Introduction to malls

Paper 580/2.2

What s mall ?
Mall can refer to either a shopping mall a place where a collection of shops all adjoin a pedestrian area or an exclusively pedestrians street that allows shoppers to walk without interference from vehicle traffic. Mall is generally used in North America to refer to a large shopping area usually composed of a single building which contains multiple shops, usually "anchored" by one or more department stores surrounded by a parking lot, while the term arcade is more often Britain, pedestrianused, especially in Britain, to refer to a narrow pedestrian-only street, often covered or between closely spaced buildings. A larger, often partly covered and exclusively pedestrian shopping area is in Britain also termed a shopping centre, shopping precinct, or pedestrian centre, precinct, precinct. precinct. A shopping mall or shopping centre is one or more buildings forming a complex of shops representing merchandisers, with interconnecting walkways enabling visitors to easily walk from unit to unit, along with a parking area a modern, indoor version of the traditional marketplace.

Classes of malls
Regional malls
A regional mall is, per the International Council of Shopping Centers, in the United Centers, States, a shopping mall which is designed to service a larger area than a conventional shopping mall. As such, it is typically larger with 400,000 sq ft (37,000 m2) to 800,000 sq ft (74,000 m2) gross leasable area with at least two anchors and offers a wider selection of stores. Given their wider service area, these malls tend to have higherhigherend stores that need a larger area in order for their services to be profitable. Regional malls are also found as tourist attractions in vacation areas.

Super regional malls
A super regional mall is, per the International Council of Shopping Centers, in the Centers, U.S. a shopping mall with over 800,000 sq ft (74,000 m2) of gross leasable area, and which serves as the dominant shopping venue for the region in which it is located.

Outlet mall
An outlet mall (or outlet centre) is a type of shopping mall in which manufacturers sell their products directly to the public through their own stores. Other stores in outlet malls are operated by retailers selling returned goods and discontinued products, often at heavily reduced prices. Outlet stores were found as early as 1936, but the first multimultistore outlet mall, Vanity Fair, located in Reading, PA didn't open until 1974. Belz Fair, Enterprises opened the first enclosed factory outlet mall in 1979, in Lakeland, TN, a TN, Memphis. suburb of Memphis.[

Components
Food court A common feature of shopping malls is a food court: this typically court: consists of a number of fast food vendors of various types, surrounding a shared seating area. Department stores When the shopping mall format was developed by Victor Gruen in the midmid-1950s, signing larger department stores was necessary for the financial stability of the projects, and to draw retail traffic that would result in visits to the smaller stores in the mall as well. These larger stores are termed anchor store or draw tenant. Anchors generally have their rents heavily discounted, and may even receive cash inducements from the mall to remain open. In physical configuration, anchor stores are normally located as far from each other as possible to maximize the amount of traffic from one anchor to another.

A Brief History Of Shopping Centers
Shopping centers have existed in some form for more than 1,000 years as ancient market squares, bazaars and seaport commercial districts. The modern shopping center, which includes everything from small suburban strip centers to the million-square-foot super regional malls, million-squarehad its genesis in the 1920s.
The concept of developing a shopping district away from a downtown is generally attributed to J.C. Nichols of Kansas City, Missouri. His Country Club Plaza, which opened in 1922, was constructed as the business district for a large-scale residential development. It featured largeunified architecture, paved and lighted parking lots, and was managed and operated as a single unit. In the later half of the 1920s, as automobiles began to clog the central business districts of large cities, small strip centers were built on the outskirts. The centers were usually anchored by a supermarket and a drug store, supplemented by other convenience-type shops. The convenience-

typical design was a straight line of stores with space for parking in front. Grandview Avenue Shopping Center in Columbus, Ohio, which opened in 1928, included 30 shops and parking for 400 cars.

But many experts consider Highland Park Shopping Village in Dallas, Tex., developed Dallas, by Hugh Prather in 1931, to be the first planned shopping center. Like Country Club Plaza, its stores were built with a unified image and managed under the control of a single owner, but Highland Park occupied a single site and was not bisected by public streets. And its storefronts faced inward, away from the streets, a revolutionary design.

In the 1930s and 1940s, Sears Roebuck & Co. and Montgomery Ward set up large, freestanding stores with on-site parking, away from the centers of big oncities. Nighttime shopping was inaugurated at Town & Country Shopping Center in Columbus,
Ohio, when developer Don Casto hired Grandma Carver (a woman who dived from a 90-foot perch 90into a 4-foot pool of flaming water), to perform her act in the lighted parking lot, bringing shopping 4center promotion to a new level.

The early 1950s marked the opening of the first two shopping centers anchored by full-line branches of downtown department stores. Northgate in fullSeattle, Wash., (two strip centers face-to-face with a pedestrian walkway in face-tobetween) opened in 1950, and Shoppers World in Framingham, Mass. (the first two-level center), debuted the following year. twoThe concept was improved upon in 1954 when Northland Center in Detroit, Mich., used a cluster layout with a single department store at the center and a ring of stores around it. The parking lot completely surrounded the center. Northland was also the first center to have central air-conditioning as well as heating. airheating.

In 1956, South dale Center in Edina, Minn., outside of Minneapolis, opened as the first fully enclosed mall with a two-level design. It had central airtwoairconditioning and heating, a comfortable common area and, more importantly, it had two competitive department stores as anchors. South dale is considered by
most industry professionals to be the first modern regional mall.

By 1964 there were 7,600 shopping centers in the United States. Suburban
development and population growth after World War II created the need for more housing and more convenient retail shopping. Most of the centers built in the 1950s and 1960s were strip centers serving new housing developments. By 1972 the number of shopping centers had doubled to 13,174. Regional malls like South dale and The Galleria in Houston, Tex., had become a fixture in many larger markets, and Americans began to enjoy the convenience and pleasure of mall shopping. During the 1970s, a number of new formats and shopping center types evolved.

In 1976 The Rouse Co. developed Faneuil Hall Marketplace in Boston, Mass., which was the first of the festival marketplaces built in the United States. The project, which revived a troubled downtown market, was centered on food and retail specialty items. Similar projects were built in Baltimore, Md., New York, N.Y.,
and Miami, Fla., and have been emulated in a number of urban areas. The Bicentennial year also marked the debut of the country s first urban vertical mall, Water Tower Place, which opened in Chicago, Ill., on Michigan Avenue. To many experts, Water Tower Place with its tiny stores, hotel, offices, condominiums and parking garage, remains the preeminent mixed-use project in the United States. With the opening of Water mixedStates. Tower Place and Faneuil Hall, the shopping center industry had returned to its urban roots. The 1980s saw an unparalleled period of growth in the shopping center industry, with more than 16,000 centers built between 1980 and 1990. This was also the period when super regional centers (malls larger than 800,000 square feet) became increasingly popular with shoppers. In 1990, a Gallup poll found that people shopped most frequently at super regional malls and neighborhood centers.

Americans average four trips to the mall per month.

Between 1989 and 1993, new shopping center development dropped nearly 70%, from 1,510 construction starts in 1989 to 451 starts in 1993. The sharp decline in new center starts was attributed to the Savings and Loan crisis, which helped precipitate a severe credit crunch. While overbuilding occurred among small centers in some regions of the United States, shopping centers remained the most attractive and best-performing real estate category for investors bestduring this difficult period.

The year 1993 was marked by the transition of several privately held, family-run familyshopping center development companies (Simon, Taubman, etc.) into publicly traded real estate investment trusts (REITs). The access to Wall Street capital provided a financial jolt to an industry
that still had not fully recovered from the credit crunch.

One of the newer retail formats that has become increasingly popular in the United States is the power center, which loosely defined is a center between 250,000 and 600,000 square feet, with approximately 75% to 90% of its space occupied by category killers or destination anchor stores. Power centers are often located near regional and super regional malls. San Francisco-based Terranomics is credited with pioneering the concept at 280 Metro FranciscoCenter in Colma, Calif. In 1993, 16 power centers opened in the United States, compared with only four super regional malls. Factory outlet centers were one of the fastest growing segments of the shopping center industry in the 1990s. In 1990, there were 183 outlet centers. Today, there are over approximately 312 outlet centers in the United States. Outlet malls are tenanted by manufacturers selling their own goods at discounted prices. Some large projects combine outlet stores with traditional off-price stores like Marshalls. One such project, Sawgrass Mills in Sunrise, Fla., is more than 2 offmillion square feet and features outlets, discounters and retail clearance stores. The largest mall in the United States is currently Mall of America in Bloomington, Minn., which includes a seven-acre sevenamusement park, nightclubs, restaurants and covers 4.2 million square feet (with about half that total devoted to retailing). The center has been heralded as a bellwether for its innovative mixture of entertainment and retailing. The forerunner to Mall of America, and the largest mall in North America, is West Edmonton Mall in Alberta, which

encompasses 5.5 million square feet.

Entertainment quickly became an industry buzzword in the early 1990s as technological advances allowed shopping center developments to foster the same magical experiences that were once only seen in national amusement parks such as Disney World. Since the start of the entertainment wave, retailers have focused on keeping their presentations exciting and shopping center owners have striven to obtain tenant mixes that draw traffic from the widest audience possible. Under one roof or in an outdoor retail format, consumers enjoy children s plays capes, virtual reality games, live shows, movies in multiplex cinemas, a variety of food in either the food court or themed restaurants, carousel rides, visually stunning merchandising techniques, robotic animal displays, and interactive demonstrations. Many shopping centers are also focused on added service-oriented servicetenants, which offer today s busy consumer an opportunity to complete weekly errands or to engage in a variety of other activities. Among the many services found in today s malls are churches, schools, postal branches, municipal offices, libraries, and museums.

