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Module2:HydraulicandPneumaticControls

HydraulicPumps


Introduction:


PumpConvertsMechanicalEnergytoHydraulicEnergy.
Pumppushesthefluidintothehydraulicsystem.
BroadClassification:PositiveDisplacementPump&NonpositiveDisplacementPump


PositiveDisplacementPumps:


UniversallyusedforFluidPower.
ItpushafixedamountoffluidintotheHydraulicSystemperrevolutionofshaft.
OvercomepressurefromMechanicalloadsaswellasfrictionresistancetoflow.
MaintypesGear,Vane,Piston.


NonPositiveDisplacementPumps:


UsedforLowPressure,HighVolumeFlowapplications.
Notwithstandhighpressure,oflittleuseinFluidPower.
Usedfortransportingfluidfromonelocationtoanother.


AdvantagesofPositiveDisplacementPumps:


1.HighPressurecapabilities.
2.Small,compactsize.
3.Highvolumetricefficiency.
4.GreatFlexibilityofperformance.
5.Constantefficiencyonallpressure.


PumpingTheory:


Apartialvacuumiscreatedatpumpinletduetointernaloperationofpump.
Atmosphericpressurepushthefluidoutofoiltank.
Thepumpmechanicallypushesthefluidoutofthedischargeline


PumpingTheorySimplePistonPump:


GearPump:


LobePump:


Bothlobesdrivenexternally.
Lobesdontcontacteachother.
Quieterthangearpump.
Volumedischargeismore.
Lessmatingelements,andmorepulsation.


ScrewPump:


Axialflowpositivedisplacementpump.Precisiongroundscrewmeshingwithinclosedfitting.
Nonpulsatingflow,Idleractasrotatingseal.


VanePumps:


Rotorcontainsradialslotsrotatesinsideacamring.
EachslotcontainsVanedesignedtomatewithsurfaceofcamring.
Firsthalfcyclesuction,secondhalfdelivery.


VariableDisplacementPump:


ProvisionformechanicallyvaryingEccentricity.
Pressurecompensationbyspringforce.

Constantpressurevariabledeliverypump.


CavitationProblem:


Noiseproblemoccurredduetoentrainedairbubbles.
Occurswhensuctionliftisexcessiveandtheinletpressurefallsbelowvapourpressureoffluid.
Airbubblesformedinlowpressureinletregioncollapsedwhenreachedhighpressuredischargeregion.

Thisproducehighvelocityexplosiveforceserodedmetallicpumpcomponents.


RulestoEliminateCavitation:


Keepsuctionlinevelocitiesbelow10m/min.
Keeppumpinletlinesasshortaspossible.
Minimizenumberoffittingsintheinletline.
Mountpumpclosetothereservoir.
Uselowpressuredropinletfiltersorstrainers.
Useproperoilasrecommended.


PumpSelection:


Selecttheactuator(Hydrauliccylinderormotor)basedonload.
Determineflowraterequirements.
Determinepumpspeedandselecttheprimemover.
Selectpumptypebasedonapplication.
SelectSystempressure.
Selectreservoirandothercomponents.
Calculateoverallcostofthesystem.
Considerfactorsasnoiselevel,horsepowerloss,needofheatexchanger,schedulemaintenance..