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EDUC 5170 Humanities and Social Sciences Education M

Assessment One: Review

Year Level

Year 5

Learning Area

Humanities and Social Sciences (HASS)

Subject

History

Strand

Knowledge and Understanding

Topic

Migration

Content Description

The reasons people migrated to Australia and the experiences


and contributions of a particular migrant group within a colony
(Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority
[ACARA] 2015b, ACHASSK109).

Elaboration

Connecting (where appropriate) stories of migration to students


own family histories (ACARA 2015b, ACHASSK109).

Values

Democratic processes; social justice; peace (Bliss, cited in


Reynolds 2014).

Part One Overview


Modern Australian society is bound by shared values and cultural traditions,
irrevocably shaped by our migrant history. Subsequently, it is imperative
Australian students develop an understanding of the social, political, economic
and environmental factors that have influenced our past, present and future
(ACARA 2015b). Due to the pluralist nature of Australian society, education must
be utilized as a medium to empower students to critically evaluate topical social,
moral and cultural issues, recognizing limitations in their thinking and the
inadvertent advantages of multiculturalism within an increasingly globalized
world (Department of Social Services 2014). Therefore, Australias migration
history is a pertinent cross-curriculum topic within the primary years curriculum.
The topic of migration links to the Year 5 History Curriculum, beneath the strand
of knowledge and understanding, introducing key concepts of continuity and
change, cause and effect, empathy, significance and perspectives (ACARA
2015b). Additionally, the learning focus facilitates the integration of the crosscurriculum priorities, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
and Asia and Australias Engagement with Asia (ACARA 2015a), encouraging

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students to develop global perspectives and become active and informed citizens
of the world (Reynolds 2014).
Ultimately, engaging with a unit on migration fosters greater understanding of
cultural diversity, increasing students tolerance, acceptance and empathy;
thereby perpetuating global perspectives of interdependence and globalization,
social justice and human rights, peace building and conflict resolution, and most
predominantly identity and cultural diversity, which connects with the broader
concept of social justice (Bliss, cited in Reynolds 2014; Commonwealth of
Australia 2012). Students will develop a positive sense of self by gaining a
deeper understanding of their identity and family history, as well as connections
of time and place (Australian Government 2011). Through incorporating the
inquiry process, it will enable the integration of realistic learning experiences,
enhancing students engagement and historical skills (Reynolds 2014).

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Part Two Resources


Background Resources
Resource One Australian Identity (Australian Government 2015)
This website provides an extensive account of the economic, social, political
and environmental causes and effects that have underpinned Australias
immigration history since the early 1800s. Therefore, it effectively links with the
key historical concepts of continuity and change, cause and effect and
perspectives, as well as the selected content description stipulated in the Year 5
History Curriculum (ACARA 2015b, ACHASSK109).
Furthermore, the resource describes the experiences and contributions of
diverse migrant groups, further linking with the history curriculum and
perpetuating understandings of identity and cultural diversity, as well as social
justice (ACARA 2015b; Bliss, cited in Reynolds 2014; Commonwealth of Australia
2012). Additionally, this information provides educators with an informational
base to then select a focus migrant group for further inquiry.
The website provides comprehensive information, which is clearly divided
into subheadings that offer simple navigation for educators. These headings are
coherently structured, allowing educators to organize their thinking, planning
interactive, engaging and age-appropriate learning sequences that generate
sense making and communication in students (Pressley & McCormick 1995).
This resource maintains credibility through regular updates by the
Australian Government, in collaboration with the South Australian Migration
Museum. The secondary source provides educators with a clear, descriptive
summary of Australias migration story, building a foundation of knowledge to
develop a unit of historical inquiry. However, the source falls short in presenting
personal primary accounts of immigration.