Internet and shopping malls
As the 1990s drew to a close, Internet retailing was heralded as the wave of the future and a threat to the stability of the shopping center industry. In July of 1998, Time magazine predicted the demise of the shopping mall. In bold type, Time s cover advised its readers to, Kiss Your Mall Good-Bye: GoodOnline Shopping is Cheaper, Quicker and Better. While the cover was purely sensational, the tone was clear. The shopping center industry was under attack, yet again, from an alternative shopping format. Several years earlier similar claims were made about the impact home television shopping would have on the industry. In fact, the cover of BusinessWeek magazine in July of 1993 read, Retailing Will Never Be the Same: The Home Shopping Revolution. Unlike home television shopping, Internet retailing quickly captured the attention of the public, the media and Wall Street as companies rushed to develop websites that would sell directly to consumers. In the euphoria it mattered little that many of these Internet companies had little or no retail experience. Fearing the cannibalization of store sales, brick-and-mortar retailers at first were hesitant to sell brick-anddirectly to the public via the Internet. However, when it became apparent that they had some clear advantages over pure Internet retailers (brand name recognition, distribution facilities, supplier relationships, ability to accept returns at stores, etc.) brick-and-mortar retailers launched their own brick-andwebsites. These advantages quickly paid off for brick-and-mortar retailers. In fact, in 1998, brickbrick-andbrickandand-mortar retailers websites captured 60% of online sales. In addition to buying online, brick-and-mortar retailers discovered that their consumers were using brick-andthe web as a research vehicle. Consumers were logging on to retailers websites to search for goods, and services, and armed with product information, were making purchases at stores. Thus the Internet has transformed a large and growing number of retailers into multi-channel retailers with multiall sales channels (stores, web, and catalog) working as one to help retailers maximize the value of their brands. Understanding that there is great synergy between the Internet and brick-and-mortar stores, brick-andshopping centers owners have created their own websites and are working with their retail tenants to create distribution channels to satisfy the consumer, whether the consumer decides to shop at a shopping center, on the Internet or both.

In 1999, Simon Property Group, the nation s largest shopping center developer, created two separate business units, clixnmortar.com and Tenant Connect. Through Tenant Connect, Simon is installing broadband Internet connections inside its own malls and those of other developers, so that stores can have high-speed access to the Internet. Also, retailers at Simon malls can take part highin two clixnmortar initiative: FastFrog.Com and YourSherpa. In both programs, consumers carry handheld scanners through the mall, and scan items they are interested in buying. When shoppers are finished, the information is loaded into computer kiosks. From the FastFrog kiosk,

shoppers can have their list of items forward to friends or relatives. At the YourSherpa kiosk, users can type in their credit card number and check out immediately, or delay the final purchase until they go home. Mall employees pickpick-up scanned items at stores in the mall and customers have the option of pickingpicking-up the items at the mall or having them delivered.
General Growth Properties, the nation s second-largest mall developer is also incorporating the secondInternet into their malls. General Growth s Mallibu.com website links retailers in each of the company s malls, allowing consumers to buy online directly from those retailers and have their purchases delivered to them. Other shopping center developers are also working with their retailers to incorporate the Internet into their businesses model. Many shopping centers have their own websites and have added their web address to their advertising and promotional vehicles. Most shopping center websites have maps and directions to the center, a list of tenants and a calendar of events. Some shopping centers are even providing free Internet access for their customers. The center can e-mail the customer information on esales and special events that are taking place at the center.

As we enter the 21st century, shopping centers continue to evolve and serve communities social and economic needs. With the combination of fashion, food, entertainment, and services, shopping centers have greatly expanded their role in the communities they serve.

Early Canadian Shopping Centers

There have been three main stages in the development of shopping centers in North America: the uncovered mall, the enclosed mall and the mega mall. Apparently, the mall experience was first available to shoppers in 1922 with the opening of the Country Club Plaza in Kansas City, Missouri. It wasn't until the 1950s however that colonnades, plazas, park and shops, strip malls - whichever name you prefer started to dot the Canadian landscape. At this time, populations began to shift from the cities to suburban areas and car use increased, which also increased traffic congestion and parking problems in the urban areas. Shopping centers, constructed for the convenience of the new suburban populations, were a way to ensure continued patronage from those no longer frequenting the traditional downtown shopping district.

West Vancouver's Park Royal Shopping Centre has the distinction of being Canada's first shopping centre. It opened in September 1950 as an open-air openmall and Woodward's was right there as one of the original developers and tenants. The following excerpt, from Woodward's Beacon of July 1949, describes the project: Cover of 1950 Woodward's Beacon featuring the opening of Park Royal Shopping Centre in Vancouver, British Columbia "As has been announced in the local papers, a large shopping centre is planned in West Vancouver, and again our store leads the way in being the first downtown department store to have a branch department store in the suburbs. The store planned in our neighboring community is in every sense one of the most modern structures of its kind." In the fall of 1953, Morgan's opened a branch store in the Boulevard Shopping Centre in northeast Montreal. It was the largest shopping centre in Canada at the time and with its presence there, Morgan's expected to "usher in a new era of shopping convenience to thousands of new customers." Features of the new development included covered walks from bus stops to all stores, landscaped park areas and rest stations. Expansion into malls in followed for Morgan's with locations such as the Dorval Shopping Centre, Lawrence Plaza in northwest Toronto and the Greater Hamilton Shopping Centre. other suburban areas quickly

At around the same time, Zellers also opened a new store in Lawrence Park in Toronto, a location described as a Park-and-Shop Development. In the 1954 Park-andannual report, the company noted that while it was too early to tell for sure whether the venture would be successful, "there is, however, a definite retail trend in this direction, and commitments have been made for the opening of two more stores in similar developments in the Toronto area." It was the beginning of a new era for retailers and customers alike. The trend toward bigger and better centers would eventually lead to the development of huge malls that draw tourists as well as shoppers.

The first significant change to the structure of malls occurred in 1956 when they became enclosed structures. This meant not only that customers no longer had to brave the elements to get from store to store but also that in the summer they were able to take advantage of the air-conditioned comfort airavailable at the mall. Many of the older-style open malls eventually converted to this more oldercustomercustomer-friendly style, often as part of a mall expansion. For example, Canada's first mall, Park Royal Shopping Centre in West Vancouver, which opened in 1950, converted to an enclosed mall in 1962. Another example, happening a little later, was the conversion of the Oakridge Shopping Centre. Built by Woodward's as an open-mall plaza in 1959, it was converted to an enclosed openmall in 1984. Greater comfort was coupled with greater style and convenience. Developers
began to include elegant and exciting finishes in areas no longer prone to weathering and to offer a wider range of stores and services. These included restaurants and public spaces for special events. While traditionally malls had been anchored by a single key tenant, the larger malls could sustain internal competition adding further convenience for its patrons. In 1958, Simpsons and Eatons made history by both signing on to open stores in the much-hyped new Yorkdale Shopping Centre in North muchYork, Ontario. When it opened it was, according to its promotional literature, "Canada's largest Regional Shopping Centre and one of the world's most extensive." It cost 25 million dollars to build and contained over 100 stores.

Open air mall, Rexdale, Ontario, 1966

Fairview Centre, Pointe Claire, Quebec, 1965

As competition between malls grew, developers scrambled to build bigger and better centers until in the late 1970s and early 1980s huge mega malls were being opened which seemed to be as much about family entertainment and tourist dollars as they were about retailing. The crowning example of this is the West Edmonton Mall with its lagoon and indoor roller coaster. Its story is an interesting one in terms of Hbc store history. In 1979 Hbc signed on as a major department store tenant in the initial phase of the centre. At the same time, taking advantage of the diversity of services supplied at the mall, the company opened a food kiosk in the food court area which they ran as a Malt Stop. The store opened in 1981. In phase three, Woodward's, then an Hbc competitor, opened a store. In 1993, after Hbc purchased the Woodward's chain, the store converted to a Bay store meaning that Hbc was operating two Bay stores, the Malt Stop and a Zellers (opened in 1983) for a total of four properties in the same complex! That's a far cry from the days when two different department stores wouldn't operate in the same mall!

Since the opening of West Edmonton Mall in the 1980s, there has been nothing built to rival it. In fact, malls are receiving much less attention these days and the whole concept of the shopping centre is undergoing another shift. At present, there seems to be three new trends in mass retailing. The first is the Big Box store, of which Home Outfitters is an example. These are often clustered together to form power centres, which in many ways harkens back to the first open-air park-and-shops. open- park-andThe second trend is toward town centres. These developments are attempts to fuse the best elements of the enclosed mall with the old Main Street retail experience. They often incorporate office and living spaces as well as spaces for cultural and civic activities, in effect creating miniature cities. The final trend is toward the virtual mall, where service providers deliver access to groups of online retailers and offer users access to Internet-commerce applications. We'll just have to Internetwait and see which of these trends will survive the next fifty years of retail.

