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THE IMPACTS OF APTITUDE AND MOTIVATION TOWARD

THE PERFORMANCE OF EFL LEARNERS IN


SMP NEGERI 1 GIANYAR

I KADEK DONY SUANTIKA


1001305057

ENGLISH DEPARTMENT
FACULTY OF LETTERS AND CULTURE
UDAYANA UNIVERSITY
2014

This paper is submitted as a partial fulfillment


To obtain the Sarjana Sastra degree at the English Department
Faculty of Letters and Culture Udayana University

Approved by the Examination Board


Of English Department
Faculty of Letters and Culture
Udayana University

Denpasar, October 13th 2014


Chairman

A.A.S. Shanti Sari Dewi, S.S., M.App.Ling


19760325 200502 2 007

Secretary

PutuWeddha Savitri, S.S., M.Hum


19810227 200604 2 001

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

First of all, I would like to express my gratitude to the Almighty God, Ida
Sang Hyang Widhi Wasa, for His great blessing, mercy, love and guidance so that I
can finally complete this study entitled The Impacts of Aptitude and Motivation
toward the Performance of EFL Learners in SMP Negeri 1 Gianyar.
I realize that this study would never be completed without helps and
contributions from many sides. I would like to express my gratitude to Prof. Dr. I
Wayan Cika, M.S., as Dean of Faculty of Letters and Culture and to Dr. Ni Luh Ketut
Mas Indrawati, Dip TEFL, M.A., as the Head of English Department and also all of
the members at academic and administration office for education and facilities that
given to me as a student at Faculty of Letters and Culture Udayana University.
. On a more personal note, I would like to extend my thanks and appreciation
to my first supervisor A.A. Sagung Shanti Sari Dewi, S.S., M.App.Ling. and my
second supervisor Putu Weddha Savitri, S.S., M.Hum., for the encouragement,
support and guidance. I should also express my great thanks to Ni Ketut Sri
Rahayuni, S.S., as my best academic supervisor for assistance during my academic
years.
Moreover, my deepest appreciation and gratitude are dedicated to my family;
my parents and both of my elder sister and younger brother, to Putera Sampoerna
Foundation who gave me the chance to taste the fruitful knowledge of college by
supporting and funding my undergraduate study, and also for all of my best friends,
beautiful special friend, family of English Students Association, Students Senate of
Faculty of Letters and Culture 2013 period, Sampoerna Foundation Scholars Club,
Satanic FC, and PKA, tons of thanks for being always besides me and always support
me in my hard times. The last but not least, I want to give my thanks to all English
Department intake 2010 generation, my greatest gratitude for your kindness and the

memories during the lecturers from first semester until I finished this undergraduate
paper.
Finally, I hope this paper can give contribution to the English Department and
I realize that this paper is far from being perfect. Therefore, any suggestion and
comment will be highly appreciated.

Denpasar, 16 August 2014

I Kadek Dony Suantika

ii

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Acknowledgements .................................................................................................. i
Table of contents ...................................................................................................... iii
Abstract .................................................................................................................... v
CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION ........................................................................... 1
1.1

Background of the Study ................................................................................. 1

1.2

Problem of the Study ....................................................................................... 4

1.3

Aims of the Study ........................................................................................... 4

1.4

Scope of Discussion ........................................................................................ 4

1.5

Research Method ............................................................................................. 5


1.5.1

Data Source ......................................................................................... 5

1.5.2

Method and Technique of Collecting Data ......................................... 6

1.5.3

Method and Technique of Analyzing Data ......................................... 8

CHAPTER II LITERATURE REVIEW, CONCEPT AND


THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK ....................................................................... 11
2.1

Review of Literature ....................................................................................... 11

2.2

Concepts .......................................................................................................... 15

2.3

2.2.1

Aptitude ............................................................................................... 15

2.2.2

Motivation ........................................................................................... 16

2.2.3

English As Foreign Language ............................................................. 17

2.2.4

Second Language Learning .................................................................. 15

Theoretical Framework ................................................................................... 18


2.3.1

Language Aptitude Theory ................................................................. 18

2.3.2

Self-Determination Theory ................................................................. 22

2.3.3

Goal-Setting Theory ............................................................................ 24


iii

CHAPTER III ANALYSIS OF THE IMPACTS OF APTITUDE AND


MOTIVATION TOWARD THE PERFORMANCE OF EFL LEARNERS
IN SMP NEGERI 1 GIANYAR ............................................................................ 29
3.1

General Review of SMP Negeri 1 Gianyar ...................................................... 29

3.2

The Aptitude of EFL Learners in SMP Negeri 1 Gianyar .............................. 31

3.3

The Impacts of Aptitude toward the performance of EFL Learners in


SMP Negeri 1 Gianyar ................................................................................... 39

3.4

The Motivation of EFL Learners in SMP Negeri 1 Gianyar ........................... 42


3.4.1

The Instrinsic Motivation of EFL Learners in SMP Negeri 1


Gianyar ................................................................................................ 42

3.4.2

The Extrinsic Motivation and Goal-Setting Condition of EFL Learners


in SMP Negeri 1Gianyar .................................................................... 46

3.5

The Impacts of Motivation toward EFL Learners Performances in SMP


Negeri 1 Gianyar .............................................................................................. 47
3.5.1

The Impacts of Instrinsic Motivation toward EFL Learners Performance


in SMP Negeri 1 Gianyar .................................................................... 47

3.5.2

The Impacts of Exstrinsic Motivation and Goal-Setting Condition


toward EFL Learners Performance in SMP Negeri 1 Gianyar ........... 51

3.6

The Relation of Aptitude and Motivation toward Performance of EFL Learners


in SMP Negeri 1 Gianyar ............................................................................... 52

CHAPTER IV CONCLUSIONS .......................................................................... 57


BIBLIOGRAPHY .................................................................................................. 60
APPENDICES

iv

ABSTRACT

This study is entitled The Impacts of Aptitude and Motivation toward the
Performance of EFL Learners in SMP Negeri 1 Gianyar. A field research about
performance of Indonesian Junior High students of SMP Negeri 1 Gianyar in learning
a foreign language, English, was taken.
The research about EFL learners language aptitude and motivation was
conducted through the implementation of Modern Language Aptitude Test (MLAT)
and questionnaire of motivation by Lunsford (1998). All of the data taken were
analyzed using Language Aptitude theory by Carroll (1959), Self-Determination
theory proposed by Deci and Ryan and also Goal-Setting theory by Locke and
Latham.
The results of this study show that both aptitude and motivation play a role in
impacting students performance in learning EFL. Generally, EFL learners in SMP
Negeri 1 Gianyar have above average motivation level and good aptitude which also
give positive impacts toward their performance in learning English. In some way, the
combination of both high aptitude and high level of motivation boost the performance
to the fullest.
Keyword: Aptitude, Motivation, language-learning performance, EFL

CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

1.1

Background of the Study


In this globalization era, most people are able to use at least one foreign

language, and often people from a family with bilingual background learn two
languages, apparently with ease. Moreover, these people do not only speak the
language, but also understand the language and often they both read and write it.
Many questions about what the factor that takes the biggest role in
succeeding learning a second or foreign language are discussed. Gardner
(1985:60) stated motivation and attitude play an important role in learning second
or foreign language. He then answered that because generally language is an
integral part of growing up which provides motivation in its own right, and is
necessary to communicate and participate in one environment.
Meanwhile other researchers found out that in the last two decades,
aptitude has been acknowledged as one of the most important factors and
predictors of learners ultimate success in Second Language Learning (SLA)
(Drnyei, 2005:31). Language aptitude has been suggested as one of the
central individual differences in language learning. (Skehan, 1989:25, 38 as cited
by Sturgeon p.4). He also states aptitude has also been declared to be the most
consistent predictor of ones success in learning a foreign language. It has been
proven that in many cases, aptitude represents one of the decisive factors in the
process of mastering a foreign language.

Learning new language, moreover a foreign language is not an easy task.


As mentioned above, either a will and motivation or a talent will accommodate
someone to be success. Learning a foreign language involves an obvious amount
of effort for anyone, either a child or an adult, but the younger we are the easier it
is - after all. Children are better to be introduced to foreign language in early age
because in learning an additional language they tend to be more creative, better at
solving complex problems and usually score higher on standardized tests. Once
children know a second language, it is easier for them to understand further
languages structures, which is why experts say that every new language learnt is
easier than the one before (Kumon as cited in website www.kumon.co.uk).
In part of learning second or foreign language for youngster, English is
one of the most wide-world languages that has been spoken in many countries and
used regularly both at formal and informal environment. In many non-native
countries, second or foreign language, in this case is English, is commonly
learned in formal institution such as school. School is regularly known as an
institution for the teaching of children where they learn particular subject or skill.
As one of the subject in order to fulfill the requirement of learning international
language, English is regularly taught in regular school in most of non-native
countries like Indonesia.
In Indonesia, almost all schools teach English to their students. English is
taught vary from elementary school level (or even kindergarten) until high school
level and as a foreign language (EFL). This proves that youngster in Indonesia is
introduced with English in a very young age. In school environment, English is

taught as a subject along with Bahasa Indonesia as an instructional language. One


of those schools that had been the research object in this study is SMP Negeri 1
Gianyar.
Sekolah Menengah Pertama (hence for SMP) Negeri 1 Gianyar is one of
governmental Junior High schools that teach English to the local students. The
local Indonesian students are demanded to be able to master English as one of the
international languages. The Indonesian Ministry of Education and Culture even
sets English as one of the subjects that appears in the national final exam. This
phenomenon shows the need of good English ability is important to be possessed
by students in Indonesia as they are expected to be ready to face the globalization
race. It becomes interesting to be discussed how the local Indonesian students
learn to master different language even though English is not their mother tongue.
Also, how the factors such as aptitude and motivation of the local students impact
their ultimate success or failure in learning EFL is one of the concerns.
Although many studies have looked into the peoples motivation and
aptitude which have been conducted to evaluate its impact in language learning
especially English, there has not been a study that makes the associations between
both. Because these assortments of aspects are essential to the success in learning
English, understanding various perceptions can suggest a pathway to comprehend
the reason of peoples successes and failures. By further explication and studying
the aptitude and motivation such as perceptions of the EFL learners, this study is
expected to give contribution in the future toward the further research in second
language learning especially EFL.

1.2

Problems of Study
According to the background explained above, the discussion in this study

is limited on finding the answers to the following questions, such as:


1. What is the impact of aptitude toward the performance of EFL learners in
SMP Negeri 1 Gianyar?
2. What is the impact of motivation toward the performance of EFL learners
in SMP Negeri 1 Gianyar?
3. How are aptitude and motivation related to each other toward the
performance of EFL learners in SMP Negeri 1 Gianyar?
1.3

Aims of Study
Any scientific writing should have a very clear purpose. Based on the

problems served above, the aims of study in this thesis are as follows:
1. To find out the impact of aptitude toward the performance of EFL learners
in SMP Negeri 1 Gianyar.
2. To find out the impact of motivation toward the performance of EFL
learners in SMP Negeri 1 Gianyar.
3. To analyze the relation of aptitude and motivation toward the performance
of EFL learners in SMP Negeri 1 Gianyar.
1.4

Scope of Discussion
The scope of discussion in this writing is limited in some items as follow:

1. The impact of the aptitude toward the performance of EFL learners in


SMP Negeri 1 Gianyar.
2. The impact of the motivation toward the performance of EFL learners in
SMP Negeri 1 Gianyar.
3. The relation of the aptitude and motivation toward the performance of EFL
learners in SMP Negeri 1 Gianyar.

1.5

Research Method
To carry out a scientific research, following the research method is a must,

which is the procedure to be set up in order to conduct a research. The research


method in this study is divided into three parts:

1.5.1

Data Source
The type of data used in this study was both spoken and written one. The

data in this study is a form of score and statistic of EFL learners aptitude,
motivation, English subject mark on their latest report card and interview session
with English teachers. The data source used in this study was taken from the
process of learning of Junior High school students in SMP Negeri 1 Gianyar
which is located at Jalan Ngurah Rai no 1 Gianyar. The total number of students
by 2013 is 740.
The target research was specifically students on the 8th grade with total
population of 241 students, as for gender, 40.3% male and 59.7% female. The
decision of choosing the 8th grade students of SMP Negeri 1 Gianyar as the

population of this study was based on the fact that this grade was the best to be
studied under the consideration of the length of study in junior high school and
their echelon of readiness to take the test without being interrupted by other
factor. The data from the English teacher was also gathered to ensure the data
about students are accurate and to explain some special cases occurs in SMP
Negeri 1 Gianyar.
Out of 241 students of 8th grade, 100 students responded to motivation
questionnaire and MLAT. Also, one of three English teachers was successfully
interviewed. All of the data was used because they are related to the title of the
study.

1.5.2

Method and Technique of Collecting Data


The method applied in collecting the data in this study was field research.

