] 5}g,
ef/tn] g]kfnnfO{ olt sdhf]/
agfO{; s]s f] 5 ls s' g} g] kfnL
ef/tlj/f]wL x'g g;s]sf] 5}g. To:tf]
cj:yfdf ef/tLo ;~rfnsf/f
;~rflnt g]kfndf lj:tf/jfbsf]
k/fsfi7fsf] gd'gf ag]/ rNb} cfPsf]
l8; xf]daf6 k6sk6s uf}td a'4
ef/tdf hGd]sf x'g\ eGg] hLjg
k|;f/0f u/fpg] ef/tLo lhl6eL,
t/fO{{ dw]; ef/tLo pkof]usf] hldg
eg] / a] n fa] n fdf e'S g] ef/tLo
6fO{D;, e'sDksf] a]nf ;u/dfyfdf
k'u]/ elTsPsf] g]kfn xf]Og, rLgsf]
canf]sg u/fpg] cfh ts h:tf
Rofgnx g]kfnL l;dfgfdf k'u]/
uf]nL rnfpg] P;P;jLnfO{ ;+/If0f
u/fpg] :6f/ Go"h, ef/tLo gff /

ceb| rnlrqx k|;f/0f ubf{ub{}


g]kfnL /fli6otf / :jflwgtfdfly
cfF r k'ofpg] o:tf Rofgnx
k|;f/0f ub{} cfPsf] l8; xf]dnfO{
Joj;flostfafx]ssf c? s]xL yfxf
lyPg.

z'esfdgf n]Vg] g]kfnsf slyt


/fli6o b}lgs klqsfx sflGtk'/,
gful/s, cGgk'0f{ / cGo ;a}vfn]
5fkf ldl8ofx / ljB' t Lo
ldl8ofx, >Jo / b[ Z o
ldl8ofxnfO{ Pp6f k|Zg dfq s]

kb{}g.
g] k fnL ldl8ofsf af/] d f
lahos'df/n] v';Ldf rfaL s;sf]
xftdf< eGg] pkzLifs{df bgSs}
n]v]sf 5g\, To;df ljhos'df/n]
s]xL k|z+; 5f]8]sf lyP lsgls d}n]

lzj 8'd|]
ef/tLo ;~rfnsf/f
;~rflnt g]k fndf
lj:tf/jfbsf] k/fsfi7fsf]
gd'gf ag]/ rNb} cfPsf] l8;
xf]daf6 k6sk6s uf}td a'4
ef/tdf hGd]sf x'g\ eGg]
hLjg k|;f/0f u/fpg] ef/tLo
lhl6eL, t/fO{{dw]; ef/tLo
pkof]usf] hldg eg]/
a]nfa]nfdf e'Sg] ef/tLo 6fO{D;, e'sDksf] a]nf ;u/dfyfdf
k'u]/ elTsPsf] g]kfn xf]Og, rLgsf] canf]sg u/fpg] cfh
ts h:tf Rofgnx g]kfnL l;dfgfdf k'u]/ uf]nL rnfpg]
P;P;jLnfO{ ;+/If0f u/fpg] :6f/ Go"h, ef/tLo gff /
ceb| rnlrqx k|;f/0f ubf{ub{} g]kfnL /fli6otf /
:jflwgtfdfly cfFr k'ofpg] o:tf Rofgnx k|;f/0f ub{}
cfPsf] l8; xf]dnfO{ Joj;flostfafx]ssf c? s]xL yfxf
lyPg.
))))
ldl8ofx Joj;flostf aGbfaGb} klg slxn]sfxL+ /fli6otfsf] Vofn
ug{;Sg'k5{, g]kfnL Joj;fo w/fzoL eP/ xDd] xDd] ag]sf] a]nf ldl8of
wgL aGg}k5{ eGg] 5}g. l8; xf]d Pp6f g]kfnL ldl8ofdf ef/tLo x:tIf]ksf]
k/fsfi7f lyof] o;sf] cfhdfq} xf]Og ef]ln klg lj/f]w ug{ ;Sg'k5{. g]kfnL
/fli6otf g} /x]g eg] of] b]zdf ldl8of sxfF /xFnf< l8; xf]d sxfF /xFnf,
sflGtk'/ / cf;]kf;]x sxfF /xFnfg\ To;}n] klxn] b]z arfpg] ;f]rf}F. o;}
eg]sf xf]Ogg sljj/n] g]kfnL xfdL /x'n
F f sxfF g]kfn} g/x].
k]l/;df rfnL{ x]A8f] klqsfsf]
sfof{ n odf cfqmd0f ePkl5
ljZjJofkL kdf ldl8of dflnsfsf
pbff] rl/q b]lvPsf] lyof]. cfh
g]kfndf ePsf s]xL ldl8ofx
ef/tLo gsfa cf] 9 ] / g] k fnL
cl:dtfdfly anfTsf/ ub{}5g\ eg]
s'g} g]kfnLx lxGbL Rofgn gx]/]/
a:g ;S5 of] kf}g ] tLg s/f]8
g]kfnLsf] k|lt1f x'g'k5{. g]kfndf
;~rflnt s]xL ldl8ofsf dflnsx
ef/tLo eQfaf6 ;~rflnt dfq
xf]O{gg, ef/tLo sd{rf/LtGq /fd|}
ks8 /fVg] dfgL;x x'g\ . g]kfnnfO{
ef/tn] ldl8ofsf] b[li6n] s;/L x]5{
eGg] s'/f g]kfndf uPsf] e"sDkdf
ef/tLo ldl8ofsf] e"ldsfnfO{ k6s
k6s bf]x f]ofpg' gk/f] ;\. cfh
g]kfndf ;~rflnt sltko 7"nf
elgg] ldl8of sDkgLx rfx] l8;
xf]d x'g\ of sflGtk'/ klAns]zg of
/kmt x'g\ of l/kf]6{;{ Sna of o:t}
o:t} ldl8of k|fln x'g\ g]kfndf
ef/tLo gfsfaGbLn] xb gfl3;Sbf
;d]t 3f]lift gfsfaGbL eGg g;Sg]
o:tf ldl8ofsf t'R 5 ljrf/sf
dflnsxnfO{ ef/tLo sDkgLn]
sfuh / ljB't lgz'Ns lbPsf] tYo
s'g ldl8ofn] n]Vg ;s]sf] 5 /<
g]kfndf u0ftGq lba; cfpFbf Pp6f
5] p mdf ;fgf] ;dfrf/ n] V g
;/sf/;Fu afu{]lg ug{] kqsfl/tfdf
afFr]sf] g]kfnL ldl8of / ef/tLo
u0ftGq lbj;sf] lbg b'O{ k[i7 ef/tLo
em08fc+lst k[i7 k|bfg ub{} a8] a8]
cIf/df ef/tLo u0ftGq lbj;sf]

xf] eg] g]kfnlj?4 nfu]sf] ef/tsf


lj?4 s' g rflxF ldl8ofn]
;DkfbsLodf sfnf] kf]Tg ;s]< s'g
rflxF g] k fnL kqsf/n] g] k fnL
hgtflj?4 nfu] s f] ef/tLo
gfsfaGbL lj?4 xftdf sfnf] kL
afw]/ lj/f]w ug{ ;s]< s'g rfxLF
klqsf, 6]lnlehgn] ef/tLo gfsfdf
k'u/] gfsfdf b'Mv kfpg] g]kfnLsf]
l/kf]6{ k|;f/0f ug{ ;s]<
kqsfl/tf Joj;fo / ld;gsf]
dfq} xf] O g kqsfl/tf /fli6 o
:jflwgtfsf] kIfdf klg x'g'k5{,
kqsfl/tf nufgLstf{sf] g'g vfP/
u'g ufpg dfq xf]O{g, kqsfl/tf
/fli6o :jfledfgsf] nflu n8\g' klg
xf]. kqsfl/tf hf8F kf6L{sf] aofg
dfq xf] O { g , l;dfgfdf ePsf]
cnf]stflGqs kIfkftsf] e08fkmf]/
klg xf]. slxn]sfxLF kqsfl/tfdf of]
kf6L{ / p kf6L{ eg]/ dfq, of] kIf /
p kIf eg]/ dfq clg of] u'6 /
pku'6 eg]/ dfq gk'Ubf] /x]5, al/i7
elgg] sgsdl0f lblIftn]
dfgjclwsf/sf] gfddf a]nfotaf6
8n/ NofP/ ul/g] a] n folt
kqsfl/tf, /fhs0fL{sf/xn] hfkfgL
k| ljlw leq\ o fpg] gfddf ul/g]
kqsfl/tf, sflGtk'/ klAns]zgn]
;s];Dd gb]lvg] ul/ ul/g] ef/tLo
gsfawf/L klqsf, s}nfz l;/f]lxofsf]
ef/tLo a}+s vftfdf cfpg] k};f,
s] x L al/i7 elgg] kqsf/sf]
tnaeGbf ef/tLo eQf w]/} ePkl5
hgtf g]tfsf] dfq} xf]Ogg\ kqsf/sf]
s7fnf] ;dfpg cfpg] lbg s'g{ w]/}

cl3g} elg;s] g]kfnL kqsf/x


slxn] s fxL r' k al;lbG5g
slxn] s fxLF w] / } af] l nlbG5g\ .
ljhos'df/n] af]Ng sGh';fO{ u/] olb
sGh';fO{ gu/]sf] eP pgn] dbg
k'/:sf/ kfpg ;Sy]gg\, h] u/] Tof]
pg}nfO{ yfxf xf]nf, t/ pklgj]z
agfpg rxfg] ef/tn] g]kfn sAhf
ug{'k'j{ oxfFsf ldl8of sAhf ug{
rxfG5, To;sf] k|of]u p;n] l8;
xf]daf6 uof], h;sf] k'if ! sf]
Psfljxfg} Pp6f k'Tnf bxg ePsf]
5, ldl8ofsf] bf;|f] k|of]u p;n]
sflGtk'/ klAns]zgsf cWoIf s}nfz
l;/f]lxofaf6 ug{ rfxG5, ofb /xf];\
olb ef]nL sflGtk'/ ef/t k|j]z
u/] s f] ;Dkflbs n] V g' kof] eg]
sflGtk'/ klg l8; xf]d aGg c5't
/xg] 5}g, of] kl/l:yltsf] d"Nofg
dfq xf].
cGTodf ldl8ofx
Joj;flostf aGbfaGb} klg
slxn] s fxL+ /fli6 o tfsf] Vofn
ug{;Sg'k5{, g]kfnL Joj;fo w/fzoL
eP/ xDd] xDd] ag]sf] a]nf ldl8of
wgL aGg}k5{ eGg] 5}g. l8; xf]d
Pp6f g]kfnL ldl8ofdf ef/tLo
x:tIf]ksf] k/fsfi7f lyof] o;sf]
cfhdfq} xf]Og ef]ln klg lj/f]w ug{
;Sg'k5{. g]kfnL /fli6otf g} /x]g
eg] of] b]zdf ldl8of sxfF /xFnf<
l8; xf]d sxfF /xFnf, sflGtk'/ /
cf;]kf;]x sxfF /xFnfg\ To;}n] klxn]
b]z arfpg] ;f]rf}F . o;} eg]sf xf]Ogg
sljj/n] g]kfnL xfdL /x'Fnf sxfF
g]kfn} g/x].

@)&@ ;fn k'; % ut] cfOtaf/

lbNnLsf] rfndf ab\lnb} uPsf] dw];jfbL r]x/f


;+ljwfg hf/L ug{ eg]/ rf/
bnsf aLrdf !^ a' F b] ;xdlt
ePkl5 To; ;xdlt cg' ; f/
;+ljwfg hf/L x'g ;Sof] eg] To;n]
tLgj6f d'Vo ;sf/fTds of]ubfgx
lbg]5 eg]/ d}n] w]/} k6s n]v]sf]
lyPF. d]/f] ljZn]if0fdf cfwfl/t
klxnf] ;Defljt of]ubfg lyof] !@
a'Fb]kl5 cgGtsfn;Dd nDAofpg

k|of]u ug{ ;'? u/]sf 5g\. hf/L


ul/Psf] ;+ljwfg c;kmn agfpg
ljb]zLxn] tLa| agfPsf] rnv]n
o;n] g]kfnsf] ;fj{ef}d;Qf, If]qLo
cv08tf, :jfwLgtf, cfTdlge{/tf
/ hgtfsf ;d:of tyf clwsf/
h:tf k|Zgxsf] ;Daf]wg u/]sf] 5
eg]/ xf]Og ls g]kfnsf] sdhf]/ e"
/fhgLltnfO{ cfkm\g f] /0fgLltsf]

ug{ dw];jfb / gfsfaGbLsf] xltof/


p7fO{Psf] xf].
slyt dw]; cfGbf]ng lbNnLsf]
/0fgLlteGbf a9L s]xL xf]Og eGg]
tYonfO{ cfTd;ft ug{ w]/} 7"nf]
lrGtgdgg\ ug{'kg{] cfjZostf
5}g . dw];jfbsf axfgfdf ;'?
ePsf] ljt08fsf] lg/Gt/ kdf
ab\lnFbf] :jk / To;nfO{ cfkm\gf]

e/t bfxfn
slyt dw]; cfGbf]ng lbNnLsf]
/0fgLlteGbf a9L s]xL xf]Og eGg]
tYonfO{ cfTd;ft ug{ w]/} 7"nf]
lrGtgdgg\ ug{'kg{] cfjZostf
5}g. dw];jfbsf axfgfdf ;'?
ePsf] ljt08fsf] lg/Gt/ kdf
ab\lnFbf] :jk / To;nfO{ cfkm\gf]
e"lddf cf>o lbP/ g]kfndfly
lbNnLn] nufPsf] gfsfaGbLnfO{ x]/]
k'U5. oL b'a} kl/36gfxsf]
lglxtfy{nfO{ cem /fd|/L lgofNgsf nflu @)^$ ;fnsf] c;f]hdf
ef/tsf tfTsflng ljb]z ;lrj lk|ltz/0f / /csf k|ltlglwsf]
pkl:yltdf k6gfsf] dw];L a}7sdf ePsf lg0f{o yfxf kfpg' kb{5,
hf] dw];jfbLxn] qmdzM p7fpFb }5g\.
)))))
slyt dw];jfbsf 7]s]bf/x lbNnLsf xftsf KofbfeGbf a9L s]xL
xf]Ogg\ eGg] tYonfO{ ltgLxsf] cfGbf]ngdf qmdzM ab\lnFb} uPsf]
r]x/fn] :ki6 kfb{5. ;'?df ltgLxsf] dfu ;Ldfgdf ;Lldt
lyof]. ljt08fdf ;j{;fwf/0fsf] Pp6f lx:;fnfO{ a/fNg ;kmn
ePkl5 To;df gful/stfsf] d'2f ylkof]. lbNnLsf] gfsfaGbLkl5
/fHosf ;a} lgsfo gSsnL gful/stfwf/Lxsf] xftdf k'ofpg]
s'lgotn] slyt ;dfg'kflts ;dfj]lztfsf] k|Zg cfof]. lbNnLn]
gf+uf] kdf dfu /fVg yfn]kl5 ax'/fli6o/fHo / ;dfj]zL
;]gfsf] k|Zg a6d nfOg ag]sf] 5. ax'/fli6o/fHo / ;dfj]zL
;]gfsf] k|Zg g} lbNnLsf] ceLi6sf] ;f/tTj xf]. oL b'a} dfux
t/fO{nfO{ ljefhg ug{] if8\oGqsf cleGg cx x'g\. ax'/fli6o
/fHosf] dfun] t/fO{nfO{ cnu b]zsf kdf :yflkt ug{ vf]h]sf] 5
eg] ;dfj]zL ;]gfsf] k|Zgn] k[ystfjfbsf] p7fgkl5 slyt dw];
b]znfO{ ;'/Iff ug{] k+lQmsf] lgdf{0fsf] of]hgfsf] k|ltlglwTj ub{5g\.
g]kfndfly gfsfaGbL / tf]8kmf]8sf] bafa a9fpg ;s]sf] a]nf
Ph]G6xdfkm{t\ lbNnLn] cfkm\gf dfuxsf] ;+VofnfO{ yKb}} nUg
nufP/ afu{]lg ul//x]sf]] tYo ;a}sf ;fd'Gg]df :ki6 5.
vf] l hPsf] c/fhstf cWofosf]
cGTo. bf] > f] lyof] ljb] z L
zlQmxsf] bnfnLsf cf8df
g]tflu/L rnfpFb} cfPsf bnfnxsf
aLrsf] cGtlj{/f]wdf lj:tf/ / t]>f]
lyof] g]kfn lj/f]wL tTjxnfO{ gofF
cfj/0fdf ;lhP/ cfhsf] eGbf gff]
kdf k|:t't x'g'kg{] afWotf.
oL tLgj6} k"j{ cfFsngx cfh
;To ;flat ePsf 5g\. zflGt
k|s[ofsf] k|x;gfTds PsfL 6'+luP/
g]kfnsf] b]zelQmk"0f{ ;+qmd0fsfn
gofF r/0fdf k| j ] z u/] s f] 5.
;+ljwfg dfkm{t\ ;Qf sAhfsf] xf]8df
;+nUg ljb]zL bnfnxsf aLrdf
cGtlj{ / f] w a9] / uPsf] 5 /
lxhf];Dd cu|ufdLsf] d's0' 8f]df v]Nb}
cfPsf tTjx cfh gflP/ g]kfn
lj/f]wL ljb] zL xltof/sf kdf
;txdf cfPsf 5g\. ljb]zLxn]
g] k fnLsf] asf] { l eq n' s fPsf,
kl/rfng ub{ } cfPsf cfkm\ g f
dflg;xnfO{ lgn{Hhtfk"js
{ cfkm\g}
e"ldaf6 g]kfn / g]kfnLx lj?4

cg's"n agfP/ k|of]u ug{sf nflu


;'? ePsf] k|lt:kwf{ xf]. k|lt:kwf{df
ljb] z L zlQmxsf ljleGg
UofxnfO{ cufl8 ;fl/Psf] 5.
o:tf UofxdWo] dw] ; jfbsf]
d' s ' 0 8f] d f kl/rflnt ef/tLo
Ph]G6x cu| df]rf{df v6fO{Psf
5g\, hf] k"0f{tM ef/tLo /0fgLltaf6
;~rflnt 5g\.
;+ljwfgsf lj?4df ef/tn] g}
klxnf] / cToGt} lgDg:t/sf] k|lts[of
lsg b]vfof] eGg] s'/fnfO{ l7s 9+un]
g7DofO{ s g slyt dw] ; jfbsf]
c;lnot a'em\g ;lsGg. To;sf w]/}
g]kfn lj/f]wL ceLi6xnfO{ Ps
jfSodf ;fdfGoLs/0f ubf{ s] eGg
;lsG5 eg] bnfn tTjxnfO{
lbNnLdf af]nfP/ slyt !@ a'Fb]
;xdltsf gfddf To;n] g]kfn lj?4
h:tf] /0fgLlt agfPsf] lyof], Tof]
/0fgLlt / ljut !) aif{ l eq
g]kfnsf] e"/fhgLltdf ablnPsf]
afXo zlQm ;Gt'ngsf aLrdf k}bf
ePsf] cGtlj{/f]wnfO{ wDsLaf6 xn

e" lddf cf>o lbP/ g] kfndfly


lbNnLn] nufPsf] gfsfaGbLnfO{ x]/]
k' U 5. oL b' a} kl/36gfxsf]
lglxtfy{nfO{ cem /fd|/L lgofNgsf
nflu @)^$ ;fnsf] c;f] hdf
ef/tsf tfTsflng ljb]z ;lrj
lk|ltz/0f / /csf k|ltlglwsf]
pkl:yltdf k6gfsf] dw];L a}7sdf
ePsf lg0f{o yfxf kfpg' kb{5, hf]
dw];jfbLxn] qmdzM p7fpFb5
} g\.
k6gf e]nfsf] klxnf] lgisif{
t/fO{nfO{ ef/tLo /0fgLltsf] s]Gb|
agfP/ sfd ug{ dw] ; jfbL
u'6xnfO{ alnof] agfpg] lyof].
t/fO{nfO{ Pp6} :jfoQ dw]; k|b]z
agfpg] / g]kfnL ;]gfdf ;dfg'kflts
k|ltlglwTjsf] dfu u/L !) xhf/sf]
cnu dw];L ;}Go a6flnog :yfkgf
ug{] lgisif{ klg To;df lgsflnPsf
lyP. @)^$ h]7 d} Hjfnf l;+x
;d]tsf] pkl:yltdf k6gfd}+ ePsf]
klxnf] e]nf, h;n] !) aif{df t/fO{
ef/tdf ufEg] lg0f{o ub{} ebf}b]lv
kxf8L d"nsf g]kfnLxdfly aa{/

xTof, lx+;f, anfTsf/ / cfuhgL


u/]sf] lyof], o;sf] bf]>f] ;+:s/0f g}
c;f]hsf] e]nf lyof].
ef/tLo clwsf/Lxn] k6gfdf
k6sk6s slyt dw];jfbLxnfO{
e]nf u/fP/ u/fPsf lg0f{oxnfO{
bnLo dfGotf lbnfP/ ljt08f
drfpg] cfwf/ tof/ kfg{sf nflu
@)^$ ;fnsf] kmfu' g df
sf7df8f}+l:yt ef/tLo b"tfjf;leq
/fhb"tn] slyt dw];L df]rf{ /
sf+u;
]| nfO{ af]nfP/ Ps :jfoQ dw];
k|b]z, g]kfnL ;]gfdf !) xhf/sf]
cnu dw];L a6flnogsf] :yfkgf,
/ ;dfg hg;+ V ofsf cfwf/df
lgjf{rg If]qsf] lgwf{/0f ug{] ;xdlt
u/fof]. ef/tLo b"tfjf;sf] ToxL
cfb]znfO{ nfu" u/fpg clxn] k"j{
;xdltxsf] sfof{Gjog ug' kg{]
eGg] gf/f nufO{Psf] 5.
ef/tLo /0fgLlt k| i 6 5.
dw];jfbsf gfddf To;n] hlt klg
d'2fx p7fpg nufPsf] To;sf
k5fl8sf] d'Vo cf8e/f];f eg]sf]
@)^# sf] gful/stf P]gn] g]kfnL
agfPsf ef/tLoxsf] ;+Vof xf].
gSsnL gful/stffO{ lg0ff{os dfg]/
l;+uf] /fHok|0ffnL sAhfug{] p2]Zon]
;dfg hg;+ V ofsf cfwf/df
lgjf{rgIf]q lgwf{/0f ug{ nufpg],
t/fO{ ldzgsf] k|lt/Iffsf nflu
dw] ; L
a' s f{ d f
gSsnL
gful/stfwf/Lxsf] ;}Go a6flnog
agfpg] / cfTdlg0f{o ;lxtsf] ;+3Lotf
:yflkt u/] / t/fO{ ljefhgsf]
j}wflgs cfwf/ tof/ kfg{] lbNnLsf
k|dv
" dw];jfb of]hgfx x'g\.
slyt dw];jfbsf 7]s]bf/x
lbNnLsf xftsf KofbfeGbf a9L s]xL
xf]Ogg\ eGg] tYonfO{ ltgLxsf]
cfGbf]ngdf qmdzM ab\lnFb} uPsf]
r] x /fn] :ki6 kfb{ 5 . ;' ? df
ltgLxsf] dfu ;Ldfgdf ;Lldt
lyof]. ljt08fdf ;j{;fwf/0fsf] Pp6f
lx:;fnfO{ a/fNg ;kmn ePkl5
To;df gful/stfsf] d'2f ylkof].
lbNnLsf] gfsfaGbLkl5 /fHosf ;a}
lgsfo gSsnL gful/stfwf/Lxsf]
xftdf k'ofpg] s'lgotn] slyt
;dfg' kflts ;dfj]lztfsf] k|Zg
cfof]. lbNnLn] gf+uf] kdf dfu
/fVg yfn]kl5 ax'/fli6o/fHo /
;dfj]zL ;]gfsf] k|Zg a6d nfOg
ag] s f] 5. ax' /fli6 o/fHo /
;dfj]zL ;]gfsf] k|Zg g} lbNnLsf]
ceLi6sf] ;f/tTj xf] . oL b' a}
dfux t/fO{n fO{ ljefhg ug{ ]
if8\ oGqsf cleGg cx x' g\ .
ax'/fli6o/fHosf] dfun] t/fO{nfO{
cnu b]zsf kdf :yflkt ug{
vf]h]sf] 5 eg] ;dfj]zL ;]gfsf]
k|Zgn] k[ ystfjfbsf] p7fgkl5
slyt dw]; b]znfO{ ;'/Iff ug{]
k+ l Qmsf] lgdf{ 0 fsf] of] h gfsf]
k|ltlglwTj ub{ 5 g\ . g] kfndfly
gfsfaGbL / tf]8 kmf]8 sf] bafa
a9fpg ;s]sf] a]nf Ph]G6xdfkm{t\
lbNnLn] cfkm\gf dfuxsf] ;+VofnfO{
yKb}} nUg nufP/ afu{]lg ul//x]sf]]
tYo ;a}sf ;fd'Gg]df :ki6 5.
slyt dw];jfb t/fO{sf g]kfnL
dw] ; Lxsf] uf;af;, cfjf;,
e"ldlxgtf, lzIff, :jf:Yo, /f]huf/L,
k5f}6k] g h:tf hLjg k|0ffnLx;Fu
k"/} a];/f]sf/ /x]sf] ljt08f xf] eGg]
s'/f t oL ljifoxn] ltgLxsf]
Ph] G 8fdf st} :yfg gkfPsf]
tYoaf6} k| i6 5. gfsfaGbLsf]
cf8e/f] ; f ;lxt logLxnfO{
lbNnLn] lbPsf] bfgfkfgL, k};f, cf>o,
g]t[Tj cflb x]g{] xf] eg] logLxn]
g]kfnk|lt s'g} ;b\efj /fV5g\ eGg]
s'/fsf] t sNkgf klg ug{' x'Fb}g.
b]zsf lj?4df v'Nndv'Nnf pq]sf
xdnfsf/Lx;Fu jftf{sf] gf6s
d~rg ug{ ] /fHo kIf klg
b]zb|f]xLxsf] cvf8f xf].

