DEVELOPMENTAL THEORIES • Psychoanalytic / Psychosexual Theory • Theory of Psychosocial Development • Theory of Cognitive Development • Theory of Moral Development • Developmental

Task Theory • Behaviorism

SIGMUND FREUD’S

PSYCHOANALYTIC/ PSCHOSEXUAL THEORY

PSYCHOANALYTIC/PSCHOSEXUAL THEORY

• LEVEL OF AWARENESS
– CONSCIOUS
• Logical and regulated by reality principle

– PRECONSCIOUS
• Subconscious

– UNCONSCIOUS
• Not logical & governed by pleasure principle

PSYCHOANALYTIC/PSCHOSEXUAL THEORY

• SYSTEMS OF PERSONALITY
– ID
• Source of all drives • Pleasure principle

– EGO
• Reality testing & problem solving

– SUPEREGO
• Conscience, perfection, & ideal

PSYCHOANALYTIC/PSCHOSEXUAL THEORY

1. ORAL STAGE
– – – child explores the world by using mouth suck for enjoyment or relief of tension, as well as nourishment. Infant is concerned with self gratification Infant is all ID The EGO begins to emerge as infant begins to see self as separate from the mother

– –

PSYCHOANALYTIC/PSCHOSEXUAL THEORY

NSG IMPLICATIONS:
– Provide oral stimulation by giving pacifiers – Do not discourage thumbsucking. – Breastfeeding may provide more stimulation that formula feeding.

PSYCHOANALYTIC/PSCHOSEXUAL THEORY

2. ANAL STAGE
– – – Toddlers find pleasure in both retention of feces and defecation. Toilet training occurs during this period. Child begins to gain a sense of control over instinctive drives and learns to delay immediate gratification to gain a future goal.

PSYCHOANALYTIC/PSCHOSEXUAL THEORY

NSG. IMPLICATIONS:
• Help children achieve bowel and bladder control • Continue bowel training while the child is hospitalized.

PSYCHOANALYTIC/PSCHOSEXUAL THEORY

3. PHALLIC STAGE
– Pleasurable and conflicting feelings associated with the genital organs – The pleasures of masturbation and the fantasy life of children set the stage of the Oedipus complex. – Ambivalence – The emergence of the superego is the solution to and the result of these intense impulses.

PSYCHOANALYTIC/PSCHOSEXUAL THEORY

NSG. IMPLICATIONS: • Accept child’s sexual interest, such as fondling his or her own genitals, as a normal area of exploration. • Help parents answer child’s questions about birth or sexual differences.

PSYCHOANALYTIC/PSCHOSEXUAL THEORY

4. LATENCY STAGE
– Personality development appears to be non-active or dormant – Tapering off of conscious biological and sexual urges – Growth of ego functions and the ability to care about and relate to others outside the home is the task of this stage

PSYCHOANALYTIC/PSCHOSEXUAL THEORY

NSG. IMPLICATION: • Help the child have positive experiences.

PSYCHOANALYTIC/PSCHOSEXUAL THEORY

5. GENITAL STAGE
– emerges at adolescence with the onset of puberty, when genital organs mature – The individual gains gratification from his or her own body. – Develops satisfying sexual and emotional relationships with members of the opposite gender. – The individual plans life goals and gains a strong sense of identity.

PSYCHOANALYTIC/PSCHOSEXUAL THEORY

NSG. IMPLICATIONS: • Provide appropriate opportunities for the child to relate with opposite sex • Allow the child to verbalize feelings about new relationships.

ERIK ERIKSON’S

THEORY OF PSYCHOSOCIAL DEVELOPMENT

THEORY OF PSYCHOSOCIAL DEVELOPMENT

INFANCY
• Crisis: Trust versus mistrust • Task: attachment to the mother • Successful:
– Trust in persons; faith and hope about the environment and future

• Unsuccessful:
– General difficulties relating to persons effectively; suspicion; trust-fear conflict, fear of the future

THEORY OF PSYCHOSOCIAL DEVELOPMENT

NURSING IMPLICATIONS
• Provide a primary caregiver • Provide experiences that add to security, such as soft sounds and touch. • Provide visual stimulation for active child involvement.

THEORY OF PSYCHOSOCIAL DEVELOPMENT

EARLY CHILDHOOD (TODDLER)
• Crisis: Autonomy versus shame and doubt • Task: Gaining some basic control over self and environment • Successful: – Sense of self-control and adequacy; will power • Unsuccessful: – Independence-fear conflict; severe feelings of self-doubt

THEORY OF PSYCHOSOCIAL DEVELOPMENT

NURSING IMPLICATIONS
• Provide opportunities for decision making. • Praise for ability to make decisions rather that judging correctness of any one decision.