By field research, it means research based on personal interaction with research


subjects in their own setting. Field research includes research with residents of
ones own neighborhood or organization (Wood, 2007:123). In collecting data in a
field research, instrument is definitely needed which is consisted of a piece of
motivation questionnaire and aptitude test. In total, the field research in this study
took 2 weeks to be done and these are the techniques of collecting data for this
study:
First, because most researchers utilize questionnaire as the method of
collecting data, in this study questionnaire also played some roles to portray the
data of students motivation in learning EFL. To measure the motivation of the

students of SMP Negeri 1 Gianyar, a piece of questionnaire design by Lunsford


(1998, available in SIL.org) was employed. The questionnaire is in a form of tick
in the box type, which the students were asked to fill in. The options range from
Strongly Agree to Strongly Disagree. The questionnaire itself contains 27
questions to measure 5 areas; Self-Image, Inhibition, Risk-taking, Ego
Permeability and Tolerance of Ambiguity. Each of the area of evaluation is geared
toward one end of the scale or the other. Because of the EFL learners in SMP
Negeri 1 Gianyar use Indonesian language as their mother tongue, the motivation
questionnaire was translated into Bahasa Indonesia. This adjustment was
conducted also in order to get the best result since the points on questionnaire
become more comprehensive. This motivation questionnaire itself took no more
than 15 minutes to be completed.
Second, to attain the result of the students language aptitude, an aptitude
test design by Carroll (1957) was applied which is entitled Modern Language
Aptitude Test (MLAT). The MLAT is originally designed for adult learners, but
for this study, some adjustments were done in the difficulty level, the amount of
questions and the time allocation in every section to suit the student which is
under the consideration that they are still in junior high school. The material also
had been translated before into Bahasa Indonesia. The moderated MLAT contains
48 items which is divided into 5 sections, they are: 1. Number Learning (10
items), 2. Phonetics Script (10 items), 3. Spelling Cues (10 items), 4. Word in
Sentences (8 items), and 5. Paired Association (10 items). Each section in MLAT
give contributions to aptitude scale which is divided into 3 sections; Phonetic

coding ability, Grammatical sensitivity, and Inductive learning ability (Carroll,


1957). The implementation of moderated MLAT toward the EFL learners in SMP
Negeri 1 Gianyar took approximately 30 minutes.
The parameter of the performance of EFL learners in SMP Negeri 1
Gianyar used in this study was taken from their mark of the English subject in
report card. To collect the data about the performance of EFL learners, the
information about the students mark of their latest report card from the students
themselves was gathered. The students were asked to put their mark on first page
of the moderated MLAT.
For ensuring the data taken from the students, it was also conducted an
interview with English teacher. The data from the English teacher was used to
support the primary data from the motivation questionnaire and MLAT.

1.5.3

Method and Technique of Analyzing Data


The collected data is in forms of numbers and scale of the EFL learners

which are showing motivation and aptitude. The collected data was analyzed by
using mixed method. Both qualitative and quantitative methods were used to
analyze the result of the Lunsfords motivation questionnaire and the moderated
MLAT by Carroll.
The steps of analyzing data were firstly right after getting data through
moderated MLAT and motivation questionnaire. The data was transferred into
form of tables and charts then descriptively explained. Secondly, the collected
data was analyzed one by one using the theories. The aptitude result that was

acquired using moderated MLAT, then calculated and grouped into four groups;
Poor (P), Fair (F), Good (G) and Excellent (E) based on the score ranging from 1100. The collected data of EFL learners aptitude then was analyzed by using
Language Aptitude theory by Carroll. To answer what are the impacts of MLAT
toward performance of EFL learners, the result of the English subject mark was
compared with the result of moderated MLAT.
The similar steps were also done to answer the second problem of this
study. As the questionnaire that was given to the students designed by Lunsford is
already include how to score the response, the next step was calculating it then
grouping and dividing it into groups; Low (L), Average (A), Above Average (AA)
and High (H) based on the given values; 0=strongly disagree, 2=disagree,
4=neutral, 6=agree and 8=strongly agree. The score is ranging from 0-64. The
collected data from the questionnaire then analyzed with main theory of SelfDetermination by Deci and Ryan and supported by Goal-Setting theory by Locke
and Latham. Motivation questionnaire then was compared with of the English
subject mark of the EFL learners which gave a projection the parameter of
performance in learning EFL.
And at last, the analysis went through both result of comparison and
relation of moderated MLAT and motivation questionnaire with the English
subject mark. By doing this step, the information about how precisely the aptitude
and motivation are related to each other and impact the performance of EFL
learners in SMP Negeri 1 Gianyar might be gathered.

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CHAPTER II
LITERATURE REVIEWS, CONCEPTS AND THEORETICAL
FRAMEWORK

2.1

Literature Review
The relevant studies of scholars and researchers are significant to be

reviewed in order to give valid information which could be applied and support
the data and analysis of the upcoming research. The importance is to compare
those studies to this study, in order to know the difference and avoid the
plagiarism issue. Moreover, it highlights some related research and articles either
nationally or internationally published. There are many researchers had conducted
a study regarding to aptitude and motivation. There are 2 international researches
and 2 international articles reviewed in this study.
One of the researches by Sugimoto and team (2004) entitled Exploring the
Role of Attitude, Motivation and Gender in EFL Learning argued motivation plays
a crucial role in motivating EFL learning. Along the same lines researchers in
SLA believe that positive attitude facilitates EFL learning while negative attitude
hinders it. Their research examined especially the attitude of male versus female
university students as a motivating factor in studying English as a foreign
language. The hypothesis set was whether the responses to each individual item
significantly varied across the genders which may consequently lead up to better
performance.

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By probing into the male and female specific motivational patterns in this
research, language instruction can be geared up to learners interests. In this way,
language learning content can serve to prepare the learners for more autonomous
kind of learning a foreign language. But the weakness of this research is the
factors to be determined are only motivation, attitude and gender without
determining the factor of aptitude of the learner which is also important. Despite,
the contribution of this research is huge toward this study that is by giving a clear
justification on what aspects of motivation that should be measured.
Another researcher, Kocic (2010) with her article The Effects of Aptitude
on Language Learning, gave a brief overview of the research on aptitude as a
factor in the process of foreign language learning. Starting from the premise that
aptitude plays an important role in the language teaching process, the author
presents various courses the research on this concept has taken from the
beginnings in mid-50s to a more contemporary research which points towards a
revival of interest in aptitude. The implications of several contemporary aptitude
research projects are presented with a special emphasis on the attempts to link
aptitude with the Second Language Acquisition (SLA) theory. In the conclusion,
she summarizes two points; Firstly, linguistic aptitude is a universal human
characteristic when L1 acquisition is in question. Secondly, despite the claims that
it is undemocratic, aptitude does play a very significant role in L2 learning.
The article mentioned above gave a huge relevance and contribution
toward this study. Kocic approximately discussed about the role of aptitude of

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learners toward second language learning, in spite of the weakness that she did not
put under consideration the age of the learners.
An interesting case in point study is carried out in the Basque Country by
Cenoz (2001) entitled Language Awareness in the Foreign Language Classroom,
who analyzed the attitudes towards English of three different groups of students.
The first group consisted of students enrolled in the fourth year of primary
education (9-10 year olds); the second one of second-year secondary education
students (13-14 year olds) and the third one was made up of first-year high school
students (16-17 year olds).
The results showed that the younger group held significantly more
positive attitudes towards the FL, whereas the oldest learners presented the least
positive ones. Cenoz resorts to both psychological and educational factors to
explain these results. The former would be based on older students rejection of
the school system as a result of the transition from a family identity to a more
individual and peer group identity. The latter is connected with the different
teaching methodologies used in primary and secondary education. The conclusion
to be drawn is therefore that there is a decline in attitudes towards the FL due to
both psychological and educational issues.
Another international article by Rodiki (2006) entitled Attitude and
Motivation and Their Impacts on the Performance of Young English as a Foreign
Language Learners was also reviewed for the sake of this study. This article has
focused on the relationship between attitudes and motivation and performance in
English as a Foreign Language. A research that was implemented with 250 young

13

learners in Cyprus, Greek indicated that there is such a relationship, indicating as


significant factors that relate to task motivation, instrumental motivation and
attitudes. It is believed that the insights provided by this study regarding the
relationship between attitudes and motivation and foreign language performance
can be taken into consideration by anyone involved in EFL teaching to young
children, and not just Cypriots.
His research was regarding variables that have an impact on the
performance of young EFL learners specifically in listening and speaking
interaction. The article focuses on a very important factor in foreign language
learning; attitudes and motivation. Data regarding the attitudes and motivation of
the children was gathered through a questionnaire and then, it was statistically
analyzed in relation to the results of the examinees on an end of primary school
listening and speaking test in order to examine whether there is a relationship
between the two factors. The first part of the article presents a review of existing
literature regarding attitudes and motivation. Research methodology and
procedure are analyzed later on and the last sections offer a review of result and a
discussion based on the conclusion, which indicate that motivation is indeed a
crucial factor in foreign language learning which ought to be taken into
consideration whenever material are prepared or a language program is designed.
The research reviewed above gives a contribution that age is an important
factor to be put under consideration in choosing the right target to be observe
which in this study was 8th grade student of SMP Negeri 1 Gianyar.

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2.2

Concepts
Technical terms that are used in this study are aptitude, motivation,

English as a Foreign Language, and Second Language Learning.


2.2.1

Aptitude
Aptitude refers simply to the inherent ability or talent and specific in area

of performance of a discipline that is language. According to Skehan (1989),


aptitude has been declared to be the most consistent predictor of ones success in
learning a foreign language and also has been suggested as one of the central
individual differences in language learning. (as cited by Drnyei, 2005:61).
Due to the conceptual issues involved, the matter of differentiating among
ability, aptitude, and intelligence must be considered. These terms are commonly
used interchangeably in everyday parlance, and the scientific definition is lost
because of the popular use (Drnyei, 2005). Ability typically applies in
psychology to various traits which involve thinking, reasoning and the processing
of information. Scholars have distinguished a difference between ability and
aptitude but in practical terms, and for the purpose of language learning, these
terms are synonymous in meaning and pedagogical application (Drnyei,
2005:32). Whereas aptitude is commonly used in reference to a specific area of
performance, intelligence carries a broader meaning; it is not specific to a
discipline, but rather entails all areas of learning. The meaning is also
synonymous, to a degree, with abilities. Noticeably, the differences in meaning
are minor in detail (Drnyei, 2005;32). In this study, aptitude is considered as one
of the factors that influence the performance of EFL learners.

15

2.2.2

Motivation
Motivation is a complex concept and for this study, in short the term is

defined as a drive that influences behavior, both intrinsic and extrinsic motivation.
Gardner (1985:50) describes motivation involves four aspects, a goal, effortful
behavior, a desire to attain the goal and favorable attitudes toward the activity in
question. Other researchers took on the tasks of expanding the focus of research
on motivation for language learning; considering factors of attribution, selfdetermination, locus of control, self-efficacy and goal.
Two ideal types that define a continuum are:
1. Intrinsic motivation occurs when people are internally motivated to do
something because it either brings them pleasure, they think it is important,
or they feel that what they are learning is significant.
2. Extrinsic motivation comes into play when a student is compelled to do
something or act a certain way because of factors external to him or her (like
money or good grades)
Appel and Muysken, 1987: "Generally, two theoretical approaches are
distinguished to the study of language attitudes. The first one is the behaviorist
view, according to which attitudes must be studied by observing the responses
to certain languages, i.e. their use in actual interactions. The mentalist view
considers attitudes as an internal, mental state, which may give rise to certain
forms of behavior. It can be described as 'an intervening variable between a
stimulus affecting a person and that person's response' (Fasold, 1984: 147)."

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2.2.3

English as a Foreign Language (EFL)

English as a Foreign Language (EFL) refers to a traditional term for the


use or study of the English language by non-native speakers in countries where
English is generally not a local medium of communication (Nordquist, 2006 as
cited in Grammar.about.com). EFL is using the instructional techniques and
requiring the intensity of instruction to achieve success. EFL is distinguished from
English as a Second Language (ESL), which is instruction delivered in a context
where English is used regularly outside the classroom.

2.2.4

Second Language Learning

The definition of second language learning is learning of a second


language once the mother tongue or first language acquisition is established
(Singhal, 2012 as cited in Brighthubeducation.com). Second language acquisition
or SLA is the process of learning other languages in addition to the native
language. Any other language learned or acquired is known as the second
language.
Though most scholars use the terms language learning and language
acquisition interchangeably, actually these terms differ. Language learning refers
to the formal learning of a language in the classroom. On the other hand, language
acquisition means acquiring the language with little or no formal training or
learning.
English that is taught in the school in Indonesia as a second language after
Bahasa Indonesia. For instance, a child who speaks Bahasa Indonesia as the

17

mother tongue starts learning English when he starts going to school. Then
English is learned by the process of second language learning.

2.3.

Theoretical Framework
In this paper, some reference theories which are relevant will be used. To

clarify the course of the research to be carried out, the researchers will need to
develop a framework of thinking about the conception stages of theoretical
research. These theories will be used to analyze the problem of this study.
2.3.1

Language Aptitude Theory


John B. Carroll (1957) developed a theory in Language Learning that is

Language Aptitude. The theory mainly consists of three ability components. The
three ability components of language aptitude are defined as follows:
Component

Definition
Ability to perceive distinct sounds, associate a symbol

Phonetic coding ability


with that sound and retain that association
Ability to recognize the grammatical function of a lexical
Grammatical
element (word, phrase, etc.) in a sentence without explicit
sensitivity
training in grammar
Inductive learning
ability

Ability to infer or induce rules governing the structure of


a language

18

Besides developing the theory, Carroll also designed Modern Language


Aptitude Test (MLAT), a language aptitude assessment which is originally
designed for adults. The MLAT measures an individuals aptitude for learning a
foreign language. First published in 1959, the test can be used to predict success
in learning all basic communication skills, but particularly speaking and listening.
The Modern Language Aptitude Test is now the property of the non-profit entity
Second Language Testing Foundation, Inc., who has acquired the rights to the test
in order to ensure its continued availability to the second language testing
community
Here are the details of three ability components in Language Learning
Theory by Carroll and their assessment in the MLAT:

1. Phonetic Coding Ability


Phonetic coding ability is the ability to identify, and store in long-term
memory, new language sounds or strings of sounds. For example, if a person is
presented with a string of two or three auditory nonsense syllables and then made
to do a distracting task such as mental arithmetic for ten seconds, after which he is
asked to repeat the nonsense syllables, his ability to do so is related to his success
in learning foreign languages. A somewhat more indirect, but more practical
measure of this ability is a test in which the individual has to learn the phonetic
transcriptions for a series of phonemes, either phonemes in his own language or in
a foreign language, by noticing the correspondences between heard sounds and
the printed symbols. Apparently, success in this learning task depends on success

19

in remembering the identities of the sounds. It seems obvious that phonetic coding
ability is demanded in the learning of a foreign language, because the individual
must not only learn the identities of the new phonemes of that language, but must
also recognize and remember the phonetic sequences represented by the
morphemes, words, and intonation contours of that language. In the MLAT, the
Phonetic Coding Ability is assessed in Part I Number Learning and Part II
Phonetic Script.