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Resource Two China Down Under (New South Wales Department of Education
and Training 2006)
This education pack provides contextualizing information and resources
to support educators in illustrating the experiences and contributions of the
Chinese migrants in Australia, linking with the Year 5 History Curriculum (ACARA
2015b). This particular migrant group was selected due to its connection with
the cross-curriculum priority, Asia and Australias Engagement with Asia (ACARA
2015a). Additionally, the document further develops students understanding of
social justice, identity and cultural diversity, as well as critical concepts of
perspective, continuity and change, cause and effect, significance and empathy
(ACARA 2015b; Bliss, cited in Reynolds 2014; Commonwealth of Australia 2012).
The copious learning activities and additional resources provided have
been thematically divided to facilitate more efficient access and enable educators
to plan a rational and sequential unit of historical inquiry. The language and
themes explored are suitable for this age group, allowing educators to tailor
activities applicable to any stage in the inquiry process. The pack also includes
suggestions for reflection and application (Arnold 2010), an inquiry stage
frequently omitted from teacher resources.
Ultimately, the secondary resource offers a range of contextualizing
information and learning activities delivered through diverse mediums, that may
be adapted to enhance engagement, interactivity and student curiosity (Pressley
& McCormick 1995). It has been compiled by the New South Wales Department
of Education and Training and therefore provides contextually appropriate
information that is both credible and reliable. Whilst the source explicitly
develops connections between Australia and China, as well as the beliefs,
contributions and influence of the Chinese, it fails to include primary accounts
from Chinese migrants, as well as identifying the negative social and economic
implications of migration. Therefore, it is critical to use this resource in
conjunction with additional resources that address these issues.

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Resource Three Migration (World Vision 2010)


This booklet provides background knowledge and resources to
enable educators to illustrate the push and pull factors of migration, the
plight of refugees and asylum seekers, as well as the implications of
government and non-government organizations. Furthermore, the
document includes a timeline of Australias immigration history,
accompanied by a concise description of the experiences and
contributions of different migrant groups. It also highlights opposing
societal perspectives, offering educators a broader appreciation of the
diversity of views.
Whilst the document is intended for students, the resources
included are presented in a coherent and logical manner, assisting
educators throughout the planning process. The learning activities
gained from the resource will be developed in correspondence with
inquiry questions provided (Appendix One), requiring students to collect,
analyze and manage information, and communicate their knowledge
through action.
The booklet was produced by World Vision Australia, a Christian
development, relief and advocacy organization (World Vision 2010). Thus,
whilst the information is reliable, the credibility of the resource is
arguably questionable, as it may inherently project particular Christian
values and ideologies. As the document was produced in 2010, it would
be valuable to utilize it in relation to contemporary issues in the media.
Ultimately,

this

resource

facilitates

the

integration

of

constructivist principles, as it encourages students to tune in to class


discussion, developing questions that may form the basis of an inquiry
(Arnold 2010). Additionally, it provides educators with opportunities for
practical and interactive lessons that connect to student experiences and
spark curiosity (Pressley & McCormick 1995). Furthermore, it will increase
students intercultural understanding and awareness of social justice
(Bliss, cited in Reynolds 2014), whilst highlighting Australias close
affiliation with Asia and connecting the cross-curriculum priority (ACARA
2015a).

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Student Resources
Resource One Dark Dreams: Australian Refugee Stories (Dechian, Millar & Sallis
2004)
This anthology of essays, interviews and short stories was written by
young writers aged between 11 and 20 years, thereby increasing the language
accessibility and thematic relevance to school-age students. Whilst some stories
are primary accounts, others are creative adaptions of interviews conducted with
refugees from within the community.
The stories illustrate a plethora of themes, issues and living realities
experienced by young Australian refugees, and enable students to formulate
their own interpretations and instigate valuable class discussion (Gray 1997).
Additionally, students will establish parallels between the narratives and their
own ancestry, enhancing their awareness of the global education emphases,
identity and cultural diversity, social justice and human rights, and peace
building and conflict resolution (Bliss, cited in Reynolds 2014; Commonwealth of
Australia 2012).
The resource was compiled by Australians Against Racism Incorporation,
an organization striving to minimize racial stereotypes (Australians Against
Racism 2015). Therefore, whilst it reflects the aforementioned

global

perspectives, it fails to address the social and economic impact of refugees.


Subsequently, it would be valuable to explore these issues in relation to a topical
refugee crisis.
It is imperative educators critically select which stories to share with
students, as the language and visual imagery evoked may be confronting. From
analyzing the resource, the most suitable chapters for a year five group include
For the Love of a Child: Mais Story written by Khazmira Florentyna Bashah, and
Journey to Freedom by Hai-Van Nguyen. The resource would be challenging to
adapt for younger groups, as it addresses emotional content that may be
disturbing for younger students.

