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All are similar in the context of their measurement.

But, IC50 is used generally for

chemical assays like oxidation /reduction or other colorimetric/ fluorimetric assays
where one chemical concentration inhibits 50% of these processes (Even for CFU
measurements for Bacterial growth inhibition).
Whereas LC/LD50 will be applicable to animals (rats, mice..etc). In between LC50
and LD50, certainly LD50 will be used to represent the drugs /chemical which will
kill 50% population of animals in single oral administration & where as LC50 will be
used to show the concentration of a chemical in air exposed for 4hr to kill 50%of
So, According to OECD LC50 shows the lethal conc. of a chemical in air exposed for
4hr to kill 50% of population during observation (generally 14 days) where as for
single oral/dermal dose of that chemcial to kill 50% population generally referred as
a lethal Dose LD50.
LD50 also referred as Quantal response.