Shopping Center Types
Airport mall: specialty retail, restaurants, and other services concentrated in airports Arcade: a type of enclosed urban shopping center popular in the 19th century, typically with an arched glass roof and two rows of shops either side of a pedestrian passageway, which often connected two parallel streets Community center: a shopping center of 100,000 to 350,000 square feet GLA, typically anchored by a one or two discount department, drug, or home improvement stores; they are commonly open, one-story, with stores arranged in a single strip, L- or oneU-shape Convenience center: an open shopping center with fewer than half-a-dozen with halfstores offering day-to-day necessities, such as a mini-mart, dry cleaners, wine and beer, day-tominivideo rentals, and the like Enclosed mall: a shopping center entirely inside a roofed structure, so that entrance to the mall is controlled by a limited number of entrances and most stores are accessible only via interior corridors Entertainment complex: a shopping center that features theaters, restaurants, amusements and related retail stores Fashion mall: a shopping center featuring stores that offer stylish clothing, posh merchandise, and quality consumer goods Festival (or themed) marketplace: typically, an urban shopping center, featuring restaurant and entertainments, associated with a place of historic or cultural interest, such as Baltimore's Inner Harbor and Boston s Faneuil Hall

Shopping Center Types contd.
Galleria: a glass-roofed mall or mall courtyard, derived from the European glass-vaulted glassglassVictorianVictorian-era shopping arcades, especially the design of the Galleria Vittorio Emanuele II (built 1867) in Milan, Italy Greyfields: a dying shopping center, specifically (according to Price-WaterhousePrice-WaterhouseCoopers) a center in which annual sales are less than $150 per square foot of retail space Lifestyle center: typically, an open-air shopping center whose array of retail outlets open(such as women's fashion stores, jewelers, leather goods, and restaurants) are designed to appeal to upscale consumers; lifestyle centers usually include attractive landscaping, fountains, outdoor seating, and other features that encourage browsing Mall: any large shopping center (usually enclosed) with adjacent parking and out buildings MixedMixed-use center: an integrated complex that may contain residences, offices, restaurants, theaters, a hotel and other services, in addition to retail stores Neighborhood center: typically, an open-air shopping center of 30,000 to 150,000 opensquare feet GLA with 3 to 15 stores, anchored by a supermarket

OpenOpen-air: a shopping center in which stores are directly accessible to the public; exterior walkways may be covered, but the stores are not enclosed under a single roof Outlet (or off-price) mall: a shopping center with national brand-name retailers, factory outlets, or offbrandcloseclose-out outlets selling discounted merchandise Power mall: a shopping center containing several category-killer stores, such as homecategoryhomeimprovement, discount department, toys, and stationary Regional center: a shopping center with 400,000 to 800,000 square feet GLA, often an enclosed mall, with 40 to 100 stores anchored by one or more department stores Shopping center: a planned group of connected retail stores, usually with an attached parking area, specially developed on a parcel of private property and managed by a single organization Strip: a small open-air neighborhood shopping center, typically smaller than 10,000 square feet GLA open, with at least three stores, arranged in a connected row facing a parking area SuperSuper-regional center: the largest classification of shopping center; it is usually an enclosed mall larger than 800,000 square feet GLA with more than 100 stores, including several department stores Urban mall: shopping center located within a city, the largest of which may be on several levels with adjacent multi-level parking multiValue-oriented mall: a large shopping center characterized by low-end, discount, and outlet stores ValuelowVillage center: an open-air shopping center having several wings and often a central plaza open-

General Terminology
Anchor stores: the largest retail outlets, usually located at the ends or corners of shopping centers, and chosen in part for their potential to attract customers to the shopping center generally; departments stores usually anchor regional and super-regional malls and supermarkets superare typical anchors in community centers Arcade: an entertainment area offering coin-operated computer games and other amusements coinBack of the house: the office, stock room, and other non-retail areas of a store nonBig box: a large stand-alone store that specializes in a single line of products, such as home standimprovements, toys, or office supplies; no-frills discount stores that sell in volume and category nokillers are often big box stores Brownfields: a potential shopping center site contaminated by chemicals, such as a former industrial location Cart: a wheeled display from which merchandise is sold in pedestrian areas of a mall, often fitted out with shelves, display racks, and the like Cash wrap: the front counter with the cash register and often a wrapping or packing area Category killer: a large national chain store specializing in one line of products, such as home improvements, office supplies, or toys, that can overwhelm both smaller and more diverse competitors because of its size, variety of merchandise, and prices Community room: an area available for public use, ranging from a bare meeting room that can accommodate folding chairs and tables to a more elaborate hall with stage, adjacent kitchen, and other services Double dumbbell shape: a cross-shaped shopping center with anchor stores at the end of crosseach cross Draw tenant: a store that attracts a large number of potential customers to a shopping center, often an anchor store Dumbbell: a linear shopping center with anchors stores on each end

General Terminology contd.
Factory outlet: a retail store that sells merchandise direct from the manufacturer, usually at reduced prices Food court: a separate area of a shopping center containing fast-food outlets and a fastcommon seating area FreeFree-standing store: a retail outlet not associated with a shopping center, especially those at a distance from congested shopping areas and downtowns
Greenfields: undeveloped land, particularly a site suitable for a shopping center Gross lease able area (GLA): the total area of floor space (usually cited in square feet) leased for retail shops, consumer services, and entertainment, including restaurants. The total floor area of any shopping center or mall is inevitably larger than the gross leaseable area; the difference can be accounted for by mall offices, utility areas, storage, rest rooms, interior plazas, and other nonnon-revenue producing spaces. Areas that are not let on long-term leases, such as assembly longhalls, exhibition space, public meeting rooms, and the like are usually not included in GLA figures, though they may produce some rental revenue. Irregulars: salable merchandise with minor imperfections sold a reduced prices Junior department store: (1) a small department store offering a limited selection of goods; (2) a scaled-down version of a full-sized department store scaledfull-

General Terminology contd.
Kiosk: a semi-permanent booth placed in pedestrian areas of a shopping center and used to sell semismall items or to offer specific services, such as jewelry repair L-shaped: a shopping center with two linear strips of stores connected at right angles, forming the letter L; anchors are typically located on the two ends or at the apex, with parking inside the apex; L-shaped is a common design for community-sized centers communityMall manager: the person employed by the owner or a management company to supervise daily operations of a shopping center Mall mayor: the retailer who acts as the informal spokesperson for the tenants of a shopping center Mall walker: person who walks in a shopping center for exercise, especially during a period set aside for this purpose before stores have opened in the mornings Market area: the geographical area from which a shopping center draws its customers Mall rat: young person who frequents a shopping center primarily for socializing and entertainment, rather than for shopping OffOff-price center: a retail store that sells brand-name clothing or other goods (often with labels brandremoved) at reduced prices Outlot tenant: a free-standing retailer or service located on a separate parcel in front of a freeshopping center; also called a pad tenant Outparcel: (1) a physically separate store or service, such as a restaurant, bank, office, or motel, included in a shopping center s property; (2) unoccupied land on a shopping center's property

General Terminology contd..
Shrinkage: (1) difference between value of inventoried merchandise and merchandise book value, attributable to waste, shop wear, carelessness, fraud, theft, and so on; (2) more specifically, loss of merchandise due to shoplifting, usually reported as a percentage of sales T-shaped: a shopping center comprising two linear arrays of stores forming the shape of the letter T, with anchor stores at each of the three ends and parking on all sides TallTall-wall stall: a temporary retailing display and counter built against an empty wall Temporary tenant: typically, a retailer that rents space in a common area for a cart, kiosk, or tall-wall stall for less than a year tallU-shaped: a linear array of stores forming the shape of the letter U, with anchors placed in the center or on the two ends and parking inside the U

Amusement park and theme park are terms for a collection of rides and other entertainment attractions assembled for the purpose of entertaining a large group of people. An amusement park is more elaborate than a simple city park or playground, playground, usually providing attractions meant to cater to children, teenagers, and adults.

Amusement park

Amusement parks evolved in Europe from fairs and pleasure gardens which were created for people s recreation. The oldest amusement park of the world (opened 1583) is Bakken, at Klampenborg, north of Copenhagen, Denmark. In the United States, world's fairs and expositions were another influence on development of the amusement park industry.

Today's scenario excerpts Amusement Parks in India as:
Are recreational facilities that offer a varied range of entertainment options ranging from theme parks to spine chilling roller coaster, 3D theater to giant wheel, in a cluster format. These parks provide one-stop-shop leisure and one-stopentertainment solutions for the entire family at one place and are a key source of tourist attraction (domestic and foreign) and revenue generation for the State. The demand for entertainment options such as amusement parks, I-max, Ishopping malls are rapidly increasing across the Country. The key demand drivers for the segments are rising base of middle class, increasing disposable income, changing lifestyle, cultural shift and increasing emphasis to lead a holistic life with a balance of work and leisure

Recreation Industry is currently one of the most exciting sectors in India. The current market for leisure is estimated to cross USD 1 bn in next few years. The leisure industry mainly consist of amusement park, malls family entertainment centers (FECs) and multiplexes. The present consumer base is estimated around 30 million people

Government Support
Government land will be offered with the approval of the Empowered Committee as equity participation on behalf of the Government at current market value for setting up Joint Ventures. New projects shall be exempt from Luxury Tax for ten years from the date of commencement of commercial operations. New projects shall be exempt from Sales Tax for ten years from the date of commencement of commercial operations. Entertainment Centers will be exempt from Entertainment Tax for ten years from the date of commencement of commercial operations

Brief positioning of amusement parks in India
Given the surge in India's middle classes, the family classes, entertainment and amusement sector of the India economy holds out promise for investors, both domestic and foreign. As at the start of 2001, this industry incorporated an investment of Rs. 1,000 crore (1 crore = 10 million). Between 2001-04, the industry is expected to grow three2001threefold in terms of both number of parks and total investment intake. Between 2001 and 2005, an estimated 400 new parks in this category are expected to be built all over India. However, as at the start of 2001, there were no rules specific to the development of amusement parks. Businesses wanting to enter this sector had to get as many as 19 renewable no-objection certificates annually. noMost of the existing and planned or under-construction underamusement centres are being developed by Indian entrepreneurs using amusement equipment available offoffthethe-shelf in the United States and Europe.

Brief positioning of amusement parks contd.
There is no legally defined requirement of area for amusement parks in India. But, the general norm is that a population centre of six million people can be served with an a park covering an area of 40-60 acres. 40Foreign direct investment (FDI) in India's amusement parks sector is inhibited by low gate fees (currently varying between Rs 30-250 per person. 30In some parks, such as Essel World and Water Kingdom (85 acres) in Mumbai, the gate fee is on the higher side but most games (expect the water games) are covered by it. In contrast, Calcutta's Nicco Park (40 acres) has a relatively low gate fee but many of the games are separately charged. Foreign companies reportedly interested in the Indian amusement parks market include Universal Studios, Time Warner and Disney. According to the Indian Association of Amusement Parks and Industries, a park can be profitable if revenues from gate collections and other sources (such as food, toy memorabilia sales) reach a 50:50 ratio. However, in Essel World and Water Kingdom in Mumbai, the ratio still stands at 70:30 in favour of gate collections. The industry is campaigning for lowering land costs and entertainment taxes. Industry spokesmen point at the Ocean Park in Hong Kong which was provided free land and soft loans by the government. They also point at Disney park in the United States where 3,000 acres are being reclaimed from the sea for which Disney will pay only 20 per cent of the investment.

