You are on page 1of 23

TRNG I HC TI CHNH-MARKETING

KHOA C BN
B MN TON THNG K

BI GING
L THUYT XC SUT V THNG K TON

Ging vin

ThS. L Trng Giang

PHN I. L THUYT XC SUT


(Probability theory)
Chng 1: Bin c ngu nhin v xc sut
Chng 2: Bin ngu nhin v phn phi xc sut
Chng 3: Vecto ngu nhin

PHN II. L THUYT THNG K


(Statistical theory)
Chng 4: L thuyt mu v c lng tham s
Chng 5: Kim nh Gi thuyt Thng k

Ti liu tham kho


1. Trn Lc Hng (2015)- Hng dn n tp xc sut
thng k - Trng H Ti Chnh Marketing.
2. L S ng (2013)- Gio trnh Xc sut - Thng k
NXB Gio dc Vit Nam.
3. L Khnh Lun, Nguyn Thanh Sn (2011)-L thuyt
xc sut v thng k-NXBHQG TpHCM.
4. Nguyn Cao Vn, Trn Thi Ninh, Ng Vn Th
(2012) Gio trnh L thuyt xc sut v Thng k
NXB i hc Kinh T Quc Dn.

I HC TI CHNH MARKETING
KHOA C BN

Chng 0
B tc kin thc dng trong Xc sut

Cn b ging dy:
ThS L Trng Giang

Bi 1. Tp hp v cc php ton trn tp hp

1. Tp hp
1.1 Khi nim
1.2. Quan h gia cc tp hp

2. Cc php ton trn tp hp

Bi 1. Tp hp v cc php ton trn tp hp


1. Tp hp
1.1 Khi nim
Tp hp trong Ton hc khng c nh ngha, ta hiu tp hp
bao gm mt hay nhiu c th phn bit, mi c th ca tp hp
c gi l phn t ca tp hp.
Tp hp thng c k hiu bi cc ch in hoa A, B,
,

Phn t a thuc tp hp A c k hiu l a A


Mt tp hp khng c phn t no gi l tp hp rng k hiu l

biu th tp hp ta c th lit k tt c cc phn t, biu , nu


tnh cht

Bi 1. Tp hp v cc php ton trn tp hp


1. Tp hp
1.1 Khi nim
1.2. Quan h gia cc tp hp
a. Tp hp con (subset)
B A khi v ch khi x B suy ra x A .

b. Hai tp hp bng nhau (equal)


A B khi v ch khi A B v A B.

c. Hai tp hp ri nhau (disjoint)

AB

Bi 1. Tp hp v cc php ton trn tp hp


2. Cc php ton trn tp hp
a. Php ton hp (union)

A B x : x A hoac x B .
b. Php ton giao (intersection)

A B x : x A va x B .
c. Php ton hiu (set difference)

A \ B x : x A va x B .
d. Ly phn b (complement)

A x : x va x A .

Bi 1. Tp hp v cc php ton trn tp hp


2. Cc php ton trn tp hp
e. Tnh cht ca cc php ton
i. Tnh cht giao hon
A B B A; A B B A.

ii. Tnh cht kt hp

A B C A B C ; A B C A B C .
iii. Tnh cht phn phi
A B C A B A C ; A B C A B A C .

iv. Lut - Morgan


A B A B; A B A B .

Bi 2. Gii tch t hp
1. Hai quy tc gii ton t hp
2. hon v
3. Chnh hp
4. T hp
5. Nh thc Newton

Bi 2. Gii tch t hp
1. Hai quy tc gii ton t hp
a. Quy tc nhn
Mot cong viec phai thc hien qua k giai oan.
- Giai oan 1 co n1 cach thc hien
- Giai oan 2 co n2 cach thc hien

- Giai oan k co nk cach thc hien


Khi o cong viec co n1.n2..nk cach thc hien.
V d 1. C 3 sinh vin nhm A v 8 sinh vin nhm B. Chn ngu
nhin 3 sinh vin kim tra bi c, trong yu cu phi c 2
sinh vin thuc nhm A v 1 sinh vin thuc nhm B. Hi c bao
nhiu cch thc hin.
S: 3.8 = 24 cch chn

Bi 2. Gii tch t hp
1. Hai quy tc gii ton t hp
b. Quy tc cng
Mot cong viec co the thc hien theo k phng an.
- Phng an 1 co n1 cach thc hien
- Phng an 2 co n2 cach thc hien

- Phng an k co nk cach thc hien


Khi o cong viec co n1+n2++nk cach thc hien.
V d 2. C 2 sinh vin nhm A v 3 sinh vin nhm B. Chn
ngu nhin 2 sinh vin kim tra bi c. Tnh s cch chn
c t nht 1 sinh vin thuc nhm B.
S: 2.3 + 3 = 9

Bi 2. Gii tch t hp
2. hon v
Cho tap hp A co n phan t, mot hoan v n phan t cua
A la mot day cac phan t cua A sap xep theo mot th t
nao o.
So hoan v n phan t: Pn = n!