3
ljZjn] lrGg] uf]/vf ;}lgs axfb'/Lsf] csf{] gfd
s[ i 0f cfrfo{
uf]/vf jf uf]/vfnL g]kfnsf dflg; x'g\. h;sf] gfd cf7 cf}F ztflAbdf
lxGb' of]4f >L u'? uf]/vgfyaf6 /xg uPsf] ljZjf; ul/G5. kl5 pgsf
lzion] /fhs'df/nfO{ hGd lbP / pgLx g]kfndf a:g cfP. kl5 pgLxn]
g} g]kfn clw/fHosf] :yfkgf u/]sf] atfOG5. pgLx g]kfnsf] uf]/vf
lhNnfdf a:y]. o;/L uf]/vfdf a:g] dflg;x lxDdltnf / ;fx;L lyP.
uf]/vfnLx k|fs[lts kdf g} of]4f x'g] atfOG5. pgLxdf cfqmds,
jkmfbf/ / ;fx;sf] u'0f x'G5. uf]/vfnL ;}lgs nfdf] ;do;Dd n8\g ;Sg]
Ifdtf ePsf x'G5g\. la|l6;x;F usf] n8fO{df klg uf]/vfnLxn]
la|l6;xnfO{ g]kfnL e"ld sAhf ug{af6 arfPsf] oyfy{ tYo xfdL;Fu 5.
uf]/vf pRr kxf8L lhNnf xf]. hxfF s'g} Ps hflt dfq geP/ du/,
u?, /fO{, lnDa', ;'g'jf/ nufPtsf dflg;xsf] afx'Notf /x]sf] x'G5.
pgLxnfO{ alnof kfv'/f ePsf, ;x; ePsf, lxDdtLnf hfltsf kdf
lnOG5. hf] uf]/vf ;}lgssf] Ps dxTjk"0f{ lx:;f x'g\. uf]/vfnLsf] d'Vo
xltof/ v's/' L xf] cyf{t\ uf]/vfnLx v's'/L grfpgsf lgs} dflx/ dflgG5g\.
uf]/vfnLn] cfkm\gf] v's'/L lgsfNof] eg] /ut agfPlagf bfkdf /fVb}gg\ eGg]
ul/G5. ef/tsf Ps ;]gfWoIfn] uf/vfnL ;]gfsf af/]df obL s;}n] dnfO{
dg{ 8/ nfUb}g eGof] eg] Tof] ls t em'6f] x'G5 ls rg] uf]/vfnL x'G5.
la|l6; ;d/fHosf tkm{af6 klxnf] ljZj o'4df g]kfnsf b'O{ nfv uf]/vf
;}lgsn] efu lnPsf lyP. blIf0f Pl;ofeGbf aflx/ of] pgLxsf] klxnf]
n8fO{ lyof]. t/, pgLxn] b]vfPsf] axfb'/Ltfn] cfh;Dd klg ljZjdf
k|z+;f kfO/x]sf] 5. pgLx cfh g]kfnL cfdL{, ef/tLo cfdL{, uf]/vf
/]d]h]G6, la|l6; cfdL{, uf]/vf la|u]hsf nflu lgs} k|Voft 5g\. ef/t
la|l6;xaf6 cfhfb ePsf] ;dodf ul/Psf] Ps ;Demf}tfsf cfwf/df
ef/t / la|l6z ;]gfdf uf]/vf ;}lgs sfd u5{g\. xfn ef/tLo ;]gfdf Ps
nfv @) xhf/ hlt / la|l6z ;]gfdf sl/a rf/ xhf/ hlt uf]/vf ;}lgs
sfo{/t 5g\. ;g\ !*!$!^ df O{:6 O+l8of sDkgLn] g]kfn sAhf ug{]
/0fgLlt agfPkl5 uf]/vf ;}lgs;Fu klZrd b]z;Fu ;Dks{ a9]sf] lyof].
o;sf] cGTo la|l6;n]em'SofP/ ;Demf}tf u/L cfkm\gf] kIfdf lg0f{o u/fPkl5
ePsf] Oltxf;sf/x atfpF5g\. To; ;do uf]/vfnLn] pgLxsf] 7"nf]
gf]S;fgL u/fPsf lyP. la|l6; ;}lgssf Ps hjfgn]uf]/vf ;}lgssf] tfl/km
ub{} cfk"mn] cfkm\gf] hLjgdf o:tf] axfb'/L / ;fx; slxNo} gv]v]sf] atfPsf
5g\. pgn] cfkm\gf] cfTdsyfdf eg]sf 5g\, pgLxnfO{ d[To'b]lv s'g} 8/
lyPg. pgLx efUb}glyP a? Hofgsf] afhL nufP/ n8\y]. o;/L pgLxsf]
axfb'/Ltfaf6 k|efljt eP/ la|6L;xn] uf]/vfnLsf] etL{ la|l6; ;]gfdf
ug{ ;sg] ;Demf}tfdf ;Demf}tfdf pNn]v u/]. ToxL ;DaGwsf cfwf/df
kl5 uf]/vf ;}lgsn] klxnf] ljZj o'4df cfkm\gf] ;xeflutf hgfof]. !(!$
!* ;Dd rn]sf] ljZj o'4df uf]/vf ;}gssf] ## /fOkmn a6flnPg lyP.
pgLxn] Tolta]nf k|mfG;b]lv lnP/ km/;;Dd o'4 n8]sf lyP.
ufnLkf]nLdf ePsf] o'4df s]jn b'O{ d]l;gug lyP t/, uf]/vfnL ;]gfn]
cfkm\gf] axfb'/L b]vfP. lxDdtsf ;fy n8] / o'4df ;kmntf k|fKt eof].
To:t} !(!% df 6sL{sf] k|fo4Lkdf w]/} sd gf]S;fgLdf ToxfFsf] rf}lsdf
sAhf eof]. k|mfG;df ePsf] n8fOdf Ps uf]/vf a6flng clGtd ;do;Dd
n8]sf] ljifon] klg lgs} rrf{ kfof]. k|ys ljZj o'4df s/La b'O{ xhf/
uf]/vfnL ;}lgs dfl/Psf lyP. o;/L k|yd ljZj o'4kl5 uf]/vfnL ;]gfsf]
gfd ljZje/ km}lnof]. To;kl5, uf]/vfnL ;]gfn] la|6]g / ;+o'Qm /fi6sf
tkm{af6 n8fO{ n8\of]. o;sf afah't klg Tolta]nf uf]/vf ;}lgsnfO{
;}lgs ;]jf ;lsPkl5 la|6]gdf a:g] clwsf/ x'Fb}GYof]. pgLxn] la|l6z
;]gfnfO{ hlt k]G;g klg lbOb}gYof]. o;/L ;g\ !((& df uf]/vf ;}lgsnfO{
klg ;dfg k]G;g lbg] Joj:yf ldnfOof] eg] @))( kl5 pgLxnfO{ la|6g] df
a:g] clwsf/ klg lbOof]. o;/L g]kfnsf] gfd prf] /fVg uf]/vf ;}lgsn]
cfkm\gf] /utsf] of]ubfg lbPsf] 5. pgLxn] ;w} Odfgbf/Ltfsf ;fy axfb'/Lk"0f{
n8] / cfkm\gf] ;fx; / lxDdt b]vfP. h;sf sf/0f cfh ljZjn] uf]/vf
;}lgs eg]/ pgLxnfO{ lrGb5, g]kfnL uf]/vfnLnfO{ lrGb5. xfdL ;a}n]
pgLxsf] Odfgbf/Ltf, ;fx;, lxDdt / alnbfggLnfO{ sb/ ug{'k5{.
ljZjs; u/f}F uf]/vf ;}lgs ;b}j oxL gfd / oxL sfdn] lrlgg]5.

s0ff{nLsf] 8lNkmg ;+s6df

sf7df8f}F . alb{of / s}nfnL


lhNnfsf] ;Ldfgfdf kg{] s0ff{nL gbL
cltqmd0fsf] rk]6fdf kbf{ ljZjs}
Psdfq pRr :yfgdf kfOg] s0ff{nLsf]
8lNkmg ;+s6sf] cj:yfdf k'u]sf] 5.
s0ff{nL gbL t6Lo If]q cltqmd0fsf
sf/0f pT;lh{t kmf]x/n] s0ff{nLsf
hnr/ u+u]l6e 8lNkmg dfq xf]O{g
alb{ of /fli6o lgs' ~hsf ynr/
jGohGt'nfO{ ;d]t c;/ k'u]sf] 5.
klZrd g]kfns} ko{6lso uGtJosf]
kdf kl/lrt s0ff{nL lr;fkfgLsf]
gbL t6Lo If] q kl5Nnf] ;do
cltqmd0f x'g yfn]kl5 s0ff{nL gbL
t6Lo If]qsf] h}ljs ljljwtfdf r'gf}tL
ylkPsf] rf]/L lzsf/ lgoGq0f o'jf
kl/rfng cleofg alb{ofsf ;+of]hs
x]dGt cfrfo{n] jtfP. alb{of /
s}nfnLsf] ;Ldfgfsf kdf cjl:yt
s0ff{nL If]q alb{ofsf] gbL lsgf/tkm{
alb{of /fli6o lgs'~hsf] ;+/lIft If]q
/ s}nfnL tkm{sf] gbL tl6o If]q
wdfwd zx/Ls/0f x'g yfn]kl5 s0ff{nL
If]qsf] h}ljs ljljwtf ;+/If0fdf
sl7gfO{ b]lvg yfn]sf] pgn] k|i6
kf/]. ahf/ If]qsf] a9\bf] lj:tf/,
3/ tyf xf]6nxsf] cJojl:yt
lgdf{0f / dfgjaf6 pT;lh{t kmf]x/,
Wjlg k|bi" f0f x'bF f ljZjs} pRr :yfgdf
/x]sf] 8lNkmg ;+s6sf] cj:yfdf

k'u]sf] pgL jtfpF5g\. 8lNkmgsf]


cfxf/f k|hftL sdL e} jf;:yfgdf
;d]t cj/f] w cfPkl5 lxhf]c fh
8lNkmg x/fpg] qmd a9]sf]df pgn]
lrGtf JoQm u/].
s}nfnLtkm{sf] gbL t6Lo If]qsf]
cltqmd0fn] jGohGt'xsf] cfjfudgdf
;d]t cj/f]w k'Ug] u/]sf] pgn] jtfP.
klxn] klxn] k|z:t df5f, r/fx b]lvg]
s0ff{nL If]qdf lxhf]cfh tL k|hftL b]lvg
5f8]sf] jtfpFb} pgn] yk] gbL k|bi' f0f,
df5fsf] rf]/L lzsf/ tyf sf]nfxnsf
sf/0f To; If]qsf r/f k|hftLdf ;d]t
c;/ k'us
] f] 5. gbLdf km\ofFlsPsf
Knfli6shGo kmf]x/sf sf/0f alb{of
/fli6o lgs'~hdf /x]sf jGohGt'nfO{
;d]t c;/ kg{] u/]sf] pgn] jtfP.
hnr/ k|hftLsf] ;d]t ljgf; x'g]
;Defjgf j9]/ uPsf] 5 eg] To;
If]qsf] cltqmd0faf6 lgdf{0f ul/Psf
;+ /rgfnufot gbL k|b' if0f sfo{
tTsfn /f]Sg' kg{] cfrfo{n] jtfP.
s0ff{nL lr;fkfgL If]q klZrd g]kfns}
k|fs[lts dgf]/d af]ss
] f] ko{6lso If]q
x'gfn] klg h}ljs ljljwtfsf] k|z:t
ld>0f /x]sfn] ljZjd} klxrfg jgfPsf]
s0ff{ nL lr;fkfgL If]qsf] h}ljs
ljljwtf ;+/If0f / a9\bf] cltqmd0f
/f]Sg ;/sf/n] ;dod} sbd rfNg'
kg{] :yflgox jtfpF5g\.

@)&@ ;fn k'; % ut] cfOtaf/

n}ls ;jfndf dw]zL dlxnfsf] k|Zg kf]v/f ;8s dxf]T;a k'if !# ut]af6
/fgLzdf{ ltjf/L
ljZj e/L g} /fhgLltdf dlxnfsf]
pkl:ylt;s[otf Go'g /xg] u/]sf] 5.
ljZjsf] ;a}eGbf ljsl;t elgg] /
n}ls ;dfgtfsf] jsfnt ug]{ ;+oQ' m
/fHo cd]l/sfdf ;d]t dlxnfx
/fhgLltdf sd dfq cufl8 cfpg]
u/]sf 5g\. cd]l/sfdf xfn ;Dd Ps
hgf klg dlxnf /fi6ktL ePsf] Oltxf;
5}g. ljsl;t /fi6 dWo] s} Ps ;+oQ' m
clw/fHodf eg] /fi6 k|dv
' dxf/fgL
Plnhfa]y l5g. ;fy} ToxfF ;/sf/
k|dv
' sf] kdf >LdtL dfu]6|{ Yofr/
k| w fgdGqL eO{ ; s] s L l5g\ .
cfZro{hgs oyfy{ s] 5 eg] ljsl;t
elgPsf klZrdf /fi6xn] cljsl;t
/ dlxnf lj4sf] e]befj a9L ePsf]
eg]/ cfIf]k nufpg] u/]sf] blIf0f Pl;of
If]qsf /fi6xdf dlxnfx /fhgLlts
pRr cf]xbfdf k6s k6s k'us
] f 5g\.
o; If]qdf ef/t, kfls:tfg,
Dofgdf/, af+Unfb]z, / >Ln+sfdf k6s
k6s dlxnfn] /fi6 k|dv
' / ;/sf/
k|dv
' sf] e'ldsf lgjf{x u/]sf 5g\, eg]
g]kfndf kgL dxTjk"0f{ lhDd]jf/Ldf
dlxnfx k'us
] f 5g\. o; dWo] klg
kfls:tfg / af+unfb]z O{:nflds b]z
x'g hxfF dlxnf dfyL r/d e]befj
/x]sf] cf/f]k nfUg] u/]sf] 5. P]ltxfl;s
kdf klg ef/lto pkdxflksf
ljleGg /fHoxdf ;do ;dodf
ljleGg /fgLdxf/fgLxn] /fHo u/]sf
5g\. o;/L ljZn]z0f u/]/ x]bf{ ljsl;t
/fi6x eGbf blIf0f Pl;ofnL /fi6xdf
klxn] b]lv g} dlxnf g]tT[ j a9L ;s[o
/ :jLsfo{ /x]sf] :k:6 x'G5.
g]kfnsf] /fhgLltdf k|hftGq
k|fKtLsf] cfGbf]ngsf] z'jftb]lv g}
dlxnfxsf] pkl:ytL /x]sf] kfO{G5.
fl/sf b]jL 7s'/fgLsf ;fy}, ;fxgf
k|wfg, d+unf b]jL, z}nh
] f cfrfo{, cfbL
@))& ;fn otfsf] g]kfnL /fhgLlt /
ljleGg cfGbf]ngdf lhjgko{Gt ;s[o
/x]sf gfdx x'g. tyfkL g]kfnL
/fhgLltdf dlxnfxsf] pkl:ytL Go'g
g} /x\of]. g]kfnL /fhgLltdf k|jz
] ug]{
clwsf+ z dlxnfxn] lard}

/fhgLltaf6 cjsfz lng] jf x/fpg]


u/]sf 5g\.
dw]zsf] /fhgLltdf klg s]lx
dlxnfx z' b]lv g} ;s[o /x] klg
sdn] dfq lg/Gt/tf lbPsf 5g\
@)^@^# k5L dw] z ljb| f ] x /
;dfg'kflts lgjf{rg k|0fflnn] NofPsf]
cj;/sf sf/0f w] / } dlxnfx
/fhgLltdf ;s[o eP/ pbfP, ;fy}
ljleGg kbdf ;d]t cfl;g eP. t/
ljut & jif{sf] cjwLdf lt dWo] klg
w]/} lgZs[o x'Fb} uPsf 5g\. dw]z
cfGbf]ngaf6 pbfPsL k;f{sL sl/df
a]ud kmf]/d g]kfnsf] s]lGb|o ;b:o,
;ef;b x'bF } /fHo dGqL ;Dd eO xfn
kmf]/d g]kfnd} dlxnf ;+u7gdf ;s[o
l5g\.
;dfg'kflts lgjf{rg k|0ffln /
;dfj]lztfsf] lz4fGtsf] cfwf/df klxnf]
;+ljwfg;efdf ;ef;b / k5L qmdzM
;fxfos / /fHo dGqL ePsL snfjtL
b';fw / /dgL /fd rdf/ klxnf]
;+ljwfg;ef lj36g k5L lgZs[o eP.
xfn dw]zsf] /fhgLltdf nfdf] ;do
b]lv ;s[o cGo dlxnfxsf] s'/f ubf{
tdnf]kf sL s]lGb|o ;b:o k'ikf 7fs'/,
tdnf]kfaf6 /fhgLlt z' u/]/ xfn
kmf]/d nf]stflGqs s]lGb|o ;b:o /x]sL
z]v rfFb tf/f, ;befjgf sL lgef ;fx
tyf g]kfnL sfFu;
]| af6 /fhgLlt z'
u/]/ /fk|kf x'bF } xfn kmf]/d g]kfn sL
sf]iffWoIf /]0f' ofbj cflbsf] gfd pNn]Vo
5. o;/L x]bf{ dw]z /fhgLltdf ljleGg
;dodf k|z:t dlxnfx k|jz
] u/]sf]
b]lvG5, t/ tL dWo] w]/} h;f]n] lard}
/fhgLlt 5f]8g\ ] jf lgZs[o x'g] u/]sf]
b]lvG5.
s]xL dlxnf dfq nfdf] ;do ;Dd
dw]z /fhgLltdf ;s[o /x]sf 5g\.
dw]z /fhgLltdf dw]zL dlxnfxsf]
;+Vof Go'g x'g' jf ltgLxsf] knfog
x'gs
' f] k5fl8sf sf/0fxsf] ljZn]if0f
ubf{ dlxnfnfO{ /fhgLlt ug{ ;d:of
dlxnfsf] 3/af6 z' eP/ 6f]n l5d]s
;dfh x'bF } kf6L{ g]tT[ j ;Dd o;sf]
sf/0fsf kdf b] l vG5g\ .
k'if;tfTds ;dfhdf /fhlgltdf

nfUg kl/jf/af6 nueu lab|fx] ug'{


kg]{ cjZyf 5 h'g lgZro g} ;xh
5}g. gu0o kl/jf/n] dfq cfk\mgf 5f]/L,
a'xf/L jf kTgLnfO{ /fhgLltdf nfUg
;xof]u u5{g. km]/L s'g} dlxnf ha
/fhgLltdf cufl8 a9\g yfN5], 3/
leq}sf k'ifxsf] cxd -Ouf]_df 7];
k'Ug yfN5, / kl/jfdf snx z' x'G5.
kl/jf/sf] ;xdtLaf6 lgl:sP klg
;dfhn] Tof] dlxnfnfO{ ljleGg y/Lsf
cfIf]k nufpg z' x'G5
. TotL dfq
xf]Og{ /fhgLlts sfo{stf{ / g]tfx
;d]t dlxnf k|lt TotL ;lxi0f' 5}gg\.
/fhgLltsf] tNnf] tx b]lv g}
e] b efjsf] z' jft x' G 5.
;dfj]lzs/0fsf] cjwf/0ffn] dlxnfsf
nflu s]xL cj/ l;h{gf u/] klg tL
cj;/ dlxnf /fhgLlts sfo{stf{n]
yf]/} dfq cj;/ kfpg] u/]sf] klg oyfy{
xfd|f] ;fd'Gg] 5. jiff}+{ kl/jf/, ;dfh /
;xsdL{sf] e]befj / sl7gfO{ ef]u/]
/fhgLltdf ;s[o dlxnf tj lg/fz
x'G5] ha dlxnf ;dfj]zLsf] gfddf
cfpg] cj;/ g]tT[ j k+StLsf >LdtL,
glhssf gft]bf/ jf s'g} afx'anL g]tfsf]
;f /fhgLltdf s]xL of]ubfg gePsf]
gft]bf/n] kfpF5g\.
csf]{ tkm{ dw]zdf dlxnfxnfO{
3/ leqs} sfddf l;ldt /fVg] k/Dk/f,
dlxnfdf lzIff / r]tgfsf] sdLsf
sf/0f dw]zL dlxnfxsf] /fhgLltdf
sd} pkl:ylt /x]sf] 5. dw]zdf
dlxnfsf] cjZyf sdhf]/ /x]sf] /
dlxnfx 3/aflx/ lg:sg g;Sg],
af]Ng g;Sg] / clwsf/sf nflu n8\g
g;Sg] eg]/ /fHo s]lGb|t ldl8ofxn]
/6] sf] bzsf}+ eof] . t/ /fHosf]
tkm{af6 dw]zL dlxnfsf] r]tgf j[l4sf
nflu vf;} s'g} sfo{qmd ;+rfng rfxLF
ul/Pg. ljutsf ljleGg cfGbf]ngx
nufot cl3Nnf dw]z cfGbf]ngxdf
dw]zL dlxnfsf] Go'g pkl:yltn] ;d]t
dw]zdf dlxnfsf] r]tgf cj:yf
sdhf]/ /x]sf] / dw]zdf dlxnf
;fdflhs kdf sdhf]/ /x]sf] :k:6
g} lyof].
aflx/af6 x]bf{ ljut Ps bzsdf