Disneyland Park (Anaheim)
Resort Disneyland Resort Opening Day July 17, 1955 Theme Magic Kingdom Operator The Walt Disney Company

Plaque at the entrance

Disneyland is an American theme park in Anaheim, California, owned and operated by the Walt Disney Parks and Resorts division of The Walt Disney Company. It was dedicated with a press preview on July 17, 1955, and opened to the general public July 18, 1955. Disneyland holds the distinction of being the only theme park to be designed and built under the direct supervision of Walt Disney himself.

Dedication
"To all who come to this happy place - welcome. Disneyland is your land. Here age relives fond memories of the past and here youth may savor the challenge and promise of the future. Disneyland is dedicated to the ideals, the dreams, and the hard facts that have created America ... with the hope that it will be a source of joy and inspiration to all the world." Walter E. Disney, July 17, 1955 4:43pm

Concept and construction

The concept for Disneyland began one Sunday, when Walt Disney was visiting Griffith Park with his daughters Diane and Sharon. While watching his daughters ride the Merry-Go-Round he came up with Merry-Gothe idea of a place where adults and their children could go and have fun together. His dream would lie dormant for many years. Walt Disney's father helped build the grounds of the World's Columbian Exposition of 1893 in Chicago. This perhaps gave Disney the creative spark whence Disneyland originated.

Walt hired a consultant, Harrison Price from Stanford Research Institute, to gauge the proper area to locate the theme park based on the area's potential growth. With the report from Price, Disney acquired 160 acres (0.250 sq mi; 0.647 km2) of orange groves and walnut trees in Anaheim, southeast of Los Angeles in neighboring Orange County.

Difficulties in obtaining funding prompted Disney to investigate new methods of fundraising. He decided to use television to get the ideas into people's homes, and so he created a show named Disneyland which was broadcast on the thenthenfledgling ABC television network. In return, the network agreed to help finance the new park. For the first five years of its operation, Disneyland was owned by Disneyland, Inc., which was jointly owned by Walt Disney Productions, Walt Disney, Western Publishing and ABC. In 1960 Walt Disney Productions purchased ABC's share (it had earlier bought out Western Publishing and Walt Disney).

Construction began on July 18, 1954 and would cost USD$17 million to complete, and was opened exactly one year later

1990s transition: Park becomes Resort
In the late 1990s, work began to expand on the one-park, oneoneonehotel property. Disneyland Park, the Disneyland Hotel and the site of the original parking lot as well as acquired surrounding properties were earmarked to become part of a greater vacation resort development. The new components of this resort were to be another theme park, Disney's California Adventure Park; a shopping, dining and entertainment complex, Downtown Disney; a remodeled Disneyland Hotel; Disney's Grand Californian Hotel; and the acquisition of the Pan Pacific Hotel (later to be remodeled and renamed Disney's Paradise Pier Hotel). Because the existing parking lot (south of Disneyland) was built upon by these projects, the six-level 10,250 space "Mickey and Friends" sixparking structure was constructed in the northwest corner of the property, at the time of its completion in 2000, it was the largest parking structure in the United Stat

Park layout
When the park initially opened, it consisted of five themed areas: Main Street, U.S.A., an early 20th century Midwest town Adventure land, featuring junglejunglethemed adventures Frontier land, illustrating western frontier Fantasy land, bringing fantasy into a reality Tomorrow land, looking into the future

Main Street USA.

Adventure land

Mickey's Toon town.

Critter Country New Orleans Square

Fantasyland

Tomorrow land

Leisure industry in India: Amusement park sector growth still healthy
The estimated Rs1,500-crore amusement park sector Rs1,500continues to grow at 10-15% 10Indian association of amusement parks and industries (IAAPI )has made representations to individual state governments to provide for a level playing field to the players. IAAPI, which was set up in 1999, has 180 members, including most of the 120 parks in the country, Indian and foreign ride manufacturers, consultants and architects.

The amusement parks industry, which is yet to enter the taketake-off stage, is set for healthy growth. With an investment of around Rs.2,000 crores already having been made in the industry over the last two decades, the Indian Association of Amusement Parks and Industries (IAAPI) expects fresh investments to cross Rs. 4,000 crores over the next five years. Besides Essel World in Mumbai, the major players in this industry include Nicco, Fantasyland and Appu Ghar. The amusement parks business has the potential to generate a lot of economic activity in its location and create better traffic flow and tourist revenue. In India, fun business, which started slowly some two decades ago, is beginning to take off and pay rich dividends.

Essel World is Mumbai's only international-style theme park, internationalsituated close to Gorai Beach. Special ferries will take you to the park. This is the largest water theme park in Asia. The Water Kingdom of the park is located at Gorai Creek, west of Borivali. The park is sprawled over 64 acres and is a refreshing gateway to a whole new world of excitement and fun.
Essel World is India's answer to Disney Land. It is largest amusement parks for children, at Gorai, which is one hour from Goregaon Mumbai. It offers more than 45 thrilling and scintillating rides and games. Essel World Mumbai has something for each and every taste - joyrides, water world, excitement, adventure and thrill, nothing is left out. The Water Kingdom is said to be the largest of its kind in Asia. It is an unmatched leisure destination, offering enthralling attractions to the entire family. There are a number of travel agencies which operate daily package tours to Essel World and Water Kingdom which includes transport, entry charges, all rides with food costs optional. The entrance fee normally takes care of a fixed number of rides, which include the standard roller coaster and adventure themes, plus a water world section where kids can literally run amok. The peak season in Mumbai is summer when the park is crowded, but Essel World now offers low budget monsoon packages and special weekend deals

Essel World, Borivli, Mumbai

Just recently Essel World, introduced a new attraction at the amusement park, which became an instant hit with the crowds across all ages - an ice skating rink, "The Arctic Circle". In summer it is an extremely inviting and pleasant way to relax and have fun among the young and old alike. Essel World Mumbai provides to the public skates in three sizes, made specifically for artificial ice, and which cannot be used on natural ice. These were first imported from China, but now are assembled at Delhi. And for those who think that fun business is cheap, "The Arctic Circle" cost the company about Rs.1.5 crores ($3571428) to set up. The rink of "The Arctic Circle" measures 4000 sq. ft and is flanked on one side by a viewing gallery. An Australian architectural firm designed the rink based on Scandinavian and Norwegian designs. The "Arctic Circle" is beautiful in its total simplicity. simplicity.

Appu Ghar, New Delhi
International Amusement Ltd (IAL) is the organization holding Appu Ghar and Oysters Water ParkPark-India first Amusement Park. Pioneer in the entertainment and leisure industry, it was Appu Ghar that pulled people out of the staid environment of conventional pleasure trips and unfolded before them. The exciting new scenario of a complete leisure destination.

Appu Ghar cont. :
Appu Ghar is the first amusement park of India and is the favorite of all children because of its exquisite roller coasters and water slides. The minimini-Disneyland of Delhi has rides for people of all ages. The large range of swings and jhoolas here include the popular Roller Coaster, the Big Splash, Dodgem Cars, the Eerie Tunnel, Giant Wheel and Columbus Jhoola. Children love the thrill of riding in a Cable Car and the Speeding Cup. Since there is no snowfall in Delhi, the Ice Games at OYSTERS offering winter sports is quite popular here.

Appu Ghar cont.
Four acres of the Water Park blanketed with ice offering sledding, skiing, ice boating and bowling on ice; is a craze among the people from all over the country. People who love to dance and romance can access the Rain Dance or the Ice Dance that are introduced according to the season. This water park is especially preferred by people to beat off the scorching heat of the summers.

Fun and Food Village, Kapashera, New Delhi
Fun N Food Village is located on the Old Delhi - Gurgaon Highway 3 kilometers from the international airport in 10 acres of land with wide range of water rides, pools, rain dance, and also many park rides. The rides are suitable for people of all age groups. The wave pool, largest of all water parks in Delhi, is a special attraction of the park. The water park also boasts of the largest indoor Snow Park over an area of 2500 sq. m. The park offers 21 amusement rides, 22 water slides, rain dance, kids water play area and much more.

Fantasy Land, Mumbai
The Fantasy Land is one of the leading theme parks in Mumbai. The park, Located at Jogeshwari is rich with all sorts of new rides, which drags attraction from people all round the country.

Kishkintha, Chennai
Kishkintha is the first theme amusement park located 28 Km South of Chennai near Tambaram. It is spread over 110 acres, and offers exciting rides and attractions. Kishkinta is a household name and the favorite fun destination for all ages ranging from six to sixty. It is an ideal destination for family and group entertainment. The amusements, attractions, water games and rides, make Kishkinta India's leading water theme park.

Athisayam Amusement Park, Madurai
Located in Madurai near the Vaigai River, the Athisayam Amusement park is a marvelous entertainment center for children, adults and old. The park showcases enough for all kinds of people including the different rides, which are wonderful. The Athisayam Park is famous for its cleanliness and safety. Athisayam was born on 2000.

MGM Dizzy World, Tamil Nadu

MGM Dizzy World is a 27-acre, children s amusement 27park situated at Muttukkadu enroute to Mamallapuram. The major attractions here are the water chute, parachute tower, pirate boat and a 110 feet dizee shake challenger.

Bay Watch Park, Kanyakumari, Tamil Nadu
Bay Watch, located in Kanyakumari is unique in many ways. With the recently added wax museum, Bay watch is the only park in Asia to house one. The wax museum being the first of its kind in this part of the world has caught up with the imagination of the people. Baywatch at sunset point Kanyakumari is also the first seaside amusement park in India.