2. Grammatical Sensitivity
Grammatical Sensitivity may be defined as the individual's ability to
demonstrate his awareness of the syntactical patterning of sentences in a language
and of the grammatical functions of individual elements in a sentence. Although it
is often said that linguistic "competence," in the sense defined by Chomsky
(1965), involves some kind of "knowledge" of the grammatical rules of a
language, this "knowledge" is ordinarily out of conscious awareness. (In fact,
Carroll suggested that this "knowledge" is better regarded as a system of habits,
contrary to Chomsky's interpretation of it.) A person who is "competent" in a
language is able to create and understand new grammatical sentences without
being aware of the "rules" underlying such sentences, much less being able to
formulate those rules. Nevertheless, some adolescents and adults (and even some
children) can be made to demonstrate an awareness of the syntactical structure of
the sentences they speak. The most direct test of this ability consists of a series of
items in which pairs of sentences are presented to the subjects. In each pair, a

20

particular word or phrase is singled out for attention in the first sentence, and the
subject has to find a word or phrase in the second sentence which has an
analogous grammatical function. Even among adults, there are large individual
differences in this ability, and these individual differences are related to success in
learning foreign languages, apparently because this ability is called upon when the
student tries to learn grammatical rules and apply them in constructing or
comprehending new sentences in that language. In MLAT, Grammatical
Sensitivity is assessed in Part III Spelling Cues and Part IV Word in Sentences.

3. Inductive Ability
Third major component of foreign language aptitude is inductive ability. It
is not yet certain whether this is the same kind of inductive ability that is
measured by factor-analytic tests of the so-called Inductive Reasoning factor, but
Carroll is inclined to-'believe that it is. It is probably through this factor that
foreign language aptitude is most close-associated with general intelligence (the
other factors being, apparently, much less correlated with intelligence). In the case
of language learning, inductive ability is the ability to examine language material
(in either auditory or printed form) and from this to notice and identity patterns of
correspondences and relationships involving either meaning or grammatical form.
A typical method of measuring this ability is to present materials in an artificial
language in such a way that the individual can induce the grammatical and
semantic rules governing that language. Such an ability might well be called upon
in the learning of an actual foreign language, because even in a form of teaching

21

that emphasizes the formal presentation of rules, the learner must inevitably work
out the application of the rules for himself. In MLAT, Inductive Ability is
assessed in Part V Paired Associates.

2.3.2

The Self-Determination Theory


As theory that is related to motivation and language attitude, The Self-

Determination is one of the most influential in Language Learning Attitude and


Motivation (LLAM) developed by Deci and Ryan (1997). Self-Determination
Theory (SDT) is an approach to human motivation and personality that uses
traditional empirical methods while employing an organismic metatheory that
highlights the importance of humans' evolved inner resources for personality
development. As cited, Deci & Ryan (2000:69) stated:
Motivation

concerns

energy,

direction,

persistence

and

equifinality--all aspects of activation and intention. Motivation has been a


central and perennial issue in the field of psychology, for it is at the core of
biological, cognitive, and social regulation. Perhaps more important, in the
real world, motivation is highly valued because of its consequences:
Motivation produces. It is therefore of preeminent concern to those in roles
such as manager, teacher, religious leader, coach, health care provider,
and parent that involve mobilizing others to act.
In Self-Determination Theory by Deci and Ryan, they distinguish between
different types of motivation based on the different reasons or goals that give rise
to an action. The most basic distinction is between intrinsic motivation, which

22

refers to doing something because it is inherently interesting or enjoyable, and


extrinsic motivation, which refers to doing something because it leads to a
separable outcome.

1.

Intrinsic Motivation
In the term self determination, intrinsic motivation refers to an individuals

motivation to perform a particular activity because of internal rewards such as joy,


pleasure and satisfaction of curiosity. Perhaps no single phenomenon reflects the
positive potential of human nature as much as intrinsic motivation, the inherent
tendency to seek out novelty and challenges, to extend and exercise one's
capacities, to explore, and to learn. Developmentalists acknowledge that from the
time of birth, children, in their healthiest states, are active, inquisitive, curious,
and playful, even in the absence of specific rewards.
The construct of intrinsic motivation describes this natural inclination
toward assimilation, mastery, spontaneous interest, and exploration that is very
essential to cognitive and social development and that represents a principal
source of enjoyment and vitality throughout life.
Although, in one sense, intrinsic motivation exists within individuals, in
another sense intrinsic motivation exists in the relation between individuals and
activities. People are intrinsically motivated for some activities and not others, and
not everyone is intrinsically motivated for any particular task.

23

2.

Extrinsic Motivation
Although intrinsic motivation is an important type of motivation, it is not

the only type or even the only type of self-determined motivation (Deci & Ryan,
1985). Indeed, much of what people do is not, strictly speaking, intrinsically
motivated, especially after early childhood when the freedom to be intrinsically
motivated is increasingly curtailed by social pressures to do activities that are not
interesting and to assume a variety of new responsibilities.
The term extrinsic motivation refers to the performance of an activity in
order to attain some separable outcome and, thus, contrasts with intrinsic
motivation, which refers to doing an activity for the inherent satisfaction of the
activity itself.
Whereas in extrinsic motivation the individual expects an extrinsic reward
such as good grades or praise from others but not only that, order, obligations,
deadline will also motivate individual extrinsically. In line with the notion of
autonomy and intrinsic motivation, the self-determination theory offers a very
interesting look at motivation by setting a different agenda. Rather than focusing
on how people (e.g. teachers in the classroom) can motivate others, the focus
should be on how people can create the conditions within which others can
motivate themselves.

2.3.3

The Goal-Setting Theory


Goal-setting theory was developed by Locke and Latham (1990).

According to Locke and Latham, goals are conscious intentions of a person

24

referring to desired future end states of action. Goals can have their origin within
the acting person or they can be set (more or less participatively) in discussions
with other individuals (e.g., supervisors, colleagues). Independent of the origin of
goals, goal-setting theory assumes that effects of goals on performance once
they are formed as an intention mainly depend on two features: the
objective difficulty of goals and their specificity. Goal concept refers to hierarchy
of needs. It focuses on the reasons or purposes that individual perceives for
achieving. There are four mechanisms by which goals affect individuals
performance:
1.

Goals serve a directive function as they direct attention and effort


toward goal-relevant activities and away from irrelevant activities

2.

Goals have an energizing function and they help individuals


regulate their effort to the difficulty of the task.

3.

Goals positively affect persistence.

4.

Goals affect action indirectly by leading to the arousal, discovery,


and/or use of task-relevant knowledge and strategies.

In line with Locke and Latham, Paul J. Meyer describes the characteristics
of S.M.A.R.T goal (Spesific, Measurable, Attainable, Relevant, Time-bound).
1.

Spesific
The criterion stresses the need for a specific goal rather than a more

general one. This means the goal is clear and unambiguous; without vagaries and
platitudes. To make goals specific, they must tell a team exactly what is expected,

25

why is it important, whos involved, where is it going to happen and which


attributes are important.
2.

Measurable
The second criterion stresses the need for concrete criteria for measuring

progress toward the attainment of the goal. The thought behind this is that if a
goal is not measurable, it is not possible to know whether a team is making
progress toward successful completion. Measuring progress is supposed to help a
team stay on track, reach its target dates, and experience the exhilaration of
achievement that spurs it on to continued effort required to reach the ultimate
goal.
3.

Attainable
The third criterion stresses the importance of goals that are realistic and

attainable. While an attainable goal may stretch a team in order to achieve it, the
goal is not extreme. That is, the goals are neither out of reach nor below standard
performance, as these may be considered meaningless. When you identify goals
that are most important to you, you begin to figure out ways you can make them
come true. You develop the attitudes, abilities, skills, and financial capacity to
reach them. The theory states that an attainable goal may cause goal-setters to
identify previously overlooked opportunities to bring themselves closer to the
achievement of their goals

26

4.

Relevant
The fourth criterion stresses the importance of choosing goals that matter.

A bank manager's goal to "Make 50 peanut butter and jelly sandwiches by


2:00pm" may be specific, measurable, attainable, and time-bound, but lacks
relevance. Many times you will need support to accomplish a goal: resources, a
champion voice, someone to knock down obstacles.
5.

Time-bound
The fifth criterion stresses the importance of grounding goals within a time

frame, giving them a target date. A commitment to a deadline helps a team focus
their efforts on completion of the goal on or before the due date. This part of the
SMART goal criteria is intended to prevent goals from being overtaken by the
day-to-day crises that invariably arise in an organization. A time-bound goal is
intended to establish a sense of urgency.
Locke also stated in order to motivate, goals must have certain factors:

1.

Clarity
Clear goals are measurable and unambiguous. When a goal is clear and

specific, with a definite time set for completion, there is less misunderstanding
about what behaviors will be rewarded. When a goal is vague or when it's
expressed as a general instruction, like "Take initiative" it has limited
motivational value. The SMART acronym use to ensure the clarity of the goal by
making it Specific, Measurable and Time-bound.

27

2.

Challenge
One of the most important characteristics of goals is the level of challenge.

People are often motivated by achievement, and they will judge a goal based on
the significance of the anticipated accomplishment. Rewards typically increase for
more difficult goals. If individual believes that he will be well compensated or
otherwise rewarded for achieving a challenging goal that will boost his
enthusiasm and his drive to get it done. Setting SMART goals that are Relevant
links them closely to the rewards given for achieving challenging goals.

3.

Commitment
Goals must be understood and agreed upon if they are to be effective.

Individuals are more likely to "buy into" a goal if they feel they were part of
creating that goal. The notion of participative management rests on this idea of
involving individuals in setting goals and making decisions. Interestingly, goal
commitment and difficulty often work together. The harder the goal, the more
commitment is required.

4.

Feedback
In addition to selecting the right type of goal, an effective goal program

must also include feedback. Feedback provides opportunities to clarify


expectations, adjust goal difficulty, and gain recognition. It's important to provide
benchmark opportunities or targets, therefore individuals can determine for
themselves how they're doing.

28

These regular progress reports, which measure specific success along the
way, are particularly important where it's going to take a long time to reach a goal.
In these cases, break down the goals into smaller chunks, and link feedback to
these intermediate milestones. SMART goals are Measurable, and this ensures
that clear feedback can be provided.

5.

Task Complexity
The last factor in goal setting theory introduces two more requirements for

success. For goals or assignments that are highly complex, take special care to
ensure that the work doesn't become too overwhelming.
People who work in complicated and demanding roles probably have a
high level of motivation already. However, they can often push themselves too
hard if measures aren't built into the goal expectations to account for the
complexity of the task.
The whole point of goal setting is to facilitate success. Therefore, to make
sure that the conditions surrounding the goals do not frustrate or inhibit people
from accomplishing their objectives. This reinforces the "Attainable" part of
SMART.
Theory of Goal-Setting suggests that an effective tool for making progress
is to ensure that participants in a group with a common goal are clearly aware of
what is expected from them.

CHAPTER III
ANALYSIS OF THE IMPACTS OF APTITUDE AND MOTIVATION
TOWARD THE PERFORMANCE OF EFL LEARNERS IN SMP NEGERI
1 GIANYAR

In this chapter, there are several things that would be discussed concerning
with the result of research that had been applied toward the EFL learners in SMP
Negeri 1 Gianyar. The main discussion in this focuses on:
1.

The aptitude of EFL learners in SMP Negeri 1 Gianyar and its

impact on the English performance which analyzed using theory proposed


by Carroll (1957).
2.

The motivation of EFL learners in SMP Negeri 1 Gianyar and its

impact on the English performance which analyzed using theory proposed


by Deci & Ryan and Locke & Latham.
3.

The relation between aptitude and motivation in impacting the

performance of EFL learners in SMP Negeri 1 Gianyar.