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Resource Two Time to Flee (Amnesty International Australia n.d.)


This secondary resource enables students to develop greater
understanding, awareness and empathy of refugees. Through engaging
in critical thinking and inquiry, students will draw on their existing
knowledge to respond collaboratively to a participatory and interactive
fictional role-play, collecting, analyzing and managing the information
provided to devise a responsive point of action (Arnold 2010). The
constructivist nature of this activity will help students establish their own
meanings, whilst allowing teachers to plan future discussions and
reflective activities, ensuring students are developing an awareness and
understanding of challenges faced by refugees (Gray 1997).
This resource may be utilized in conjunction with additional
resources to create a constructivist learning activity that is studentdirected, generating analytical dialogue between peers, and fostering
advanced literal, interpretative and inferential questioning in regards to
local and global cultural, social, political and economic refugee issues
(Browett & Ashman 2008).

Students will further develop the general

capabilities of critical and creative thinking, as well as intercultural


understanding and social justice (ACARA 2015c; Bliss, cited in Reynolds
2014).
The resource has been developed by Amnesty International
Australia, a reputable, non-government organization focused on
preserving human rights. Therefore, whilst students are encouraged to
respond independently, the language and scenario may inadvertently
influence their responses. It may be adapted to suit other ages, through
connecting the text with a tangible and topical refugee crisis.
Furthermore, the activity facilitates a collaborative and democratic
learning environment (Gray 1997).

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Resource Three Who do you think you are? (Peddie 2015)


The SBS television series is a secondary source that incorporates
primary interviews to explore the ancestral history of prominent
Australians, whilst illustrating multiculturalism within Australia. Whilst
each episode connects to the content descriptor, the episode Luke
Nguyen is the most valuable as it exposes the chefs Chinese and
Vietnamese heritage, linking with the cross-curriculum priority Asia and
Australias Engagement with Asia (ACARA 2015a).
Nguyens ancestry will provide the initial engagement and tuning
in for students, demonstrating the diverse migration journeys that have
shaped the rich social, cultural and ethnic tapestry that binds Australias
national culture and identity (Arnold 2010; Australian Government 2014).
After viewing, students may hypothesize developing questions and
critically analyzing evidence presented in the footage (Arnold 2010).
Furthermore, students will be encouraged to reflect on their own identity
and culture, as well as their position within Australias broader cultural
composition.
Whilst the video has been classified M, the visuals and language
utilized is both appropriate and accessible for students above nine years.
However, it is critical educators seek parental approval prior to screening.
The resource itself offers limited adaptability, but scope to develop
learning activities and appropriate discussions for a variety of ages.
Utilizing technology to disseminate information heightens
student engagement (Pressley & McCormick 1995) and will encourage
students to reflect on their own ancestral history, connecting the past,
present and future to better appreciate the interdependence of people
and further developing global perspectives of identity and cultural
diversity, as well as social justice (Bliss, cited in Reynolds 2014;
Commonwealth of Australia 2012). Additionally, they will develop deeper
understanding of historical concepts of sources, cause and effect,
continuity and change, perspective and empathy, as outlined in the
curriculum (ACARA 2015b).

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Inquiry Model
Resource Inquiry Learning: Making History Alive (Arnold 2010)
This article describes the application of a seven-stage inquiry
model, reiterating the value of integrating inquiry-based learning
through history education. Therefore, it is a suitable model to utilize
during the planning of this unit on migration.
Migration is a seemingly complex and contentious topic. The
model proposed by Arnold (2010), enables educators to clearly organize
their planning to effectively select, manage and disseminate information
to students. Whilst the initial stages of the model are critical to form a
foundation of knowledge, the planning and implementation of action is
imperative, as it motivates students to become informed and active
global citizens (ACARA 2015b). Despite the emphasis on studentcentered learning and discovery, the article also highlights the
importance of the final discussion and reflection to enable students to
make connections with their own lives (Arnold 2010; Pressley &
McCormick 1995).
The article offers clear descriptions of each stage in the inquiry
process, including several practical teaching approaches and exemplars
of corresponding learning activities. Whilst the model offers flexibility
and adaptability for any age group or topic, educators may be limited by
the learning context and availability of resources (Arnold 2010).
Ultimately, the article reiterates the criticality of establishing a
collaborative, engaging and interactive learning environment (Arnold
2010); enabling students to develop deeper historical knowledge and
understanding, in addition to the inquiry skills stipulated within the
curriculum, including questioning, researching, analyzing, evaluating and
reflecting, and communicating (ACARA 2015b).