Veega Land, Cochin, Kerala
Veega Land is situated 300 feet above sea level and is set amongst 30 acres of surpassingly grand and incomparably idyllic environs, at Pallikara (near to Cochin city). The park is only 14 kilometers away from Cochin the 'Queen of the Arabian Sea'. Veega Land's scintillating and tranquil setting is matched only by the ambitious scale and grandeur of the park itself. The architecture expresses nothing less than the heart and soul of ethnic Kerala, with a few surprising flashes of vintage Chinese architecture as well.

Aquatica Water Park
Location: Kochpukur, Rajarhat Spread over: 8 acres
Aquatica is the craziest and busiest place specially during this hot days we are experience in the city. Aquatica water theme park is located at Kochpukur, near Rajarhat, 8 kms from Kestopur on V I P Road. Aquatica is crafted in line with Mumbai s famous Water Kingdom . Aquatica water theme park in Kolkata is only 6 km away from the famous Nicco Park or Nalban and contain about 8 acre area. The park was inaugurated on 22nd July, 2000. They have a thrilling rafting ride through artificial mountain river which is one of the most famous entertainment at the park. There are many rides such as To n Fro , Surf Racer , Drought Shout and Mississippi ride . Aqua wave pool is another popular place over there.

Most distinctive Shopping malls in the world
The Dubai Mall
Location Dubai, United Arab Emirates Opening date November 4, 2008 Developer Dutco (Balfour Beatty plc) and AGCCC Management Turner Construction International LLC Owner Emaar Properties

The Dubai Mall is the world's largest shopping mall based on total area and sixth largest by gross leasable area. Located in Dubai, United Arab Emirates, it is part of the Burj Khalifa complex, the 20-billion-dollar project has 1,200 20-billionshops.[1][2] Access to the mall is provided via Doha Street, rebuilt as a double-decker road in April 2009 doubleOver 12 million sq ft (equivalent in size to more than 50 soccer fields), the Dubai Mall has a total internal floor area of 5.9 million square feet (55 ha) and leasable space of 3.77 million square feet (35 ha), about same as West Edmonton Mall

The Dubai Mall has 10 15 distinct 'malls-within-a'malls-withinmall', totaling 9 million ft² (84 ha) of shopping retail space (comprising of a total of 1200 stores, when fully operational). Featured attractions include: the world's largest Gold Souk with 220 retailers; the 850,000 sq ft (79,000 m2) Fashion Catwalk atrium; Fashion Island (Avenue), with 70 stores dedicated to haute couture; the Middle East's first Galleries Lafayette department store; Oasis Fountain Waterfall; and Waterfront Atrium. Other attractions include the region's first SEGA indoor theme park, SEGA Republic covering 76,000 sq ft (7,100 m2); KidZania, a 80,000 sq ft (7,400 m2) children's 'edutainment' centre; a 2222-screen Cineplex, the largest in Dubai; and The Grove, an indoor-outdoor streetscape with fully indoorretractable roof. It also features over 160 food and beverage options, 220 gold & jewellery outlets; a supermarket and an organic food mart. Among the shops is British toy store Hamley's, which opened a 32,00032,000-square foot (3,000 m²) store that includes a replica of London's Regent Street, with the franchise owned by Retail Arabia

Many shops, however, will remain shuttered for a long while to come. Bloomingdale's might open by 2010. It also has a 250-room luxury hotel, 22 cinema screens plus 120 250restaurants and cafes. The Mall has over 14,000 parking spaces across 3 car parks, with valet services and a car locator ticketing system.[7] The mall has won five awards two awards at the Retail Future Project Awards at MAPIC, Cannes, in 2004, for Best Retail Development Scheme (Large) and Best Use of Lighting in a Retail Environment [8] and the Dubai Mall brochure collected three awards at the Summit Creative Awards 2005 in Portland, Oregon the Gold award for Best Art Direction / Graphic Design, Silver award for Best 4-colour B2B Brochure, and a Judges 4Special Recognition award.

Dubai Aquarium and Under Water Zoo The Mall's Dubai Aquarium and Discovery Centre, developed and operated by Oceanis Australia Group, officially earned the Guinness World Record for the world's "Largest Acrylic Panel" (32.88 m wide × 8.3 m high × 750 mm thick and weighing 245,614 kg). The acrylic viewing panel is larger than Japan's Okinawa Churaumi Aquarium (22.5 m wide × 8.2 m high and 600 mm thick). Its 750 mm thick acrylic viewing panel can withstand pressure of 10 million liters of water used in the aquarium, but its transparency gives visitors clear views of over 33,000 marine animals on display. The Mall adopted an International Standard of Ethics and Animal Welfare Policy in its development and operation

New South China Mall

New South China Mall Location Dongguan, China Opening date 2005

No. of stores and services 1500 Total retail floor area 659,612 m²

New South China Mall cont..
New South China Mall (formerly South China Mall) in Dongguan, China is the second largest mall in the world after Dubai Mall. It has the most gross leasable area of any mall in the world; room for over 1,500 stores in approximately 7.1 million square feet (659,612 square meters) of leasable space and 890.000 square meters of total area.

New South China Mall cont..
The mall has seven zones modeled on international cities, nations and regions, including Amsterdam, Paris, Rome, Venice, Egypt, the Caribbean, and California. Since its opening in 2005, it has suffered from a severe lack of occupants. Much of the retail space remained empty in 2008, with 99.2 percent of the stores vacant. Many analysts said that the main reason the mall had been largely unoccupied was its location in the suburbs of Dongguan, which means that it was only practical to travel there using a car. The only occupied areas are near the entrance where several Western fast food chains are located and a parking structure repurposed as a kart racing track The planned Shangri-La Hotel has not been constructed. The Shangrimall's name has been New South China Mall since 2009.

Golden Resources Shopping Mall Beijing, China

The art-deco Golden Resources artMall, located near the Fourth Ring Road on Beijing's west side, opened to great international fanfare October 24, 2004. At 560,000 square meters (6-million square feet) (6of total floor space The mall was completed on 20 October 2004 after 20 months of construction and opened four days later

West Edmonton Mall West Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
The West Edmonton Mall, completed in 1985 at a cost of $750-million, remains the $750largest enclosed shopping mall in North America, but several malls open or under construction in China and the United Arab Emirates are larger. The mall encompasses 570,000 square meters (5.2-million square feet) of total floor (5.2space, 800 stores (including 8 department stores), a 360-room hotel, and 110 360restaurants and eating places. Its list of amusement places is also impressively large. There is a full-scale amusement park with full47 different rides, an ocean-wave swimming oceanpool with sand beach, an aquarium, and a miniature golf course. If all that is too much for you, enjoy some peace and meditation in the chapel--so long as a wedding is not in chapel--so progress

West Edmonton Mall cont..
Location Opening date Developer Management Owner Edmonton, Alberta, Canada September 15, 1981 Triple Five Group Stacey Claffey West Edmonton Mall Properties Inc. No. of stores and services No of anchor tenants Total retail floor area 800+ 8 350,000 m2 (3,800,000 sq ft) 20,000+ 3

Parking No. of floors

West Edmonton Mall cont..
West Edmonton Mall (WEM), located in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, is the largest shopping mall in North America and the fifth largest in the world, founded by Ghermezian brothers who emigrated from Iran in 1959. It was the world's largest mall for a 23 year period from 1981 until 2004 West Edmonton Mall covers a gross area of about 570,000 m2 (well over 6 million ft2) and cost C$1.2 billion to build. There are over 800 stores and services and parking for more than 20,000 vehicles. More than 23,000 people are employed at the property. The mall receives 28.2 million visitors per year and between 60,000 and 150,000 shoppers daily depending on the day and season. The mall is currently valued at C$926 million

West Edmonton Mall cont..
History West Edmonton Mall first opened its doors to the public on September 15, 1981. The mall has been expanded three times since its opening in 1981, with these additions completed in 1983 (Phase II), 1985 (Phase III) and 1999 (Phase IV)

Major attractions: Galaxy land

Galaxyland was originally known as Fantasyland, however, during a court battle with Disney, West Edmonton Mall changed the park's name to Galaxyland in July 1995 after completing some minor renovations. It is an indoor amusement park located on the north side of the mall. It is the largest indoor amusement park in the world and features 24 rides and attractions. There are 8 beginner rides, 9 intermediate rides, 7 thrill rides, including the triple loop

World Waterpark
The World Waterpark is the world's largest indoor waterpark, built in 1985, with a size of over 20,000 square meters (4.9 acres). The park has the world's largest indoor wave pool and is known for its high-speed water slide called the Sky highScreamer, which is often mistaken as the park's tallest slide at 24 meters (79 ft). The highest slide in the park is the Twister, which is 25.3 meters (83 ft) high. The wavepool has six wave bays, each with two panels with a total of 1,500 horsepower (1.1 MW) generating waves up to two meters high.

Sea Life Caverns / Sea Lions Rock
West Edmonton Mall has an indoor lake which contains a salt-water habitat with four saltsea lions and a replica of the Santa María, built during the 1986 World Exposition in Vancouver. The Santa María has been used for an annual Christmas fundraiser, raising toys for underprivileged children. Also, the submarines, a long time favorite, had been replaced with the Deep-Sea Derby, a bumper Deepboat ride with squirt guns Deep Sea Adventure is also home to the mall's aquatic life, most of which are housed beneath the main floor in the "Sea Life Caverns". Today, what was once the Dolphin's Lagoon is now the Sea Lions' Rock, with two sea lions (Banny and Jazz) providing the entertainment for the current presentation labeled "Swim, Slide, and Splash!".

Ice Palace
Ice Palace is a scaled down version of a National Hockey League (NHL) regulation sized ice rink located in the center of the mall. The Edmonton Oilers occasionally practiced at the Ice Palace. This drew huge crowds during the Wayne Gretzky years in the 1980s. The Oilers' contract for using the rink, however, has since expired. The rink is used for various hockey and other sporting tournaments, including a facility for the Annual Edmonton Corporate Challenge.