S cch sp xp n phn t khc nhau vo n v tr


trn ng trn khng nh s l Pn 1 n 1!
V d 3. C bao nhiu cch xp 5 quyn sch ln mt gi sch?

Bi 2. Gii tch t hp
3. Chnh hp
a. Chnh hp (khng lp)

Mt chnh hp chp k ca n phn t k n l mt nhm (b)


c th t gm k phn t khc nhau chn t n phn t cho.
k
n

S chnh hp chp k ca n phn t k hiu l A .

n!
A n.(n 1)....(n k 1)
n k !
k
n

n
A
Lu : n Pn .

Bi 2. Gii tch t hp
3. Chnh hp
a. Chnh hp (khng lp)

V d 4A. Trong lp hc c 45 sinh vin. C bao nhiu


cch chn ngu nhin 3 bn sinh vin bu vo ban cn
s lp gm 1 lp trng, 1 lp ph v 1 b th.
S: 85140.
V d 4B: C bao nhiu cch xp ngu nhin 3 bn sinh
vin n vo 5 phng tr, sao cho mi phng c ti a
mt bn?
S: 60.

Bi 2. Gii tch t hp
3. Chnh hp
b. Chnh hp lp
Mt chnh hp lp chp k ca n phn t l mt nhm
c th t gm k phn t khng nht thit khc nhau chn t n phn
k
t cho. S chnh hp lp chp k ca n phn t k hiu l Bn .

Bnk n k
Lu :s chnh hp lp chp k ca n phn t c th c tnh bng
cch p dng quy tc nhn, trong c k giai on, mi giai on c
n cch.

Bi 2. Gii tch t hp
3. Chnh hp
b. Chnh hp lp
V d 5: C bao nhiu cch xp ngu nhin 3 bn sinh

vin n vo 5 phng tr?


S: 125.

Bi 2. Gii tch t hp
4. T hp

Mt t hp chp k ca n phn t k n l mt nhm (b)


khng phn bit th t gm k phn t khc nhau c chn
k
t n phn t cho. S t hp chp k ca n phn t k hiu l Cn .

n!
C
k ! n k !
k
n

V d 6. Lp hc c 30 sinh vin nam, 25 sinh vin n.


Hi c bao nhiu cch thnh lp nhm 5 sinh vin bao gm
3 nam, 2 n.
S: 1218000

Bi 2. Gii tch t hp
5. Nh thc Newton

a b

n
k
n

C .a .b
k 0

nk

Bi tp chng 1
Bi 1.1. Mt ngy hc 3 mn hc trong s 7 mn hc.
Hi c bao nhiu cch xp thi kho biu trong mt
ngy?
Bi 1.2. Mt l hng c 10 sn phm, trong c 8 sn
phm tt v 2 ph phm. C bao nhiu cch:
a. Ly ngu nhin ra 4 sn phm.
b. Ly ra ngu nhin 4 sn phm, trong c 3 sn
phm tt.
c. Ly ra ngu nhin 4 sn phm, trong c t nht 1
ph phm

Bi tp chng 1
Bi 1.3. Mt hp c 5 bi trng, 3 bi xanh. Ly t hp ra 2
bi. C 3 cch ly:
Ly ngu nhin 2 bi.
C bao nhiu cch ly c 2 bi?
C bao nhiu cch ly c 2 bi trng?
C bao nhiu cch ly c 1 bi trng, 1 bi xanh?
Ly ln lt 2 bi. Hi nh cu 1.
Ly c hon li 2 bi (chn lp). Hi nh cu 1.
Bi 1.4. C my cch phn phi 15 sn phm cho 3 ngi
sao cho ngi th nht c 2 sn phm, ngi th hai c 3
sn phm v ngi th ba c 10 sn phm.

Bi tp chng 1
Bi 1.5. Mt lp hc c 30 sinh vin trong c 20 nam.
C bao nhiu cch chn ra mt ban cn s gm 4 sinh vin
nu:
a. C ng 2 nam.
b. Khng c nam.
c. Nhiu nht 2 Nam.
d. C t nht 1 Nam.

XIN CHN THNH CM N!