dw]z L dlxnfsf] cj:yfdf vf;}


kl/jt{g gcfPsf] k|ltt eO{/x]sf]
lyof]. t/ o; k6s ;f9] ltg dlxgf
b]lv hf/L dw]z cfGbf]ngdf b]lvPsf]
ce' t k' j { dlxnf ;xeflutf /
alnbfgLn] kl/jt{gnfO{ :k:6 lrlqt
ul/lbPsf] 5. cfGbf]ngsf ljleGg
df]rf{df k'if ;Fu sfFwdf sfFw ldnfP/
cfGbf]ngdf ;xefuL dfq eO{/x]sf
5}gg\ dw]zL dlxnf, k'if ;Fu} /fHosf]
nf7L, a'6 / uf]nL klg vfO{/x]sf 5g\.
dw]zsf ufpFbl] v zx/ ;Dd k|To]s
cfGbf]ng, k|bz{g, x8\tfn, / gfsf
cj/f]wdf :jtM:k'mt{ kdf dw]zL
dlxnfx ;xefuL eO{/x]sf 5g\.
sltko :yfgdf t dlxnf dfqn] k|bz{g
u/]/ uf]nL ;d]t vfPsf 5g\. o;
k6ssf] dw]z cfGbf] n gdf s] lx
dlxnfx zlxb ;d]t ePsf 5g\ eg]
s}of}= 3fO{t] ePsf 5g\.
dw]z
] cfGbf]ngdf b]lvPsf] dlxnf
;xeflutf / ;s[ otfn] dw]z df
abnfjsf] ;+s]t u/]sf] 5. ca
dw]zsf dlxnf cfk\mgf] clwsf/sf
nflu k'if ;/x cufl8 cfP/ n8\g
tof/ ePsf 5g\. clxn] dw]zsf]
cfGbf]ngdf ;s[o ;xeflutf hgfPsf
dlxnfxn] ef]nL dw]z leq klg
clwsf/sf nflu cfjfh p7fpg] 5g\.
csf]{ sf]0faf6 x]bf{ 3/af6 aflx/ lg:sg
cg'dtL k|fKt gx'g] dlxnf ca aflx/
cfGbf]ngsf nflu lg:sg kfpg] 5'6
k|fKt ul//x]sf 5g\. ca dw]zsf
dlxnf sf7df08'n] k|rf/ u/] em}+ lk58]sf
5}gg\, a cfGbf]ngdf ;xeflutf /
zxfbtsf] ;+V+ ofnfO{ x]g{ ] xf] eg] g]kfnsf
kfxf8 / lxdfn eGbf dw]zsf dlxnf
cfk\mgf] clwsf/ k|lt a9L ;hu
b]lvPsf 5g\. dw]zdf k'if / dlxnf
larsf] lje]b sd x'bF } n}ls ;dfgtf
tkm{ ;dfh ltj| ul/df pGd'v eO{/x]sf
;d]t ;+st] u/]sf 5, o; k6ssf]
cfGbf] n gsf b[ i oxn] . dw] z
cfGbf]ngdf ePsf] dlxnf ;xeflutf /
alnbfgLn] dw]z ;sf/fTds ;fdflhs
kl/kt{g tkm{ pGd'v /x]sf] k|i6 kf/]sf]
5. dw]z bk{0faf6

kfgL slt / s;/L lkpg]

kfgL hLjgsf] cfwf/ xf]. wd{zf:q


/ bz{gb]lv lj1fg;Ddn] lhjsf] pTklQ
kfgLd} ePsf] tYonfO{ :jLsf/]sf 5g\.
hLjg Ho'g sfnfuL kfgL cToGt
dxTjk"0f{ tTj xf]. k[YjLdf / xfd|f]
z/L/df klg kfgLs} afx'Notf 5. t/
klg o;sf] dxTjnfO{ a'em\g g;Sbf
xfdLn] ljleGg ;d:ofx ef]uL /x]sf
5f}. xfd|f] zl// /rgfdf ;jf{lws -^)
&) k|ltzt_ lx:;f cf]u6]sf], ljleGg
h}j/f;folgs lqmofxdf k|ToIf tyf
k/f]If kdf ;+nUg /x]sf] xfO8fh
] g/
clS;hgsf k/df0f'xn] ag]sf] of}uLg
g} kfgL xf]. xf8 h:tf] s7f]/ c+udf
@@ k|ltzt bfFtdf !) k|ltzt, 5fnfdf
@) k|ltzt, dl:tisdf &% k|ltzt,
dfz+kz
] Ldf &^ k|ltzt, /utdf *#
k|ltzt / ;Dk"0f{ z/L/df nueu &)
k|ltzt kfgLsf] dfqf 5. kfgLnfO{
hLjgsf] 3f]ns eGg] pkgfdn] klg
lrlgG5. ljleGg h}j /;folgs tyf
pkfkroL lqmofxnfO{ rflxg] hlno
dfWod pknAw u/fpg] b]vL o:tf
s[ofxdf cfkm}F klg ;+nUg x'g,] ljleGg
tTjxsf] kl/jxg ug]{ u/fpg], /Qmrfk
tyf zf/L/sf] tfkqmd lgoGq0f ug],{
ljifQm kbfy{xsf] lgisfzgdf ;xof]u
k'ofg] sfd klg kfgLn] g} ub{5. Pp6f
aois k'?ifsf] z/L/df %% b]lv &)
k|ltzt / dlxnfsf] z/L/df $% b]lv
^) k|ltzt kfgL x'G5. zf/Ll/s
kfgLsf] b'O ltxfO{ lx:;f sf]ifx leq
x'G5 eg] Ps ltxfO{ lx:;f /ut /
sf]ifxsf] j/Lkl/sf] vfnL 7fpFdf
/xG5. z/L/df kfgLsf] ;+Gt'ng agfO{
/xgsf nfuL nueu b}lgs # b]vL %
ln6/ kfgLsf] cfjZos kb{5. h;dWo]
&)) ldln kfgL vfgfsf] dfWod eP/
k|jz
] ub{5 eg] #)) ldln kfgL z/L/

leq} pTkGg x'g] ub{5. afFsL kfgLsf]


k'lt{ eg] kfgL lkP/ g} ug'{ kb{5. o;}u/L
x/]s lbg $%) ldln kfgL 5fnfaf6

8f= x]d/fh sf]O/fnf


p8]/ $)) ldln kfgL Zjf; ;Fu} 3'n/]
!%) ldln kfgL lbzf ;Fu} ldl;P/ /
afFsL kfgL lk;fasf] kdf aflx/
hfG5.
kfgL lkpg'sf kmfO{bfx
!_ z/L/df af];f] nfUg glbP/ tf}n
lgoGq0fdf ;xof]u k'/o\ fp5.
@_ pkfkroL lqmof kZrft hDdf
ePsf] o' /Lof, o' /Ls P;L8,
lqmofl6lgg h:tf ljiffQm tTjx,
;f]l8od, kf]6fl;od, SolN;od,
km;kmf]/; h:tf On]S6fn
] fO{6 -g'g_
x / cGo pTkfbxnfO{ lgisfzg
u/L /Qm z'l4s/0fdf ;xof]u
k'/o\ fpF5.
#_ 5fnfsf] ;f}Gbo{nfO{ lhjGt /fVb5.
dfz+ k] z L tyf :gfo' s f] ifx
sfo{IfdtfnfO{ ;'rf? /fVg d2t
ub{5. sf]ifxdf x'g] clS;8]l6e
:6];
lgjf/0f ug{ ;xof]u ub{5.
$_ kfrg, cjzf]if0f / dn lgisfzgdf
kfgLsf] 7'nf] e'ldsf 5. kfrg
kZrft cfGb|fxdf hDdf ePsf

ljzfQm tTjxnfO{ lgsfNgsf] nfuL


kgL kfgLsf] cfjZostf kb{5.
%_ ltv|f nfUg'eGbf cufj} kfgL lkpg]
afgLn] 6fpsf] b'Vg], /Qmrfk 36a9
x'g] sdn lkQ, d[uf} nf tyf
lkQy}nLsf kYy/L, df]6f]kg, hf]gL{
b'Vg] ckr clgGb|f Pl;l86L, Uofli6,
cN;/, slAhot, c;{, dw'd]x,
rfofF, kf]tf], 8l08kmf]/, dlxgfjf/Lsf]
u8a9L, Zj]tk|b/, xfdf]g{ xsf]
u8a9L, Snf]/:] 6]/f]n a8\g] 36\g]
h:tf /f]u nfUgaf6 arfpF5. lo
/f]u nfu]sfxn] oy]i6 dfqfdf
lgoldt kfgL lkpg] u/] /f]u
lgoGq0fdf ;xof]u ub{5.
slt lkpg] kfgL
!_ kfgLsf] dfqfsf] lgwf{/0f JolQmsf]
sfo{ k|sl[ t / df};df lge{/ ub{5.
;fdfGo sfd ug]{ dfG5]n] b}lgs #
b]vL $ ln6/ lkpg h?/L 5.
cltl/Qm >d tyf Jofofd ug]x{ n]
x/]s !)) Sofnf]/Lsf] bxgsf nflu
!)) ldln cltl/Qm kfgL lkpg
h?/L 5.
@_ ;fdfGotof k'?ifeGbf dlxnfxsf]
z/L/df Hofbf af];f] x'g] x'Fbf
dlxnfxn] Hofbf kfgL lkpg
h?/L 5. ;Gtfg pTkfbg ug]{ pd]/
;d"xsf, ule{0fL, aRrfnfO{ b'w
r';fO{ /x]sL dlxnfxnfO{ emg\ w]/}
kfgL lkpg cfjZos 5.
s;/L lkpg] kfgL
!_ ltvf{ nfUg' eg]sf] z/L/df kfgL
cefj ePsf] ;:"rgf x'g' xf] To;}n]
ltvf{ nfUg' eGbf klxn] g} kfgL
lkpg] afgL a;fnf}+ . Ps} k6s w]/}
kfgL lkpg' kgL :jf:Yosf] nfuL
/fd|f] xf]Og.
@_ laxfg p7\g] lalQs} nueu !@))

#_

$_

%_
^_

&_
*_

ldln htL kfgL lkpg' :jf:ys/


5. o;f] ubf{ /fte/L ;'Tbf x'g;Sg]
l8xfO{8z
] g -lgh{ntf_ sd ug{
;xof]u ub{5.
7f]; ef]hg ug'{ eGbf ! 306f klxn]
/ u/]kl5 @ 306f kl5;Dd kfgL
lkpg x'bF g} . ef]hg lgNg sl7g
ePdf !) ldln htL kfgL lng
;lsG5 t/ ef]hg lnO{ ;s]kl5
kfgL lnPdf kfrg /;xsf] kfrg
zQmL sd x'g hfg] x'bF f ef]hg
krfpg s7Lg x'G5. kmntM ljleGg
k|sf/sf k]6sf /f]ux nfUg
;S5g\.
/ftL ;'Tg' eGbf cufl8 klg k|z:t
kfgL lkP/ ;'Tg] ug'{ kb{5. o;f]
ubf{ ;' t ] s f] ;dodf z/L/
lgh{ntfsf] lzsf/ x'bF g} .
o;sf cnjf b}lgs !! 306fsf]
cGt/fndf ! b]lv @ Unf; kfgL
lkO/xg' kb{5.
v]Nbf, s'bf\ / kl/>d ug'{ eGbf cfwf
306f klxn] k|z:t kfgL lkpg' /fd|f]
xf] t/ kl/>d ul//x]sf] ;dodf jf
>d kZrft nut} kfgL lkpbf
z/L/df On]S6fn] fO{6 -g'g_ xsf]
;Gt'ng lalu|g uO{ cfktsfnLg
l:ylt kgL cfpg ;S5. ;fy}
>dsf] ;dodf kfgL lkpbf lj>fd
u/L/x]sf] kfrg k|0ffnLnfO{ cltl/Qm
bjfj kg{ hfG5.
ltvf{ nfu]sf] a]nfdf kfgL g} lkpg]
u/f}+ sf]N8l8; tyf cGo k]o
xf]Og.
lk;fanfO{ kx]nf] x'g glbp, :j:y
dfG5]df kx]nf] lk;fa cfpg' eg]sf]
lgh{ntsf] nIf0f xf].

-d]l8sn 8fO/]S6/, s'G8nLlg


xl:k6n emlD;v]n, nlntk'/_

sf7df8f}F . cufdL k'if !# ut]af6 !& cf}F ;+:s/0fsf] kf]v/f ;8s


dxf]T;a x'g] ePsf] 5. b]zsf] ljBdfg kl/l:yltsf jfjh't kf]v/fsf ko{6g
Joa;foL / cfof]hs l6dn] dxf]T;asf] tof/L eAo kn] ul//x]sf] 5.
;s8sd} vfFp, ;8sd} gfrf}+, ;8sd} /dfcf}+ eGg] d'n gf/fsf ;fy cufdL
k'if !# ut]af6 kf]v/fdf ;+rfng x'g] dxf]T;jsf] tof/L nueu nueu
clGtd r/0fdf k'us
] f] dxf]T;jsf ;+of]hs bf]h]{ nfdfn] atfP . o;} l;nl;nfdf
dxf]T;asf] k|rf/k|;f/sf] nflu eGb} ;'o{axfb'/ e'hn
] sf] g]tT[ jdf Ps 6f]ln
a'waf/ j'6jn tkm{ k|:yfg u/]sf] 5. !* ;b:oLo pQ l6ddf kf]v/fsf
ko{6g Aoa;foL / kqsf/x;lxtsf] ;xeflutf /x]sf] 5. dxf]T;jsf] k|rf/
cleofgcGtu{t dxf]T;j k|jw{gsf] nflu pQm l6d b]zsf ljleGg zx/x
bf, j'6jn, e}/xjf, ;f}/fxf nufotsf] If]qdf k'uL k|rf/k|;f/ ug{] sfo{qmd
/x]sf] !& cf}+ ;8s dxf]T;jsf k|rf/k|;f/ ;+of]hs nId0f a/fnn] atfP.
6f]nLn] pQ If]qxdf uO{ kf]v/fdf x'g nflu/x]sf] ;8s dxf]T;asf] af/]df
hfgsf/L u/fpFb} :yfgLo tyf ko{6sxnfO{ kf]v/f ;8s dxf]T;asf] tyf
gofF jif{sf] cj;/df kf]v/f 3'Dg lgDtf] lbg] 5. kf]v/fdf ljut !^ aif{b]lv
x/]s aif{ @* l8;]Da/b]lv hgj/L ! ;Dd ;8s dxf]T;a x'bF } cfO/x]sf] 5 .

a'xf/L x'g' t logL h:tf]====


sf7df8f}F . bf t'n;Lk'/ !(
p/x/L ls @^ jlif{of ;fljqf 9sfnn]
cfkm\gf :jlu{o ;;'/f ^% jlif{of z]ifdl0f
kl08tnfO{ bfujlQ lbPsL l5g\. pgsf]
;fydf ;fljqfsf % jlif{o 5f]/f Pln;
9sfn, To;kl5 :jlu{o kl08tsf
tLgj6f 5f]/Lx?n] ;d]t cfkm\gf] a'jfnfO{
bfujlQ lbPsf 5g\. ;Nofg jx'dv
' L
SofDk; z+vd'ndf ljP ltt[o jif{df
cWoog/t ;fljqfsf klt czf]s kl08t
a}bl] zs /f]huf/Lsf l;nl;nfdf dn]l;of
5g\. pgL kl/jf/sf PSnf 5f]/f lyP.
afh]nfO{ bfujlQ lbg gflt Pln; t
5Fb} lyP. t/, a'xf/L ;fljqfn] cfkm"n]
g} bfujlQ lbg] OR5f JoQm u/]kl5 ;a}
dnfdLn] klg ;xh :jLsf/ u/].
d[uf}nf kLl8t z]ifdl0fsL kTgLsf]
% jif{ klxn] g} lgwg ePsf] lyof].
To;otf ;;'/fsf] ;Dk"0f{ :ofxf/;';f/
klg ;fljqf :jo+n] u/]sL lyOg\. o;cl3
klg z]ifdl0fsf] lj:tf/fd} lbzf lkzfj
x'bF f ;fljqfn] g} ;Dk"0f{ :ofxf/;';f/ ub{}
cfPsf] ;+oQ' m j8f sfof{no p/x/Lsf
;lrj dfgjxfb'/ /fjtn] hfgs/L lbP.
;fljqf t'n;Lk'/ gu/kflnsf !( g+=
j8fsf] gful/s d+rsf] pk;+of]hs klg
x'g\ . pgL lgjf{rgdfkm{t\ pQm kbdf

k'us
] L lyOg\.
z]ifdl0fsf] ljlxjf/ j]ns
' f pgsf]
t'n;Lk'/ !( p/x/Ll:yt 3/df lgwg
ePsf] lyof]. 3/df s'g} nf]Ug] dflg;
gx'bF f klg pgn] lxGb' k|rngcg';f/
ug{k' g{] cfkm\gf ;;'/fsf] ;Dk"0f{ ;+:sf/
Pp6f 5f]/f ;/x u/]/ ;dfhdf pbfx/0f
k|:t't u/]sL l5g\. ;fljqf cfkm\gf]
;;'/fsf] lsl/of klg cfkm}F j;]sL l5g\.
a'xf/Ln] ;;'/fnfO{ bfualQ lbPsL l5g\.
dlxnfn] d/]kl5 zj klg 5'g' x'bF g} /
dnfdL ag]/ 3f6 klg hfg' x'bF g} eGg]
;fdflhs k/Dk/fnfO{ tf]8b\ } t'n;Lk'/
gu/kflnsf !( lgaf;L a'xf/L ;fljqf
9sfnn] :juL{ o ;;' /f z] ifdl0f
kl08tnfO{ j} lbs k/Dk/fcg' ;f/
z'qmaf/ aaO{ gbLsf] p/x/L 3f6df
bfujlQ lbPsL x'g\ . ljlxaf/ ;fFem ^%
aif{sf] pd]/df lgwg ePsf ;;'/fnfO{
bfualQ lbPsL a' x f/L ;fljqf,
z'qmaf/b]lv g} sf]/f af/]/ 5f]/f h:t}
s[of ;d]t a;]sL l5g\. ;fljqfn]
;dfhdf h/f] uf8]/ /x]sf] s'/Llt
s';:+ sf/nfO{ lrg{sf nflu bfualQ lbP/
lqmof a;]sf] atfOg\. pgn] 5f]/f ;/x
a'xf/Ln] klg sd{ ug{ ;S5g\ eGg] ;Gb]z
cfk"mn] lbg vf]hs
] f] k|lts[of lbOg\.

g]kfnsf] ;+ljwfgdf cflbjf;L hghfltsf] clwsf/


g]kfnsf] ;+ljwfgdf cflbjf;L hghfltsf] xs clwsf/ b]xfo adf]lhd
Joj:yf ul/Psf] 5.
;dfg'kflts ;dfj]zL / ;xeflutfd"ns l;4fGtsf cfwf/df ;dtfd"ns
;dfhsf] lgdf{0f ug]{.
hflto, If]qLo / eflifs lje]bsf] cGTo ug]{.
;fdfGo sfg"gsf] k|of]udf pTklQ, wd{, j0f{, hft, hflt jf cGo s'g}
cfwf/df e]befj gul/g],
;fdflhs jf ;f+:s[lts b[li6n] lk5l8Psf cflbjf;L, cflbjf;L hghflt
nufot gful/ssf] ;+/If0f, ;zQmLs/0f jf ljsf;sf nflu sfg"g adf]lhd
ljz]if Joj:yf ug]{.
g]kfndf a;f]af; ug{] k|To]s g]kfnL ;d'bfonfO{ sfg"g adf]lhd cfgf]
dft[efiffdf lzIff kfpg] / To;sf nflu ljBfno tyf z}lIfs ;+:yf vf]Ng]
/ ;~rfng ug{] xs x'g].
g]kfndf a;f]af; ug{] k|To]s g]kfnL;d'bfonfO{ cfgf] efiff, lnlk, ;+:s[lt,
;f+:s[lts ;Eotf / ;Dkbfsf] ;+jw{g / ;+/If0fug{] xs x'g].
;fdflhs kn] k5fl8 k/]sf, cflbjf;L, cflbjf;L hghflt ;d]tnfO{
;dfj]zL l;4fGtsf cfwf/df /fHosf] lgsfodf ;xefuL x'g kfpg] ;fdflhs
Gofosf] xs x'g].
/fli6o ;Dkbfsf] kdf /x]sf snf, ;flxTo / ;Ltsf] ljsf;df hf]8
lbg],
;dfhdf ljBdfg wd{, k|yf, k/Dk/f, /Llt tyf ;+:sf/sf gfddf x'g] ;a}
k|sf/sf lje]b, c;dfgtf, zf]if0f / cGofosf] cGTo ug]{.
b]zsf] ;f+:s[lts ljljwtf sfod /fVb} ;dfgtf Pj+ ;xcl:tTjsf cfwf/df
ljleGg hfthflt / ;d'bfosf] efiff, lnlk, ;+:s[lt, ;flxTo, snf,
rnlrq / ;Dkbfsf] ;+/If0f / ljsf; ug]{.
cflbjf;L hghfltsf] klxrfg ;lxt ;Ddfgk"j{s afFRg kfpg] clwsf/
;'lglZrt ug{ cj;/ tyf nfesf nflu ljz]if Joj:yf ug{].
cflbjf;L hghflt;Fu ;/f]sf/ /fVg] lg0f{oxdf ;xefuL u/fpg].
cflbjf;L hghflt / :yfgLo ;d'bfosf] k/Dk/fut 1fg, ;Lk, ;+:s[lt,
;fdflhs k/Dk/f / cg'ejnfO{ ;+/If0f / ;+jw{g ug]{].
/fHosf] ;+/rgf ubf{ ;dfgtfdf cfwfl/t ;dtfd"ns ;dfh, ;dfj]zL
k|ltlglwTj / klxrfgsf] ;+/If0f ug]{.
/fi6klt / pk/fi6klt km/s km/s ln+u jf ;d'bfosf] x'g].
;dfg'kflts lgjf{rg k|0ffnL adf]lhd x'g] k|ltlglw ;ef / k|b]z ;efsf]
lgjf{rgsf nflu /fhgLlts bnn] pDd]bjf/L lb+bf ;dfj]zL cfwf/df
ug]{ .
;+j}wflgs lgsfosf] ?kdf g]kfndf Ps cflbjf;L hghflt cfof]u /xg].
g]kfnL ;]gfdf cflbjf;L hghflt ;d]tsf] k|j]z ;dfgtf / ;dfj]zL
l;4fGtsf] cfwf/df ul/g].
g]kfnL /fhb"t / ljz]if k|ltlglw;dfj]zL l;4fGtsf] cfwf/df lgo'lQm
ul/g].
;+j}wflgs c+u / lgsfosf kbdf ;dfj]zL l;4fGtsf] cfwf/df lgo'lQm
ul/g].

g]k fn ;/sf/

sfg'g , Gofo tyf ;+; bLo


dfldnf dGqfno

g]k fn ;/sf/

;"rgf tyf ;~rf/ dGqfno

;"rgf ljefu

@)&@ ;fn k'; % ut] cfOtaf/

kmf]/d cWoIf pk]Gb| ofbjnfO{ v'Nnf kq

>L pk]Gb| ofbjHo",


cWoIf, ;+3Lo ;dfhjfbL kmf]/d g]kfn.

oltj]nf tkfO{+ ef/tsf] /fhwfgL gofF


lbNnL hfg' ePsf] yfxf ePkl5 s]xL
gn]lv lrQ ga'em]/ of] kq n]Vb} 5'. d
hgsk'/ k9]/ x'ls{g] cj;/ kfPsLn]
klg s]xL xb;Dd dw];L ;dfhnfO{ k9\g]
/ a'em\g] df}sf kfPsf] oxfFnfO{ hfgsf/L
u/fpF5 ' . dw]; L hgtfsf] kL8f,
pgLxsf] efjgf / /fi6jfbnfO{ d}n] w]/
yf]/ 5fd]sL klg 5'. hgtfnfO{ bf]if
lbg 7fpmF sxLF klg b]vs
] L 5}g. s]xL
lbg cl3sf] Pp6f 6]lnlehg sfo{qmddf
tkfO{n+ ] dw];Lx ;jf]R{ r :yfgdf k'Ug]
9f]sf /fHo;Qf sAhf u/]/ a:g] v;xn]
aGb u/]sf] cleAolQm lb+bf d 5Ss
k/]+ . ;Dem]+ klxnf] /fi6klt 8f= /fda/0f
ofbjnfO{. klxnf] pk/fi6klt k/dfgGb
emf klg ;Demgfdf cfOk'u] . tTsfnLg
;efd'v ;'jf;rGb| g]Djf, tTsfnLg
pk;efd'v cf]g;/L 3tL{, k|wfgGofofwL;
/fds'df/ ;fx cflbcflb gfd / cg'xf/
emNemnL tfhf eP/ cfP. oL dWo] s'g
rflx+ v; hfltsf lyP< d}n] e]p kfO{g+ .
tkfO{+ pkk|wfgdGqL / k//fi6dGqL x'g'
ePs} xf]. w]/} dw];L g]tfx pkk|wfgdGqL
eO;s]sf 5g\. u[xdGqfno klg dw];L
g]tfn] rnfO;s]sf 5g\. /fh]Gb| dxtf],
z/tl;+ x e08f/L, ljhos' d f/
uR5bf/nufotsf g]tf slt k6s dGqL
eP eGg] u0fgf t ;fob x'gx] nfO{ klg
yfx} xf]nf. ;Qfdf 5Fbf tkfO{x+ n] dw];L
hgtfsf] kIfdf s] sfd ug{' eof]< of]
d]/f] k|Zg xf]Og. ;+;b / Sofljg]6df s]
s:tf d'2f btf{ ug{' eof]< ;fob dnfO{
dfq xf]Og, s;}nfO{ klg yfxf 5}g. ;'gs
] f]
5', ;DdfggLo k|yd /fi6klt 8f= /fda/0f
ofbjnfO{ tkfO{x+ n] slxNo} dw];L dfGg'
ePg /] d]/f] k|Zg 5, tkfO{s
+ f] gh/df
dw];L x'g s] x'gk' 5{< sf+u;] | , Pdfn],
dfcf]jfbL, /fk|kf nufotnfO{ ef]6 lbg]