Professor WEM's Adventure Golf

Professor WEM's Adventure Golf is an 18-hole 18miniature golf course. The miniature golf course was originally known as Pebble Beach Mini Golf, and was designed to be a mini golf version of Pebble Beach Golf Links. The course was refurbished and given the Professor WEM theme in the mid-1990s mid-

Gallery

Europa Boulevard Bourbon Street Masks at Bourbon Street

Chinatown

Food courts

Europa Boulevard

Cevahir Mall
Location Address Turkey Büyükdere Cad No. 22 i liliIstanbul 15 October 2005 Cevahirler Group Jones Lang LaSalle St Martins Property Group Istanbul,

Opening date Developer Management Owner

Cevahir Shopping Centre, opened on 15 October 2005, is a modern shopping and entertainment centre located in the i li district of Istanbul, Turkey. Called also i li Cevahir Mall is the largest shopping centre in Europe, and the sixth largest in the world. The project, originally a trade complex including retail centers and three skyscrapers with 40 and 48 floors to replace one of the city's old bus depots, was designed in 1987 by American architects Minoru Yamasaki & Associates. The foundation stone was laid in 1997; however, it took eight years to complete only the shopping centre section due to numerous delays and suspensions of construction. One of the other major architects who took part in the creation of this mall was Can Yavuzarslan, a Turkish/British dual citizen

Cevahir Mall cont..
Cevahir Shopping Centre has a total gross area of 420,000 square metres (4,521,000 sq ft) on six floors and cost US$250 million to build. There are 343 shops, some of which are the first in Turkey to sell certain international brands; 34 fast food restaurants and 14 exclusive restaurants in the shopping centre. Other facilities include a large stage for shows and other events; 12 cinemas including a private theatre and a cinema for children; a bowling hall; a small roller coaster; and several other entertainment facilities. The building's 2,500 m2 (26,910 sq ft) glass roof carries the biggest clock in the world, with threethreemetre (10 ft) high digits.

Berjaya Times Square
Location Opening date Developer Management Owner No. of stores and services No. of anchor tenants Imbi, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia October 2003 Berjaya Group Berjaya Group Berjaya Group 1,000+ 3, Cold Storage, Borders Group and Golden Screen 700,000 m² 13 (mall area)

Cinemas Total retail floor area No. of floors

Berjaya Times Square KL is a twin tower complex containing a shopping centre and two five star hotels located in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. It was opened in October 2003 by the then Prime Minister of Malaysia, YAB Datuk Seri Dr Mahathir bin Mohamad. Both towers are 203 meters (666 ft) tall, with 48 floors. It is currently the fifth largest building in the world and has also been tagged as the "world s largest building ever built in a single phase", with 7.5 million square feet (700,000 m²) of built up floor area. It offers shopping, luxury accommodation, business, food and entertainment. Currently, it has space for more than 1,000 retail shops, 1,200 luxury service suites, 65 food outlets to suit many tastes and entertainment attractions such as Asia s largest indoor theme park, Cosmo's World and Malaysia s firstfirstever IMAX 2D & 3D theatre which is located on the 10th Floor. In April 2005, Borders Group opened its first franchise store here. Currently, the store has the largest Borders store in the world.

Mall of America

Location States Opening date Developer

Bloomington, Minnesota, United

August 11, 1992 Melvin Simon & Associates &Triple Five Group Management Triple Five Group Architect HGA, KKE Architects, Inc., Jerde Partnership No. of stores and services 520+

Mall of America Founded by (John Scott & Wesley Webb) has a gross area of 4.2 million sq ft(390,000 m²), with 2.5 million sq ft. (230,000 m²) available as retail space.[5] The mall is a nearly symmetrical building, with a roughly rectangular floor plan. Over 520 stores are arranged along three levels of pedestrian walkways on the sides of the rectangle, with a fourth level on the East side. Also on the East side there is an 'S' level, which is the service level, which is the basement. You can access it in the East parking garage elevator and the big elevator right next to the entrance. Down there is a freight elevator. An addition planned north of the mall will allow for up to 900 stores. Four "anchor" department stores are located at the corners. The Mall is organized into four different zones, each with its own decorative style

Mall of America cont..
Nickelodeon Universe Nickelodeon Universe is an indoor theme park in the center of the mall, formerly known as Knott's Camp Snoopy, Camp Snoopy, and The Park at MOA. The park features roller coasters, among numerous other rides and attractions, and is the largest indoor theme park in the United States. Unlike many indoor amusement parks, Nickelodeon Universe has a great deal of natural foliage in and about the park, and its floor has a wide variance in height - the highest ground level in the park is 15 feet above the lowest. This allows for a far more naturalistic experience than would normally occur in an indoor amusement park.

Malls and Retail factor
: Getting organized to drive growth
Retail in India
India s shopping center industry spurred by a rapidly growing middle class in this country of more than 1 billion, developers began building the Indian subcontinent s first Western-style shopping centers less Westernthan three years ago. Now there s a flood of new projects, with nearly 25 million square feet of additional retail space expected by the end of next year, according to a report published last fall by Knight Frank, a London-based real estate consulting firm. LondonThis whole industry has just leapfrogged forward, said Tariq Vaidya, head of advisory services at Knight Frank India. In 1996 there was no form of organized retail in India at all

Malls and Retail factor cont..
India s shopping center sales reached $4.24 billion in 2002, according to the study. At an expected 8.5 percent annual growth rate, shopping center retail will increase from 2 percent of the country s total retail industry to 20 percent by the end of the decade, the report projects .

Retail is now being recognized as a serious industry, said Amitabh Taneja, editor in chief and publisher of Images

Retail industry impact on mall development
It was felt that the retail journey from traditional bazaars to supermalls, with a detour towards luxury retail spaces within high-end highhotels, had seen an unprecedented evolution over the last decade. Malls had emerged as present day adaptations of India's unorganized bazaars; changing the way Indians' shop forever

Factors contribute to India retail target market. Or Growth of malls
An increase in disposable incomes with people Young and rich Urbanization Financing options Availability of space

Store formats
Specialty store:
category Catering to a particular specific

retail. The distinction between set of products carried.

Department store/ supermarket/ hypermarket : Catering two or more categories of Mall :

An agglomeration of department stores, hypermarkets and specialty stores. In addition, this would have restaurants and food courts, entertainment zones and multiplexes along with huge parking plazas.

Mushrooming of malls in cities

Mall growth is clear indicator of economic prosperity in India . There were 158 operational malls in 2005 with the figure expected to reach 600 by 2010. Retail is now being recognized as a serious industry, said Amitabh Taneja, editor in chief and publisher of Images, a New DelhiDelhi-based fashion and retailing magazine.

Growth of malls industry path
Growth has been concentrated in India s largest cities Mumbai (formerly Bombay), New Delhi, Bangalore and Pune , in declining order of size. But retailers are starting to set up in the smaller cities too Chandigarh, Cochin, Indore, Jaipur, Lucknow and Nagpur among them. As per survey done by Knight Frank India, the current available retail space is pegged at 30 million sq. ft. and is likely to increase 100 million sq. ft. by 2010. A whopping 75% of this space , will be in the major cities of Mumbai , Pune ,Bangalore , Hyderabad and NCR with the balance in Tier II and Tier III cities like Nagpur, Ahmedabad , Chandigarh and Ludhiana.

Growth of malls industry path cont:
A report by Merrill Lynch on real estate trends to indicates that of 300 malls to be developed in the country by the year 2010, 250 will be located in the cities of Mumbai , Bangluru , Hyderabad , New Delhi and Pune.

Percentage distribution of retail space major cities by 2007
City Mumbai Delhi Bangluru Hyderabad Pune Distribution of Mall Space 27% 30% 5% 7% 5%

Growth of malls industry path cont: The trend is likely to continue with future growth also slated to be highest in the Delhi ,NCR and Mumbai. On all India basis ,mall growth is estimated to be around 300%. Surprisingly conservative Pune has significant mall perhaps an indication that the IT sector s presence and the influx of software professionals from other parts of the country have made a mark in this sector.

Trends in Mall Growth
A distinct trend is the development of specialty malls, which are differentiated on the basis of their product mix, Gurgaon has its own specialized Gold Souk and Wedding Mall an exclusive Automobile mall is set to come up.

Specialty Malls in India Gold Souk Wedding Mall Ishanya Haldiram Food City Kolkata 600,000 sq.ft.
Another interesting phenomenon taking shape is the development of highway malls. A number of developers are considering setting up highway malls, as the rates of land acquisition are lower and the potential of footfalls high. Almost 1010-15 such highway malls are expected to come up in the next three to five years.

Gold Souk Mall

The Gold Souk Mall is a specialty mall, the first of specialty malls in New Delhi and NCR. Their primary specialization is jewelries for women and men. Gold Souk has famous jewelers from India, jewelers who have been into this line of business since generations as family business, jewelers who are new into this stream and some world famous jewelers from outside India. Its located pretty far from all other malls, it is hard to reach there if you do not have your own conveyance. They are open since 2002, it has been more than 4 years now but the status of transportation is still the same. May be because they were sure about who they want into Gold Souk mall. However, the number of stores selling jewelry has increased considerably in the last 4 years and it does not look they are doing bad.

Ishanya

Ishanya! India's largest Design Centre and Specialty Mall. The perfect, pan-India pandestination for consumers shopping for the home or the office, the specialty retailers, the architect, space designer, or the builder / developer. Ishanya is the place to buy, plan, design and inspire, and be inspired

Ishanya contd. :
With 5,50,000 square feet of retail and services space, Ishanya is a single sourcing point for over 52 categories of products and services, materials and knowledge, drawn from across the best in India and across the globe. It offers over 100 outlets, over 5,000 brands and services plus a knowledge and research centre, mock up and simulation centers and a creativity centre It is the only design centre endorsed by the Institute of Indian Interior Designers (IIID) and the Confederation of Construction Products and Services (CCPS).