THEORY OF PSYCHOSOCIAL DEVELOPMENT
LATE CHILDHOOD (PRESCHOOLER)

• Crisis: Initiative versus guilt • Task: Becoming purposeful and directive • Successful:
– Ability to initiate one’s own activities; sense of purpose

• Unsuccessful:
– Aggression-fear conflict; sense of inadequacy or guilt

THEORY OF PSYCHOSOCIAL DEVELOPMENT

NURSING IMPLICATIONS
• Provide opportunities for exploring new places or activities. • Allow play to include activities involving clay, water, or finger paint.

THEORY OF PSYCHOSOCIAL DEVELOPMENT

SCHOOL AGE
• Crisis: Industry versus inferiority • Task: Developing social, physical, and learning skills • Successful: – Competence; ability to learn and work • Unsuccessful: – Sense of inferiority; difficulty learning and working

THEORY OF PSYCHOSOCIAL DEVELOPMENT

NURSING IMPLICATION
• Provide opportunities for the child to feel rewarded for accomplishment.

THEORY OF PSYCHOSOCIAL DEVELOPMENT

ADOLESCENCE
• Crisis: Identity versus role confusion • Task: Developing sense of identity • Successful: – Sense of personal identity • Unsuccessful: – Confusion about who one is; identity submerged in relationships or group memberships

THEORY OF PSYCHOSOCIAL DEVELOPMENT

NURSING IMPLICATIONS
• Provide opportunities for the adolescent to discuss feelings about events important to him or her. • Offer support and praise for decision making.

THEORY OF PSYCHOSOCIAL DEVELOPMENT
EARLY ADULTHOOD 20-35 yrs

• Crisis: Intimacy versus isolation • Task: Establishing intimate bonds of love and friendship • Successful:
– Ability to love deeply and commit oneself

• Unsuccessful:
– Emotional isolation, egocentricity

THEORY OF PSYCHOSOCIAL DEVELOPMENT
MIDDLE ADULTHOOD 35-65 yrs

• Crisis: Generativity versus stagnation • Task: Fulfilling life goals that involve family, career, and society • Successful:
– Ability to give and care for others

• Unsuccessful:
– Self-absorption; inability to grow as a person

THEORY OF PSYCHOSOCIAL DEVELOPMENT
LATE ADULTHOOD 65 yrs to death

• Crisis: Integrity versus despair • Task: Looking back over one’s life and accepting its meaning • Successful:
– Sense of integrity and fulfillment

• Unsuccessful:
– Dissatisfaction with life

JEAN PIAGET’S

THEORY OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT

THEORY OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT

A. SENSORIMOTOR
1. Neonatal reflex Birth – 1mo 1–4 mos  Most action is reflexive.

2. Primary circular reaction

 Perception of events is centered on the body.  Objects are extension of self.  Toy: Rattle

THEORY OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT

3. Secondary circular reaction

4–8

 Acknowledges the external environment.  Learns to initiate, recognize, and repeat pleasurable experience from the environment.  Memory traces are present.
 Plan activities to attain specific goals.  Can search for and retrieve toy that disappears from view.  Increased sense of separateness.  Toy: Nesting toys (i.e. colored boxes)  Game: Peek-a-boo

4. Coordination of secondary reactions

8-12

THEORY OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT

5. Tertiary circular 12 – 18 reaction

 Experiments to discover new properties of objects and events.  Capable of space and time perception and permanence.  Game: Throw and retrieve
 Uses memory and imitation to act  Can solve basic problems  Toys: toys w/ several uses (blocks, rings, boxes)

6. Invention of new means

18 – 24

THEORY OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT

B. PREOPERATIONAL THOUGHT
• Preconceptual Phase
2 – 4 yrs               Egocentric Displays static thinking. Prelogical reasoning. Everything is significant and relates to “me” Explores the environment Language development is rapid Associates words with objects. Centering Lack of conservation and reversibility. Role fantasy thinking. Assimilation Magical Thinking Accommodation Unable to state cause-effect relationship

• Intuitive Phase 4 – 7

JEAN PIAGET’S THEORY OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT

C. CONCRETE 7 – 12 OPERATIONAL THOUGHT

           

Inductive reasoning Solve everyday problems Recognize cause-effect relationship With concept of conservation Numbers: 7 years old Quantity: 7- 8 years old Weight: 9 years old Volume: 11 years old Aware of reversibility Decentering Class inclusion Activity: collecting and classifying objects

THEORY OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT

D. FORMAL OPERATIONAL THOUGHT

12 yrs up

 Uses rational thinking  Abstract thought rather that concrete thought.  Activity: “talk-time”