&) k|lt;t dw];L hgtfnfO{ tkfO{+ dw];L


dfGg' x'G5 ls x'Gg< /fli6o kf6L{df /x]/
dw];sf d'4fdf ;lqmo g]tfxnfO{ tkfO{s
+ f]
eGg' s] 5< tkfO{+ x sf] o:tf]
dfgl;stfsfjLr kxf8L d' n sf
dw];Lxsf] ljifo lemSg] d}n] cf}lrTo

cfGbf]ng u/fPkl5 /fHon] uf]nL 7f]S5


eGg] ;fdfGo 1fg klg tkfO{d+ f b]lvPg.
ef/tsf u[xdGqL /fhgfy l;+xn] s/f]8
ef/tLo g]kfndf 5g\ eg]/ 3f]if0ff u/].
csf{ Pshgf ;f+;bn] dw];sf !^ lhNnf
vf];/] klg ef/tn] lng' k5{ eg]. ef/tLo

7flggF. tkfO{n] ;d]t g]tT[ j ug{' ePsf]


dw];L df]rf{n] dw]; cfGbf]ngdf ;lxb
x'gn] fO{ %) nfv lbg] lg0f{o u/]sf] ;+lembf
d cjfs x'G5'. cft+ssf/L ;+:yfn] dfq
ug{] o:tf] lg0f{o s'g Gofosf] l;4fGtdf
k5{< $* hgf ;lxb eO;s]sf 5g\
cfGbf]ngdf. k|Zg 5, Tof] %) nfv k}ofF
pgLxsf] kl/jf/nfO{ slxn] lbg] xf]nf<
sxfFjf6 lbg] xf]nf< cfd dw];L hgtf
cToGt} zf]lift 5g\ / kLl8t 5g\.
tkfO{+ sDo'lgi6 kf6L{af6 /fhgLlt
;'? ug{' ePsf] eg]kl5 dfS;{jfb k9]s}
x'gk' 5{. dfS;{jfb k9]kl5 tkfO{n+ ] hftLo
/ If]qLo gf/f slt 3fts x'G5 eGg] klg
a'em]sf] x'gk' 5{. s] dw];L hgtf leq
;fdfGtL 5}gg\< :d/0f u/fpg rfxfG5',
$* hgf ;lxb x'bF f gfd rn]sf AolQm
Pshgf klg k/]sf 5}gg\. cu'jf
sfo{stf{ ;d]t 5}gg\. o;sf] cy{ s]
xf]< tkfO{+n] s}nfnL k'u/] ToxfFsf
hgtfnfO{ eGg'ePsf] lyof], v's/' L, v'8F f,
efnf lnP/ hgtf ;8sdf lg:sg';\ .
To;sf] s]xL lbg kl5 tkfO{n+ ] eg]em}
xltof/ af]s/] ;8sdf dfG5]sf] x'n
b]lvof]. To; x'nn] kf;ljs 9+un]
;'/IffsdL{sf] Hofg lnof]. cfk"mn] u/]sf]
cg'/f]w dfg]/ x'n lgl:sof]. /, tkfO{s
+ f]
O;f/f a'em] h:tf] u/]/ bfgjL z}nLdf
k|x/L dfl/P. clxn] dw];sf x/]s
cfGbf]ngdf nL / 3/]n' xltof/ k|of]u
ePsf] b]lvG5. s] zflGtk"0f{ cfGbf]ng
oxL xf]< sfo{stf{nfO{ xltof/ af]sfP/

;'/IffsdL{ g]kfn k;]/ rf/ hgfnfO{ uf]nL


7f]s] . ef/tLo /fhb'tn] cgu{n lj1KtL
lgsfn]/ 9fF65n ul//x]sf 5g\. t/,
oL ;j b[Zodf tkfO{x+ sf] ;dy{g /
df}g ;dy{g b]Vbf eSsfgf] km'6/] cfpF5.
lsg tkfO{+x o;/L nDk;f/ kb{}
x'gx' G' 5<
pk]Gb|hL, ;f]Rg' ePsf] 5 tkfO{s
+ f]
kf6L{nfO{ hgtfn] r'gfjdf lsg dl/r
em}+ rfx'/L kfl/lbPsf xf]nfg\. lsgeg]
dw];sf cfdhgtf /fi6jfbL 5g\.
ef/tn] ;Ldfgfdf Hofblt dRrfpFbf
cfF;' emf/]/ klxnf ?g] dw];L g} x'G5g\.
b]z / hgtfn] cfk"mnfO{ o:t} 7fpmFdf
tf}lng] xf] eGg] klg tkfO{n+ ] a'em\g ;Sg'
ePg< t/, cfGbf]ngn] kf6L{sf] x}l;ot
a9fpF5 eGg] 1fg / x]Ssf rflx+ tkfO{d+ f
a9L g} b]lvG5 Ph]G8fljxLg cfGbf]ng
x'bF g} . klxnf tkfO{s
+ f] dfu Ps dw];
Ps k|bz
] lyof]. clxn] cfP/ yf?xsf]
leGg /fHosf] dfu klg yKg' ePsf]
5. k|bz
] g+ @ hgsk'/sf] e]6Ln] rNb}g
eg]/ tkfO{n
+ ] dw];df cfDbfgLsf] ;|ft]
klg vf]Hb} x'gx' G' 5. czf]s /fO{sf]
kf6L{;uF ldl;g' ePsf] 5, /fli6o kf6L{
x'g\ . t/ /fli6o kf6L{sf] cWoIf h;/L
k|:t't x'g ;Sg' ePsf] 5}g. dw];sf]
s' /f ubf{ cflbjf;L, hghftLsf]
;jfndf r'k x'gx' G' 5. /fli6o g]tf x'g
;j}sf dfu af]Sg ;Sg'k5{ ls kb{g} <
/, dfudf Psktf x'gk' 5{ ls kb{g} <
;+ljwfg;ef / ;+;b jlxisf/sf]

;'nf]rgf vltj8f

lg0f{o ug{' eof]. t/, k|wfgdGqLsf] r'gfjdf


efu lng' eof] / sf+u;
|] sf ;'zLn
sf]O/fnfO{ ef]6 xfNg'eof]. o;sf] cy{ s]
xf]< sf]O/fnfn] r'gfj lht]sf] eP
tkfO{x+ dlGqd08ndf efu lng'xG' Yof]<
csf]{ s'/f, tkfO{x+ n] eg]sf] ;+ljwfg
;+zf]wg ug{ sf+u;
|] Pdfn]sf] Pstf
eTsfP/ ;+ej 5< of] cfGbf]ngnfO{ dw];L
hgtfsf] clwsf/sf] nflu eGbf
;Qf/f]x0fsf] nflu xf] eg]/ nfh nfUg]
u/L gb]vfPsf] ePg} a]z x'g] lyof]. g]tf
uf]6L xf]Og, :6fOs/ x'g;Sg' k5{.
tkfO{n+ fO{ nfu]sf] xf]nf, lbNnLn] dw];L
hgtfsf] efUo / eljio jgfOlbG5. of]
e|daf6 tkfO{x+ Ao"lF embf;Dd lbNnLn]
sf]zL / s0ff{nLdf Psflwsf/ hdfO;Sg]
5. g]tf uf]6L x'bF fsf] kl/0ffd ;Dk"0f{
hgtf / b]zn] ef]Ug' k/f]eg] Tof] eGbf
b'Mvb\ csf]{ x'bF g} . s] of] oyfy{kl| t tkfO{+
hfgsf/ x'gx' G' 5< ef/tLo ljb]z dGqL
;' i df :j/fhn] dw] ; sf d' 4 f
g;'lNemP;Dd ;Ldf cj/f]w ;xh gx'g]
s'/f tkfO{x+ nfO{ klg eg]/ cf:j:y
kfl/lbPsL 5g\. t/ tkfO{+ eGg' x'G5,
cfGbf]ng xfdLn] u/]sf] xf]. gfsfaGbL
xfdLn] u/]sf] xf]. zLif{ g]tfxjLrsf]
jftf{ 5f]8/] ef/tLo b'tfaf; / lbNnL
u'xfg{ hfFbf eg] la8Dagf g} nfU5.
l7s} 5, gfsfaGbL tkfO{x+ n] g} u/]sf]
xf]. t/, k};fjfnf / lecfO{kLnfO{
gfsfaGbLn] 5'g ;s]sf] 5}g / 5'g] klg
5}g. b':v t ljr/f hgtfn] kfPsf
5f}+ . s] gfsfaGbLsf] cy{ oxL xf]<
d}n] a'em\g g;s]sf] k|Zg s] xf] eg] of]
gfsfaGbL s:sf]nfuL xf]< laGtL 5,
x/]s /fhgLlts sbd rfNbf jf
efif0fubf{ g]kfn / g]kfnL hgtfnfO{
;+em]/ 5ftLdf xft /fv]/ ug{x' f]nf.
Oltxf;n] lwSsfg{] kfq gaGg' xf]nf.
lsgeg] tkfO{+ dw];n] cfz u/]sf] g]tfdf
kg{' x'G5.

hnjfo' kl/jt{g / de"lds/0f


/fdafa' /fo ofbj
kof{j/0f qmflGt
ljZjJofkL tfkqmd a[l4sf sf/0fn]
k[YjLsf] jftfj/0fdf c:jfefljs kl/jt{g
eO{ hnjfo' nufot dfgj hLjg,
;fdflhscfly{s ljsf;, h}ljs
ljljwtf, ko{6sLo ljsf; cflb If]qdf
gsf/fTds c;/ k'us
] f] 5. cltj[li6,
cgfj[li6, af9L, klx/f], ;'Svf h:tf
k|fs[lts ljkbsf] hf]lvd a9]sf] 5.
hnjfo' kl/jt{g / o;sf] k|efjsf sf/0f
@!cf}+ ztfAbLdf dfgj ;Eotf /
/fi6xsf] cl:tTjdfly g} r'gf}tL
ylkPsf] 5. k[YjL xfd|f] ;femf 3/ xf].
of] ;femf 3/nfO{ xfd|f ;Gtltsf nflu
;'/lIft agfpg' xfd|f] k/d st{Jo xf].
cGoyf xfdLn] xfd|f ;GtltnfO{ hLjg /
d[To' ;Fu;Fu} lbg]5f}+ . /, pgLxn] xfdLnfO{
hGdbftfsf] kdf xf]Og, od/fhsf]
kdf ;Daf] wg ug]{ 5g\ . lau|bf]
jftfj/0fsf] c;/ t/fO{{ dw]z tyf
lxdfnkxf8 htftt} b]lvg yfn]sf] 5.
r'/] If]qdf dfgj cltqmd0fn] t/fO{{
dw]zsf] hnfzo, v]tLkftL / ls;fgL
hLjgnfO{ k|ToIf df/df kf/]sf] 5. r'l/of
If]qnfO{ dfgj cltqmd0faf6 hf]ufO{
h+un / h}ljs ljljwtfnfO{ k'g:yf{lkt
ul/g'k5{. kof{j/0fLo ;+s6sf] kL8f xfdL
;a}n] ef]Ug yfn]sf 5f}+ . ;dod} ;r]t
x'g ;s]gf}+ eg] o;sf] kl/0ffd eofjx
x'g5] . ;/sf/ / ;/sf/L lgsfox cem
klg kof{j/0f ;+s6 k|lt uDeL/ x'g ;s]sf]
5}g. cfkm\gf] dxn agfpg / ;'vzonsf
nflu /fi6nfO{ aaf{b kfg]{ sfd eO/x]sf]
5.
;du| dfgj hflt, ljZj ;Dkbf /
h}ljs ljljwtfsf] ;+/If0f, lbuf] cfly{s
;fdflhs;f+:s[lts ljsf;, ko{6sLo
Pj+ o;af6 kg]{ gsf/fTds k|efjxaf6
;u/dfyf nufot lxdz[+ v nfsf]
;+/If0fsf ;fy} t/fO{{ kof{j/0f Pj+ r'/]
If]qsf] ;+/If0f ug'{ cfhsf] cfjZostf
xf]. ;+jw} flgs jftfj/0fLo clwsf/

dfgj lxteGbf dfly p7L a[xQ/ hLj


s]lGb|t eP dfq jf:tljs kdf
jftfj/0fsf] ;+/If0f x'g ;S5.
cfhsf] ljZjsf nflu cfjZos Go"g
sfa{g hLjg z}nL kof{j/0fLo qmflGt /
To;kl5 klg To;} k|sf/sf] cfk"lt{
kl/jt{g cfjZos ePsf] 5. kof{j/0fLo
qmflGtsf nflu gofF ;f]r cfjZos 5.
k|efjzfnL xl/t k|ljlw klg cfjZos
5. kof{j/0fLo cfGbf]ngsf nflu
cfwf/e"t nIo;Fu} To;nfO{ lgb]l{ zt
ug]{ xfdL lrq lgwf{/0f ul/g' cfjZos
5. clx+;fTds / ldtJooL ljlwf/f
kof{j/0fLo qmflGt u/L kof{j/0fdf
cfwf/e"t kl/jt{g ul/g' cfjZos 5.
t/fO{{dw]z kof{j/0f
t/fO{{ dw]zsf] pQ/L efudf /x]sf]
efj/ If]qdf 7"n7"nf 9'u+ f / anf}6]
hdLg 5. pkf]70f k|b]zLo -Subtropical zone_ dg;'gL xfjfkfgL
kfOg] o; If]qdf dg;'gL jfo'n] g} jiff{
u/fpF5. jflif{s ;/b/ !%#) ldlnld6/
jiff{ o; k|bz
] df eGbf klZrdL t/fO{d{ f
dg;'gL jiff{ sd x'G5. o; If]qdf h]7sf]
cGTolt/ ;' eP/ c;f]h dlxgf;Dd
/xg] dg;'gL k|efjn] s'n jflif{s jiff{sf]
*) k|ltzt eGbf a9L kfgL kb{5 eGg]
afFsL jiff{ cGo ;dodf x'G5. h]7
c;f/lt/ jf udL{ofddf oxfFsf] cf};t
tfkqmd $) l8u|L ;]lN;o;eGbf dfly
r9\g] ub{5. oxfF ;fk]lIft cfb{t| f klg
a9L x'G5. oxfF pRr tfkqmd clws
;fk]lIft cfb|t{ f / r/d jiff{ x'g] sf/0fn]
;bfaxf/ jgh+un kfOG5g\. ljleGg
k|sf/sf jGohGt' / jg:klt -flora
of fauna_ Pj+ %)) eGbf a9L
k|hfltsf r/fr'L t/fO{{ k|b]zsf]
xfjfkfgLdf kfOG5. cyf{t\ o; If]qnfO{
h}ljs ljljwtfsf] b[li6sf]0fn] Hofb} wgL
dflgG5.
a[l4n] ubf{ t/fO{{ kof{j/0fdf klg
gsf/fTds c;/ kg]{ ub{5. t/fO{s
{ f]
hnjfo' kl/jt{g ePsf]n] o; If]qsf]

dfgj :jf:Yo, s[lif, ko{6g, jg:klt,


hLjhGt' Pj+ lhljsf]kfh{g rk]6df
k/]sf] 5. o; If]qsf] k|fs[lts ;|ft] sf]
clgolGqt ;+sng / lgsf;Ln] r'/s
] f]
ljgfz eP/ t/fO{s
{ f] ;dy/ e"efu
de"ld aGg] vt/f a9\b5} . ;fy} o;
If]qsf] e"jftfj/0f / lhljsf]kfh{gdf
7"nf] c;/ k/]sf] 5. t/fO{d{ f tfkqmd
j[l4 / jgh+unsf] tLj| km8fgLn] o;sf]
kof{j/0fLo c;Gt'ng / dg;'gdf lau|bf]
jftfj/0f km]/abn ePsf] 5.
g]kfnL lxdfnL / hgh+unsf] ljZj
kof{j/0fnfO{ ;Gt'lnt t'NofPsf] lyof].
jg h+unsf] ljgfz / hnjfo' kl/jt{gn]
ubf{ lxdfno klUng yfn]sf] 5.
lxdtfnx lj:kmf]6 eO/x]sf] 5. t/fO{{
de"lds/0fsf] rk]6fdf k/]sf] 5.
lxdfnL If]q t];f| ] w|j' xf] / blIf0f Pl;ofsf]
kfgLsf] d'xfg g} xf] eGg] xfdL dgg\ ug'{
kb{5. g]kfnsf] tfkqmd j[l4 ljZjJofkL
cf};t j[l4 eGbf w]/} a9L 5. o;n]
bL3{sfndf ;Dk"0f{ If]qs} hnjfo'
k|0ffnLnfO{ k|lts"n k|efj kfg]{ b]lvG5.
lxdtfnsf] lgdf{0f km'6g\ ] qmd hnjfo'
kl/jt{gsf] ;DejtM ;aeGbf 68\sf/f]
k|efj xf] eGg ;lsG5. ck|Toflzt
jiff{sf] ;fy ;fy} a]df};dL jiff{, af9L /
v8]/Lsf] cj:yf ;d]t cfpg] u/]sf]
5. hnjfo'df b]lvPsf] o:tf] ljifd\
kl/jt{gn] g]kfn nufot o; If]qd} vfB
c;'/Iff a9fpg'sf] ;fy} dflg;sf]
hghLjgnfO{ g/fd|/L k|efljt kf/]sf]
5. k[YjLsf] tfkdfgsf] j[l4nfO{ lgoGq0f
ug{ xfdL clxn] g} lqmofzLn ePgf}+ eg]
lxdfnL If]qsf jg:klt / jGohGt' nf]k
x'g] vt/fsf ;fy} oxfFsf] h}ljs ljljwtf
uDeL/ kdf k|efljt x'g] / kl/j]z
k|0ffnL klg ck"/0fLo kdf Ifltu|:t
x'g] b]lvG5.
hnjfo' /fhgLlt
jftfj/0fLo /fhgLlt ljZn]if0fsf]
cfwf/df hnjfo' kl/jt{g jftfj/0fLo
/fhgLltsf] d"n ;d:of xf] eGg] a'lemG5.

o;/L hnjfo' kl/jt{gsf] k|fljlws /


cy{ /fhgLlts kl/j]znfO{ x]bf{ wlg /
zlQmzfnL /fi6xn] u/La / sdhf]/
/fi6xsf hnjfo' kl/jt{g ;xfotfsf]
gfdaf6 gofF hnjfo' pklgj]z agfpg]
vt/f a9]sf] 5. hnjfo' kl/jt{gsf]
ljZjJofkL ;f} b fafhLnfO{ x] b f{
pklgj]zsf] gofF :jk hnjfo'
pklgj]zjfbsf] hGd eO{ sltko u/La
/ sdhf]/ /fi6xsf] ;fj{ef}lds ;Qfdf
;d]t vnn k'Ug ug]{ ;Defjgf a9]sf]
5. ;a}n] ;fgf, u/La / sdhf]/
/fi6x ;+ul7t eP/ wgL / zlQmzfnL
b]zxsf] /fhgLlts c;/ / k|efjaf6
u/La hgtfnfO{ hnjfo' Gofo /
;fdflhs Gofo lbgsf nflu / :jtGq
;fj{ef}lds cl:tTj /Iffsf nflu
hnjfo' kl/jt{g / jftfj/0fLo bf]ifL
wgL b]zxnfO{ d"No ltg{ afWo
agfpg' k 5{ . hnnfo' kl/jt{ g
pklgj]zaf6 aRgsf nflu u/La
/fi6xsf] Pstf / ;+ul7t x'gk' b{5.
hnjfo' pklgj]zjfbsf] vt/faf6 aRg'
k5{.
hnjfo' kl/jt{gsf] cy{ /fhgLlts
ljz]ifu/L wgL /fi6 / cf}Bf]lus
/fi6xn] xl/tu[x Uof; pT;u{ g36fO{
cfcfkm\gf b]zsf] /fhgLlts cy{
Joj:yf l6sfO{ /fVg rfxG5g\ eg] u/La
/fi6x hnjfo' kl/jt{gsf hf]lvd
Go"gLs/0f / cg'sn
" tfsf nflu wgL
tyf cf}Bf]lus /fi6n] 7f]; kxn
ug'k{ b{5. u/La tyf hf]lvddf k/]sf
/fi6xn] lagf ;t{ ;xfotf kfpg' kg]d{ f
hf]8 lbPsf 5g\.
k|mfG;sf] /fhwfgL k]l/;df o;
jif{sf] hnjfo' ;DaGwL ljZj ;Dd]ngn]
sfa{g pT;h{g 6}S;nfO{ dxTj lbPsf]
5. o;/L g]kfn hnjfo' kl/jt{gsf
k|efjaf6 l5} / uDeL/ kdf k|efljt
x'g] b]zdf k/] klg cfly{s / ef}lts
ljsf;sf] :t/sf sf/0f xfdL hnjfo'
kl/jt{gsf sf/0f alg;s]sf 5}gf}+ .