3.1

General Review of SMP Negeri 1 Gianyar


Before the analysis is drawn, it is necessary to present a brief review of the

research object of this study that is EFL learner in SMP Negeri 1 Gianyar. Hence,
it would be wise to start the review from the school background first.
Currently SMP Negeri 1 Gianyar has 740 students who are cared for by 59
permanent teachers and 22 employees. SMP Negeri 1 Gianyar occupies an area of

30

31

480 square meters of land with 24 classrooms, a library, science laboratory,


language laboratory, computer laboratory, hall, teachers' office, lobby, the
principal's office and show room. SMP Negeri 1 Gianyar is located in the heart of
Gianyar city which to be precise at Jalan Ngurah Rai no. 1 Gianyar next to
Gianyar regent office and police station also across the town park.
This school is project development objectives. The beginning of
implementations of development Special Patronage School (SBK) plus practical
English, competency-based curriculum development project (CBC), the pilot
project on teaching and learning (CTL) and also pilot project to a national
standard schools (SSN).
A short history of SMP negeri 1 Gianyar started in August 1950.
Observers and educational experts in Gianyar regency established an institute of
secondary education which was named the Sekolah Menengah Nasional (SMN) or
National Junior High. This school was managed by a private educational
foundation chaired by Mr Nyoman Pasek Djelada. This school was built to
accommodate residents in Gianyar regency due to economic hardship that they
could not continue their study out of the area.
In time, SMN experienced a rapid progress. Its student not only came from
Gianyar but also from other regencies, namely Tabanan and Badung. With this
rapid progress, the foundation expected that the establishment of the governmental
Junior High by education stakeholder could finally be realized. On August 1st,
1955 the SMN changed its status into SMP Negeri 1 Gianyar. After changing the
status, the number of students was also increasing, therefore the need to have

32

access to some more classrooms was definitely at stake. This problem was solved
by discovering that the number of students in Sekolah Guru Bahasa (SGB) Negeri
Gianyar or National School of Language Teacher which was located at Jalan
Ngurah Rai no. 1 that happened to be on the wane. League of parents and teachers
(PTA) who wanted SMP Negeri 1 Gianyar to be exist and grown up and be able to
meet the demands of advanced societies , seek to establish four new classrooms .
Finally, in 1963 the SGB Negeri Gianyar liquidated and no longer accepted new
students. All assets such as land, buildings and other infrastructure facilities,
including some teachers who were still active were also submitted to SMP Negeri
1 Gianyar, which was in that time received by Mrs. Ida Ayu Oka (former
headmaster).
The object of this study are the EFL learners in SMP 1 Gianyar
specifically students in the 8th grade with total population of 241 students. The 8th
grade in this school is divided into 8 classes.

3.2

The Aptitude of EFL Learners in SMP Negeri 1 Gianyar


The aptitude of EFL Learners in SMP Negeri 1 Gianyar was gathered

using MLAT. The moderated MLAT itself contains 48 items which is divided into
5 sections, they are: 1. Number Learning (10 items), 2. Phonetics Script (10
items), 3. Spelling Cues (10 items), 4. Word in Sentences (8 items), and 5. Paired
Association (10 items). The implementation of moderated MLAT toward the EFL
learners in SMP Negeri 1 Gianyar took approximately 30 minutes.

33

The collected data of aptitude was transferred into form of tables and
charts then descriptively explained. the collected data then was analyzed one by
one using the theories. The aptitude result that was acquired using moderated
MLAT, then calculated and grouped into four groups; Poor (P), Fair (F), Good
(G) and Excellent (E) based on the score ranging from 1-100. Since every part in
moderated MLAT test shows different competency and ability concerns, the
details of the result of the students in every section would be drawn.
Part I of the MLAT, Number Learning, tests auditory and memory abilities
associated with sound-meaning relationships. In this part, EFL learners learned
the names of numbers in a new language. Subsequently, they would hear the
names spoken aloud, and they were asked to write down these numbers. For
example, if they heard the speaker say the number seventeen in English, they
would write down 17. But in the test, they are given the numbers in a new
language. There were 10 questions to answer in this part.
As can be seen in the Diagram 1, forty four students (43%) scored 90 or
more, thirty three students (32%) scored 80, twelve students (12%) scored 70,
eight students (8%) scored 60 the rest five students (5%) scored 50 or below.
From 102 respondents, 77 students (75%) scored more than 80 and even 28
students (27%) obtained a perfect score.

34

Diagram 1. Score in Part 1 Number Learning section

Part II of the MLAT, Phonetic Script, is a test of students ability to learn a


system for writing English sounds phonetically. First EFL learners would learn
phonetic symbols for some common English sounds. For each question, they
would see a set of four separate syllables. Each syllable is spelled phonetically. A
speaker would model the sounds by pronouncing each of the four syllables in a
set. Then the speaker will model the sounds in the next set. After the speaker
models the sounds in five sets, the EFL learners then were asked to look back at
the first set. The speaker will go through the groups again, but this time the
speaker will say only one of the 4 syllables in a set. EFL learners task is to select
the syllable that has a phonetic spelling that matches the syllable they heard.
There is 10 questions to answer in this section.
As can be seen on Diagram 2, thirty nine (38%) students scored 90+, thirty
eight students (37%) scored 80, ten students (10%) scored 70, eight students (8%)
scored 60, and the rest seven students (7%) were only able to get below 50. This
result was promising that out of 102 respondents, seventy eight (75%) students

35

reached score more than 80 and in the data taken, even twenty two students got a
perfect score.

Diagram 2. Score in Part II Phonetic Script section

Part III of MLAT is Spelling Cues. This part of the MLAT requires the
ability to associate sounds with symbols and depends somewhat on knowledge of
foreign language which is for the study the English vocabulary was utilized. Each
question in this part has a group of words. The word at the top of the group is not
spelled in the usual way. Instead, it is spelled approximately as it is pronounced.
EFL learners task is to recognize the disguised word from the spelling. In order to
show that they recognize the disguised word, the EFL learners were asked to look
for one of the five words beneath it that corresponds most closely in meaning to
the disguised word. When they find this word or phrase, they then were asked to
write down the letter that corresponds to their choice. There is 10 questions to
answer in this section.

36

Diagram 3 shows about how students score in Part III. A slightly different
result was found. From 102 respondents, only six students (6%) scored 90>, nine
students (9%) scored 80, twenty eight students (27%) belong to group with score
70, thirty three (32%) students belong to group with score 60 and the rest twenty
six (25%) scored 50 or below. None of the students got a perfect score in this
section.
33

35

30

28

26

25

Score <50

20

Score 60

15

10
5

Score70
6

Score 80
Score 90>

0
Spelling Cues

Diagram 3. Score in Part III Spelling Cues section.

Part IV Word in Sentences of The MLAT questions test recognition,


analogy, and understanding of a far greater range of syntactic structures than the
couple questions shown. In each questions, the first sentence is called the key
sentence. One word in the key sentence is underlined and printed in capital letters.
EFL learners were asked to select the letter of the word in the second sentence that
plays the same role in that sentence as the underlined word in the key sentence.
There are 8 questions in this section.
From Diagram 4, it can be seen that eight students (8%) score 90+,
fourteen students (14%)scored 80, thirteen students (13%) scored 70, thirty six

37

students (35%) scored 60 and thirty one students (30%) scored 50 or below. Once
again, none of the students scored perfect in this part.
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0

36
31

Score <50
Score 60
13

14

Score70
8

Score 80
Score 90>

Word in Sentences

Diagram 4. Score in Part IV Word in Sentences section.

The last part of MLAT is Paired Association. This part focuses on the rote
memory aspect of learning foreign languages. On the test, EFL learners had 1
minute 20 seconds to memorize 12 words. They then did a practice exercise. They
are allowed to look back at the vocabulary during this practice exercise, but they
were not permitted to look at the vocabulary while they were doing the Part V
questions that follow the exercise. Their task here is to memorize the MayaEnglish vocabularies. Then they were given 5 options for each question to test
their short-term memory. There are 10 questions for this section.
The result of the test can be seen in Diagram 6. Out of 102 students, fifty
two students (51%) scored 90+, thirty (29%) students scored 80, eleven students
(11%) scored 70, six students (6%) scored 60 and the rest three students (3%)
scored 50 or below. Surprisingly, 39 students got a perfect score in this part.

38

60

52

50

Score <50

40

30

30

Score70

20

10

Score 60

11

Score 80
Score >90

0
Paired Association

Diagram 5. Score in Part V Paired Association section.

As soon as the moderated MLAT was applied and all the result of each
part was gathered, four groups were made in order to separate score of the EFL
learners. These groups were made based on the average score of all part of
moderated MLAT. As known before, those groups are Poor (P) with an average
score below 55, Fair (F) group with an average score between 56-70, Good (G)
group with an average score 71-85, and the last Excellent (E) group with an
average score B+ to A.
As can be seen on the Diagram 6 below, it is found that the numbers of
students with different aptitude score are vary. The aptitude score of the students
vary from the lowest 50 to the highest 94. EFL learners of SMP Negeri 1 Gianyar
have respectively above average aptitude since the average score of students is
79.7 out of 100. From 102 respondents, 12 students (12%) belong group P with
score range below 55. 18 students (17%) belong to group F with score range 5670, 56 students (55%) of them belong to group G which they scored in range of

39

71-85, while the rest 16 students (16%) belong to group E with score range B+ to
A.

Diagram 6. Aptitude of EFL learners in SMP Negeri 1 Gianyar

Based on Carrolls theory, the students who are the member of group G
and E have better ability components and more promising in learning foreign
language than students who belong to group F and P.

3.3

The Impacts of Aptitude on the Performance of EFL Learners in SMP


Negeri 1 Gianyar
As stated by Dornyei that aptitude is one the best predictor of ones ability

in language learning, the result of the moderated MLAT and English mark shows
their correlation. The groups of the student who have an above average aptitude
score (i.e. Group G and E) have a better performance in English subject in their
school than the students who has below average aptitude score in group F and P.

40

From result of MLAT and the English mark of the students that had been
gathered before, a comparison between them was executed. As can be seen in
Diagram 7, the students from group E in average scored 88 points in aptitude. The
students of group G, on the other hand, scored in average of 80. The students who
belong to group F scored in average of 69, and the last is group P with average
score 55.
Average score of

English Mark on

Aptitude

Report Card

Group P

55

B-

Group F

69

Group G

82

B+

Group E

88

Group

Table 1. Average score of aptitude in each group

On Table 1, it can also be seen the average English mark in latest report
card of student who belong to each group that was mentioned before. The
comparison of both is drawn; the aptitude and English mark of the students is
directly proportional. It is proved by students in group E with average aptitude
score of 88, got A in their English mark, while students in group G who scored 82
in aptitude, got in average B+ for their English mark. On one hand, students who
belong to group F scored 69 in aptitude and have B in English mark. On the other
hand, students who belong to group P scored 55 in aptitude got B- in English
mark.
There is a special case occurs in SMP Negeri 1 Gianyar and also every
Junior High in Indonesia that the Ministry of Education sets standard mark for

41

student on the new curriculum of 2013. The minimum mark for all subjects in this
brand new curriculum is B-. Based on interview with Mrs. Sang Ayu Gita, the
English teacher, the enforcement of this new curriculum has been started since
2013. According to her also whenever the student could not reach the standard
mark, they would be given twice opportunities to remedy and take make-up test. If
that also fails to make the student get the required mark, special treatment by
giving extra time learning or courses would be recommended by the school. This
explanation answers why even the student with lowest aptitude got the minimum
mark that is B- on their report card.
But overall, it is found the result meet with the Language Aptitude theory
proposed by Carroll that the higher students score in aptitude, the higher also the
performance in learning foreign language which in this study is proved by English
mark of the latest report card of students in SMP Negeri 1 Gianyar.

3.4

The Motivation of EFL Learners in SMP Negeri 1 Gianyar


The motivation of EFL learners in SMP Negeri 1 Gianyar is divided into

two; they are intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. The intrinsic motivation is
portrayed by the result of Lunsford Motivation Questionnaire and the extrinsic
motivation is explained by the result of interview with the English teacher of SMP
Negeri 1 Gianyar.
3.4.1

The Intrinsic Motivation of EFL Learners in SMP Negeri 1 Gianyar


After the questionnaire of motivation and attitude of the EFL learners in

SMP Negeri 1 Gianyar was conducted, the result found is portrayed like this:

42

The EFL learners in SMP Negeri 1 Gianyar shows an above average


intrinsic motivation and positive attitude toward English subject in their school.
The students responses (n=180) to the survey items (n=27) were scored by the
given values; 0=strongly disagree, 2=disagree, 4=neutral, 6=agree and 8=strongly
agree, respectively. The range of score for the questionnaire is 0-64. The data
entered in Microsoft Excel was evaluated by calculating the percentages and mean
scores. The mean score of every category was gathered by summing up the score
and then divided by total respondents. The overall analysis for the 27 items
portrayed in Table 1 below,
Percentage
Category

Mean

Average
(16-35)

Above
Average
(36-47)

High
(48-64)

Self-Image

38.4

25%

60%

15%

Inhibition

25.2

90%

10%

Risk taking

40.1

25%

70%

5%

41.2

25%

75%

44.5

10%

45%

45%

Ego
permeability
Tolerance of
Ambiguity

Table 1. Overall analysis of EFL learners motivation


By the scale from 0-64 for scoring each category, it was found EFL
learners in SMP Negeri 1 Gianyar generally have above average motivation

43

toward English subject. The result would be explained in detail and started by
short explanation of each category; Self-Image, Inhibition, Risk-Taking, Ego
Permeability and Ambiguity.
The first one, Self-Image is a mental picture of how a person sees himself.
It is gathered not only through personal experience, but also by internalizing
judgments of others. By the mean score of 38.4 in Self-Image, it shows that EFL
learners in SMP Negeri 1 Gianyar generally have a good insight of their selves
and at the same time high confidence level. Out of 102 EFL learners, 75% or 76
of them find themselves as fast language learners and believe that they can learn
more English if given the right circumstances because they belong to Above
Average and High group. Only 25% or 26 of EFL learners scored average in SelfImage.
Second, Inhibition according Merriam-Webster is a nervous feeling that
prevents someone from expressing his thought, emotion, or desire. This could be a
potential hurdle for learner if they score higher in this category. Inhibition is
inversely proportional to Self-Image by all means if learners score higher in
Inhibition; they will tend to have lower Self-Image. From Table 1, it can be seen
the Inhibition of EFL learners in SMP Negeri 1 Gianyar is quite average. The
mean score of 25.2 shows that they tend to have fewer hurdles to overcome which
will fasten them in learning EFL. A surprising result found that none of the EFL
scored in High category, instead it was found out 102 of them scored ranging
from Average 90% or 92 and only 10% or 10 EFL learners in Above Average.