MARRIED TO THE MALL
Wedding Mall In India, weddings are big business. Big enough, in fact, to support entire shopping centers that sell everything from gowns to honeymoons

Tapping on Indian weddings economy
Indians spend about $1.08 billion a year on weddings, and this is growing rapidly with the economy, says Divya Gurwara, CEO of the bridal trade show Bridal Asia. So perhaps it was only a matter of time before some mall developer smelled an opportunity. To capture some of this revenue, Delhi-based Omaxe Construction is Delhibuilding wedding malls enclosed shopping centers offering everything needed for an elaborate ceremony, all under one roof. Omaxe opened wedding malls in Gurgaon in 2005, near Delhi; and at Patiala, in Punjab. These malls were packed during November and December, India s peak wedding season. The 275,000-square-foot malls each 275,000-squarecontain about 110 shops and cost about $16 million each to build. Omaxe is opening a similar mall in July in the city of Agra.

Mall development in India
As the modern shopping centre phenomenon continues to impact India s urban landscape , with about 500 malls expected to be operational by year 2010 , the chances of over supply of retail space is also becoming a cause of worry for most developers . The need of the hour clearly is a concept and design differentiator.

Design denominators
Apart from matters aesthetic, design is also a function of practicality and astute planning. From frontage to the flooring , the lighting to play of colors ,the common space to the parking lot, the visibility to the branding the design is what defines , differentiates and works. The idea is , attracting not only prospective occupants of space at the shopping centre , but end customers as well; attracting the right tenant mix, commensurate with the positioning of the centre; using each design element to inspire a psychological situation wherein the casual wanderer becomes a shopper and in general putting together the whole experience of being present at and shopping at a mall.

Developers in India have recognized that their challenge lies in concocting a blend of learning from international experiences along with local Made in India solutions. It is a hugely competitive market out there for developers and retailers a like creating over supply condition of retail spaces ; but India still has the benefit of learning from the experiences in shopping centre design and development from the many other countries around the globe who have already passed through this cycle. Apart from the functional convenience, the novelty of the mall concept continues to stand it in good stead in India , like it did in the other countries.

Famous Shopping Malls in India

The tremendous hike in the number of shopping malls in India is the direct result of globalization. India is basically a shopper's paradise. Be it handicrafts or herbs, paintings or antiques, traditional garments or modern fashion statements, India has everything to offer. Nowadays, shopping Malls are emerging in every city and they offer you an array of various national and international brands at one place.

Alankar Plaza
Alankar Plaza is situated on Kempegowda Road in Bangalore. The place offers ample parking space for the cars as well as two wheelers. There are many lifts and escalators in the mall. It is fully air- conditioned and has airregular power supply. The place offers many branded outlets. You can easily buy the things that you require, like clothing, footwear, watches, jewellery, perfumes, toys, furnishing and what not. There is also a food court in Alankar plaza. Many national and international cuisines are offered at that place. There is a nice sweet shop just at the entrance where you can satisfy your taste buds. There is also a children zone where the kids can play and enjoy.

Amprapali Mall
Amprapali Multiplex Mall is located at Bareilly. It is a commercial project and is developed by Amprapali Group. It is located on the national highway connecting Lucknow. It is situated in the Lohia Vihar residential colony. Amprapali mall is one of its kinds. It has many features in it. It has 3 multiplexes and also has a 3 star hotel with multimulti- cuisine restaurants. There are many branded fashion stores, bookstores and toy shops. One can also purchase jewellery and cosmetics. If you are fond of electronic gizmos then the Amprapali mall is the right place to buy them. Amprapali mall has ample parking space and also offers windowed lifts and escalators.

Ansal Plaza is the first world-class shopping mall in worldDelhi at Hudco Place, Khel Gaon. Ansal Plaza is a magnificent piece of contemporary architecture beautifully landscaped with greenery and fountains. Designer items are easily available at Ansal Plaza. The multiplex mall is also famous for its branded clothes and quality jewelry that it offers to its customers. Ansal Plaza at Delhi offers a complete family experience. You can easily find the stores of all the major brands in Ansal Plaza like, Marks and Spencer, Shoppers Stop, Adidas, Archies Gallery, Guess, Nike, Lacoste, Levis, Music World and many more. Ansal Plaza offers a twin level parking and is one of the most popular shopping destinations in the city. Many restaurants are opened inside the complex only.

Ansal Plaza Mall

Centre Stage Mall
The Centre Stage Mall is one of its kinds and has risen to one of the best in South East Asia. The mall is built over 7 acres of land and it lies in the commercial hub of Noida. This mall is one of the most visited places in Noida. The mall has eleven floors which have various shopping vistas and eating joints. In the mall, there is also a speciality of the Wave Cinema complex which has a great luxury tag attached to their name. Also, international brands like Reebok, Westside, Titan, Catmoss, Habibs, Levis, Adidas, Freelook, Plamet M, Ruby Tuesday can be seen in the Centre Stage Mall

Located on the Mehrauli-Gurgaon road near Delhi, Mehraulithe City Centre Mall has been constructed by the DLF Group. The mall is a perfect example of good architecture and great ambience. Inaugurated in 2001, the mall is a four-storey complex which has fouraround 127 different stores in the building. The mall also has DT Cinemas multiplex with 4 screens which feature both Hindi and English films.

City Centre Mall

Lifestyle Stores and Mehrasons Jewellers are the main attraction in the shops of the mall. The mall has a great reputation and gives a taste of American mall culture which has changed the outlook of people in India. Singers and Orchestra is the latest addition to the attractions in the DLF City Centre Mall.

Cross Road Mall
The Cross Road Mall is located in Nariman Point in Mumbai. It is the first full-fledged fullmall in Mumbai and is one of the most sought after places for shopping and hanging out. The mall is a large departmental store which has a multiplex in it called the INOX. The mall is equipped with latest technology and the latest trends. Many world famed brands like Mango, Marks and Spencer, Morgan, TAG, McDonalds, Swarovski, Pallazio, Shopper Stop etc. The mall also has a state of the art parking lot and car lifts for roof parking. Also, there are food courts which offer all cuisines from Indian to Chinese.

DLF Mall

DLF Mall is located on the Mehrauli- Gurgaon road junction. This mall has Mehraulithree levels for stores. There are around 32 stores in this complex. The DLF Mall also has a huge book store called Landmark; the book store has a great ambiance and the wide range of options for books and stationary. Diwan Sahib is another well known store that has set its foot in DLF Mall, Gurgaon. You can easily get everything that you require in this mall. All the major brands have their showrooms in this mall. One of the major attractions of the DLF Mall is its food court which offers a variety of international cuisines. The DLF Mall offers a great and fully computerized parking facility

Garuda Mall

The Guruda Mall is a new entrant in the mall circuit of Bangalore, South India. It houses several major national as well as international brands such as Marks & Spencer, Shoppers Stop, Westside, Planet Sport, Adidas, Reebok, Fabindia, Swarovski and Titan. The mall is spread over six floors with a huge parking space with a capacity to accommodate up to thousand of cars. Apart from being a shopping mall, Guruda also comes with entertainment options including the six-screen INOX sixMultiplex with capacity to hold 1,150 viewers and various activity centre for children. There are also more than 20 food counters where the shoppers can enjoy a wide variety of cuisines

Gaur Gravity Mall
Gaur Gravity Mall is located in Indirapuram in Ghaziabad. It is beautifully planned and has great interiors. Many shoppers get attracted to this mall as it offers plenty of branded showrooms. It is built by the Gaur Group. The mall has everything to offer. It has a wide range of variety in terms of clothes, footwear, jewellery, cosmetics, home furnishings etc. it also offers a food court where many types of cuisines are offered. Gaur Gravity Mall is fully air- conditioned and has 24 airhour power supply. Lifts and escalators are there for the benefit of its visitors. All the basic facilities are available in this mall.

I P Mall & Multiplex
I P Mall & Multiplex is a famous mall built in Varanasi. The place is fully equipped and one can easily fulfill the needs and requirements. The customers get a safe environment to shop, relax and enjoy as the place is fully guarded. In I P Mall complex, you can easily find all the leading brand names like Globus, Koutons, Provogue, Nike, Adidas, Mc. Donald s, United Colors of Benton, Titan, Planet M and many more The I P Multiplex is an added feature to the mall. It has three screens. The place is also famous for its food court. You can enjoy any food of your choice. This mall is centrally air conditioned, has escalators and many famous brands to look forward to. The I P Mall provides ample parking space and is a great place to enjoy

Iskon Mall
Iskon Mall is located in the West Ahmedabad. It is one of the most popular and famous mall of Ahmedabad. It comprises of all the famous international and domestic brands in categories of garments, electronics, cosmetics, accessories, shoes etc under one roof. The Iskon Mall offers all the comforts like, central air conditioning, smoothly moving escalators, lifts and a big parking area which can accommodate many vehicles. The mall also has a food court where you can relish the food of your choice. Reliance and Westside are the major anchors of Iskon Mall. The mall is opened throughout the week. The shoppers feel good as they can get everything they want at one place only.

situated in Gurgaon. It is a three-storied mall possessing threetwo basements. The mall contains the first proper internationally designed food court. It covers about 30,000 square feet of area. There are many national and international branded outlets are opened in the mall. There are three-screen multiplexes in the Mega mall. threeThe mall possesses more than 110 stores with interior designers, women and men's fashion, shoes and a variety of other stores. The mall offers parking at two levels. There is basement as well as front parking. It is one of the most popular shopping destinations in the city and is a favorite hang out zone for the youngsters.

Mega Mall The Mega Mall is a popular entertainment center

Oasis Mall
Oasis Mall is located in Bangaluru. It boasts of a 200,000 sq.feet of shopping and office space. There is ample space to move around. It has all the basic amenities like 24 hour power supply, lifts and escalators. The mall offers ample parking space also. The mall boasts of a variety of exclusive showrooms like Calvin Klein and FCUK. The SPAR supermarket is also a must see. The Oasis mall specializes in designer products ranging from watches to sunglasses and clothing from some of the top fashion houses in the world. It offers a wide range of watches from brands such as Dolce & Gabbana, Emporio Armani and Frederick Stein, Perfumes from Ghost, Calvin Klein and Burberry. One can also purchase branded perfumes, jewellery, handbags, branded clothes and many such more things.