5
rfns lagfsf a; ;8sdf bf}8g]
sf7df8f}F. g]b/NofG8\;sf] jflvlg+Ug ljZjljBfno / Pc8 l;6Ln]
xfn} Ps o:tf] k|of]u ub{}5g\, h;n] oftfoftsf] b"lgofFdf gofF cfofd
ylklbg ;S5. va/cg';f/ pgLxn] ljB'tLo ldgLa; Tof] klg
rfns/lxtsf] kl/If0f ub{}5g\. jfvlg+Ug ljZjljBfno / Po8 l;6LaLrsf]
#=% dfOnsf] b"/Ldf o:tf] kl/If0f ug{ nfluPsf] xf]. o:tf ljB'tLo
jfxgxnfO{ ljKof8\ gfd lbOPsf] 5. oL jfxg x]bf{ lzzfsf] aS;f h:tf

b]lvG5g\. t/ o;df !@ dflg; c6fpg ;S5g\. jfxg x]bf{ o;sf] cufl8sf]


efu / k5fl8sf] efudf s'g] cGt/ 5}g. Tolt dfq} xf]Og oL jfxgdf
:6]l/, lgoGq0f sIf s]xL klg /flvPsf] 5}g. vf;df of] /f]af]6 j}g xf]
h;nfO{ ;lhnf] efiffdf :df6{ kmf]gsf] PK; dfGg ;lsG5. k|lt306f !%
dfOn rNg] o:tf] jfxgsf] k|of]u o;cl3 ljdfg:ynsf leqL lglZrt
;8sdf ul/Psf] lyof]. clxn] eg] o;sf] k|of]u aflx/L ;8\d} ug{ nfluPsf]
xf] t/ kl/If0fsf nflu dfq}. olb of] kl/If0f ;kmn ePdf o;n] eljiodf
oftfoftsf] If]qdf g} gofF cfofd yKg] 5.
;'?jftL r/0fdf ePsf sf/0f o;sf s]xL sl7gfO{x klg 5g\. h:tf]
ls v/fa df};d, w]/} le8 x'g] ;8sx / /flt o;nfO{ rnfpg
;lsGg.Sofd]/f, n]h/ ;]G;/ h:tf k|ljlw a;df h8fg ul/Psf] 5.
o;}df h8fg ePsf] PK;sf] k|of]uaf6 s'g s'g :yfgdf /f]Sg] xf] Tof]
lgwf{/0f ug{ ;lsG5. of] a; pRr k|ljlwo'Qm xf] t/ klg of] oGqdfly k"/}
ljZjf; eg] clxn] g} ul/;lsPsf] 5}g. o;nfO{ dfG5]n] g} st} a;]/
lgoGq0f ug{]5g\. cfjZostf ePdf o;nfO{ dfG5]n] g} ;~rfng klg ug{
;Sg]5g\. ofqfsf qmddf s'g} ofq'n] o;sf] sDo"lgs];g a6g bafof] eg]
6]lSgl;og sIfdf a;]sf] JolQmn] o;nfO{ cfkm\gf] lgoGq0fdf lng ;S5 /
cK7\of/f] ;8saf6 a;nfO{ aflx/ lgsfNg ;S5. Ph]G;L

Psk6s rfh{ u/]kl5 !% lbg l6Sg] :df6{kmf]g

sf7df8f}F. lrlgofF sDkgL pls6]nn] o:tf] :df6{kmf]g agfPsf] 5,


h;nfO{ Psk6s rfh{ u/]kl5 dHhfn] rnfpFbf klg !% lbg;Dd rfh{
l6Sb5. s] !)))) gfdsf] pQm PG8f]O8 :df6{kmf]gsf] Aof6L cfOkmf]g
l;S; P;sf] eGbf !) u'0ff 7"nf] 5 / ;fdfGo k|of]udf !) b]lv !%
lbg;Dd vKb5. Aof6Lsf cnfjf of] ;]6df cGo ;fdfGo ;]6df h:t}
PG8f]O8 %=! nlnkk ck/]l6+u l;:6dsf] k|of]u ul/Psf] 5. %=% OGrsf]
l:qmg /x]sf] o;sf] l/hf]n;
' g &@) lkS;]n /x]s]f 5 eg] o;df ! luufxh{sf]
Sjf8sf]/ k|f];];/, @ luufafO6 ofd tyf !^ luufafO6sf] OG6g{n :6f]/]h
/x]sf] 5. h;nfO{ dfOqmf] P;8L sf8{af6 a9fpg ;lsG5. of] :df6{kmf]gdf
b'Oj6f l;dsf8{ k|of]u ug{ ;lsG5 eg] ;a} PkxnfO{ l:qmgd} lnl:6+u
ug{ ;lsg] ePsfn] bf]>f] d]g'sf] cfjZostf klg kb{}g. PnO8L km\nf;
;lxtsf] * d]uflkS;]nsf] d'Vo Sofd/f tyf @ d]uflkS;]nsf] kmG6 Sofd/f
o;df /x]sf] 5. o;sf] Aof6LnfO{ k"/f rfh{ x'g ;f9] # 306f nfUb5.
o;sf] d"No @#(=(( 8n/ tf]lsPsf] 5 / csf]{ dlxgfb]lv ahf/df k7fOg]
atfOPsf] 5.

xfjf vfPsf] klg k};f ltg{k' g{]

sf7df8f}F. k"jL{ rLgsf] lhof+U;' k|fGtl:yt emfglhofuf+u ;x/df /x]sf]


Ps /]i6'/]G6n] cfkm\gf u|fxsnfO{ tfhf tyf z'4 xfjf vfg lbPsf] eGb}
xfjfsf] klg k};f c;'Ng yfn]sf] 5. l;GXjfsf cg';f/ pQm /]i6'/]G6df
u|fxsxn] vfg]s'/fsf] landf xfjf ;kmf ug{] jfktsf] cltl/Qm ! o'cfg
;d]t ltg{'kg{]5. :d/0f /xf];\ xfn}sf xKtfxdf pQm ;x/ afSnf] t'jfFnf]n]
9flsPsf] 5 / t'jfFnf]n] Ps ;o ld6/ k/;Dd ;d]t /fd|f];Fu b]lvFb}g.
pQm /]i6'/]G6n] xfn} xfjf 5fGg] k|ljlw vl/b u/]sf] 5 h;af6 /]i6'/]G6
leqsf] xfjf tfhf tyf :jR5 x'g]5. /, of] k|ljlwdf nfu]sf] vr{ p;n]
u|fxsaf6 c;'Ng yfn]sf] xf]. t/, :yfgLo k|zf;gn] eg] u|fxsxnfO{
o:tf] xfjfsf] k};f lng] /]i6'/]G6sf] sfd cj}w /x]sf] eGb} cltl/Qm k};f
c;'Ng] sfd /f]Sg cfb]z lbPsf] 5. xfjfnfO{ j:t'sf] kdf a]Rg gkfOg]
clwsf/Lxn] atfPsf 5g\. t/, sltko ;fdflhs ;+hfn k|of]ustf{n]
eg] /]i6'/]G6sf] o:tf] z}nLsf] k|z+;f u/]sf 5g\ / :jR5 xfjfsf] nflu cem}
w]/} k};f ltg{;d]t tof/ /x]sf] eGb} ;/sf/nfO{ jfo' k|b'if0f lgoGq0f ug{
r'gf}lt lbPsf 5g\.

kfNkf cbfntaf6 bf]ifL 7x/ ePsf @#$ hgf km/f/


sf7df8f}F. lhNnf cbfnt kfNkfsf ;"rgf clwsf/L pQd l;njfnsf
cg';f/ ljleGg cfk/flws lqmofsnfkdf ;+nUg eO{ Goflos lgsfoaf6
bf]ifL 7x/ ePsf @#$ ck/fwL nfdf] ;dob]lv km/f/ 5g\. st{Jo Hofg,
nfu'cf}ifw, rf]/L h:tf ljleGg ck/fwdf ;+nUgn] tLg xhf/ jif{ cf7
dlxgf !) lbg s}b e'QmfgL ug{ / pgLxaf6 ?= #^ nfv ## xhf/ **@
hl/jfgf c;'n ug{ afFsL /x]sf] ;"rgf clwsf/L l;njfnn] atfP. km/f/
cleo'QmdWo] tfg;]g gu/kflnsfleqsf ;a}eGbf a9L 5g\. cbfntsf]
tYof cg';f/ tfg;]gsf #!, /fdk'/sf !^, lkkn8fF8fsf !!, d:ofdsf
gf}, x'ldgsf kfFr / vflnjg uflj;sf !! ck/fwL km/f/ 5g\. cbfntsf]
km};nf sfof{Gjogsf nflu cbfnts} k|x/L gx'g', /fhgLlts bnn] ;d]t
;xof]u gug{', :yfgLo k|x/L k|zf;g;Fu ;dGjo x'g g;Sg' h:tf sf/0fn]
ubf{ ck/fwL kqmfp ug{ sl7g ePsf] atfOPsf] 5.

@)&@ ;fn k'; % ut] cfOtaf/

e"sDkf/f dfl/Psf lrlgof ;lxbxk|ltsf] >4f~hnLsf] Ps cj:d/0fLo ns

x:taxfb'/ s] = ;L=
;g\ @)!% h'n fO{ * -@)&@
c;f/ @#_ ut] a'waf/sf lbg ljxfg
xfd|f] 6f]nL ;]odf] ufpFdf k'us
] f] lyof].
of] ;f]o df] ufpF lrgsf] l;+r'og
k|fGtsf] cfKkf lhNNffdf kb{5. of]
;f]odf] ufpF ljZj hg;d'bfosf aLr
kl/lrt 5. kl/lrt o; cy{df 5
ls o; ufpFdf ;g\ @))* d] % sf
lbg Pp6f zlQmzfnL e"sDk pTkGg
ePsf] lyof] / sl/a &) xhf/ To;
If]qsf hgtfsf] d'To' ePsf] lyof] eg]
v/af}sf] ef}lts ;+/rgf / cToGt

wghgsf] Iflt ePsf] lyof]. &=!@


/]S6/ :s]ndf cfPsf] pQm zlQmzfnL
e"sDkn] s/La # ldg]6;Dd sDkGg
eO/x]sf] To; e"sDkn] k[YjLsf] 7"nf]
efu xNNffOlbPsf] lyof] . nfdf]
;do;Dd cfPsf] e"sDkn] lrgdf
7"nf] wghgsf] Iflt u/]sf] lyof].
To; ;f] o df] ufpF d f To;
zlQmzfnL e"sDksf] pTklQ ePsf]
lyof] eg] To;sf] glhs} /x]sf] O\;f]
ufpFdf ;a}eGbf 7"nf] dfgjLo tyf
cGo Iflt k'ofPsf] lyof]. To;
zlQmzfnL e"sDk pTkGg ePsf] h;nfO{ e"sDksf] s]Gb|efu dflgPsf]
5_ O\;f] ufpFdf ;a} sn]hx /
ljBfnoxnfO{ eUgfljz]ifdf kl/0ft
ul/lbPsf] lyof] . hxfF :s" n /
sn]hx ;d]t /x]sf pQm O\;f]
ufpF d f ^ xhf/ dflg;xsf]
e"sDkf/f Hofg uPsf] lyof] / 7"nf]
ef}lts ;+/rgfxsf] Iflt ePsf]
lyof] . ToxL :yfgdf lrlgofF
ldqxn] @)!% h'nfO{ * sf lbg
ljxfg l7s (=#) ah] xfdLnfO{
k'ofPsf lyP.
e"sDk pTkGg ePsf] / ;j}eGbf
al9 Iflt k'u]sf] To; O\;f] ufpFsf
;a} ef}lts ;+/rgfx hf] zlQmzfnL
e"sDkn] Wj:t kf/]/ k'/} eUgfljz]ifsf
kdf kl/0ft u/fOlbPsf] 5, tL
eUgfljz]ifxnfO{ clxn];Dd h:tfsf]
t:t} /flvPsf] 5 / lrlgofF ;/sf/n]
ToxfF s f] hgtfnfO{ cGoq} ;f/] /
k'g{jf;sf] Joj:yf ul/lbPsf] 5 eg]
To;nfO{ Do"lhod agfP/ rf/}/lt/
afpG8/L u/]/ ko{6s pBf]usf] kdf
ljsf; ul/lbPsf] 5. lbgdf
xhf/f}sf] ;+Vofdf lrlgofF ko{6sx
cjnf]sg ug{ k'Ub5g / To;af6
k|fKt ePsf] /sd ;a} k'g{lgdf{0fsf]
sfo{df / k'g{jf; ul/Psf e"sDk

kLl8txsf] hLjgofkgsf] nflu k|of]u


ul/Psf] 5.
lrlgofF sDo' l gi6 kf6L{ s f]
lgdGq0ffdf / tTsfnLg xfd|f] kf6L{
g]kfn sDo'lgi6 kf6L{ dfcf]jfbLsf]
g]tT[ jdf kfFr ;b:oLo Ps lrlgofF
cWoog e|d0f 6f]nL To; lbg pQm
:yfgdf k'us
] f] lyof]. xfd|f] kf6L{af6
d]/f] g]t[Tjdf s]Gb|Lo ;b:ox o
b]aG] b| >]i7 -bLjfs/_, s'df/L d'Qmfg
/ sf:sL lhNnf ;ldltsf ;lrj ch'g{
rGt]g / ef]hk'/sL b'uf{ /fO{ x'gx' G' Yof].
;fy} g]skf -dfn]_ g]dlskf / g]kfnL

sf+u|];sf kfFrkfFr hgf ul/ @)


hgfsf] xfd|f] 6f]nL Tofxf k'us
] f] lyof].
xfd|f] 6f]nLn] @)!% h'nfO{ & @)&@ c;f/ @@_ b]lv @)!% h'nfO{
!& -@)&@ ;fpg !_ ut];Dd hDdf
!! lbg lrgsf] ljljw If]qsf] cWoog
e|d0fsf nflu & h'nfO{sf lbg China
Airline sf] $)* p8fgf/f tLAatsf]
Nxf;f x'b} ;fF lrgsf] l;+r'cfg
k|fGtsf] /fhwfgL Chengdu k'us
] f]
lyof]. To;kl5 xfdLnfO{ Chengdu
l:yt Jing Jiang Hotel df
a;flnPsf] lyof]. ef]nLkN6 ljxfg
cyf{t\ * h'nfO{ sf lbg :yfgLo
;dofg';f/ ljxfg l7s *=#) ah]
Wenchaun reconstruction site

sf] hf] dfly pNn]lvt ePsf] pTkGg


ePsf] / To;sf] k'glgdf{0f ul/Psf]
:yfglt/ k|:yfg u/fOof]. l7s (=#)
ah] uf8Lsf] ofqff/f xfdLx ToxfF
k'u]sf lyof}. lrlgofF sDo'lgi6 kf6L{,
cGt{/fli6o ljefusf pk lgb{]zs
sd/]8 Shao Liang / lrlgofF
sDo'lgi6 kf6L{ cGt/fli6o ljefusL
sd{rf/L sd/]8 Zhengn youya hf]
b'jh
} gf g]kfnL efifL x'gx' G' 5, n] xfdLnfO{
ufO8 ug' { e Psf] lyof] . ;fydf
Chengdu sf :yflgo kf6L{
sldl6sf ldqx klg x'gx' 'GYof].
klxnf] gDa/df xfd|f] 6f]nLnfO{
zlQmzfnL e"sDk pTkGg ePsf] pQm
;f]odf] ufpFsf] O\;f] eGg] :yfgdf
k'ofOof] / e"sDkn] eUgfljz]ifdf
kl/0ft u/fOPsf hgtfsf 3/x /
sn] h :s' n sf ejgx ePsf]
:yfgsf] cjnf]sg u/fOof]. h'g
:yfgdf eUgfljz]ifnfO{ h:tfsf] t:t}
/fv]/ Toxfsf e"sDk kLl8t hgtfnfO{
cg] q } ;f/] / k' g { j f;sf] Joj:yf
ul/Psf] 5 / To; :yfgnfO{ Ps
P]ltxfl;s ;+u|fxfnosf] lgdf{0f u/]/

Ps ko{6sLo pBf]u kdf ljsf;


ul/Psf] 7fpFdf k'ofOof] / ;a}
cjnf]sg ug{] qmddf pQm e"sDk
pTkGg ePsf] O\;f] ufpFsf] Ps
:yfgdf ljzfn Do"lhod lgdf{0f u/]/
e"sDk pTkGg ePsf] :yfgdf cfuf]sf]
Hjfnf ljikmf]6 ePsf] b]vfOPsf] 5,
To;sf] cjnf]sg uof} / To; cfkt
ljktsf qmddf hgtfsf] pf/df
vl6Psf ;' /IffsdL{ , p4f/sdL{ ,
ultljlwxsf] cjnf]sg u/fOof] /
e"sDk k|lt/f]wfTds ejg ;+/rgf
s;/L u/fpg] eGg] s'/fsf] ;lrq

j0f{ g ul/Psf pks/0fxsf]


cjnf]sg u/fOof]. e"sDk pTkGg
ePsf] lglZrt :yfg hxf cfuf]sf]
Hjfnf h:tf] an]sf] b]lvg] ljh'nLf/f
tof/ kfl/Psf] 5, To;sf] klg glhs}
uP/ x]g{] sfd ul/of] / cjnf]sg
ug{ ] sfo{ ul/ ;s] k Zrft h' g
zlQmzfnL e"sDkn] Ifltu|:t kf/]/
eUgfljz]ifdf kl/0ft x'g k' u]s f]
sn]hsf] k|f0fdf e"skf/f dfl/Psf
zxLbsf] :df/s ;lxt ljzfn / Ps
P]ltxfl;s :ynsf] lgdf{0f ul/Psf]
5, h;sf] dflysf] ljQfdf nfn 08f
kmx/fOPsf] 5 / ;do;"rs 38L ;lxt
pQm e"sDk pTkGg ePsf] @))*
%!@ n]lvPsf] :tDe v8f ul/Psf]
5, To;sf] cufl8 k'u]/ xfdLnfO{
ufO8 ul//xg' ePsf lrlgofF
sd/]8x ;lxt xfdL ;a}n] xftdf
k" m nsf u' R 5fx af] s ] / To;
zlQmzfnL e"sDkf/f dfl/Psf lrlgofF
zxLbx k|lt Ps ldg]6 df}gwf/0f
ub{} >4f~hnL 6'qm\ofpFb} ;fd'lxs
kmf] 6f]x lvr]/ To; P]ltxfl;s
:yfgaf6 aflxl/of}F.
To;cl3 pQm e" s Dkaf6
lj:yflkt x'g k'u]sf hgtfnfO{ k'g
lgdf{ 0 f u/] / a;f] a f; ul/Psf]
Wenchaun reconstruction site

sf] cjnf]sg e|d0f u/fOof]. To;


:yfgdf e"sDk pTkGg ePsf] b'Od{ lxgf
leq lrlgofF sDo'lgi6 kf6L{sf] ;]n
sld6Ln] ;Dk"0f{ k'glgdf{0fsf] gS;f
l8hfOg ul/ k7fPsf] /x]5 / lrlgofF
sDo'lgi6 kf6L{sf] s]Gb|Lo ;ldltn]
lg0f{ o u/] / lrlgofF ;/sf/nfO{
lgb{]l;t u/]kl5 b'O{ jif{ leq lrlgofF
;/sf/n] $) nfv 3/x -jLrdf
l;rfO{ gx/ 5_ b'j}kL @)@) nfv
@ tn] 3/x lgdf{0f u/]/ hgtfnfO{
lgz'Ns ljt/0f u/]sf] 5. To;df

cd]l/sL ;/sf/n] $% s/f]8 C0f


:jk US Dollar pknAw u/fPsf]
/x]5. Tof] C0f ;/sf/n] r'Q mf
ul/;s] s f] hfgsf/L xfdLnfO{
u/fOPsf] lyof]. Toxf :jf:Yo, lzIff,
vfg] kfgL, ljh'nL, 9n lgsf; ;Dk"0f{
;/sf/n] lgz'Ns kdf pknAw
u/fO/x]sf] 5. cGo cfo>f]tsf] lglDt
ahf/ Joj;fosf] Joj:yf ldnfO{
lbPsf] /x]5.
rLgdf klg Tolt 7"nf] ljgf; ug{]
ul/ e"sDk uPsf] / g]kfndf klg
@)&@ a}zfv !@ / @( ut] ul/ 7"nf]
zlQmzfnL e"sDk uO{ s/La ( xhf/
dflg;sf] Hofg ;d]t lnPsf] / !$
j6f lhNnfdf 7"nf] hgwgsf] Iflt x'g
k'uL, hgtfsf 3/x, :s'nsn]hx
s/La () k|ltzt eUgfljz]ifdf
kl/0ft x'g k'u]kl5 tL e"sDkkLl8t
hgtf v'nf cfsf;d'gL a:g afWo
eO/x]sf] cj:yf / :jb]z tyf rLg
ef/t nufotsf ldq /fi6xn] ;d]t
p4f/df 7"nf] ;xof]u u/]/ kfn /
6]G6x pknAw u/fPkl5 c:yfoL
SofDk v8f u/L b'Mvk" 0f{ hLjg
ljtfO/x] s f] kl/k] I odf lrlgofF
sDo'lgi6 kf6L{n] xfdLnfO{ lgDtf] lbO
lrlgofF e"sDk kLl8tx / g]kfnL
e"sDk kLl8txsf] aLrdf ;'v,
b'Mvsf] ;f6f;f6 ug{], k'glgdf{0fsf]
af/]df Ps csf{]n] lzIff u|x0f ug{] /
To;af6 k|fKt k|/] 0ffxsf] ;]o/ ug{]
/ Ps csf{aLr cg'ejx cfbfg
k|bfg ug{] p2]Zon] xfdLnfO{ To; If]qsf]
cjnf]sg e|d0f u/fOPsf] lyof]. o;
cjnf] s g e| d0faf6 xfdLn] Ps
clj:d/0fLo pknJwL xfl;n u/]sf
5f}.
rLgsf] l;+r'cfg k|fGtdf ;g\
@))* d] !@ sf lbg u/fPsf]
zlQmzfnL e"sDk / To;n] k'ofPsf]
Iflt tyf To;kl5 lrlgofF ;/sf/ /
lrlgofF sDo'lgi6 kf6L{ n ] u/] s f]
hgtfsf] p4f/ / k'gl{ gdf{0faf6 s] s'/f
l;lsof] eg] hgtfnfO{ cfkt ljkt
k/]sf] a]nf ;xof]u ug{sf lglDt
hgtfsf] cfg} ;/sf/ x'gk' g{] /x]5.
rLgdf hgtfsf] cfg} ;/sf/ ePsf]
x'gfn] lgikIf 9+un] tTsfn} p4f/ ePsf]
/x]5 / k'glgdf{0f klg ;dod} ePsf]
/x]5. t/ g]kfndf t g e"sDkkLl8t
hgtfn] rfx] h:tf] ul/ p4f/ ;xof]u
g} kfP, gt k'glgdf{0fsf] sfdsf] yfngL
g} ePsf] 5. ljb]zL ldqxn] k7fO
lbPsf] p4f/ ;fdfu|Lx, vfBfGg /
kfnxdf ;d]t ;/sf/ kIfaf6 7"nf]
e|i6frf/ eof].
e"sDk kLl8tsf gfddf k|wfgdGqL
sf]ifdf b]zljb]zaf6 hDdf x'g k'us
] f]
v/af} /sd e"sDkkLl8t hgtfdf
gk'ofP/ ;Qf?9 bnx / ;/sf/n]
a|Xdn'6 3/af/ljlxg x'g k'u/] c:yfoL
lzlj/xdf si6k"0f{ hLjg lhpg
jfWo ePsf nfvf} e"sDk kLl8t g]kfnL
hgtfn] @)&@ ;fnsf] ;Dk"0f{ jiff{
kfgL, em/L, jtf;sf ;fdgf ub{} afRg
afWo eP eg] oxL @)&@ ;fnsf]
lxpFbsf] ;Dk"0f{ 3fd kfgL, lxp kfgL,
lr;f];F u kf} 7]hf]/L v]Nb} hLjgs}
;a}eGbf si6s/ hLjg lhpg jfWo
eO/x] s f 5g\ . tL c:yfoL
lzlj/xdf e"sDkkLl8tx lr;f]n]
s7f+uL| /x]sf 5g\ / 7"nf] ;+Vofdf lj/fdL
kl//x]sf 5g\. ltgLxsf] k'gj{ f;sf]
lglDt k'g{lgdf{0f ug{] ;/sf/sf] s'g}
of] hgf 5} g . bnLo emu8f d}
;dflnPsf 5g, ;Qf?9 tyf k|ltkIf
;+;bjfbL bnx.
o;af6 xfdLn] s] lzIff u|x0f ug{
h?/L 5 eg] e"sDk kLl8txsf]
k'gp{ 4f/, k'gj{ f; / k'gl{ gdf{0f sf] lglDt
g]kfnL hgtfsf] cfg} ;/sf/ cfjZos
5. hgtfn] cfg} ;/sf/ lgdf{0f ug{
cfjZos 5 . of] bnfn tyf gf]s/zfxL
tyf gf]s/zfxL k'lhklt / ;dfGt
ju{sf] ;/sf/n] hgtfsf] ;]jf ug{
;St}g. of] s'/f xfdLn] k|ToIf kdf
rLgaf6 klg l;s]sf 5f}F .