44

Third, Risk-Taking refers to the tendency to engage in behaviors that have


the potential to be harmful or dangerous, yet at the same time provide the
opportunity for some kind of outcome that can be perceived as positive. RiskTaking also includes the courage of a person to not afraid of making mistakes in
order to gain more information. EFL learners who have this kind of quality will
likely achieve more than learners who do not. As can be seen on Table 1, the
mean of Risk-Taking category of EFL learners in SMP Negeri 1 Gianyar is 40.1
which quite high. The score extends from 32-50 with 70% or 71 of EFL learners
scored above 36 and categorized as Above Average category. Moreover 5% or 5
of EFL learners have high Risk-Taking quality while on the other hand the rest
25% or 26 scored Average.
Next is Ego Permeability. It refers to the ease with which new experiences,
cultural features or perceptions of other people may pass the defenses of one's
personality. The term was borrowed from clinical psychology, and used by
language researchers to explain learners openness or otherwise to a foreign
language or culture. The mean score of EFL learners in Ego Permeability vary
from 34-46. 75% or 76 of EFL learners scored in Above Average category while
the rest 25% or 26 belong to Average. This result shows that most of EFL learners
are open toward a new language and culture outside their boundaries which is in
this study is English. But since none of them scored in High category, there is no
EFL learners show a total openness toward English.
The last is Tolerance of Ambiguity. It refers to a psychological construct
which describes the relationship that individuals have with ambiguous stimuli or

45

events, or in short is an ability to deal with uncertainty. Individuals view these


stimuli in a neutral and open way or as a threat. In correlation of language
learning, individual that has high Tolerance of Ambiguity tend to be more
successful because they who seek clarity too quickly might actually wind up
missing a good deal that really matter. From Table 1, it can be seen that the mean
score of EFL learners in Tolerance of Ambiguity is 44.5 which is above average.
45% or 46 of them scored in High category, 45% or 46 also scored in Above
Average and the rest 10% or 10 in Average. With this result, EFL learners in SMP
Negeri 1 Gianyar show that they are open to ambiguity of English and do not see
it as obstacle. They tend to understand the cultural differences between Bahasa
Indonesia and English, and something might mean different under some
circumstances.

3.4.2

The Extrinsic Motivation and Goal-Setting Condition of EFL


Learners in SMP Negeri 1 Gianyar
As stated by Deci and Ryan, in extrinsic motivation the individual expects

an extrinsic reward such as good grades or praise from others but not only that,
order, obligations, deadline will also motivate individual extrinsically.
In this case, the extrinsic motivation of EFL learners in SMP Negeri 1
Gianyar is influenced by the standard mark which is set by Ministry of Education
on the new curriculum of 2013. By setting a minimum mark for every subject, the
goverment tries to energize the student to help them regulate their effort and pull
the best out of them.

46

By further analysis, the Ministry of Education that sets minimum mark


for subject also meets The SMART goal characteristics. SMART stands for
Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Relevant and Time-Bound.
Specific characteristic of a goal stresses on the need for a goal to be
specific rather than a too general one and a goal also need to be clear and
unambiguous. The regulation of minimum mark is specific that it states the
precise mark to be the minimum that is B-.
Measureable characteristic of a goal stresses on the concrete criteria for
measuring progress toward the attainment of the goal. The regulation of minimum
mark of Curriculum 2013 is measurable by all means that is possible to know
whether the student is making progress toward successful completion.
Attainable characteristic of a goal stresses on the importance of goals that
are realistic and attainable. By setting the minimum mark of B-, the Ministry
claimed they set an attainable standard mark for the student. Mark of B- is
considered neither too high nor too low.
Relevant characteristic stresses the importance of choosing goal that
matter. The minimum mark of B- is considered as a relevant goal for Junior High
School student in Indonesia under the consideration of the new facilities given
such new handbook for both student and teacher, and many other factors.
Time-bound characteristic stresses on the importance of grounding goals
within a time frame, giving them a target date. The regulation of minimum mark
in Curriculum 2013 is on not only for the final exam but also for general exam. If
student failed to get the required mark, they would be given twice opportunities to

47

remedy or re-exam and also take extra time learning or course if necessary before
the end of the semester.

3.5

The Impact of Motivation toward EFL Learners Performances in


SMP Negeri 1 Gianyar
The motivation of EFL learners in SMP Negeri 1 Gianyar is divided into

two; they are intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. To analyze the impact of intrinsic
motivation, the result of Lunsford Motivation Questionnaire was compared with
EFL learners latest mark in their report card while to analyze the extrinsic
motivation and the goal setting condition is explained by the result of interview
with Mr. Sukardiawan, the English teacher of SMP Negeri 1 Gianyar.

3.5.1 The

Impact

of

Intrinsic

Motivation

toward

EFL

Learners

Performance in SMP Negeri 1 Gianyar


To answer the second problem of this study, it was compared the result of
the questionnaire to EFL learners latest English subject mark on their report card.
The comparison is drawn in this table below.
Category

Self Image

Inhibition

Report Cards English Mark


Score B- to B
Score B+ to A

Average (n=26)
Above Average
(n=35)

100%
42%

58%

High (n=31)
Average (n=92)
Above Average
(n=10)

30%
25%
100%

70%
75%

48

Average (n=26)
92%
8%
Above Average
12%
88%
Risk-Taking
(n=71)
High (n=5)
100%
Average (n=26)
34%
66%
Ego Permeability
Above Average
18%
82%
(n=76)
Average (n=10)
100%
Tolerance of
Above Average
26%
74%
Ambiguity
(n=46)
High (n=46)
8%
92%
Table 2. The comparison of questionnaire score and English subject mark
From Table 2, we might gather information about how exactly the
motivation of EFL learners in SMP Negeri 1 Gianyar influence their performers in
English subject.
In general, EFL learners with higher Self-Image have a slightly better
performance than they who have lower. Item 1-6, 10 and 22 in the questionnaire
present the questions that relate to Self-Image and have proved to have a statistical
significance. These items indicate that EFL learners who believe they are a good
language learner, have high language learning aptitude, and believe English is
important to their future goals, perform better than others. Table 2 is a proof of it.
Apparently 100% of EFL learners who belong to Average group have mark
between B- to B while more than 50% who belong to Above Average and High
group have mark between B+ to A. Only a few of them (below 30%) have a
higher Self-Image score but average English mark.
Moreover, items 2, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 and 16 relate to Inhibition and potential
hurdles that EFL learner might deal in learning language. EFL learners who are
not worry of making mistakes and not easily get nervous in learning English

49

succeed overcoming their hurdles than they who are not. On Table 2, the majority
of EFL learners who have average score of Inhibition perform better than their
peers who belong to Above Average group. As can be seen on Table 2, 25% of
EFL learners who belong to Average group have mark between B- to B while
75% of them have mark B+ to A. Moreover, 100% of EFL learners who belong to
Above Average group have mark between 76-85.
Items 5, 11-13, 21, 24, 25, and 27 relate to Risk-Taking ability and
tendency to be a risk taker. Those items convey EFL learners who scored more in
Risk-taking perform better than average group as can be seen on Table 2. The
tendency to be risk taker made them eager to learn and do not bound their selves
with worry-to-make-mistake feeling. According to Table 2, 92% of EFL learners
who belong to Average group have mark between B- to B while 8% of them have
mark B+ to A. 12% of EFL learners who belong to group Above Average have
mark between 75-86 while 88% of them have mark B+ to A. 100% of EFL
learners who belong to High group have mark between B+ to A.
Meanwhile, items 1, 3, 5 14, 15, 21-23 are related to Ego Permeability or
openness toward foreign culture including language. According to Table 2, EFL
learners who scored higher in Ego Permeability advance their friends who scored
lower. The higher group then to be more open toward English and that what
makes them more adaptable and get used with English itself. EFL learners who
belong to Average group, 34% of them have mark B- to B and 66% of them have
mark between B+ to A. Meanwhile 18% of student in Above Average group have
mark B- to B and the rest 82% have mark between B+ to A.

50

The rest items 4, 16-20, 26 and 27 are related to Tolerance of Ambiguity.


It is the ability of EFL learners to deal with uncertainty of language learning, to
understand the concept of ambiguity might leads more than certainty. Based on
Table 2, EFL learners with higher score in Tolerance of Ambiguity perform better
in English subject than their peers who scored lower. As can be seen on Table 2,
100% of student in Average group have mark B- to B. 265 of student in Above
Average have mark B- to B while 74% of them have mark B+ to A. 8% of student
in High group have mark between B- to B while the rest 92% have mark between
B+ to A.
From the description above, it can be drawn a conclusion that the higher
the level of motivation of learners in SMP Negeri 1 Gianyar, the better they
perform in learning EFL.

3.5.1 The Impact of Extrinsic Motivation and Goal-Setting Condition


toward EFL Learners Performance in SMP Negeri 1 Gianyar
As known before, the minimum mark of every subject in new Curriculum
2013 is B-. The minimum mark here acts as a goal that every student should
achieve. Locke and Latham stated goals serve a directive function as they direct
attention and effort toward goal-relevant activities and away from irrelevant
activities. By knowing the minimum mark the student should achieve, they can
focus their attention and effort to get it and even surpass it.
The Ministry of Education of Indonesia regulates reward and punishment
concept. For students who meet the obligation to get a minimum mark, they will

51

be rewarded by good mark. And for those who do not, they will be given twice
opportunities to re-exam. By all means, if the student also failed in the first reexam, they would be given the second chance plus extra time learning. This
method is effective because in the collected data none of the student in SMP
Negeri 1 Gianyar has lower mark than B- in their report card.
According to the interview with Mrs. Sang Ayu Gita, the English teacher,
this minimum mark regulation is effective to motivate the students to give their
best effort in teaching and learning situation in SMP Negeri 1 Gianyar. This
regulation also acts as an approach for the teachers to know their students
capacity and ability and which one who need extra attention or motivation.
Mrs. Sang Ayu Gita also stated With the support of good teaching and
learning system and the right approach, this regulation of minimum mark acts
very effective to generate both teachers and students to give their best effort. The
new curriculum 2013 is directly proportional with the former regulation of the
school that set the minimum mark by score 75. The prove of the effectiveness of
this regulation are the student of SMP Negeri 1 Gianyar often come out to get the
highest mark in the National Final Exam. That concludes the impact of external
motivation and goal-setting condition in SMP Negeri 1 Gianyar.

3.6

The Relation of Aptitude and Motivation toward Performance of EFL


Learners in SMP Negeri 1 Gianyar

After analyzing the aptitude, motivation and their impacts toward EFL
learners performance in SMP Negeri 1 Gianyar, the result of MLAT and

52

Questionnaire of motivation with the mark of the students were also compared to
find out what is the correlation between both factors and how they relate each
others in order to boost the performance of EFL learners in SMP Negeri 1
Gianyar.
The types of EFL learners were divided by comparing their score of
MLAT and Questionnaire of Motivation. EFL learners are divided into some
groups. The result is found there are 7 types of EFL learners in SMP Negeri 1
Gianyar. They are:
1. Poor Aptitude and Average Motivation (PA)
2. Fair Aptitude and Average Motivation (FA)
3. Fair Aptitude and Above Average Motivation (FAA)
4. Good Aptitude and Above Average Motivation (GAA)
5. Good Aptitude and High Motivation (GH)
6. Excellent Aptitude and Above Average Motivation (EAA)
7. Excellent Aptitude and High Motivation (EH)

Amount of student in every type (person)


Motivation

Aptitude
Average

Above Average

High

Poor

Fair

11

Good

19

28

Excellent

14

22

Table 3. The types of student according to aptitude and motivation score

53

As can be seen on Table 3, the number of EFL learners who belong to PA


type is 2 or 2% of total respondents of 102. 6 or 6% learners belong to FA type.
11 learners or 11% belong to FAA while. 19 learners or 19% belong to GAA
while 28 or 27% learners belong to GH type. 14 or 14% learners belong to EAA
type while the rest 22 learners or 21% belong to EH type.
Average English
Type
Mark
Poor Aptitude and Average Motivation (PA)

B-

Fair Aptitude and Average Motivation (FA)

B-

Fair Aptitude and Above Average Motivation (FAA)

Good Aptitude and Above Average Motivation (GAA)

B+

Good Aptitude and High Motivation (GH)

B+

Excellent Aptitude and Above Average Motivation (EAA)

A-

Excellent Aptitude and High Motivation (EH)

Table 4. Average English mark of EFL learners in every type


On Table 4, the English mark of each type of EFL learners were compared
and it is found that the result is quite satisfying. EFL learners who belong to PA
group have in average mark of B-. Learners who belong to FA have in average
mark of B- while they who belong to FAA have higher average mark of B. Also
learners who belong to GAA have mark in average of B+ while they who belong
to group GH have similar average mark B+. On one hand, EFL learners who
belong to EAA group have average English mark A- while on the other hand the
rest EFL learners have average mark A.