LAWRENCE KOHLBERG’S

THEORY OF MORAL DEVELOPMENT

THEORY OF MORAL DEVELOPMENT

LEVEL

STAGE

AGE
Birth-2 yrs
2-3

0. Egocentric Judgment I. PRE-CONVENTIONAL  The infant has no awareness of right or wrong. MORALITY
 Egocentric Focus 1. Punishment & Obedient Orientation  Fear of punishment, not respect for authority, is the reason for decision, behavior, and conformity. 2. Instrumental Relativist Orientation  Conformity is based on egocentricity and narcissistic needs. There is no feeling of justice, loyalty, or gratitude.

4-7

THEORY OF MORAL DEVELOPMENT

II. CONVENTIONAL MORALITY
 Societal Focus

3. Interpersonal Concordance Orientation  Decisions and behavior are based on concerns about other’s reactions; the person wants others’ approval. 4. Law-and-Order Orientation  The person wants established rules from authorities, and the reason for decisions and behavior is that social and sexual rules and traditions demand the response.

7-10

10-12

THEORY OF MORAL DEVELOPMENT

III. POST CONVENTIONAL
 Universal Focus

5. Social Contract Legalistic Orientation  The social rules are not the sole basis for decisions and behavior because the person believes a higher moral principle applies such as equality, justice, or due process. 6. Universal Ethical Principle Orientation  Decisions and behaviors are based on internalized rules, on conscience rather than social laws, and on self-chosen ethical and abstract principles that are universal, comprehensive and consistent.

Older than 12

ROBERT HAVIGHURST’S

DEVELOPMENTAL TASK THEORY

DEVELOPMENTAL TASK THEORY
INFANCY AND EARLY CHILDHOOD
• • • • • • • • Learning to walk Learning to take solid foods Learning to talk Learning to control the elimination of body wastes Learning sex differences and sexual modesty Achieving psychologic stability Forming simple concepts of social and physical reality Learning to relate emotionally to parents, siblings, and other people Learning to distinguish right from wrong and developing a conscience

DEVELOPMENTAL TASK THEORY

MIDDLE CHILDHOOD
• Learning physical skills necessary for ordinary games • Building wholesome attitudes toward oneself as a growing organism • Learning to get along with age-mates • Learning an appropriate masculine or feminine social role • Developing fundamental skills in reading, writing, and calculating • Developing concepts necessary for everyday living • Developing conscience, morality, and a scale of values • Achieving personal independence • Developing attitudes toward social groups and institutions

DEVELOPMENTAL TASK THEORY

ADOLESCENCE
• Achieving new and more mature relations with age-mates of both sexes • Achieving a masculine or feminine social role • Accepting one’s physique and using the body effectively • Achieving emotional independence from parents and other adults • Achieving assurance of economic independence • Selecting and preparing for an occupation • Preparing for marriage and family life • Developing intellectual skills and concepts necessary for civic competence • Desiring and achieving socially responsible behavior • Acquiring a set of values and an ethical system as a guide to behavior

DEVELOPMENTAL TASK THEORY
EARLY ADULTHOOD

• • • • • • • •

Selecting a mate Learning to live with a partner Starting a family Rearing children Managing a home Getting started in an occupation Talking on civic responsibility Finding a congenial social group

DEVELOPMENTAL TASK THEORY
MIDDLE AGE • • • • • • • Achieving adult civic and social responsibility Establishing and maintaining an economic standard of living Assisting teenage children to become responsible and happy adults Developing adult leisure-time activities Relating oneself to one’s spouse as a person Accepting and adjusting to the physiologic changes of middle age Adjusting to aging process

DEVELOPMENTAL TASK THEORY
LATER MATURITY

• • • • • •

Adjusting to decreasing physical strength and health Adjusting to retirement and reduced income Adjusting to death of a spouse Establishing an explicit affiliation with one’s age group Meeting social and civil obligations Establishing satisfactory physical living arrangements

JOHN WATSON’S

THEORY ON BEHAVIORISM

BEHAVIORISM
• Behaviors can be elicited by positive reinforcement, such as food treat, or extinguished by negative reinforcement, such as by scolding or withdrawing attention.
• Watson believed that he could make of a child anyone he desired – from a professional to a thief or beggar – simply by reinforcing behavior in certain ways.

BEHAVIORISM • NURSING APPLICATION:
– Positive reinforcement can be established to encourage these behaviors. – Behavioral techniques are also used to alter behavior or to teach skills to handicapped children. – Parents often use reinforcement in toilet training and other skills learned in childhood.