vfnL k]6df PS;/;fOh gu/f}+


sf7df8f}F. HofgnfO{ tGb'?:t agfpg'k5{ eg]/ laxfg p7\g]lalQs}
PS;/;fOh ug{lt/ nfUg] w]/}sf] afgL x'G5. o;} klg laxfg} s]xL vfg dg
gnfUg] eP/ PS;/;fOh u/]/ vfgf vfg] ul/G5. o;n] bf]xf]/f] xfgL x'G5,
Ps t rfx] hlt PS;/;fOh gu/L Hofg yfS5, csf]{ k]6 k"/} vfnL x'g]
ePsfn] kl5 w]/} vfgf vfOG5. o;n] Hofg b'Anfpg'sf] ;f df]6fpg kf]
;3fO/x]sf] x'G5. To;f] eP Aofodcl3 s] vfg]<
b"w M Ps lunf; tftf] b"w 3'6'Ss kfg{'xf];\, kf}li6s tTj dfq} xf]Og,
k]6nfO{ zfGt agfPsf] dx;'; ug{ ;lsG5.
kmnk"mn M df};dcg';f/sf] kmnk"mn vfgxf];,\ k]6 eg{s
' f ;fy PS;/;fOh
ug{sf nflu pmhf{ ;d]t k|fKt x'G5.
hf}sf] ;ft' M kxf8L e]udf kfOg] hf} sf] ;ft' b'w;Fu 3f]n]/ vfg ;Sg]
xf] eg] w]/} nfebfoL x'G5. PS;/;fOh ubf{ z/L/nfO{ sfaf]{xfO8]6\;sf]
h?/L k5{. hf}sf] ;ft'df w]/} sfaf]{xfO8]8\; x'G5. vfPsf] 5f]6f] ;dod}
kRg] dfq} xf]Og, k/L/sf] tf}n 36fpg;d]t d2t u5{.
s]/f M s]/fn] z/L/nfO{ t'?Gt} pmhf{ lbG5. s]/fdf l5} kRg] vfnsf]
sfaf]{xfO8]6\; kfOG5. h'g Jofofd ug{] ;dosf nflu pQd dflgG5. t/,
s]/f lgoldt vfg'cl3 lkm6g]; 6]g/;Fu k/fdz{ lng' plrt x'G5.
bxL M cldgf] Pl;8sf] dfqf cTolws x'g] ePsfn] bxLn] z/L/sf]
df+;k]zLnfO{ tGb'?:t /fVg d2t u5{. k|fl] 6g / sfaf]x{ fO8]6\;sf] dfqf;d]t
kfOg] bxLn] Jofofdsf j]nf rflxg] pmhf{ z/L/nfO{ pknAw u/fpF5.

hf8f]df s] s] vfg]<

hf8f] dlxgf ;'? eO;s]sf] 5. o:tf] cj:yfdf xfdLn] xfd|f] k|lt/Iff


k|0ffnLnfO{ alnof] agfpg' cfjZos 5. hf8f] df};d ;'? ePnuQ}
xfdLnfO{ ?3f, vf]sL, Hj/f]h:tf /f]uxn] ;tfpg] ub{5. hf8f] df};ddf
cfk"mnfO{ Gofgf] /flv/fVg dflg;x tftf]tftf] lrof lkpg] ub{5g\ t/
olb tkfO{+n] cfkm\gf] k|lt/Iff k|0ffnLnfO{ alnof] g/fv]sf] v08df o;n]
tkfO{+nfO{ lgs} ;d:ofdf kfg{ ;S5. hf8f] dlxgfdf nfUg] /f]uaf6 aRgsf
nflu tkfO{+n] o:tf] cfxf/ vfg' cfjZos 5 h;n] tkfO{+sf] k|lt/Iff
k|0ffnLnfO{ alnof] /fVg d2t ub{5. k|lt/Iff k|0ffnL x/]s hLjsf] zl//
leq x'g] To:tf] h}ljs k|lqmofsf] Pp6f ;+u|x xf] h;n] s'g} klg /f]usf]
sf]lzsfxnfO{ lrg]/ dfg{] sfd ub{5 / pQm hLjnfO{ /f]u nfUgaf6
arfpg] ub{5. lr;f] df};ddf tkfO{+n] cb'jf, n;'g, Rofp, lrof, bxL,
df5f / ufh/h:tf cfxf/fsf] ;]jg ug{'kg{] x'G5. oL cfxf/fsf] ;]jgn]
tkfO{+sf] z/L/nfO{ tftf] /fVg'sf ;fy} zl//nfO{ cGo /f]uxaf6 n8\g
;xfotf ldNg] ub{5.
!= Rofp M Rofpn] tkfO{+sf] ODo'g l;:6dnfO{ a9fpg] ub{5. o;df
kfOg] la6f Un'sgn] k|lt/Iff k|0ffnLnfO{ dha't agfpg] sfo{ ub{5.
@= n;'g M lr;f] eufpgsf nflu n;'gnfO{ lgs} /fd|f] dflgG5. o;n]
s'g}klg /f]usf] ;+qmd0f x'gaf6 arfpF5 eg] efO/;;Fu klg n8\g
;xof]u ub{5.
# = lrsg ;'k M lr;f] xfjfaf6 aRgsf nflu lrsg ;'knfO{ lgs} /fd|f]
dflgG5. 7"nf] srf}/f Ps srf}/f lrsg ;'k lkpgfn] k]6 klg
el/G5 / tkfO{+nfO{ lr;f] / Hj/f]af6 arfpF5.
$= kfn'f] M kfn'f]df lgs} w]/} PlG6clS;8]G6, le6fldg / ldg/n kfOg]
x'gfn] o;n] k|lt/f]wfTds IfdtfnfO{ j[l4 ug{] ub{5.
%= ufh/ M lr;f] df};ddf ufh/nfO{ cfkm\gf] 8fO6df kSs} klg ;dfj]z
ug{'xf];\. o;n] z/L/df hGdg] efO/;nfO{ gi6 ug{] ub{5.
^= sf]sf] M sfFrf] sf]sf] ljG;n] k|lt/Iff k|0ffnLnfO{ alnof] agfpg]
ub{5. olb tkfO{+ o;sf] ;f sf]sf] km\n]e/sf] rsn]6 vfg'x'G5 eg]
o;n] s]lx sfd ub{}g.
&= dl/r M lr;f] df};ddf ?3f, vf]sL / Hj/f];Fu n8\gsf nflu
tkfO{+n] cfkm\gf] vfgfdf sfnf] dl/r ;dfj]z ug{ cfjZos 5.
*= cb'jf M lr;f] df};ddf cb'jfn] k'of{pg] kmfObfsf] af/]df xfdL ;a}
hfgsf/ 5f}F To;sf/0f cb'jf xfn]sf] lrof cjZo lkpg'xf];\.
(= bxL M bxLdf lgs} :j:y AofS6]l/of kfOg] ePsf]n] o;n] tkfO{+sf]
k]6nfO{ lgs} kmfObf k'/fpF5. lr;f] df};ddf tkfO{+n] lr;f] bxLsf]
;f tftf] bxL vfg'xf]nf.
!)= lrof M lr;f] df};ddf xa{n 6L lkpg'xf];\. hf] dflg;x lr;f]
df};ddf lrof lkpF5g\ pgnfO{ xQkQ s'g} klg /f]un] 5'Fb}g.

hfgL /fvf}+ t'n;Lsf] dlxdf

sf7df8f} F . tkfO{
xfdLsxfF 3/df d7 agfP/
t'n;L /f]Kg] k'/fgf] rng xf].
t/, tkfOFnfO{ yfxf gx'g ;S5
t'n;Lsf] dxTj 7"nf] 5.
zf:qsf cg';f/ tkfOFs f]
3/df s'g} klg g/fd|f] 36gf
x'g nfu]sf] 5 eg] ;a}eGbf
klxn] tkfOFsf] 3/df /f]lkPsf]
t' n ;Lsf kftdf ;+ s ] t
b]lvG5. 3/df ;+s6 cfpg'
c3L t'n ;Lsf kft ;' Sg
yfN5g\ . k'/f0fdf pNn]v
ePcg';f/ h'g 3/df ;+s6
cfpF5 ToxfF nIdLsf] af;
x'Fb}g. t'n;L nIdLsL k|lts ePsf sf/0f ;+s6 cfpg nfu]sf] 3/df
t'n;Lsf kft ;'Sg] zf:qsf] egfO 5. Hof]ltif ljBfsf cg';f/ a'w u|xsf
sf/0f o:tf] x'g] u5{. a'w u|xsf] k|efj xl/of] /+udf x'G5. s'g} klg
lj?jfsf] /+u xl/of] x'g'df a'wsf] k|efj x'G5. a'wn] g} ;+s6 cfpg] ;+s]t
t'n;L;Dd k'ofpF5. s'g} u|xn] s'g} 3/df z'e kmn lbg] eP klg a'wn]
To;sf] ;+s]t t'n;Ldf k7fpF5. t'n;Lsf] udnf efG;fsf] 5]pFdf /fVbf
3/df snx ;dfKt x'G5 eg] k"jL{ lbzfsf] em\ofnsf] 5]pFdf t'n;Lsf] lj?jf
/f]Kbf k'qsf] :jefj ;sf/fTds x'g] ljZjf; 5.
s'g} klg 3/df 5f]/Lsf] ljjfx ug{ l9nf ef] eg] t'n;Ldf hn r9fpg]
rng 5. Aofk/ Aoj;fodf ;d:of ePsf] 5 eg] 3/sf] blIf0f-klZrd
lbzfdf t'n;Lsf] lj?jf /f]Kgfn] Aoj;fodf ;kmntf ldNg] ljZjf; 5.

@)&@ ;fn k'; % ut] cfOtaf/

qmflGtsf/L ;|i6fx / casf] ;flxTo

ef/tLo lj:tf/jfbsf] lgb]{zgdf


dxfg\ alnbfgaf6 hlGdPsf] hgd'lSt
;] g fnfO{ k| r08n] /ftf/ft s] x L
s/f] 8 df laqmL u/] . ef/tLo
lj:tf/jfbs} of] hgfdf afa' / fd
e/fO{n] klxnf] ;+ljwfg;efsf] lj36g

5g\ . dxfg\ hgo' 4 sf] qmddf


cleJoQm Tofu, tk:of, alnbfg, zf}o{
/ l;h{gfsf] pRr sLlt{dfgLxnfO{
P]ltxfl;s kdf :yflkt / hLjGt
agfpg casf] ;flxTon] ljz]if e"ldsf
v]Ng'k5{. Pp6} kf6L{;\u7gleq

snf;flxTo

k|VoftLsf] lzv/df /x]sf] 5. of]


cleofg dfcf]sf] o]gfg k|jrgaf6
k| e fljt
5.
g] k fnsf
hg;+:s[ltsdL{x snd / aGb's
Ps};fy lnP/ ;\3if{df xf]ldP.
pgLx Ps lsl;dsf ;f+:s[lts

v]d yklnof

g] kfndf )^ ;fndf g]s kfsf] :yfkgf;F u}


;fdfGtjfb;fdfHojfb lj/f] wL ;f}G bo{ r] t gfsf
k|j ] z ePsf] xf] . tL ljleGg ;\ 3 if{x sf]
;+ Zn]i f0fsf] pRr k hgo' 4 lyof] . hgo'4
dxfg\ , cltLo / eJo lyof] . o;n] ;fdGtjfbL,
;fd| fHojfbL, lj:tf/jfbL tyf ;a} v fn] zf] i f0f
bdgsf] cGTo u/] / g] kfndf hgu0ftGq :yfkgf
ug] { nIo lnof] . of] cleofgdf /ftf] nfnl6g /
dxfg\ ;j{x f/f ;f+ :s[ lts qmflGt sf] cfbz{ nfO{
k5\ ofOof] . qmflGtsf/L l;4fGtxnfO{ k5\o fpF b} To;}s f] hudf Tofu,
alnbfg, jL/tf, zf} o { / wL/tfsf] dxfg\ kL/fdL8 v8f eof] . dxfg\
hgo'4 sf] hudf ljsf; ePsf] hgcfGbf]n gn] /fhtGqnfO{ ;dfKt kfof]
oBlk d' n' s sf] cfwf/e" t ;+/ rgfdf s'g } kl/jt{g cfPg. cw{ ; fdGtL
gjcf} klgj] lzs cj:yfsf] cGTo u/L hgu0ftGqsf] 9f]s f vf] Ng] ;do
g] kfnL hgtfsf cufl8 cfPsf] 5. of] 9f]s f PsLs[ t hgqmflGtsf
dfWodaf6 vf] N g ;lsg] ;Defjgf klg oy]i 6 /x] s f 5g\ . g] k fnsf
qmflGtsf/L n] vs ;flxTosf/xn] l;h{ gf ug]{ ;flxTosf] clxn]s f]
cfwf/e"t hu oxL xf] . hgo' 4sf] ;f} Gbo{ zf:qsf] kdf /x] sf] of]
;dfhjfbL oyfy{ j fbL ;a} e Gbf j} 1 flgs /rgf ljlw ePsf] n ] o;n]
s' k ;+ ;f/sf] Wj+ ; / gofF lgdf{0 f ug] { nIo af]s ]s f] of] d"n tM
hgo'4 sf] ;f}G bo{ zf:q d"n tM k'/ fgf]s f] Wj+ ;, cu|udg / gjlgdf{ 0fsf]
;f} G bo{ zf:q xf] . of] qmflGt / cu|u fdL kl/jt{ g sf] ;f}G bo{ z f:q klg
xf] . snf ;flxTo d" N ofgsf] cfwf/e" t dfkb08 ;To, lzj / ;' G b/
x' g\ . hgo' 4sf] ;f}Gbo{z f:qLo d"N ox >dhLjL d' lStsfdL hgtfsf
cfsf\ I ff / lxtaf6 lgb{ ] l zt 5g\ . ltgdf /fli6 o tfsf] k| v / :j/,
cGt/f{l i6o r]t gf cflb k| an ePsf] kfOG5. ;|i6fxn] g]t[Tjsf]
;fd|fHojfblj:tf/jfbsf] bnfnLs/0f, g]t[Tjsf] ;j{;QfjfbL lrGtg /
gf]s/zfxL sfo{z}nLsf lj?4sf] n]vsLo sfo{lbzf agfpg cfjZos 5.
;flxTodf qmflGtsf/L cfTdf sdhf]/ ePsf]n] olta]nf ;jn qmflGtsf/L
cfTdf ePsf ;flxlTos l;h{gfdf ljz]if Wofg lbg h?/L 5.
u/]. ef/tLo lj:tf/jfbs} of]hgfdf
k| r08n] lvn/fh /]UdLnfO{ cl3
;fl/of] . ef/tLo lj:tf/jfbs}
lgb]{zgcg';f/ k|r08n] nf]sdfgl;+x
sfsL{ n fO{ clVtof/ b' kof] u
cfof]usf] k|d'v agfOof]. ef/tLo
lj:tf/jfbs} lgb]{zgdf dw];sf s]xL
g] tfxnfO{ prfn]/ cfGbf]n gsf]
gf6s ug{ nufOof] . ef/tLo
lj:tf/jfbs} of]hgfdf k|wfgdGqL s]kL
cf] nLn] afn' jf6f/df k] z ePsf]
jftf{sf] dxTjk"0f{ b:tfj]h ef/tLo
/fhb'tfjf; n}grf}/df ofS; u/]/
k7fOof] . ef/tLo lj:tf/jfbs}
of]hgfdf sdn yfkfn]n] lbNnLdf
cfgf] kf6L{sf] Ph]G8fnfO{ alnof]
agfpg lbNnLdf gofF /f]8Dofk cl3
;f/]. oL s]xL slyt dxfg\ g]tf /
ltgsf gsf/fTds xs{tsf b[i6fGt
dfq x'g\. dfS;{n] dfgjLo >lds
lqmofsnfknfO{ snf ;flxTosf]
pTklQsf] sf/s atfP. n]lggn]
qmflGtsf/L dhb'/ls;fgx g} ;fFrf]
cy{df dxfg\ snfsf clwsf/L x'g\
eg]. pgn] 6fN:6fo, r]gf]{z]A:sL,
bf]:tf]a:sL, xh]g{ nufotsf ;flxlTos
s[ltxnfO{ 7"nf] kl/df0fdf k|sfzg
/ lat/0f u/fP. hg;flxTo ju{
;\3if{sf] cleGg c\u xf]. n'gf
rfN:sL{n] ;flxTosf] sfd gofF dflg;
/ gjLg hLjg k4ltsf] :yfkgf
k|lqmofdf zlSt / cf]h yKg' xf] eg]sf

/x] s f ;j{ x f/f / c/akltxsf


laraf6 hGdg] ;flxTon] kfg] {
k|efjaf/] ca ;flxTo n]lvg' h?/L
5. cfTds] G b| L JolStjfb,
OlGhlgol/ ;\u7gfTds ;+/rgfn]
agfPsf] afu] { l g Sna n]
kfGt/0fdf u/]sf] jfwf Jojwfgaf/]
n] l vg' k 5{ . qmflGtsf/Lxn]
Oltxf;sf k|To]s 38Ldf lg/Gt/ 6]:6
lbO/xg'k5{ eGg] s'/f ;|i6fxdf klg
Psbd} nfu" x'g] s'/f xf]. xfd|f] l;\uf]
cfGbf]ngsf cfbz{ ag]sf g]tfxsf
tL cfbz{sf kL/fld8x, alnbfgsf
tL k| l tlaDax cfh lsg
uNof{du'nd{' 9n] jf:tjdf clxn]sf]
c/fhstf, ;\sL0f{tf / pbf/tfn]
hg;flxTo j0f{ z\s / alg/x]5 .
qmflGtsf/L cfa/0fsf] :t'ltwf/flj?4
qmflGtsf/L kIfw/x jf:tljs kd}
;zSt ag]/ pleg cfjZos 5.
km/s lsQfsf dflg;xsf] ;xL
klxrfg ub}{ qmflGtsfl/tfsf] gfddf
x'g] ugugsf] klg cGTo x'g'k5{.
qmflGtsf/L n]vsxdf ju{kIfw/tf
cfjZos 5, ju{k|lta4tf cfjZos
5 / o;df ;| : 6fxsf]
ljrf/wf/fTds 5nf klxnf] s8L xf].
;flxTosf/x g]tfsf] xf]Og, qmflGtsf]
xltof/ aGg h?/L 5. hgtfsf
n]vsx zAbsd{sf] PsTjsf] dfG5]
aGg h?/L 5.
g]kfnsf] qmflGtsf/L n]vg lgs}

kN6g klg x'g\ . ;f+:s[lts kN6gaf/]


sd/]8 dfcf]n] oy]i6 rrf{ u/]sf
5g\ . jf:tjdf logLx g]kfnL
hgtfsf df lgs} nf]slk|o ag].
o;n] g]kfndf gofF Oltxf;sf] lgdf{0f
ug{ lgs} dxTjk"0f{ of]ubfg uof].
of] prfOsf] ljsf;df s[i0f ;]g
OR5's sf] lgs} 7"nf] e"ldsf 5.
g]kfnsf] qmflGtsf/L ;flxTo )& cufj}
dfcf]sf] o]gfg uf]i7Ldf ;flxTo /
snfsf] k| j rg af/] kl/lrt
eO;s]sf] lyof]. of] k|jrg g]kfnsf
;dfhjfbL oyfy{ j fbL n] v s
;flxTosf/xsf nflu cfwf/e"t
kf7\ oqmdsf] kdf :yflkt 5.
d]lS;d uf]sL{, xfj{8 kmf:6, n' ;'g,
k|]drGb ;flxTosf/xaf6 k|efljt
g]kfnsf qmflGtsf/L ;flxTosf/x
kl5Nnf] r/0fdf OR5' saf6 lgs}
k| e fljt 5g\ . p;f] t g] kfnL
;flxTosf/x
gS;njfbL
cfGbf] n gaf6 k| e fljt gePsf
xf] Ogg\. gS;njfbL cfGbf]n gdf
;xfbt k| f Kt u/] s f qmflGtsf/L
n]vsxaf6 klg of] k\lQm k|]l/t
/x\of]. c rLgsf] dxfg\ ;j{xf/f
;f+ : s[ l ts qmflGtaf6 g] k fnsf
qmflGtsf/L ;flxTosf/x cToGt
k|efljt 5g\. hgo'4n] of] k\lStnfO{
k|z:t pmhf{ lbof] eg] of] k\lStn]
klg hgo'4nfO{ plQs} pmhf{ lbPsf]
klg oyfy{ xf]. hgo'4n] qmflGtsf/L

n]vsxnfO{ cfgf] n]vgwld{tfdf


gjLg oyfy{sf dfWodaf6 gofF ljifo,
gofF n]vg ;fdu|L / gofF n]vg p2]Zo
lbPsf] 5. cfwf/ Onfsf, hg;]gf,
;du| hghfu/0f cflb o;sf] k|]/s
d"Nox x'g\. of] k\lStn] cfgf]
;flxTodf aGb's, 5fkfdf/, o'4, cfd"n
kl/jt{g, kfGt/0f, alnbfg, ;kgf
cflbnfO{ n]Vo;fdu|L agfPsf 5g\.
g]kfndf )^ ;fndf g]skfsf]
:yfkgf;Fu} ;fdfGtjfb;fdfHojfb
lj/f]wL ;f}Gbo{ r]tgfsf k|j]z ePsf]
xf] . tL ljleGg ;\ 3 if{ x sf]
;+Zn]if0fsf] pRr k hgo'4 lyof].
hgo'4 dxfg\, cltLo / eJo lyof].
o;n] ;fdGtjfbL, ;fd| f HojfbL,
lj:tf/jfbL tyf ;a}vfn] zf]if0f
bdgsf] cGTo u/] / g] k fndf
hgu0ftGq :yfkgf ug]{ nIo lnof].
of] cleofgdf /ftf] nfnl6g / dxfg\
;j{ x f/f ;f+ : s[ l ts qmflGt sf]
cfbz{nfO{ k5\ofOof]. qmflGtsf/L
l;4fGtxnfO{ k5\ ofpFb} To;}s f]
hudf Tofu, alnbfg, jL/tf, zf}o{
/ wL/tfsf] dxfg\ kL/fdL8 v8f eof].
dxfg\ hgo'4sf] hudf ljsf; ePsf]
hgcfGbf]ngn] /fhtGqnfO{ ;dfKt
kfof] oBlk d' n 's sf] cfwf/e" t
;+/rgfdf s' g} kl/jt{g cfPg.
cw{;fdGtLgjcf}klgj]lzs cj:yfsf]
cGTo u/L hgu0ftGqsf] 9f]sf vf]Ng]
;do g]kfnL hgtfsf cufl8 cfPsf]
5. of] 9f]sf PsLs[t hgqmflGtsf
dfWodaf6 vf]Ng ;lsg] ;Defjgf klg
oy] i 6 /x] s f 5g\ . g] k fnsf
qmflGtsf/L n]vs ;flxTosf/xn]
l;h{ g f ug] { ;flxTosf] clxn]s f]
cfwf/e"t hu oxL xf]. hgo'4sf]
;f}G bo{ z f:qsf] kdf /x] s f] of]
;dfhjfbL oyfy{ j fbL ;a} e Gbf
j}1flgs /rgf ljlw ePsf]n] o;n]
s'k ;+;f/sf] Wj+; / gofF lgdf{0f
ug]{ nIo af]s]sf] of] d"ntM hgo'4sf]
;f}Gbo{zf:q d"ntM k'/fgf]sf] Wj+;,
cu|udg / gjlgdf{0fsf] ;f}Gbo{zf:q
xf]. of] qmflGt / cu|ufdL kl/jt{gsf]
;f}Gbo{zf:q klg xf]. snf ;flxTo
d"Nofgsf] cfwf/e"t dfkb08 ;To,
lzj / ;' G b/ x' g \ . hgo' 4 sf]
;f}G bo{zf:qLo d" Nox >dhLjL
d'lStsfdL hgtfsf cfsf\Iff /
lxtaf6 lgb{ ] l zt 5g\ . ltgdf
/fli6otfsf] k|v/ :j/, cGt/f{li6o
r]tgf cflb k|an ePsf] kfOG5.
;|i6fxn] g]t[Tjsf] ;fd|fHojfb
lj:tf/jfbsf] bnfnLs/0f, g]t[Tjsf]
;j{;QfjfbL lrGtg / gf]s/zfxL
sfo{zn
} Lsf lj?4sf] n]vsLo sfo{lbzf
agfpg cfjZos 5. ;flxTodf
qmflGtsf/L cfTdf sdhf]/ ePsf]n]
olta]nf ;jn qmflGtsf/L cfTdf
ePsf ;flxlTos l;h{gfdf ljz]if Wofg
lbg h?/L 5.
ju{ ;\3if{ 1fgsf] ;|f]t xf]. s'g}
klg ;| i6fn] ju{; \3if{ df cfgf]
lx:;] b f/L lnO/x] s } x' G 5. Tof]
;flxTodf k| l tlalDat x' G 5.
;Df}tfxnfO{ qmflGtsf/L b]Vg] /
;\3if{nfO{ uf}0f 7fGg], hLjgsf gfddf
e| i 6frf/nfO{ j:t' u t 7fGg] /
l;4fGtlgi7tfnfO{ h8;"qjfb b]Vg],
;fdflhs ;\u7g xf]Og, g]tfk/fo0f
;\ u7gsf] kl/sNkgf ug]{ snf
;flxTosf] lj?4 ;\ 3 if{ ub{ }
ljrf/cg' ksf]
;\ u 7g,
l;4fGtcg'; f/sf] hLjg, Jofks
hg;d'bfosf] d'lStsfdL ;kgfsf
;fy cl3 a9]/ ;flxTosf] l;h{gf
ug{'k5{. of] cGttM ju{;\3if{ /
ju{;dGjo, qmflGt / k|ltqmflGt,
hLjg / d[To'aLrsf] eLif0f n8fOF g}
xf] . b' l gofF d f slxn] klg
k|ltqmflGtsf/Lxn] d blIf0fkGyL
ePF, d lj;{hgjfbL ePF, d}n] hgtfsf
;q';Fu ;Df}tf u/]F eGb}gg\. k|d'v
gfosdf eofgs ljrng cfPkl5