54

According to Table 4, The Poor Aptitude and Average Motivation (PA)


and Fair Aptitude and Average Motivation (FA) type learners perform worse than
their peers in other types. According to the data, 2% or 2 learners who belong to
PA and 6% of them who belong FA still have a quite low mark in English (in
average mark of B-) since the minimum standard of subject mark in Curriculum
2013 is B-.
A slightly different result is shown in the Fair Aptitude and Above
Average Motivation (FAA) type. 11% or 11 EFL learners have average mark of
B. In a similar type but with some higher aptitude like the Good Aptitude and
Above Average Motivation type (GAA), EFL learners have a better mark that is
B+. Aptitude might be a persistent factor because it is natural but still motivation
can be built. With higher level of motivation, EFL learners who belong to this
type are able to catch up with their peer with higher aptitude.
It is surprising that aptitude is not the only factor which plays a role in
learners performance. 27% or 28 EFL learners who belong to Good Aptitude and
High Motivation (GH) type adequately perform even better than their peers 19%
or 19 EFL learners who have less motivation in GAA. EFL in GH has average
mark by A- while their peer in GAA got B+. It is a proof that EFL learners with
the higher motivation level, positive self-image and eagerness to learn are able to
prove their worth.
From Table 4, it might also be gathered information that the combination
of aptitude and motivation like in the Excellent Aptitude and High Motivation
(EH) type boost EFL learners performance in English to the fullest. It is proved

55

by the average English mark gotten by the EFL learners in this type are
considerably high (A). 21% or 22 of them, who have excellent languagelearning
aptitude and are also highly-motivated in doing so, respectably perform much
better than their peers.
From all the result, it is also gathered an information about how both
factors Language Learning Aptitude and Motivation support each other in
influencing the performance of EFL learners in SMP Negeri 1 Gianyar. EFL
learners who have slightly lower aptitude are helped by their level of motivation
and also vice versa. The result found is met with the theory proposed by experts
that the higher level of someones aptitude and motivation, the better their
performance in learning a foreign language especially in this study is English.

CHAPTER IV
CONCLUSION

Language-learning aptitude refers simply to the inherent ability or talent


and specific in area of performance of language while motivation is defined as a
drive that influences behavior, both intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. In the case
of languagelearning, learners who have a high aptitude are promising in learning
foreign language because they have a better understanding in phonetic coding of
language, they tend to be more sensitive in grammatical of language and also have
better inductive learning ability. On the other hand, learners who have a high
motivation in foreign language learning tend to have a positive attitude and selfimage, eagerness to learn and good confidence which is also resulting in success
of learning a foreign language. Both of the factors are prediction tool in order to
measure the performance of learner in learning foreign language.
In this study, a research about performance of Indonesian Junior High
students of SMP Negeri 1 Gianyar in learning a foreign language, English, was
taken. Through the Modern Language Aptitude Test, it is found that aptitude plays
a role in impacting students performance in learning English. The MLAT showed
EFL learners in this school generally have Good language Aptitude motivation.
From 102 respondents, 12 students (12%) belong to group P with score range
below 55. 18 students (17%) belong to group F with score range 56-70, 56
students (55%) of them belong to group G which they scored in range of 71-85,
while the rest 16 students (16%) belong to group E with score range 86-100. The

57

58

impacts of aptitude of EFL learners toward their performance in English also


found quite satisfying. The aptitude and English mark of the students is directly
proportional. It is proved by students in group Excellent with average aptitude
score of 88, got A in their English mark, while students in group Good who
scored 82 in aptitude, got in average B+ for their English mark. On one hand,
students who belong to group F scored 69 in aptitude and have B in English mark.
On the other hand, students who belong to group P scored 55 in aptitude got B- in
English.
Meanwhile, motivation questionnaire showed that generally EFL learners
in this school have above average motivation level. By the scale from 0-64 for
scoring each category, it was found EFL learners in SMP Negeri 1 Gianyar
generally have above average motivation toward English subject. It is proved by
the mean score of every category; Self-Image 38.4, Inhibition 25.5, Risk-Taking
40.1, Ego Permeability 41.2 and Ambiguity 44.5. The impacts of the motivation
toward students performance in English are proved by the comparison of
questionnaire score with the English mark of the students. 50% or more students
who belong to group Above Average or High have score range 86-100.
The external motivation and goal setting condition in SMP Negeri 1
Gianyar that set in form of a regulation of minimum mark by The Ministry of
Education of Indonesia for every subject that is B-, is effective in impacting the
EFL learners to give their best effort in teaching and learning situation. According
to the English teacher, the regulation of the new Curriculum 2013 by the Ministry
of Education of Indonesia is in line with the former regulation of SMP Negeri 1

59

Gianyar that set minimum mark of 75 which has impacted in achievement of


students of SMP Negeri 1 Gianyar that often come out to get the highest mark in
National final Exam.
In the relation of the two factors, the combination of both excellent
aptitude and high level of motivation boost EFL learners performance to the
fullest. As for detail, 2% of EFL learners who belong to PA group have in average
mark of B-. 6% of learners who belong to FA have in average mark of B- while
11% of learners who belong to FAA have higher average mark of B. Also 19% of
learners who belong to GAA have mark in average of B+ while 27% who belong
to group GH have slightly higher average mark B+. On one hand, 14% of EFL
learners who belong to EAA group have average English mark A- while on the
other hand the rest 22% EFL learners have average mark A. The aptitude is what
learner brought from birth that it is hard to proceed but motivation is born from
learners inner and environments which can be built.

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Politics; Chapter 5.

NO
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31

Name
I Putu Ade Bhuana Saputra
Adelia Mandayani
I Kadek Adhi Antara Putra
I Putu Agus Aldi Suarthawan
I Kadek Agus Artana
Md Agus Budi Rama
Alifia Divana Ayu Swastikaningrum
Kadek Alit Puspadewanti
Ni Putu Ayu Anggreni W
Dewa Ayu Putu Swandewi
Anak Agung Gede Bagus Widnyana
I Pt Bayu Suda
David Sanjaya Artha
Putu Dea Trishna Yoganitri
Made Diah Laksmi Puspitasari
Putu Diah Puspita Dewi
Luh Putu Eka Mahawari
Km Evrida Oktentia
I Made Ganna Satria Anggadha
I Made Indra Wahyudi
I Putu Gede Indra Beratha
I Made Jana Narendra
Ni Putu Kurnia Dewi
Ni Putu Lena Anggreni
I Md Surya Adi Utama
I Wy Tabah Anantha Suara
Ni Luh Trisyana Utari Dewik
Ni Kadek Widyantari
Anak Agung Windari Kemala Santhi
Kadek Wisnu Kencana
Sang Ayu Putu Wulan Sukmawati

Class

SelfImage

Inhibition

RiskTaking

VIII A
VIII A
VIII A
VIII A
VIII A
VIII A
VIII A
VIII A
VIII A
VIII A
VIII A
VIII A
VIII A
VIII A
VIII A
VIII A
VIII A
VIII A
VIII A
VIII A
VIII A
VIII A
VIII A
VIII A
VIII A
VIII A
VIII A
VIII A
VIII A
VIII A
VIII A

50
38
36
42
38
38
36
54
42
48
36
36
28
32
42
38
40
32
28
34
46
46
46
42
44
46
46
38
42
42
46

18
22
22
26
20
22
22
18
26
26
22
22
38
30
26
26
18
30
38
32
18
26
26
22
22
18
22
22
26
20
22

46
44
44
38
40
44
44
50
38
38
44
44
32
34
38
38
46
34
32
34
50
38
36
42
38
38
36
54
42
48
36

Ego
Tolerance of
Permeability Ambiguity
46
46
46
42
44
46
46
38
42
42
46
46
34
34
42
36
46
34
34
34
46
44
44
38
40
44
44
50
38
38
44

52
50
48
44
44
50
48
52
44
44
48
48
34
38
44
42
52
38
34
36
50
48
44
44
50
48
52
44
46
42
54

32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65

I Putu Yoga Pratama


I Wayan Yosa Virgana K
Ni Wayan Yunita Wijaya Putri
Luh Ade Arista Yunika
Ida Ayu Adenia Priestina Ananda
I Gede Agus Eka Putra
Putu Aldi Tusan
Ananda Putra Perdana
Gst.A.Gd. A. Ananda Surya Utama
Ida Bagus Ananta Darma
I Made Angga Yudistira
Putu Audi Pasuatmadi
Ayu Arta Paramita
Ni Ketut Ayunia Istiari
I Dewa Putu Bagus Merta Anom
Ngk Made Cahaya Dwika Kusuma
Kadek Dedi Saputra
Dewa Ayu Agung Devina Sri Jayanti
Luh Putu Devi Laksmi Gayatri
Putu Ayu Diah Damayanti
Ni Putu Finna Kartika Sarimertha
Hafid Rizky Fiyantoko
Ni Kadek Ayu Junia Maharani
Dw Gd Krisna Agawan Putra
Putu Meliyananda Putri Maharani
Desak Putu Novi Arietia Dewi
I Dw Ayu Pradnya Santika Dewi
Dw Pt Gd Rahma Suryadita
Dw Ayu Ratih Wiranti Rendang
Ni Kadek Septariani
Luh Gde Silvia Deviana
I.A.Sintya Rahmawati
Anak Agung Sri Amrita Suri Ratna
Ni Wayan Sri Wahyuni

VIII A
VIII A
VIII A
VIII C
VIII C
VIII C
VIII C
VIII C
VIII C
VIII C
VIII C
VIII C
VIII C
VIII C
VIII C
VIII C
VIII C
VIII C
VIII C
VIII C
VIII C
VIII C
VIII C
VIII C
VIII C
VIII C
VIII C
VIII C
VIII C
VIII C
VIII C
VIII C
VIII C
VIII C

46
34
34
42
36
46
34
34
34
46
44
44
38
40
44
44
50
38
38
44
44
32
34
38
38
46
52
50
48
44
44
50
48
52

22
30
26
26
18
30
38
32
28
18
26
26
22
22
18
22
22
26
20
22
22
30
26
26
22
22
18
26
26
22
22
38
30
26

36
28
32
42
38
40
32
28
34
50
38
36
42
38
38
36
54
42
48
36
36
50
38
36
42
38
38
36
54
42
48
36
36
28

44
32
34
38
38
46
34
32
34
46
46
46
42
44
46
46
38
42
42
46
46
34
34
42
36
46
34
34
40
32
28
34
50
38

48
38
34
42
38
34
36
36
36
52
50
48
44
44
50
48
52
44
44
48
48
34
38
44
42
52
38
34
36
40
32
28
34
50

66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99

A A Gd Swadana Kumara Putra


Anak Agung Bagus Widrama Sunu
I Gusti Ngurah Yoga Pebrinata
Putu Alvin Hary Andrianto
Pande Nyoman Andita Darma Kusuma
Ni Putu Arista Dewi Komala Sari
Luh Ade Arista Yunika
Ida Ayu Adenia Priestina Ananda
I Gede Agus Eka Putra
Putu Aldi Tusan
Ananda Putra Perdana
Gst.A.Gd. A. Ananda Surya Utama
Ida Bagus Ananta Darma
I Made Angga Yudistira
Putu Audi Pasuatmadi
Ayu Arta Paramita
Ni Ketut Ayunia Istiari
I Dewa Putu Bagus Merta Anom
Ngk Made Cahaya Dwika Kusuma
Kadek Dedi Saputra
Dewa Ayu Agung Devina Sri Jayanti
Luh Putu Devi Laksmi Gayatri
Putu Ayu Diah Damayanti
Ni Putu Finna Kartika Sarimertha
Hafid Rizky Fiyantoko
Ni Kadek Ayu Junia Maharani
Dw Gd Krisna Agawan Putra
Putu Meliyananda Putri Maharani
Desak Putu Novi Arietia Dewi
I Dw Ayu Pradnya Santika Dewi
Dw Pt Gd Rahma Suryadita
Dw Ayu Ratih Wiranti Rendang
Ni Kadek Septariani
Luh Gde Silvia Deviana

VIII C
VIII C
VIII C
VIII E
VIII E
VIII E
VIII E
VIII E
VIII E
VIII E
VIII E
VIII E
VIII E
VIII E
VIII E
VIII E
VIII E
VIII E
VIII E
VIII E
VIII E
VIII E
VIII E
VIII E
VIII E
VIII E
VIII E
VIII E
VIII E
VIII E
VIII E
VIII E
VIII E
VIII E

44
44
48
48
34
38
44
42
52
38
34
36
50
48
44
44
50
48
52
44
46
42
54
48
38
34
42
38
34
36
36
36
52
50

26
18
30
38
32
18
26
26
22
22
18
22
22
26
20
18
22
22
26
20
22
22
30
26
26
22
22
18
26
26
22
22
22
30

32
42
38
40
32
28
34
46
46
46
42
44
46
46
38
42
42
46
46
34
34
42
36
46
34
34
34
46
44
44
38
40
44
44

36
42
38
38
36
54
42
48
36
36
50
38
36
42
38
38
36
54
42
48
50
48
44
44
50
48
52
44
46
42
54
48
38
50

38
36
42
38
38
36
54
42
48
36
36
50
38
36
42
38
38
36
54
42
48
50
48
44
44
50
48
52
44
46
42
54
48
38

100
101
102

I.A.Sintya Rahmawati
Anak Agung Sri Amrita Suri Ratna
Ni Wayan Sri Wahyuni

VIII E
VIII E
VIII E

48
44
44

26
26
22

50
38
38

48
44
44

50
48
44

NO
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31

Name
I Putu Ade Bhuana Saputra
Adelia Mandayani
I Kadek Adhi Antara Putra
I Putu Agus Aldi Suarthawan
I Kadek Agus Artana
Md Agus Budi Rama
Alifia Divana Ayu Swastikaningrum
Kadek Alit Puspadewanti
Ni Putu Ayu Anggreni W
Dewa Ayu Putu Swandewi
Anak Agung Gede Bagus Widnyana
I Pt Bayu Suda
David Sanjaya Artha
Putu Dea Trishna Yoganitri
Made Diah Laksmi Puspitasari
Putu Diah Puspita Dewi
Luh Putu Eka Mahawari
Km Evrida Oktentia
I Made Ganna Satria Anggadha
I Made Indra Wahyudi
I Putu Gede Indra Beratha
I Made Jana Narendra
Ni Putu Kurnia Dewi
Ni Putu Lena Anggreni
I Md Surya Adi Utama
I Wy Tabah Anantha Suara
Ni Luh Trisyana Utari Dewik
Ni Kadek Widyantari
Anak Agung Windari Kemala Santhi
Kadek Wisnu Kencana
Sang Ayu Putu Wulan Sukmawati