Table 1 Seven stage inquiry model (Arnold 2010).

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References
Amnesty International Australia n.d., Activity: Time to Flee, Amnesty International Australia, viewed
29 November 2015, <http://www.amnesty.org.au/images/uploads/hre/activity_time_to_flee.pdf>.
Arnold, D 2010, Inquiry Learning: Making History Active, Ethos, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 20 - 25.
Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority [ACARA] 2015a, Cross-curriculum

priorities, Education Services Australia, viewed 3 December 2015,

<http://www.australiancurriculum.edu.au/crosscurriculumpriorities/overview/introduction>.
Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority [ACARA] 2015b, F-6/7 HASS

Curriculum, Education Services Australia, viewed 3 December 2015,

<http://www.australiancurriculum.edu.au/humanities-and-social-sciences/hass/curriculum/f10?layout=1#page=2&yl-5>.
Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority [ACARA] 2015c, General capabilities,
Education Services Australia, viewed 5 December 2015,
<http://www.australiancurriculum.edu.au/generalcapabilities/overview/introduction>.
Australian Government 2015, Australian identity, Australian Government, viewed 8 December
2015, <http://www.australia.gov.au/about-australia/australian-stories/australian-identity>.
Australians Against Racism 2015, Background, Australians Against Racism, viewed 7 December
2015, <http://www.australiansagainstracism.org/background>.
Australian Government 2011, Global perspectives: a framework for global education in Australian

schools, Education Services Australia, viewed 3 December 2015,

<http://www.globaleducation.edu.au/verve/_resources/GPS_web.pdf>.
Browett, J & Ashman, G 2008, Thinking globally: global perspectives in the early years classroom,
Curriculum Corporation, Victoria.
Commonwealth of Australia 2012, What are global perspectives?, Global Education, viewed 3
December 2015, <http://www.globaleducation.edu.au/global-education/what-are-globalperspectives.html>.
Dechian, S, Millar, H & Sallis, E (eds.) 2004, Dark dreams: Australian refugee stories, Wakefield
Press, South Australia.
Department of Social Services 2014, Settlement and multicultural affairs, Australian Government,
viewed 9 December 2015, <https://www.dss.gov.au/our-responsibilities/settlement-andmulticultural-affairs/publications/the-people-of-australia-australias-multicultural-policy>.
Gray, A 1997, Constructivist teaching and learning, Saskatchewan Schools Board Association,
viewed 9 December 2015,
<http://www.saskschoolboards.ca/old/ResearchAndDevelopment/ResearchReports/Instruction/9707.htm>.

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New South Wales Department of Education and Training 2006, China down under: teacher

resource, Australian Government Department of Education, Science and Training, viewed 9


December 2015,
<http://www.curriculumsupport.education.nsw.gov.au/primary/hsie/assets/pdf/china/chinateach_bk
.pdf>.
Peddie, S (dir.) 2015, Luke Nguyen, Who do you think you are, television program, SBS, 18
August 2015.
Pressley, M & McCormick, CB 1995, Thoughtful classrooms, in M Pressley & CB McCormick (eds),

Advanced educational psychology for educators, researchers and policymakers, Harper Collins,
New York, pp. 286 288.
rd

Reynolds, R 2014, Teaching humanities and social sciences in the primary school, 3 edn, Oxford
University Press, Victoria.
World Vision 2010, Issue 8 Migration, World Vision, viewed 7 December 2015,
<http://www.worldvision.com.au/docs/default-source/school-resources/get-connected-fullissues/getconnected-08-migration.pdf?sfvrsn=2>.

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Appendices
Appendix One World Vision Inquiry Questions
The inquiry questions provided by World Vision are as follows (World Vision
2010, p. 2):

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Why do people migrate to another country?

How do people migrate to Australia?

What is it like to be a refugee?

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