ju{ ; \ 3 if{ a f6 ju{ ; dGjo x' F b }


;Df}tfjfbdf s;/L kml;Fbf] /x]5
eGg] s'/f ljutsf] b;jif{sf] cg'ej
g} sfkmL 5g\. of] ljrng ax'njfbL
;f} G bo{ lrGtgdf cfwfl/t 5.
Psk6s qmflGtgfos ePsf] dflg;
;w} F qmflGt gfos eO/xF b} g g\ .
cfnf]rgfTds l;h{gfTds e"ldsfn]
qmflGtsf/Lxdfly nfUb} cfPsf /
nfUg ;Sg] cf/f] k xsf] arfp
ul//x]sf] x'G5. ;flxTodf ju{;\3if{,
ju{ ;dGjo / cGt;{\3if{sf qmddf
x' g ] cleJolSt n' g frf:sL{ s f]
k|ltlaDagsf] l;4fGtdf cfwfl/t 5.
clxn] klg kl/jt{g / gofF lgdf{0fsf
cfsf\IfLx qmflGtsf] tfl/km u/]/
;flxTo n] lv/x]sf 5g\ . Wj+; /
lgdf{0fsf] v';LofnL, Tofu, tk:of,
alnbfg / zf}o{sf] pRr d"Nosf ;fy
;flxTo l;h{ g f ug{ qmflGtsf/L
;flxTosf/x ljz]if kn] nfUg
h?/L 5. o;n] qmflGtsf/L ljrf/sf],
qmflGtsf/L d"Nosf], dxfg\ ;lxbxsf]
;kgfnfO{ ;fsf/ kfg]{ s'/fnfO{ ;zSt
9\uaf6 p7fPsf] 5.
gofF lgdf{ 0 fsf rxlsnf
;kmntfxsf kIfdf ;flxTo n]Vg]
;flxTosf/x d" n tM g] s kf
dfcf] j fbL;Da4 qmflGtsf/L
;flxTosf/x /x] s f 5g\ .
lj;h{ g jfbLxsf cg] s vfnsf
xs{tnfO{ vf/]h ub}{ hgtfsf] dxfg\
o' 4n] v8f u/]s f] k"0f{ qmflGtsf]
cfwf/lznfnfO{ ;anLs[t ug'{ of]
lsQfsf n]vs ;flxTosf/xsf] d"n
ceLi6 xf]. slyt zflGt / ;+ljwfgsf]
kIfdf l;h{gf ug'{ zf]s ;flxTosf]
k|j4{g ug'{ xf]. zf]s;flxTo k/flht
;flxlTos sd{ xf]. ljhoL uLt t
qmflGtsf/Lxn] dfq ufpg ;S5g\.
lxhf] hgo'4nfO{ ;Qf];/fk ug]{x /
hgo' 4 df xTs] n fdf k| f 0f /fv] /
n8\g]x Pp6} nfOgdf k\lQma4
x'gn
' ] uDeL/ g}lts ;\s6 NofOlbPs}
xf]. Pstf;\3if{kfGt/0fsf] ;f
ju{ ; dGjof]G d' vtf lj;h{g jfbL
k|ltqmflGtsf/Lxsf] ceLi6 aGg
k'u]sf] 5 t/ klg dfcf]jfbL{leqsf
cTolws 7" n f] ;\ V ofdf /x] s f
qmflGtsf/Lxdf pRr g}ltstf, pRr
;fx; / qmflGtnfO{ k"0f{tf lbg] pRr

k|lta4tf Ho"Fsf To"F 5.


clxn] >dl;t hf]l8Psf tNnf]
ju{sf kfq / ljifoxdf n]lvPsf
;flxTo pkNnf] j u{ s f nflu
dgf] / ~hgsf ;fdu| L agfOg]
k/Dk/fsf lj?4 dhb'/ ls;fgxsf
ljifox, ltgsf ;\3if{sf dxfg\
ufyfx ;d]6/] hg;flxTosf] n]vgdf
tLa|tf cfPsf] t 5 t/ s] o;f]
dfq}n] hg;flxTo x'G5< clwsf+z
s[ltxn] hgtfsf d'vdf zAbx
y'kf/]/ bz{sxsf] efjgfnfO{ cl3
;f/]s f dfq x' g\ . xfd|f ;flxTo
uf] n faf?b x' g h?/L 5 h;n]
qmflGtnfO{ k"0f{tflt/ n}hfg pTk|]l/t
u/f];\. kf6L{ eg]sf] d'VotM ljrf/,
l;4fGt / sfo{lbzf g} xf]. o;y{,
jf:tljs zflGt qmflGtkZrft dfq
x'G5, qmflGtljgf zflGtsf] sNkgf klg
ug{ ;lsFb}g. casf] ;flxTo of]
lbzfdf n]lvg' cfjZos 5.
qmflGtsf/L kf6L{sf] ;b:otfsf
cfwf/df dfq qmflGtsf/L ;flxTo
n]lvg ;Dej 5}g. @)$^ kZrft
Pdfn] lgs6sf s'g} klg ;flxTosf/n]
;dfhnfO{ kfGt/0f ug]{ vfnsf gofF
/ pNn]V o s[ lt n] Vg g;s]h:t}
ljrf/sf] kl/Tofu ub} { uO/x] s f
Psy/L lj;h{gjfbLgj;+zf]wgjfbL
dfcf] j fbL ;| i6fxn] ;fdflhs
kfGt/0fnfO{ snf ;flxTosf]
dfWodaf6 s'g} gofF l;h{gf lbg
;Sg]5g} g\. l;h{gf ljrf/sf] k|Zg xf].
hlt kl9P klg vu] G b|
;\uf| }nfxaf6 h'gls/Lsf] ;\uLt,
k|lbk g]kfnxaf6 cfsfz u\ufsf]
lt/}lt/ cfP h:t} s'g} lbg ju{;\3if{
lj/f]wL 3fts l;h{gf qmflGtsf/L
cfj/0fsf ;|i6fxaf6 cfpg ;Sg]
k|jn ;Defjgf of] j}rfl/s :vngsf]
ofqfn] :ki6 kdf b]vfPsf] 5.
pbfx/0fsf nflu ci6wft'n] ag]sf
k| r08 zLif{ s sljtfnfO{ lng
;lsG5. ;xL qmflGtsf/L sfo{lbzfn]
dfq eLd;]gL tfut k}bf u/fpF5.
of] eLd;] g L tfut PsLs[ t
hgqmflGtdf /x] s f] 5. o;y{ ,
qmflGtsf/L ;|i6fxn] snf ;flxTosf]
j}rfl/s G8fnfO{ lg/Gt/ kdf
p7fO/fVg] dfn]dfjfbL k|:tfjgfnfO{
cfTd;ft\ ug'{ clgjfo{ 5.

g]kfndf bz nfv dw'dx] sf /f]uL


sf7df8f}F . g]kfndf ablnFbf]
hLjgz}nL / km]l/Psf] vfglkgsf sf/0f
dw'd]xsf la/fdL a9];Fu} cfFvfsf
la/fdL klg a9] s f] ] lrlsT;s
atfp5g\. dw'dx] sf /f]uLnfO{ cfFvfsf]
;d:of x'g] k|jn ;Defjgf /xG5.
of];uF } cfFvfsf] Hof]lt u'dfpg]sf] ;+Vofdf
;d]t j[l4 x'g yfn]sf] 5. clxn]
g]kfndf !) nfv dflg; dw'd]xaf6
k| e fljt ePsf] cg' d fg 5.
lrlsT;ssf cg' ; f/ dw' d ] x sf
la/fdLdf b'O{ u'0ff a9L cfFvfsf] ;d:of
x'g] / To;sf] kRrL;f}F u'0ff a9L
b[li6ljxLg x'g] vt/f x'G5. ue{jtL
dlxnfnfO{ dw'dx] ePdf lzz'nfO{ klg
x'g] vt/f a9L ePsfn] Wofg /fVg
cfjZos 5. jl/i7 /]l6gf ljz]if1
8f cf]s] dNn eG5g\ dflg;df
ljnfl;tf a9];uF } vfgkfgdf cfPsf]
kl/jt{ gn] g]kfndf sd pd]/sf
dflg;nfO{ ;d]t dw'dx] b]lvPsf] 5,
of] lrGtfhgs ljifo xf]. pgn]
dw'dx] sf /f]uLn] ;do ;dodf cfFvfsf]
hfF r u/fO/xg ;Nnfx lbP.
cGt/f{li6o dw'd]x ;7gsf cg';f/
ljZjdf sl/a kfFr k|ltzt cGwf]kg
dw'dx] sf sf/0f x'g] ub{5. g]kfndf
dw'dx] sf sf/0f !# k|ltzt cGwf]kg
x'g] u/]sf] 5. dw'dx] sf sf/0f x'g]
cGwf]kg /f]S gsf nflu b]zJofkL
sfo{qmd Nofpg'kg{] atfp5g g]kfn
dw'dx] P;f]l;P;gsf pkfWoIf k|f8f

dw'/b]j e/fO{. pgn] dw'dx] sf sf/0f


cfFvfsf /f]uL a9];uF } To;sf] pkrf/
ug{] k|ljlw / bIf hgzlQmsf] klg
cefj x'g yfn]sf] pNn]v u/]. cfFvfdf
cfGtl/s c;/ k/] klg aflx/L nIf0f
gb]lvg] / lj:tf/} b[li6 wldnf] eO{
kl5 pkrf/af6 klg b[li6 kmsf{pg
g;lsg] lrlsT;ssf] egfO 5. /utdf
cTolws lrgLsf] dfqf, pRr /Qmrfk
/ lrNnf]sf] clwstd k|of]u dw'd]xsf
k| d ' v sf/0f x' g \ . o:tf /f] u L
w'dk| fgaf6 klg 6f8} a:g lrlsT;ssf]
;Nnfx 5. kf6g c:ktfnsf 8f a'l4
kf}8n] ue{jtL dlxnfnfO{ dw'dx] ePdf
aRrfnfO{ x'g] k|jn ;Defjgf ePsfn]
cfpg] lkF9Lsf] eljio cGwsf/ x'gaf6
arfpg ;/sf/n] cfkm\gf] :jf:Yo
sfo{qmddf o;sf af/]df k|efjsf/L
hgr]tgfd"ns sfo{qmd Nofpg'kg{]
atfp5g\.

;fj{hlgs
:yfgdf kmf]xf]/
kmfn]df
hl/jfgfdf
kl/G5 .

lh= k|= k'sf=


= !^#@)^#^$
@)&@sf= ;fn
; b=% g+ut]
cfOtaf/

k|m L===
ax/fOg, stf/, ;fpbL c/a, ;+oQ' m
c/a Old/]6;
\ -o"PO{_, cf]dfg, s'at] /
dn]l;of hfg] g]kfnL sfdbf/sf nflu
/f]huf/bftf sDkgLn] le;f Pj+ cfpg]
hfg] xjfO l6s6sf] vr{ Joxf]g]{ /
sfdbf/sf] tnaaf6 s'g} klg vr{
gs6fpg] ;t{df dfq >d :jLs[lt lbg]
lg0f{o u/]sf] lyof]. of] lg0f{o ut c;f/
@! b]lv nfu" x'g] atfOPsf] lyof]. clxn]
Dofgkfj/ sDkgLxn] c;f/ @! ut]
cl3s} l8dfG8 xf] eGb} sfdbf/;Fu
/sd c;' l n/x] s f 5g\ . ;F u }
Dofgkfj/xn] k"j{ >d:jLs[lts}
cfwf/df klxn]s} hlt /sd c;'n/] g}
ljb]z k7fpg] qmd cem} 7"nf] 5.
pgLxnfO{ sfg'gLkdf # jif{;Dd k"j{
>d :jL:s[lt /fVg kfpg] Joj:yf 5.
o;} ;d:ofnfO{ x6fpg dGqfnon] P]g
;+zf]wgsf] tof/L u/]sf] ;x;lrj >]i7n]
atfP. c;f/ @! ut]bl] v d+l;/ *
ut];Dd ljefudf k|mL le;fsf] ;'ljwf
b]vfP/ clGtd >d :jLs[lt lng]xsf]
;+Vof $% xhf/ * ;o k'us
] f] 5.
;/sf/n] j}b]lzs /f]huf/ ;DaGwL
lgodfjnLsf] lgod !@ df 6]s]/
Dofgkfj/ sDkgLxn] sflQs
d;fGt;Dd &) xhf/eGbf a9L
sfdbf/nfO{ k|mL le;fsf] ;'ljwf ePsf
b]zdf klg k'/fg} /sd c;'n/] k7fPsf
5g\. cem} sfuhLkd} k|mL le;fdf
hfGg] eGbf k'/fg} :jLs[ltdf ljb]z
hfg]sf] ;+Vof w]/} 5. sfuhdf k|mL
le;fdf nu] s f] b] v fOP klg
sfdbf/x;Fu df]6f] /sd c;'Ng]
ul/Psf] ;/sf/L clwsf/Lx g}
atfpF5g\.

k| f lws/0fsf===
e"sDksf sf/0f gfdf]lg;fg;d]t
g/x]sf] ef6n] atfpg'eof]. ;/sf/sf]
kl5Nnf] lg0f{ocg';f/ tTsfn sfd
;'? eP ;f] cfof]hgf cfufdL b'O{
jif{leq ;DkGg x'g ;S5 pgn] eg] .
;/sf/n] uN5L/;' j fu9L ;8s
lgdf{0fsf] lhDdf g]kfnL ;]gf / ;8s
ljefunfO{ lbPsf] 5. lrlgofF 7]sbf/
sfd ug{ tof/ eP klg ;8ssf]
cefjdf afFw:yn;Dd k'Ug ;d:of
ePsf] 5. kx'Frdfu{ g]kfn ;/sf/n]
lgdf{0f ug{] ;DaGwL Joj:yf lrlgofF
7] s ] b f/;F u ePsf] pNn] v ub{ }
k| f lws/0fsf sfo{ s f/L lgb{ ] z s
d'sz
] /fh sfkm\nn
] ] ;/sf/nfO{ k6s
k6s Wofgfsif{0f u/fP klg ;d:ofsf]
;dfwfg x'g g;s]sf] atfP. rf}w
d]ufjf6 Ifdtfsf] s'n]vfgL t];|f]
hnljB't\ cfof]hgfsf] d'Vo lrlgofF
7]s]bf/ ;Dks{df g/x]sf] / g]kfnL
k| ltlglwsf kdf /x] s f] uf] N5f
cu{gfOh];gn] sfd ug{ g;s]sf
sf/0f ;d:of eO/x]sf] cj:yfdf
OGwg ;d:ofn] yk hl6ntf ylkPsf]
pg sf] egfO 5. 7] s ] b f/;F u
;Dks{sf nflu pmhf{ dGqfnoaf6
k//fi6 dGqfno x'Fb} lrlgofF kIfnfO{
kq k7fOPsf] 5 pg n] eg] . a}7sdf
pmhf{ dGqfnosf lgldQ ;lrj
;ld//Tg zfSon] e"sDkaf6 k|efljt
cfof]hgfsf] k'glg{df{0f ug{ dGqfnon]
? Ps ca{ #@ s/f]8 ljlgof]hg
ul/;s] sf] / k| f lws/0fdf nfdf]
;dob]lv a}7s a:g g;Sbf yk
;d:of k}bf ePsf] atfP . tTsfn
lg0f{o ug{'kg{] sltko ljifox af]8{
a}7s a:g g;Sbf /f]lsPsf 5g\.
ut ebf} !) ut] b] lv sfo{ s f/L
lgb{]zssf] ljifodf ljjfb ePsf
sf/0f yk hl6ntf pTkGg ePsf]
5. To;nfO{ ;'wf/ ug{ xfdL nfu]sf
5fF}, zfSon] eg] .
a}7sdf ;f+;bx gj/fh zdf{,
cd[ t af] x f] / f, k/z' / fd vfk' ,
lzjs' d f/ d08n, sfzLgfy
clwsf/Lnufotn] ;/sf/n] Ps
jif{leq ljB't\ ef/ s6f}tLsf] of]hgf
cufl8 ;f/]klg k|flws/0fsf sf/0f
k"/f gx'g] xf] ls eGg] cfzf JoQm
u/] s f lyP. ;ldltn] rd] l nof
hnljB't\ cfof]hgfsf ;DaGwdf
b] l vPsf] ;d:of ;dfwfg ug{
;fj{hlgs n]vf ;ldlt / s[lif tyf
hn;| f] t ;ldltsf] ;+ o ' Q m a} 7 s
af]nfpg ;efd'v ;dIf cfu|x ug{] lg0f{o
u/]sf] 5. o:t} ;ldltn] dflyNnf] lqz'nL

y|L P hnljB't\ cfof]hgfsf] kx'r


F dfu{
lgdf{0fnfO{ pRr k|fyldstfdf /fv]/
sfd ;'? ug{ g]kfnL ;]gf / ;8s
ljefunfO{ cfu|x ug{] lg0f{o u/]sf] 5.

;'?dfu{d f===

/ ;/sf/n] @)&) h]7df sDkgLnfO{


Ps jif{leq cfof]hgfsf] ljQLo
Joj:yfkg -kmfOgflG;on Snf]h/_ ug{
eg]sf] lyof]. t/, sDkgLn] xfn;Dd
klg kmfOgflG;on Snf]h/ ug{ g;Sbf
cfof]hgfsf] Ohfht g} w/fkdf k/]sf]
5. Sofg] l8og sDkgL PS;kL
;le{;;Fu @)&! ebf}df @* ca{ k}ofF
nufgL ug{] ;Demf}tf ul/of]. t/,
Sofg]l8og sDkgLn] xft lemSof].
oltv]/ sDkgL cGo b]zsf nufgLstf{
vf]Hb} ef}t+ fl/O/x]sf] 5. s]xL rfOlgh
sDkgL;Fu nufgLsf nflu s'/f eO/x]sf]
sDkgLsf ;LOcf] ah|frfo{ atfpF5g\.
g]kfn pBf]u jfl0fHo dxf;+3sf
k"jc{ WoIf;d]t /x]sf s'zs'df/ hf]zLsf]
ljZjf; u/]/ nufgL ug{] nufgLstf{x
olta]nf k};f 8'Aof] eGb} lrlGtt ePsf
5g\. oltv]/ sDkgLdf b]z / ljb]zaf6
b}lgsh;f] cfkm\gf] nufgL lkmtf{ dfUb}
kmf]g cfpF5. sDkgLsf sd{rf/Lxn]
s]xL dlxgf w}o{ ug{x' f];,\ v';Lsf] s'/f
;'Gg kfpg' x'g] 5, tkfO{sf] k};f 8'Ab}g
eGg] pQ/ lbg] u/]sf 5g\. t/,
sDkgLsf] pRr Joj:yfkgaf6
;j{;fwf/0fsf] lrGtf ;Daf]wg ug{u] /L
;fj{hlgs cleJolQm gcfpFbf cfk"mx
yk lrlGtt ePsf] nufgLstf{x
atfpF5g\. s'n %* lsnf]ld6/ nfdf]
of] ;'? dfu{ agfpg #% ca{ k}ofF
nfut nfUg] sDkgLsf] cg'dfg 5.
cfof]hgf ;DkGg ePkl5 sf7df8f}a+ f6
Ps 306fd} x]6f}8+ f;Ddsf] ofqf ug{
;lsg] eGb} @)^( df cfof]hgfsf]
lznfGof; ;d]t ul/Psf] lyof].

gfsfaGbL===
lj1lKtdf pNn]v 5.
To:t}, j}slNks /fhgLlts ljrf/
/fVg]xsf] aLrdf ;xsfo{ / ;xof]usf]
cfjZostf 5 eGg] s'/fdf ;xdlt
hgfpF b} ;xefuLxn] j} s lNks
/fhgLlts ljrf/ /fVg]xaLrsf]
;xsfo{df hf]8 lbPsf 5g\. pgLxn]
j}slNks /fhgLltsf] d"n p2]Zo
;bfrf/;lxtsf] /fhgLlt, b]zsf] ljsf;
/ ;d[l4 xf] eGg]df klg ;xdlt hgfPsf
5g\. pgLxn] j}slNks /fhgLlts
zlQm lgdf{0fsf lglDt ;a} zlQm, JolQm
/ cfd hgtf;F u of] k| lqmofdf
;xeflutfsf lglDt cfu|x;d]t u/]sf
5g\. o:tf] ;xdlt hgfpg]df g]kfnL
sf+u;
]| sf ;f+;b k|bLk lu/L;d]t 5g\.
;xdlt hgfpg] cGodf k"j{ ;lrj
/fd]Zj/ vgfn, ljj]szLn g]kfnLsf
cWoIf pHHjn yfkf;lxt uf]ljGbgf/fo0f
ltdlN;gf, /d]z kf}8o\ fn, cleif]s a:g]t,
k'sf/ ad, hLjg >]i7, cg'iff yfkf /x]sf
5g\. To:t} 8f= s]zjdfg zfSo, kf;f
z]kf{, ltns yfkfdu/, 8f= k|lj0f ld>,
cleg]tf ;/f]h vgfn / cg';Gwfgstf{
efis/ uf}td klg pQm ;xdltstf{df
;fd]n 5g\.