Class

Number
Learning

Phonetic
Script

Spelling
Cues

VIII A
VIII A
VIII A
VIII A
VIII A
VIII A
VIII A
VIII A
VIII A
VIII A
VIII A
VIII A
VIII A
VIII A
VIII A
VIII A
VIII A
VIII A
VIII A
VIII A
VIII A
VIII A
VIII A
VIII A
VIII A
VIII A
VIII A
VIII A
VIII A
VIII A
VIII A

100
100
90
100
90
90
100
100
100
100
90
100
80
90
100
100
100
100
90
70
100
90
100
100
100
100
90
100
100
100
100

100
100
100
100
100
90
100
100
100
100
100
100
70
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
50
100
100
100
100
90
100
90
100
100

90
40
60
30
90
70
60
50
40
50
60
60
60
70
60
60
40
40
50
40
50
20
30
30
90
50
80
30
30
50
60

Word in
Paired
Sentences Association
87.5
50
75
50
87.5
75
62.5
62.5
62.5
62.5
75
37.5
62.5
37.5
62.5
50
62.5
50
62.5
87.5
75
62.5
50
37.5
87.5
62.5
62.5
25
50
62.5
50

100
90
50
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
70
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
90

Total

Average

477.5
380
375
380
467.5
425
422.5
412.5
402.5
412.5
425
397.5
342.5
397.5
422.5
410
402.5
390
402.5
397.5
425
322.5
380
367.5
477.5
412.5
422.5
355
370
412.5
400

95.5
76
75
76
93.5
85
84.5
82.5
80.5
82.5
85
79.5
68.5
79.5
84.5
82
80.5
78
80.5
79.5
85
64.5
76
73.5
95.5
82.5
84.5
71
74
82.5
80

32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65

I Putu Yoga Pratama


I Wayan Yosa Virgana K
Ni Wayan Yunita Wijaya Putri
Luh Ade Arista Yunika
Ida Ayu Adenia Priestina Ananda
I Gede Agus Eka Putra
Putu Aldi Tusan
Ananda Putra Perdana
Gst.A.Gd. A. Ananda Surya Utama
Ida Bagus Ananta Darma
I Made Angga Yudistira
Putu Audi Pasuatmadi
Ayu Arta Paramita
Ni Ketut Ayunia Istiari
I Dewa Putu Bagus Merta Anom
Ngk Made Cahaya Dwika Kusuma
Kadek Dedi Saputra
Dewa Ayu Agung Devina Sri Jayanti
Luh Putu Devi Laksmi Gayatri
Putu Ayu Diah Damayanti
Ni Putu Finna Kartika Sarimertha
Hafid Rizky Fiyantoko
Ni Kadek Ayu Junia Maharani
Dw Gd Krisna Agawan Putra
Putu Meliyananda Putri Maharani
Desak Putu Novi Arietia Dewi
I Dw Ayu Pradnya Santika Dewi
Dw Pt Gd Rahma Suryadita
Dw Ayu Ratih Wiranti Rendang
Ni Kadek Septariani
Luh Gde Silvia Deviana
I.A.Sintya Rahmawati
Anak Agung Sri Amrita Suri Ratna
Ni Wayan Sri Wahyuni

VIII A
VIII A
VIII A
VIII C
VIII C
VIII C
VIII C
VIII C
VIII C
VIII C
VIII C
VIII C
VIII C
VIII C
VIII C
VIII C
VIII C
VIII C
VIII C
VIII C
VIII C
VIII C
VIII C
VIII C
VIII C
VIII C
VIII C
VIII C
VIII C
VIII C
VIII C
VIII C
VIII C
VIII C

100
100
100
100
100
80
70
70
90
90
80
80
70
70
70
70
90
80
80
70
70
70
70
50
90
90
80
80
70
70
70
70
70
70

100
100
100
80
80
90
70
60
100
90
90
80
80
80
70
70
90
90
80
80
80
70
70
90
100
90
90
80
70
60
80
80
70
70

40
60
80
70
70
70
50
50
90
70
70
70
60
60
60
60
70
70
70
60
60
60
60
70
90
70
70
70
50
50
60
60
60
60

37.5
37.5
87.5
87.5
87.5
75
50
50
87.5
75
75
62.5
62.5
50
75
50
75
75
62.5
62.5
50
75
50
75
87.5
75
75
62.5
50
50
62.5
50
75
50

90
100
100
100
90
90
60
60
100
100
90
90
80
80
70
70
100
90
90
80
80
70
70
90
50
100
90
90
60
60
80
80
70
70

367.5
397.5
467.5
437.5
427.5
405
300
290
467.5
425
405
382.5
352.5
340
345
320
425
405
382.5
352.5
340
345
320
375
417.5
425
405
382.5
300
290
352.5
340
345
320

73.5
79.5
93.5
87.5
85.5
81
60
58
93.5
85
81
76.5
70.5
68
69
64
85
81
76.5
70.5
68
69
64
75
83.5
85
81
76.5
60
58
70.5
68
69
64

66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99

A A Gd Swadana Kumara Putra


Anak Agung Bagus Widrama Sunu
I Gusti Ngurah Yoga Pebrinata
Putu Alvin Hary Andrianto
Pande Nyoman Andita Darma Kusuma
Ni Putu Arista Dewi Komala Sari
Anak Agung Gede Agung Baladhika
I Wayan Budi Wicaksana
I Wayan Gede Krisnu Winata
Ni Kadek Ditya Widnyani
I Kadek Dwipa Nugraha
I Kadek Dwi Agastya
Ni Kadek Dwi Visiani
Gusti Ngurah Diego Wiguna
Ellena Ng
Ni Made Eny Primawardani
N. Bagus Erlangga Adi Sukarsa
Kadek Indra Kurniawan
Ni Putu Irma Yuniari
I Dewa Gede Agung Krisna Bayu
Ni Putu Laksmi Dewi
Putu Gede Lila Gargamunih Dewi
Putu Mahendrayana
I Wayan Marta Gandana
I Gusti Ngurah Oko Surya Wirawan
Kdk Bagus Putra Kesawa Vedanta
Komang Putri Saras Utami
A.A. Istri Risma Oktiari
I Gede Santiyasa
Satria Adiyatma Hans
A.A.Istri Serena Pasha
Dewa Ayu Sri Puji Utari
Ni Wayan Suwintari
Syahrifah Shinta

VIII C
VIII C
VIII C
VIII E
VIII E
VIII E
VIII E
VIII E
VIII E
VIII E
VIII E
VIII E
VIII E
VIII E
VIII E
VIII E
VIII E
VIII E
VIII E
VIII E
VIII E
VIII E
VIII E
VIII E
VIII E
VIII E
VIII E
VIII E
VIII E
VIII E
VIII E
VIII E
VIII E
VIII E

90
50
80
80
80
70
70
100
60
100
100
70
70
90
90
80
80
80
80
90
90
80
80
70
70
100
100
70
70
50
70
60
90
80

100
90
90
80
90
70
60
100
100
80
80
70
60
100
90
90
80
90
90
100
90
90
80
70
60
100
100
80
80
70
70
100
90
90

90
70
70
70
70
50
50
90
80
70
70
50
50
90
70
70
70
70
70
90
70
70
70
50
50
90
80
60
60
60
60
90
70
70

87.5
75
75
62.5
75
50
50
87.5
100
87.5
87.5
50
50
87.5
75
75
62.5
75
75
87.5
75
75
62.5
50
50
87.5
100
62.5
50
75
50
87.5
75
75

100
100
90
90
90
60
60
100
100
100
90
60
60
100
100
90
90
50
90
100
100
90
90
60
60
100
100
80
80
70
70
100
100
90

467.5
385
405
382.5
405
300
290
477.5
440
437.5
427.5
300
290
467.5
425
405
382.5
365
405
467.5
425
405
382.5
300
290
477.5
480
352.5
340
325
320
437.5
425
405

93.5
77
81
76.5
81
60
58
95.5
88
87.5
85.5
60
58
93.5
85
81
76.5
73
81
93.5
85
81
76.5
60
58
95.5
96
70.5
68
65
64
87.5
85
81

100
101
102

Ni Made Tasyarani
Ni Made Widya Adnyani
Kadek Yuma Kusuma Dewi

VIII E
VIII E
VIII E

60
80
90

80
90
100

70
70
90

62.5
75
87.5

90
90
100

362.5
405
467.5

72.5
81
93.5

NO
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45

Name
I Putu Ade Bhuana Saputra
Adelia Mandayani
I Kadek Adhi Antara Putra
I Putu Agus Aldi Suarthawan
I Kadek Agus Artana
Md Agus Budi Rama
Alifia Divana Ayu Swastikaningrum
Kadek Alit Puspadewanti
Ni Putu Ayu Anggreni W
Dewa Ayu Putu Swandewi
Anak Agung Gede Bagus Widnyana
I Pt Bayu Suda
David Sanjaya Artha
Putu Dea Trishna Yoganitri
Made Diah Laksmi Puspitasari
Putu Diah Puspita Dewi
Luh Putu Eka Mahawari
Km Evrida Oktentia
I Made Ganna Satria Anggadha
I Made Indra Wahyudi
I Putu Gede Indra Beratha
I Made Jana Narendra
Ni Putu Kurnia Dewi
Ni Putu Lena Anggreni
I Md Surya Adi Utama
I Wy Tabah Anantha Suara
Ni Luh Trisyana Utari Dewik
Ni Kadek Widyantari
Anak Agung Windari Kemala Santhi
Kadek Wisnu Kencana
Sang Ayu Putu Wulan Sukmawati
I Putu Yoga Pratama
I Wayan Yosa Virgana K
Ni Wayan Yunita Wijaya Putri
Luh Ade Arista Yunika
Ida Ayu Adenia Priestina Ananda
I Gede Agus Eka Putra
Putu Aldi Tusan
Ananda Putra Perdana
Gst.A.Gd. A. Ananda Surya Utama
Ida Bagus Ananta Darma
I Made Angga Yudistira
Putu Audi Pasuatmadi
Ayu Arta Paramita
Ni Ketut Ayunia Istiari

Class

English Mark

VIII A
VIII A
VIII A
VIII A
VIII A
VIII A
VIII A
VIII A
VIII A
VIII A
VIII A
VIII A
VIII A
VIII A
VIII A
VIII A
VIII A
VIII A
VIII A
VIII A
VIII A
VIII A
VIII A
VIII A
VIII A
VIII A
VIII A
VIII A
VIII A
VIII A
VIII A
VIII A
VIII A
VIII A
VIII C
VIII C
VIII C
VIII C
VIII C
VIII C
VIII C
VIII C
VIII C
VIII C
VIII C

A
A
ABBB
B
BAA
B+
B+
B+
B
B
BAA
B+
B+
B+
A
A
ABBB
B
BAA
B+
B+
B+
AAB+
B+
AA
B+
B+
B
B
A

46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92

I Dewa Putu Bagus Merta Anom


Ngk Made Cahaya Dwika Kusuma
Kadek Dedi Saputra
Dewa Ayu Agung Devina Sri Jayanti
Luh Putu Devi Laksmi Gayatri
Putu Ayu Diah Damayanti
Ni Putu Finna Kartika Sarimertha
Hafid Rizky Fiyantoko
Ni Kadek Ayu Junia Maharani
Dw Gd Krisna Agawan Putra
Putu Meliyananda Putri Maharani
Desak Putu Novi Arietia Dewi
I Dw Ayu Pradnya Santika Dewi
Dw Pt Gd Rahma Suryadita
Dw Ayu Ratih Wiranti Rendang
Ni Kadek Septariani
Luh Gde Silvia Deviana
I.A.Sintya Rahmawati
Anak Agung Sri Amrita Suri Ratna
Ni Wayan Sri Wahyuni
A A Gd Swadana Kumara Putra
Anak Agung Bagus Widrama Sunu
I Gusti Ngurah Yoga Pebrinata
Putu Alvin Hary Andrianto
Pande Nyoman Andita Darma Kusuma
Ni Putu Arista Dewi Komala Sari
Anak Agung Gede Agung Baladhika
I Wayan Budi Wicaksana
I Wayan Gede Krisnu Winata
Ni Kadek Ditya Widnyani
I Kadek Dwipa Nugraha
I Kadek Dwi Agastya
Ni Kadek Dwi Visiani
Gusti Ngurah Diego Wiguna
Ellena Ng
Ni Made Eny Primawardani
N. Bagus Erlangga Adi Sukarsa
Kadek Indra Kurniawan
Ni Putu Irma Yuniari
I Dewa Gede Agung Krisna Bayu
Ni Putu Laksmi Dewi
Putu Gede Lila Gargamunih Dewi
Putu Mahendrayana
I Wayan Marta Gandana
I Gusti Ngurah Oko Surya Wirawan
Kdk Bagus Putra Kesawa Vedanta
Komang Putri Saras Utami

VIII C
VIII C
VIII C
VIII C
VIII C
VIII C
VIII C
VIII C
VIII C
VIII C
VIII C
VIII C
VIII C
VIII C
VIII C
VIII C
VIII C
VIII C
VIII C
VIII C
VIII C
VIII C
VIII C
VIII E
VIII E
VIII E
VIII E
VIII E
VIII E
VIII E
VIII E
VIII E
VIII E
VIII E
VIII E
VIII E
VIII E
VIII E
VIII E
VIII E
VIII E
VIII E
VIII E
VIII E
VIII E
VIII E
VIII E

AA
ABBB+
B
BAA
B+
B+
B
B
BAA
B+
B+
B+
AB+
B+
B
B
BB+
B+
AB
B
BAA
B+
B+
BAA
B+
B
B+
A
A
BAA

93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102

A.A. Istri Risma Oktiari


I Gede Santiyasa
Satria Adiyatma Hans
A.A.Istri Serena Pasha
Dewa Ayu Sri Puji Utari
Ni Wayan Suwintari
Syahrifah Shinta
Ni Made Tasyarani
Ni Made Widya Adnyani
Kadek Yuma Kusuma Dewi

VIII E
VIII E
VIII E
VIII E
VIII E
VIII E
VIII E
VIII E
VIII E
VIII E

B+
B+
B
B
B
BAA
B+
A-

Nama :
Kelas :
Sekolah:

The Modern Language Aptitude Test - atau MLAT - memprediksi seberapa baik Anda
mungkin belajar bahasa asing. Tes ini memiliki lima bagian yang berbeda yang menguji
keterampilan yang berbeda yang Anda butuhkan untuk berhasil dalam belajar bahasa.
Instruksi juga akan ditampilkan pada awal setiap bagian, sehingga Anda tidak perlu mencerna
semuanya sekaligus!
Tes ini memakan waktu sekitar 30 menit untuk diselesaikan
Modern Language Aptitude Test ( MLAT ) dikembangkan untuk mengukur bakat belajar
bahasa asing. Anda tidak perlu pernah belajar bahasa asing untuk melakukannya dengan baik
dalam tes ini. Meskipun hampir semua orang bisa belajar bahasa asing apabila diberi
kesempatan yang memadai, tes bakat bahasa seperti ini adalah "prediksi seberapa baik
relatifnya seseorang dapat belajar bahasa asing dalam jumlah waktu tertentu dan dalam
kondisi tertentu."