Pacific Mall

The Pacific Mall is located in Ghaziabad in Uttar Pradesh and has been constructed by the Bansal Group of Companies. The Pacific Mall is a great place where you can have fun and frolic and have a totally new shopping experience. There is novelty in dining and entertainment options that are available here. The Pacific Mall is an architectural wonder laid down on 500000 sq. ft. and has been designed by Hafeez Contractor. A place simply throbbing with life, this is a one-stop place for the whole family. The mall has been oneconstructed in such a manner that it has become a super regional mall and extends beyond the tertiary zone.

Sahara Ganj Mall

Sahara Ganj Mall is located in Lucknow. Sahara Ganj Mall was opened in November 2005 to provide the city with the best entertainment arena. It has the built up area of around 525 thousand sq. ft. It has in total 4 floors. Sahara Ganj has been crafted by W.S. Atkins and the construction work was carried by a renowned company called Nagarjuna Construction Company Ltd The customers get a safe environment to shop, relax and enjoy as the place is fully guarded. Big Bazaar and Pantaloons are the anchors along with the other occupants who are in the sections of garments, entertainment, furniture etc. The food chain McDonald is an integral part of the Mall. The attached 4 screen multiplex by PVR is a value added attraction of its own kind.

Shipra Mall
Shipra Mall is the largest mall in the National Capital Region (NCR) of Delhi. The mall is basically situated at the junction of Ghaziabad, Noida and Delhi borders. The mall, which is located in east of Delhi at Indrapuram, has a built-up area of 4.5 lakh sq ft. It builthas been constructed in Classical RomanRoman-style architecture. It comprises of many famous and big brand stores, three new generation cinema halls, kids zone, food court, an amphitheatre and has a parking space for around 1000 cars. It has four anchor stores namely, Shoppers Stop, Globus, Food Bazaar and Fashion Station to provide an all together different experience to its shoppers.

Sigma Mall is situated on the Cunningham Road in Bangalore. It is one of the best hang out place. It s very big on the inside with 4 levels. The mall will offer an exhilarating environment that caters to a wide spectrum of markets- from leisure and entertainment to F&B and marketsshopping. On the ground level there is a bread bazaar and Café Coffee Day. On level 1 there are many branded clothing outlets like Pantaloons, Louis Philippe, Reebok, Nike, Levi s, Pepe, Provogue, etc. On level 2, there are many gadget stores. You can easily buy laptops, computers and various other tech accessories. On level 3, there is a food court which offers a variety of food services. A wide range of cuisines are offered in the food court of Sigma Mall. The Mall has plenty of parking space. Around 320 cars can be parked in its parking zone.

Sigma Mall

Spencer Mall

Spencer Mall is one of Chennai's finest and largest shopping mall and covers an area of over a million square feet. In Spencer Mall complex, you can easily find all the leading brand names like food world, music world, health & glow, vummidiars, van heusen, proline, arrow, American express, Allen solly. Besides, a lot of retailers dealing with jewellery, domestic appliances, leather goods and handicrafts are also housed there The shopping area spreads across ground, first and second floors. Office units are spread between fourth and seventh floors. The place also offers a food court where you can relish the food of your choice. There is ample space for parking also

Shoprix Mall
Located in sector 62, Noida in Uttar Pradesh, the Shoprix Mall is a great place to be. A happening and upcoming surrounding area helps in making this mall a very hip place. Beautifully structured and with great interiors, the mall has a very good inflow of shoppers and buyers who are attracted by the variety of stores present in the mall. A very fine dining experience can be had once you are in this mall. There is something for everyone in the family in the mall. A great collection of fashion wear, accessories, jewellery can be seen in the Shoprix Mall.

The Esplanade
The Esplanade Mall is located in Cochin. It is located near Saint Teresa College, Ernakulum in Cochin. The mall has all the basic facilities. Throughout the mall one can find many escalators, lifts and parking space. The specialty of the mall is exclusive Esplanade signature goods including memorial coins, a variety of clothing items, soft-toys, post-cards, stationery and books on softpostEsplanade. There are many music stores also that are opened in the mall. One can buy CD sets also. Book stores are also there and you can easily get the book of your choice. Whatever you want, everything is available in this mall. The Esplanade has achieved lot of name and fame and is also a favorite hang out place for everyone.

The Great India Place
The Great India Place is one of the biggest shopping mall of north India located in Delhi NCR area in Noida. Designed by Callison Inc. the theme of the mall is "shoppertainment that integrated entertainment and shopping in the same premises. It was developed by the Unitech group. It is one of the largest retail developments in India that spans around 1,500,000 sqft. The main highlight of The Great Indian Place is the entertainment complex with multiple theme park, restaurants and 6-screen multiplex cinema. It 6houses several big retail outlets as well as international brands such as Big Bazaar, Home Town, Globus, Pantaloons, Lifestyle, Adidas, Nike, Guess and Marks

To demystify the relation of mall development & Indian retail in India
.

The Indian Retail Sector is booming and mall growth is being seen as a clear indicator of the economic prosperity in India. These shopping cum entertainment options are getting bigger and better, sporting multiplexes and food courts to woo shoppers. Dominant retail activity is visible in the top cities but tier II and III cities are also witnessing change. Read about the huge investments in malls and what the future holds for them Malls are springing up in every city and are fast becoming sought after entertainment hotspots, with shopping as the by-product. From a bysituation where there were no malls about a decade ago, the country will have over 300 malls translating to over 100 million sq.ft. in2007 and goes up to 500 malls in 2010.

The Indian Government¶s initiatives to aid growth in the retail sector are showing very visible results. Investment in world-class infrastructure is worldexpected to be close to USD 150 bn.
The hitherto restricted retail real estate sector was opened up for Foreign Direct Investment in 2005. As a result, malls of international scale and quality are expected to come up; Mall growth is being seen as a clear indicator of the economic prosperity in India. Significantly, the number of malls in the country has increased at a fast pace. And they are doing brisk business. A trip to the local mall (there will be one in every locality soon!) will bear this out; From almost no malls existing in the country over a decade ago, there were 96 operational malls in August 2005; Here s more good news. This phenomenon is not restricted to major cities of the country alone. It has percolated to the Tier II and Tier III cities as well. The contribution of Tier II cities in organized retail sales is expected to be about 20 25%. Mumbai, Bangalore, Hyderabad, Pune and New Delhi are expected to have nearly 75% of the retail space in the country Niche, specialty malls, discount malls, highway malls are the new trends

Jones Lang Lasalle Meghraj Identifies "India 50" the Emerging Cities for Retail Activity

"The Geography of Opportunity - The India 50" paper highlights that India's retail sector is evolving at a swift pace, fuelled by a strong economy, favorable demographics, rising wealth levels and rapidly changing lifestyles and consumer aspirations of an ever burgeoning middle class. The real estate sector has responded well to this retail growth. The total retail mall stock has been doubling every year, from a meager one million square feet in 2002 to a staggering 40 million square feet by end of 2007 and an estimated 60 million square feet by end of 2008.

Jones Lang LaSalle Meghraj's research identifies 50 cities across India that are ideally positioned to benefit from the booming retail sector. The report launches a new retail city classification based on socio-economic characteristics, retailer activity and shopping mall sociodevelopment. The research identifies five types of cities (Maturing, Transitional,

High Growth, Emerging and Nascent), each of which is at a different stage in its retail market
evolution and offers different types of opportunities for retailers and the property sector. Organised retail activity is still overwhelmingly concentrated in Delhi and Mumbai (the Maturing Cities) and considerable opportunities still exist in these two vast and diverse metros. We expect these two metros to contribute 40% of national organised retailing by year 2008. Delhi and Mumbai lead the Indian mall culture with estimated total mall stock of 22 million and 15 million sq ft respectively by 2008-09. Nonetheless, the report 2008concludes that increasing competition in the NCR and Mumbai markets, combined with growing opportunities in India's regional markets, is encouraging both retailers and property developers to move into new and potentially more rewarding markets further afield. Organised retailing in India's other main cities, such as Bangalore, Kolkata, Hyderabad, Pune and Chennai (the Transitional Cities) is growing rapidly however such is the pace of change, that many smaller Tier III cities are now firmly on the radar of the

retail sector and mall developers

The report highlights tertiary cities such as Chandigarh, Ludhiana, Jaipur , Lucknow and Kochi (the High Growth Cities) as leading the pack, attracting considerable retailer interest due to high incomes and strong brand awareness.

The "next retail destinations" over a three year horizon are likely to be "Emerging Cities" such as Nagpur, Coimbatore and Thiruvananthapuram, where IT/ITES companies are expanding their workforces, which in turn is stimulating retailing activity. The more pioneering retailers and mall developers are now seeking to benefit from first mover advantage and are moving into "Nascent Cities" such as Aurangabad and Rajkot, which are likely to provide good long term opportunities

About Jones Lang LaSalle Meghraj
Jones Lang LaSalle Meghraj is the Indian operations of Jones Lang LaSalle's Asia Pacific business, which established over 45 years ago and currently has 60 offices across 13 countries. Globally, Jones Lang LaSalle Inc. (NYSE: JLL), the only real estate money management and services firm named to FORTUNE magazine's "100 Best Companies to Work For" and Forbes magazine's "400 Best Big Companies," has approximately 160 offices worldwide and operates in more than 450 cities in over 50 countries. With 2006 revenue of over USD2 billion, the company provides comprehensive integrated real estate and investment management expertise on a local, regional and global level to owner, occupier and investor clients. Jones Lang LaSalle is an industry leader in property and corporate facility management services, with a portfolio of over 1 billion square feet worldwide. In 2006, the firm completed Capital Market sales and acquisitions, debt financing, and equity placements on assets and portfolios valued at USD 70.9 billion. LaSalle Investment Management, the company's investment management business, is one of the world's largest and most diverse real estate money management firms, with approximately USD44.3 billion of assets under management.

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