dw]z ===
k'ofP/ ;lsg] 5, o;df dw];L hgtf
;t{s x'gk' 5{ bfxfnn] eg].
Pdfcf]jfbLsf kf]ln6\Jo"/f] ;b:o
ljZjgfy ;fxn] clwsf/ k|flKtsf] nflu
dw];L hgtf k6sk6s cfGbf]ngdf
cfPsf] t/ sf7df8f}d+ f / dw];df /x]sf]
zf;sLo k|jl[ tn] dw];L hgtfn] clwsf/
gkfPsf] atfP. dw] ; df hf/L
cfGbf]ngkl5 ef/tn] u/]sf] gfsfaGb
u/]sf] / pQm gfsfaGb /fli6otf;Fu
hf]l8Psfn] cj:yf uDeL/ ePsf] g]tf
;fxn] atfP. pgn] ;+ l jwfg
;+zf]wgdfkm{t dw];L hgtfsf dfu k"/f
ug{ ;lsg] ;d]t atfP. g]skf dfcf]jfbL_ sf ;+of]hs dft[sf ofbjn]
dw] ; L hgtf clwsf/sf] nflu
cfGbf]ngdf cfPsf] atfP. pgn] dw];L
hgtfsf] efjgfdf kxfl8of / dw];L
zf;sxn] v]njf8 u/]sf] atfP.
sfo{qmddf af]Nb} ofbjn] o:tf] cj:yf
nfdf] ;do;Dd hf/L /x] lkmhLs/0f
x'g] atfP. dw];df qmflGtsf/L
/fi6jfbdf hgtfnfO{ uf]na4 ug{ g;s]
dw]; lkmhLs/0f x'gaf6 s;}n] /f]Sg
;Sb}g, of] dw];L hgtfsf sf/0f geP/

sf7df8f}+ / dw];sf zf;s ju{sf sf/0f


x'G5 ofbjn] eg]. ofbjn] g]kfndf
d08n] /fi6jfb, nDk;f/ / qmflGtsf/L
u/L tLg k|sf/sf /fi6jfb ePsf]
atfpFb} dw];df nDk;f/ /fi6jfb,
sf7df8f}d+ f d08n] /fi6jfb 5, xfdL
b'as
} f] lj/f]w ub{} qmflGtsf/L /fi6jfbsf]
kIfdf 5f}F pgn] eg]. ofbjn] gfsfaGb
ef/tn] gu/]sf] atfpFb} cfkm\gf] kf6L{n]
ut ;fpg @# ut]sf] a}7+ sn] gfsf
s]lGb|t cfGbf]ng ug{] lg0f{o u/]sf] t/
zlQm cefjdf ug{ g;s]sf] atfP.
;Ldfljb\ a'l4gf/fo0f >]i7n] dw];L
df]rf{sf g]tfsfo{stf{ bzuhfaf6
g]kfnLe"lddf 9'f xfg]/ cfkf/fwLn] ug{]
h:tf sfo{ u/]sf] atfPsf 5g\.
bzuhf eg]sf] b'O{ b]zsf] ;Ldf xf],
ToxfF s;}n] cfGbf]ng ug{] clwsf/ x'bF g} ,
t/ ToxfF ck/fwL hfg ;S5, pgn]
cufl8 eg], cGt/f{li6o sfg'gcg';f/
bzuhfdf plePsf] ck/fwLn] s'g} ;Ldf
kf/ gubf{;Dd b'a} b]zn] ;dfTg
kfpFbg} g\. dw];L df]rf{sf g]tfn] dw];L
hgtfdf ckmjfx km}nfPsf] atfP. gofF
;+ljwfg hf/L eP dw];Lsf] hdLg
vf]l;G5, ef/t;Fu ljjfxaf/L x'Fb}g
eg]kl5 dw];L hgtf ;8sdf cfPsf
x'g\ >]i7n] eg]. pgn] ef/ttkm{sf]
bzuhfdf dx]z cu|jfnsf] bfgfkfgL
vfP/ g]kfndfly 9'f xfGg] g]tfx
/fi6jfbL x'g g;Sg] atfP. sfo{qmddf
dw];L hgtf kf6L{sf cWoIf dx]z ;fx
snjf/n] g]tfxn] ;dfg'kflns /
;dfj]zLnfO{ b'kof]u u/]sfn] lje]bdf
kfl/Psf hgtfn] clwsf/ gkfPsf]
atfP. pgn] ;+ljwfg ;+zf]wgjf6 dw];L
hgtfsf] clwsf/ ;'lglZrt gx'gF ] atfpFb}
clwsf/ k|flKtsf] cfGbf]gn cufl8 a9\g]
atfP. u|6] / g]kfnsf pkfWoIf laPg
zdf{ n ] dw] ; df hf/L cfGbf] n g
/fli6olxtdf gePsf] atfP. df]rf{sf
cWoIf ltns kl/of/n] /fli6otfsf]
;'/Iffsf] nflu ;a};uF ;xsfo{ ug{ tof/
ePsf] atfP.

df]
b LnfO{= ==
df]bLnfO{ o:tf] ;+1f lbPsfx'g\ . cfkm\gf]
sfof{nodf ;LaLcfO{n] 5fkf df/]sf]
hfgsf/L;lxt 6\jL6 ub{} d'VodGqL
s]h/Ljfnn] /fhgLlts ?kdf cfkm\gf]
;fdgf ug{ g;s]kl5 k|wfgdGqL df]bLn]
;LaLcfO{ k|of]u ug{] h:tf] xs{t u/]sf]
cf/f]k nufPsf x'g\ . cfkm\gf g]tfsf]
sfof{nodf 5fkf df/]sf]df cfqmf]lzt
cfd cfbdL kf6L{sf k|jQmf ;f}/e
ef/fhn] xhf/f}+ JolQmsf] xTof cf/f]k
nfu]sf df]bLsf] sfof{nodf 5fkf gdfg{]
;LaLcfO{sf] of] sf/jfxL 3[l0ft /x]sf]
l6Kk0fL u/]sf 5g\.

a/fxf===
cfpg yfn]sf] 5. o;} ljifodf a/fxf

Hjn] /Ldf jiff} {+ b]lv ;' gsf uxgf


vl/blaqmL ub}{ cfPsf Ps u|fxs
eG5g\ clxn] a/fxf Hjn]/Ldf u'0f:t/
/ tf}ndf 9'Ss eP/ sf/f]af/ ug{ ;Sg]
l:ylt lyof] t/, xfn eg] To:tf] 5}g.
o; ;DaGwdf ;'wf/ ug{ cg'/f]w ubf{
Hjn]/Ln] s'g} rf;f] glbPsf]n] cfk"mn]
pQm Hjn]/L k;ndf sf/f]af/ g} ug{
5f]l8lbPsf] atfpF5g\.
g]kfndf u/uxgf laqmLdf gfd
sdfPsf] o; a/fxf Hjn]/Lsf] wGbf
eg] a'emL g;Sg' ePsf] ;|ft] n] atfPsf]
5. a/fxf Hjn]/Lsf] Go"/f]8l:ylt
k;nx? b]vfpg dfq /flvPsf] /
Hjn]/L k/f]If?kdf cGo wGbfdf g}
;+nUg ePsf] ;|f]tsf] 7f]s'jf 5.
;|ft] sf cg';f/ a/fxf Hjn]/Ln] /fh:j
5Ng]nufot k|rlnt sfg'gljk/Ltsf
sfo{ klg ub}{ cfPsf] 5. o; ljifodf
xfd|f] vf]hva/ hf/L /xg] 5.

;'lj;'n ]= ==
Clear TV & Internet Combo Offer,
9999 FTTH Internet Offer and
12999 FTTH Internet & Clear TV
Combo Offer /x] s f 5g\ . oL

Kofs] hx laleGg u| f xsxsf]


cfjZostfnfO{ Wofgdf /fv]/ tof/
kfl/Psf] 5 h;nfO{ u|fxsxn]
cfkm\gf] cfjZostf cg';f/ vl/b ug{
;Sg] sDkgLsf] egfO 5. o; of]hgf
l;ldt cjlwsf nflu nfu" ul/Psf]
5 eg] of]hgfdf ;t{x nfu" x'g] klg
sDkgLn] atfPsf] 5 .

d"Noj[l4 !@ k|ltzt glhs M /fi6 a}+s


sf7df8f} F . t/fO{ { dw] ; df
eO/x]sf] nuftf/sf] aGb x8tfn tyf
c3f]lift gfsfaGbLn] cfk"lt{ k|0ffnLdf
cj/f]wsf sf/0f sf7df8f}dF f ;a}eGbf
a9L d"Noj[l4 ePsf] b]lvPsf] 5.
g]kfn /fi6 a}+sn] ;fj{hlgs u/]sf]
cfly{s tyf ljQLo l:yltsf af/]df
rfn' cfj @)&@&# sf] rf/
dlxgfsf] tYofsf cfwf/df ;a}eGbf
a9L sf7df8f}Fdf !!=* k|ltztn]
d"Noj[l4 ePsf] 5. pQm tYofsf
cfwf/df kxf8df !!=$ k|ltzt,
lxdfndf (=^ k|ltzt / t/fO{{df (=!
k|ltztn] d"Noj[l4 ePsf] b]lvPsf]
5. cl3Nnf] jif{sf] ;f]xL cjlwdf
o:tf d" N o ;" r sfsf] j[ l 4b/
sf7df8f}Fdf &=! k|ltzt, kxf8 /
t/fO{{ b'j}df &=@ k|ltzt /x]sf] lyof].
To:t} e" s Dkkl5 lzlyn
cj:yfdf /x]sf] ko{6g If]q t/fO{{
If]qdf /x]sf] nuftf/sf] aGb x8tfn
/ Jofkfl/s dfu{df ePsf] cj/f]wn]
yk k| efljt ePsf] 5. ;dLIff
cjlwdf ko{6ssf] cfudg Go"g x'gs
' f
;fy} cfPsf ko{6ssf] g]kfn a;fOFsf]
cjlw;d]t pNn]Vo kdf 36]sfn]
xf]6nsf] Ifdtf pkof]u Go"g xFb' } uPsf]
a}s
+ n] hgfPsf] 5. d'bf| :kmLlt / tna
tyf Hofnfb/ pkef]Qmf d'b|f:kmLlt
cfj @)&@&# sf] sflQs dlxgfdf
jflif{s laGb'ut pkef]Qmf d'b|f:kmLlt

!)=$ k|ltzt /x]sf] 5. cl3Nnf]


jif{sf] ;f]xL cjlwdf o:tf] d'b|f:kmLlt
&=@ k|ltzt /x]sf] lyof]. d'bf| :kmLlt
pRr /xg'sf] cf;Gg sf/0fdf bnxg
tyf u] 8 fu' 8 L, o" tyf t] n /
nQfsk8f tyf h'Qf pk;d"xsf]
d" Nodf ePsf] pRr j[ l4 /x]s f]
tYofdf pNn]v 5. oL pk;d"xdWo]
bnxg tyf u]8fu'8Lsf] d"No $$=!
k|ltztn] / o" tyf t]nsf] d"No
$!=! k|ltztn] a9]s f] b] lvG5.
a} + s n] t/ntf Joj:yfkg pRr
k|fyldstfsf ;fy ;~rfng ub{}
cfPsf] eP tfklg cfk"lt{ cj:yf ;xh
gx'bF f;Dd df}lb|s Joj:yfkgaf6 dfq
d'bf| :kmLlt lgoGq0f ug{ sl7g b]lvPsf]
hgfPsf] 5.
rfn' cfjsf] rf/ dlxgfdf s'n
j:t' lgof{t @(=! k|ltztn] x|f; cfO{
?= @) ca{ (^ s/f]8df ;Lldt ePsf]
a}+sn] hgfPsf] 5. cl3Nnf] jif{sf]
;f]xL cjlwdf o:tf] lgof{t )=@
k|ltztn] x|f; cfO{ ? @( ca{ %%
s/f]8 /x]sf] lyof]. Jofkf/ gfsfdf
/x]sf] c;xh cj:yfn] ubf{ ;dLIff
cjlwdf ef/t, rLg / cGo
d'n'stkm{sf] lgof{t 36]sf sf/0f
;du| lgof{tdf sdL cfPsf] xf]. s'n
j:t' lgof{tdWo] ef/ttk{msf] lgof{t
#*=& k|ltztn], rLgtkm{sf] lgof{t
^&=( k|ltztn] / cGo d'n'stk{msf]

lgof{t &=* k|ltztn] 36]sf] 5.


;dLIff cjlwdf s'n j:t' cfoft
#^=* k|ltztn] 36]/ ? !^) ca{
(( s/f]8 k'u]sf] 5. cl3Nnf] jif{sf]
;f]xL cjlwdf o:tf] cfoft @@=$
k|ltztn] j[l4 eO{ ? @%$ ca{ ^^
s/f]8 k'u]sf] lyof]. s'n cfoftdWo]
ef/taf6 ePsf] cfoft $!=*
k|ltztn], rLgaf6 ePsf] cfoft
@@=# k|ltztn] / cGo d'n'saf6
ePsf] cfoft #!=! k|ltztn] 36]sf]
5. ;dLIff cjlwdf s'n j:t' Jofkf/
3f6f #&=* k|ltztn] 36L ? !$)
ca{ rf/ s/f]8df ;Lldt ePsf] 5.
cl3Nnf] jif{sf] ;f]xL cjlwdf o:tf]
Jofkf/ 3f6f @^=! k|ltztn] a9]sf]]
lyof]. s'n j:t' Jofkf/ 3f6fdWo]
;dLIff cjlwdf ef/t, rLg / cGo
d'n's;Fusf] Jofkf/ 3f6f qmdzM
$@=! k|ltzt, @)=^ k|ltzt / #^
k|ltztn] 36]sf] 5.
To:t} j}b]lzs /f]huf/Ldf hfg]
g]kfnL gful/ssf] ;+Vofdf kl5Nnf
dlxgfdf sdL cfPsf] b] lvG5.
clGtd >d :jLs[ltsf cfwf/df
j}b]lzs /f]huf/Ldf hfg] g]kfnLsf]
;+Vof rfn' cfjsf] rf/ dlxgfdf ut
jif{sf] ;f]xL cjlwsf] t'ngfdf @)=(
k|ltztn] 36]sf] 5. cl3Nnf] jif{sf]
;f]xL cjlwdf o:tf] ;+Vof @*=*
k|ltztn] a9]sf] lyof].

gof 3/df ;f}o{ phf{ h8fg clgjfo{

sf7df8f}F . ;/sf/n] ejg lgdf{0f


dfkb08df g} ;f}o{ phf{sf] h8fgnfO{
clgjfo{ ug{] tof/L u/]sf] 5. :yfgLo
ljsf; dGqfnon] gofF aGg] ;/sf/L,
Joj;flos, ;+:yfut / ;fj{hlgs
ejgxdf ;f]nf/ hf]8g\ k} g{] afWosf/L
lgod nufpg] tof/L u/]sf] xf]. o:t}
;j{;fwf/0fsf] cfjf;Lo ejgdf klg
of] dfkb08 nufpg ;Sg] clwsf/
gu/kflnsf / uflj;xnfO{
k|Tofof]hg ug{ nfluPsf] 5. ;f]nf/
phf{s f] k|o f]unfO{ k|j4{g ug{ /
nf];l] 8af6 kLl8t x'g'kg{] hgtfsf]
;d:ofnfO{ ;Daf]wg ug{ gofF aGg]
3/df ;f]n/ l;:6d clgjfo{ ug{ ;lsg]
Joj:yf ug{ nfluPsf] dGqfnon]
hgfPsf] 5. ejg lgdf{0f dfkb08df
g} ;f}ok{ 0| ffnL clgjfo{ ug{ ;Sg];DaGwL
k|:tfj ;'emfjsf nflu jftj/0f tyf
k|ljlw dGqfnodf 5. jftfj/0f
dGqfnosf] ;' e mfjcg' ; f/ l5}
o;;DaGwL cf}krfl/s lg0f{o x'g]

:yfgLo ljsf; dGqfnosf ;x;lrj


uf] kL vgfnn] atfP. ;/sf/L,
Joj;flos, ;+:yfut / ;fj{hlgs
ejgxdf ;f]nf/ clgjfo{ hf]8g\ k} 5{,
pgn] eg]cfjf;Lo ejgsf ljifodf
gu/kflnsfx cfkm}+n] lg0f{o lng
;S5g\. t/, xfd|f] gLlt eg] ;a} 3/df
;f]nf/ hf]8\g] xf]. of] lg0f{o ePkl5
gu/kflnsf / tf]lsPsf uflj;xn]
cfj;Lo ejgdf cfkm\gf] gLltcg';f/
;f]nf/ clgjfo{ ug{] gug{] lg0f{o lng
;Sg]5g\. pgLxnfO{ ;f]nf/ l;:6d
lagf gS;f kf; gug{] lgod nufpg
;Sg] clwsf/ lbOPsf] 5. klxnf]
r/0fdf of] Joj:yf b]ze/df @ ;o
!& j6f gu/kflnsfdf nfu" ug{
;lsg]5. To;kl5 ;/sf/n] zx/f]Gd'v
uflj;xdf klg of] lgod nufpg]
vgfnn] atfP. @)@% nfv k}ofF
gvlr{P zx/L If]qdf 3/ gaGg] cj:yf
5. ca o;df %) xhf/b]lv ! nfv
k}ofF yk]/ ;f]nf/ l;:6d h8fg ug{

pkef]QmfnfO{ ufx|f] x'bF }g, ;x;lrj


vgfnn] eg], jftfj/0f d}qL, sd vlr{nf]
/ nf]8;]l8sf] tgfj gx'g] ePsfn]
;f]nf/ l;:6d clgjfo{ ug{] gLlt lng
nfu]sf xf}+. pgn] ;f]nf/ hf]8\g
dGqfnon] s'g} vr{ gug{] :ki6 u/].
t/, j}slNks phf{ k|j4{ g s]Gb|dfkm{t
pkef]Qmfn] ;x'lnotdf ;f]nf/ h8fg
ug{ ;Sg]5g\. :yfgLo ljsf; dGqfnon]
dxfgu/ / ;a} pkdxfgu/df lglZrt
dfkb08df ag]sf 3/df klg ;f]nf/
clgjfo{ ug{ ;Sg] clwsf/ lbg k|:tfj
u/]sf] 5. d'VotofM w/} lah'n
' L vkt
x'g] 3/df ;f]nf/ hf]8g\ clgjfo{ ug{]
;/sf/sf] tof/L 5. w]/} lah'nL vkt
ug{] pkef]Qmfxn] ;fgf] vr{ ;f]nf/sf
nflu klg ug{5] g\. jftfj/0fLo lx;fjn]
klg of] lgs} pko'Qm x'G5, ;x;lrj
vgfnn] eg], ;fdfGo vr{ ubf{ x'g]
kmfObf w]/} 5g\. ;f]nf/sf] pkof]lutf
/ j}slNks phf{sf] k|j4{ gnfO{ Wofgdf
/fv]/ g} o:tf] tof/L ePsf] xf].

sf7df8f}F. kf]v/fsf] n]vgfy


gu/kflnsf
kre} o fdf
cGt/f{li6o:t/sf] lrl8ofvfgf lgdf{0fsf]
sfd yflnPsf] 5. ;ft tfnsf] au}r
F f
zx/ kf]v/fdf a[xt\ cjwf/0ffcg';f/
oxfFsf !!, !@, / !$ gDa/ j8fdf
/x]sf kre}of, r}gk'/ / rfkfkfgL
lr;fs'gf ;fd'bflos jgnfO{ ;d]6/]
lrl8ofvfgf lgdf{0fsf] sfo{ cl3
a9fOPsf] xf]. o'gfO6]8 Sna kf]v/fsf]
ljz]if kxn Pj+ :yfgLojf;Lsf] ;s[otfdf
oxfFsf] Ps ;o #$ x]S6/ If]qkmf:ndf
lrl8ofvfgf lgdf{0f ug{ nfluPsf] Snasf
cWoIf Pjd kf] v /f cGt/f{ li6 o
lrl8ofvfgf lgdf{0f ;ldltsf ;+of]hs
lxdfno av|n] n] atfP. lrl8ofvfgfsf]
ut ;fpg !% ut] tTsfnLg :jf:Yo
dGqL vu/fh clwsf/Ln] lznfGof;
u/]sf lyP. ko{6sLo zx/ kf]v/fdf
gofF ko{ 6sLo uGtJosf] kdf
lrl8ofvfgf :yfkgfsf] ;f]r eg] @)^&
;fnb]lv a9]sf] xf]. Snan] ljut kfFr
jif{bl] v kf]v/f dxf]T;j ub{} cfPsfdf
pQm dxf]T;jaf6 x'g] cfDbfgLsf] @)
k|ltzt /sd lrl8ofvfgf lgdf{0fs}
nflu 5'6o\ fOPsf] 5. o; jif{ klg
cfufdL k'; #) ut]bl] v kf]v/f dxf]T;j
ug{ ] tof/L Snan] u/] s f] 5.
dxf]T;jaf6 clxn];Dd lrl8ofvfgf
lgdf{0fsf nflu !% nfv k}ofF ;d]t
hDdf eO;s]sf] 5, cWoIf av|n] n]
eg] Snasf] kxn / ;fd'bflos jg

pkef]Qmf ;ldlt, jg sfof{no, :yfgLo


k|zf;g, :yfgLo lgsfo, /fhgLlts
bnx ljleGg ;;+:yfsf] ;xof]udf
lrl8ofvfgf lgdf{0f sfo{nfO{ cl3
a9fOPsf] xf] . pgsf cg' ; f/
lrl8ofvfgf cjnf]sg ug{s
] f nflu
hfnLsf] 8f]d lgdf{0f u/L hgfj/ /
kIfLnfO{ v' N nf 5fl8g] 5.
lrl8ofvfgfdf jGohGt' k|bz{g, ;+/If0f
lzIffnfO{ ;dfj]z ul/g's f ;fy}
eljiodf ljZje/sf] xfjfkfgLdf kfOg]
kIfL tyf hgfj/sf] sIf agfpg] nIo
/flvPsf] 5. ;fd'bflos jgdf ePsf
hgfj/sf] cjnf]sg ug{ ldNg] jftfj/0f
agfP/ :jb]zL xfjfkfgL cg';f/sf]
hLjhGt' k|bz
{ gL sIf;d]t lgdf{0f ul/g]
Snan] hgfPsf] 5. jGohGt'sf]
nfngkfng / ltgLxsf] :jf:YonfO{
Vofn /fVg jGohGt' ;+/If0f s]Gb|
:yfkgf ug{] Snasf] nIo 5.
g]kfns} klxnf] vf]/d'Qm cfw'lgs
lrl8ofvfgfdf afn pBfg, aN5L xfGg]
kf]v/L, 8'f zo/sf nflu tfn, hn
;km/Lnufot cltl/Qm lqmofsnfknfO{
klg ;d]l6g] lrl8ofvfgf lgdf{0f
cleofgsf cleoGtf Pj+ Snasf
sf]iffWoIf bfdf]b/eQm yfkfn] atfP.
lxdfnL b[Zofjnf]sg;lxt tfnsf]
cjnf] s gdf /dfpg rfxg]
ko{6sxnfO{ oxfFsf] lrl8ofvfgfdf
jGohGt' Pj+ r/fr'?L x]g]{ cj;/ k|fKt
x'g] pgn] atfP. tf/hfnL nufO{

lrl8ofvfgf lgdf{0f :ynnfO{ hn


;kmf/Lsf] kdf k|of]udf Nofpg] nIo
/flvPsf] eP klg gfsfaGbLsf sf/0f
tf/hfnL nufpg] sfd ;'? ug{ g;lsPsf]
Snan] hgfPsf] 5. nlIot If]q
cf;kf;df a;f]jf; ug{] Ps xhf/
3/w'/Lsf] ;d'bfo klg lrl8ofvfgf
lgdf{0f cleofgnfO{ ;kmn agfpg
nfluk/]sf 5g\. :yfgLojf;L Pj+
kre}of ;fd'bflos jg pkef]Qmf
;ldltsf cWoIf dgaxfb'/ l3ld/] o;
If]qdf tLg ;o ^! k|hfltsf jg:klt,
Ps ;o &% k|hfltsf h8La'6L kfOg'sf
;fy} af3, d[u, clh+u/ h:tf hgfj/
kfOg] atfp5g\. Ps;o #$ hftsf
jGohGt' tyf r/fr'?L kfOg] of] If]qnfO{
ljZjs} gd"gf k|fs[lts lrl8ofvfgsf
kdf ljsf; ug{ ;lsg] pgsf] egfO
5. lrl8ofvfgfsf kdf ljsf; ubf{
oxfFsf] k|l;4 kf tfn klg ;+/If0f x'g]
ljZjf; lnOPsf] 5. cWoIf l3ld/]sf
cg'; f/ ;fd'bflos hfu?stf /
;xsfl/tfsf] efjgfcg' ; f/ o;
cleofgnfO{ cl3 a9fpg] kxnn]
;d'bfodf klg v';L NofPsf] 5.
lrl8ofvfgfsf] ljsf;;Fu} o; If]qsf]
ljsf; Pj+ cfly{s ;d[l4 klg a9]/
hfg] ljZjf; lnPsf 5f},+ l3ld/]n] eg]
of] cleofgsf] ;kmntfn] hf]lvddf kb{}
uPsf] kftfn ;+/If0f x'gs
' f ;fy} o;
If]qsf] ul/aL Go"g aGg] :yfgLojf;Lsf]
cfzf /x]sf] 5.

cGt/f{li6o :t/sf] lrl8ofvfgf aGb}

If]Kof:q k|sfzg s]Gb|f/f k|sflzt, ;Dkfbs M /fh]Gb|k|;fb lrdf}l/of, sfof{no M yfkfufpF, sf7df8f}F, df]afOn M (*$!$)#*%!,
E-mail : chhepyastra@gmail.com,website: www.janakhabar.com d'bs
| M lwDn] ckm;]6 k|;
] , b]jLgu/, kmf]gM $$^$!%%