Sebagai data pembanding silahkan cantumkan nilai mata pelajaran Bahasa Inggris pada rapot
terbaru.
Bahasa Inggris

Silahkan buka halaman berikutnya

Bagian Pertama Number Learning


Anda akan belajar angka dalam bahasa baru .
Pada bagian ini, Anda akan mempelajari nama-nama angka dalam bahasa baru. Selanjutnya,
Anda akan mendengar nama-nama yang diucapkan melalui audio, dan Anda akan diminta
untuk menuliskan angka-angka ini. Misalnya, jika Anda mendengar seseorang mengatakan
jumlah "tujuh belas" dalam bahasa Inggris, Anda akan menuliskan 17. Tapi dalam tes in,
Anda akan mendengar angka dalam bahasa baru.
Anda akan mendengar beberapa petunjuk dibacakan. Audio kemudian akan mengajarkan
Anda beberapa angka.
Perhatikan audio dengan seksama, berikutnya Anda akan diberikan pertanyaan berdasarkan
apa yang Anda pelajari. Ada 10 pertanyaan.

Jawaban
1.

6.

2.

7.

3.

8.

4.

9.

5.

10.

Silahkan melanjutkan ke bagian kedua

Bagian Kedua Phonetic Script


Bagian ini dirancang untuk mengukur kemampuan asosiasi suara - simbol, yang adalah
kemampuan untuk mempelajari korelasi antara bunyi ujaran dan simbol tertulis.
Pertama, Anda akan belajar simbol fonetik untuk beberapa suara bahasa Inggris umum.
Untuk setiap pertanyaan, Anda akan mendengar satu set dari empat suku kata yang terpisah.
Setiap suku kata dieja akan dieja menurut pengucapannya.
Sebuah rekaman suara akan menunjukkan suara untuk Anda dengan mengucapkan setiap
suku kata dalam 5 set di bawah ini:
1. bot but

bok buk

2. bok buk

bov bof

3. geet gut

beet but

4. beek beev but buv


5. geeb geet

buf but

Silahkan berikan tanda (x) pada pilihan yang anda anggap benar
Jawaban:
1.

2.

3.

7.

8.

a. bok

c. bot

b. buk

d. but

a. bov

c. bok

b. buv

d. gut

a. gut

c. geet

b. but

d. buk

a. geeb

c. beek

b. beev

d. beet

a. gut

c. beev

b. geeb

d. bov

4.

5.

6.

9.

10.

a. but

c. gut

b. bok

d. buk

a. beek

c.beev

b. beet

d. geet

a. bot

c. bov

b. geet

d. gut

a. geet

c. beet

b. beev

d. but

a. bov

c. but

b. bot

d. buf

Bagian ketiga Spelling Cues


Bagian ini dirancang untuk menguji pengetahuan Anda tentang kosa kata bahasa Inggris serta
kemampuan asosiasi suara - simbol. Kata-kata bahasa Inggris dalam pertanyaan tidak ditulis
seperti biasa melainkan cara pengucapaannya. Tugas Anda adalah untuk mengenali kata yang
terselubung itu. Untuk menunjukkan bahwa Anda mengenali kata yang terselubung, jawablah
salah satu dari lima kata di bawahnya yang bersinonim atau memiliki maknanya paling
mendekati dari kata terselubung .
Bila Anda menemukan kata yang tepat, langsung berikan tanda ( x ). Ada 10 pertanyaan.
Anda hanya memiliki 10 detik untuk menjawab masing-masing.
1. kloz
a. dress
b. nearby
c. stick

6. ciip
d. giant
e. relatives

2. restrnt
a. food
b. self-control
c. sleep

d. space explorer
e. drug

5. siik
a. ill
b. leather
c. fun

a. food
b. book
c. body part

d. contest
e. clear

8. peiper
d. gifts
e. forecasts

4. grbj
a. car port
b. seize
c. boat

d. fries
e. bird

7. rais

3. prezns
a. kings
b. explanations
c. dates

a. not expensive
b. little chicken
c sweet.

a. king
b. spicy
c. book

d. root
e. abroad

9. koler
d. boast
e. waste

d. look for
e. number

a. paint
b. refrigerator
c. curtain
10. smail
a. tiny
b. happy face
c. utensils

d. neckline
e. chill

d. escargot
e. footwear

Bagian Keempat Word in Sentences


Kata-kata dalam Kalimat akan mengukur kepekaan Anda mengenai struktur gramatikal.
Dalam setiap pertanyaan berikut ini, kita akan sebut kalimat pertama sebagai 'kalimat kunci'.
Satu kata dalam kalimat kunci akan digarisbawahi dan dicetak dalam huruf kapital.
Tugas Anda adalah untuk memilih huruf dari kata dalam kalimat kedua yang memainkan
peran yang sama dalam kalimat itu sebagai kata yang digarisbawahi dalam kalimat kunci.
Ada 8 pertanyaan dalam bagian ini .
Contoh soal:
JOHN took a long walk in the woods.
Children in blue jeans were singing and dancing in the park.
A
B C
D
E
Anda akan memilih " A " karena kalimat kunci adalah tentang " John " dan yang kedua
tentang Children" .
Soal
1. MARY is happy.
From the look on your face, I can tell that you must have had a bad day.
A B
C D
E
2. The doctors daughter looks PALE
The stars in the night sky are so shiny that everyones eyes will turn into them
A
B
C
D
E
3. We wanted to go out, BUT we were too tired.
Because of our extensive training, we were confident when we were out sailing,
A
B
C
yet we were always aware of the potential dangers of being on the lake.
D
E
4. John said THAT Jill liked chocolate.
In our class, that professor claimed that he knew that girl on the television news.
A
B
C D
E
5. The officer gave me a TICKET!
When she went away to college, the young mans daughter wrote him the most

A
B
beautiful letter that he had ever received.
D
E

6. My mother used to buy me DRESSES


Right after the time July arrived at the airport, she gave some chocolates she bought to
me

E
7. George has stopped drinking alcohol BECAUSE OF his health issue
Due to the enforcement of the new regulation of the city, every citizen is obliged to
A

participate in the social activity.


D

8. JENNY participated the auction in order to get rare goods as collection


As the sun set in the western coast, the fishermen started packed up and
A

heading to The John.


D

Silahkan lanjutkan ke halaman berikutnya

Bagian Kelima Paired Association


'Asosiasi Paduan' dirancang untuk menguji memori Anda yang merupakan bagian penting
dari proses belajar bahasa asing. Tugas Anda di sini adalah untuk menghafalkan set kosakata
di bawah ini. Hanya ada 12 pasang kata untuk dihafalkan, dan Anda akan memiliki 1 menit
20 detik untuk meninjau kata-kata sebelum diujikan.
Catatan : Anda tidak diperbolehkan melihat kembali kosakata setelah 1 menit 20 detik ...
Maya

--

English

con

gun

si

wood

kab

hand

kab

juice

bat

ax

pal

son

xuux

basket

mis

cat

che

tree

kaan

sky

munyal

cloud

chiich

bird

Dilarang melihat ke halaman sebelumnya!


Pilih salah satu yang kamu anggap paling benar!

1. bat
A. animal
B. stick
C. jump
D. ax
E. stone

6. pal
A. chief
B. son
C. friend
D. gold
E. boat

2. kab
A. juice
B. cart
C. corn
D. tool
E. run

7. mis
A. bird
B. tree
C. girl
D. cat
E. dog

3. con
A. story
B. gun
C. eat
D. mix
E. bird

8. Xuux
A. basket
B. garbage
C. cricket
D. gun
E. sky

4. kab
A. road
B. tree
C. yell
D. fish
E. hand

9. munyal
A. stick
B. cloud
C. space
D. horse
E. hair

5. si
A. look
B. yes
C. forgive
D. cook
E. wood

10. Chiich
A. nature
B. door
C. bird
D. no
E. fly

Kuesioner Sikap Pembelajaran Bahasa


Isilah kuesioner berikut, berikan komentar sesuai dengan petunjuk apakah Anda
setuju atau tidak setuju dengan masing-masing pernyataan . Hal ini untuk diri sendiri bukan
untuk orang lain, sehingga jawablah sejujur mungkin.
Nama :
Kelas :
Sekolah:
Petujuk:
Isilah bagian kosong di belakang pernyataan dengan salah SATU pilihan di bawah ini.
SS = Sangat Setuju , S = Setuju , RR= Ragu-Ragu , TS = Tidak Setuju , STS = Sangat
Tidak Setuju
Contoh:
Pemain sepak bola Spanyol jauh lebih hebat daripada pemain sepakbola Brazil.__SS__
1 . Saya pikir saya adalah pembelajar Bahasa Inggris yang cukup baik. _____________
2 . Mempelajari Bahasa Inggris mungkin penting untuk cita-cita saya, tapi saya kira hal itu
tidak terlalu menyenangkan. _____________
3 . Bakat belajar bahasa saya mungkin cukup tinggi . _____________
4 . Saya tidak tahu cara belajar bahasa asing_____________
5 . Saya berpikir bahwa saya bisa belajar bahasa Inggris dengan baik jika pada situasi yang
tepat. ______________
6 . Saya takut membuat kesalahan _____________
7 . Saya takut orang-orang akan menertawakan saya jika saya mengatakan hal-hal yang salah
dalam bahasa Inggris . _________________
8 . Saya biasanya gemetar dan berkeringat dingin ketika saya harus berbicara di depan orang.
_________________

9 . Saya merasa sulit untuk bercakap-cakap dengan Bahasa Inggris bahkan dengan orangorang yang berbicara dengan bahasa saya sendiri (Bahasa Indonesia).________________
10 . Saya merasa kurang nyaman berbicara dengan Bahasa Inggris, bahkan saat saya telah
berlatih . ________________
11 . Belajar bahasa Inggris jika kita tinggal di negara berbahasa Inggris menunjukkan sikap
menghargai. ________________
12 . Pada umumnya, saya senang bisa mengenal orang-orang dari negara lain.
________________
13 . Bisa berbicara Bahasa Inggris di luar negeri akan memudahkan saya membuat orang lain
mengerti apa yang saya maksudkan_________________
14 . Saya tidak suka ide mengandalkan kemampuan bahasa Indonesia ( atau bahasa ibu saya )
di negara lain . _______________
15 . Saya pikir orang-orang dari negara yang saya akan kunjungi akan senang jika saya
belajar bahasa mereka seperti contohnya Bahasa Inggris.__________________
16 . Saya tidak akan benar-benar bisa mengenal orang asing dengan baik jika saya tidak bisa
berbahasa Inggris__________________
17 . Segala sesuatu ada benar dan salah, dan saya pikir itu tugas saya untuk mencari tahu
yang benar dan melakukannya . __________________
18 . Saya tidak suka ketika orang memberi jawaban yang tidak jelas dan bertele-tele .
_________________
19 . Seseorang harus mengatakan "ya " jika memang iya dan "tidak" jika memang tidak .
Tidak melakukannya berarti tidak jujur . ________________
20. Saya harus memahami budaya masyarakat sebelum saya dapat yakin mengetahui mana
hal yang benar atau salah. ________________
21. Saya suka meniru logat orang asing berbahasa Inggris, dan orang-orang mengatakan saya
melakukannya dengan baik. ______________
22. Saya bisa menirukan gaya bicara Bahasa Inggris orang atau artis terkenal. ________

23. Saya merasa mudah untuk menempatkan diri dalam posisi orang lain dan membayangkan
bagaimana perasaan mereka.______________
24. Di sekolah, meskipun jika saya tidak tahu suatu jawaban dengan pasti, saya kadangkadang tetap menjawab dengan lantang. ___________
25. Saya sering berpikir sendiri dan mencoba menyampaikan apa yang saya pikirkan pada
orang lain. ___________
26. Saya ingin segalanya tersusun di kepala dulu sebelum saya menjawab. ___________
27. Saya akan menyebut diri saya seseorang yang berani mengambil resiko ______________

APPENDIX
Documentation of the Research in SMP Negeri 1 Gianyar

Picture 1. SMP Negeri 1 Gianyars in front of the school

Picture 2. Student is filling up the questionnaire

Picture 3. Collecting the questionnaire from the students

Picture 4. Mrs. Sang Ayu Gita, the English teacher