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Fabrication is the preparation of piping assy
,including cutting, threading , grooving, forming,
bending, and joining of components into
subassemblies. Fabricating maybe performed in the
shop or in the field.


Assembly : is the joining together of two
or more piping components by bolting,
welding, bonding, screwing, brazing,
soldering, cementing, or use of packing
devices as specified by the engineering


Erection : is the complete installation of piping
system in the location, and on the support
designated by the engineering design, including,
any field assembly fabrication, examination,
inspection, and testing, of the system are required
by the Code.

Welding shall conform to para. 328.1 through 328.6
in accordance with applicable requirements of para.

328.1 Welding Responsibility

Each employer is responsible for the welding done
by the personnel of his organization and, except as
provided in para. 328.2.2 and 328.2.3, shall conduct
the tests required to qualify welding procedures, and
to qualify and as necessary re qualify welders and
welding operators.


Para; 328, 330, 331, 332 and 333

apply for fabrication, assembly &
erection of metallic piping & component
328 ---- WELDING
330 ---- PREHEAT
331 ---- HT

Requirements for assembly or

erection are the same as fabrication

Employer responsible for the welding done by
his employee and shall conduct of;

Qualification of Welding Procedures WPS

Qualification/Re-qualification of Welder and Welding
Exception provided in Para 328.2.2 and 328.2.3 (WPS &

Welder test



Qualification Requirements
Qualification of WPS & Welder/Welding Operator

refer ASME IX, except as modified herein

When base metal not withstand 180deg guided
bend test as ASME IX,a qualifying welded
specimen is required to undergo the same degree
of bending as the base metal, within 5 deg.
Preheating refer to Para 330
Heat Treatment refer to Para 331
When impact testing is required, then the above
requirements shall be meet in WPS.
When consumables inserts, integrally machines
equivalent, backing ring are used, it shall
demonstrated in qualification
Materials are grouping to assigned P-number/
S-number to reduce number of PQRs


330.1 General
Preheating is used, along with heat
treatment, to minimize the detrimental
effects of high temperature and severe
thermal gradients inherent in welding.
The necessity for preheating and the
temperature to be used shall be specified
in the engineering design and
demonstrated by procedure qualification.
The requirements and recommendations
herein apply to all types of welding
including tack welds, repair welds, and
seal welds of threaded joints.



330.1.1 Requirements and Recommendations.

Required and recommended minimum preheat
temperatures for materials of various P-Numbers are
given in Table 330.1.1. If the ambient temperature is
below 0C (32"F), the recommendations in Table
330.1.1 become requirements. The thickness
intended in Table 330.1.1 is that of the thicker
component measured at the joint.



Qualification by Others
Para 328.2.2

Subject to specific approval of the

Inspector, WPS qualified by others may be used

provided that:
Inspector shall be satisfied that proposed WPS
prepared, qualified & executed by expert in
welding and no change made in WPS.
Materials are P-1, P-3, P-4 Gr. No.1 (1 Cr max),
P-8 and impact test not required
Base metal to be joined = same P-number, except
P-1, P-3 and P-4 Gp-1 may be welded each other
If thickness 19mm, PWHT shall not be required

Designed pressure ASME B16.5 PN 50 class 300 rating

for material the material at design temperature

Design temperature = -29 to 399 deg. Celsius inclusive
Welding process = SMAW or GTAW or combination
Electrode for SMAW see table 328.2.2 (g)
By signature, employer accept responsibility for both
At least 1 welder/operator active has passed qualification
test using the procedure and P-number shown in WPS. He
shall be qualified using bend test as ASME IX, QW-302.
Qualification by radiography is not acceptable

Qualification Records
Employer shall maintain a self-certified

record, available to owner & Inspector

It showing the date and result of PQR
and Welder Qualification
Identification symbol assigned to each
welder and welding operator


Performance Qualification by
Others (Para 328.2.3)
Subject to specifically approved by inspector;

employer may accept a PQT made for another employer

Acceptance is limited to qualification on piping using
same or equivalent WPS where the essential variables are
within the limit as ASME IX
A copy of PQT record shall be obtained by employer

Filler Metal
Filler metal shall conform to ASME IX requirements

Filler metal not yet incorporated in ASME, may be used

subject to Owners approval and qualification test

successfully made

Weld Backing Material

When backing are used, they shall conform to;
Ferrous metal backing rings shall be of weldable quality
with sulfur 0.05%
If two abutting surface welded to third member & 1 or 2
of three are ferritic and the other austenitic, it shall be
demonstrated by WPQR as Para 328.2
Backing rings may be continuous machined or split band
Nonferrous & Nonmetallic backing ring may be used
subject Designers approval and demonstrated by WPQR
as Para 328.2

Backing rings may be continuous machined or split band

Consumables Insert

Consumable insert may be used provided;

Nominal composition are same as the filler metal

Not cause detrimental alloying of the weld metal
Welding procedure using them are qualified as Para 328.2

Internal and external surfaces to be thermally cut or
welded shall be clean and free from;
Other material would be detrimental to the base

metal or weld

End preparation is acceptable only if the surface is
reasonably smooth & true, and slag is clean
Discoloration remaining on thermally cutting is not

considered detrimental oxidation

End preparation for groove welds as ASME B16.25,

or any other which meet WPS is acceptable

End preparation is acceptable only if the

surface is reasonably smooth & true, and slag
is clean

Circumferential welds
Trimming to correct internal misalignment shall not

reduce min. wall thickness, tm

Component end may be bore to allow for a completely
recessed backing ring, provided not reduce min,wall
To improve alignment, pipe end may be sized end if
wall thickness are maintained
Weld metal may be deposited to permit alignment or
provide for machining to ensure satisfactory seating
rings or inserts

When a girth/miter groove weld joints

component of unequal thickness and

one >1.5 thickness of the other, end
preparation and geometry shall be in
accordance with acceptable design in
ASME B16.25

Circumferential Welds
Alignment of inside surface of component shall be
within Dimensional limit in WPS & Engineering
If external surface not aligned, it shall be tapered

Longitudinal Welds

Alignment of Longitudinal welds shall be

conform to the requirements of Para 328.4.3

Branch Connection Welds

Branch Connections which abut the outside surface of

the run pipe shall be contoured for groove weld as

WPS requirements
Branch connections inserted through a run opening
shall be inserted inside surface of the run pipe at all
Run openings for branch connections shall not deviate
from the required contour > dimension m, see
Root opening shall be within WPS tolerance.


Welding Requirements
Welds include addition weld shall be made in accordance

with WPS & qualified welder

Welder/operator shall be assigned with identification
symbol & marked on the joint or records file
Tack welds at the root joint shall be made by qualified
welder and with filler metal equivalent to be used for root
Bridges tacks shall be removed
Peening is prohibited on the root & cap

Stamp of welder

Tackweld by qualified welder

No welding shall be done if there is

impingement on the weld area of;
Excessive Wind
Weld area is frosted or wet

Welding End Valves

Welding sequences, procedure, Heat

Treatment for a welding end valve shall be

such as to preserve (jaga) the seat tightness
of valve

Fillet and Socket Welds

Fillet welds may vary from convex to concave
The size of fillet welds refer Fig.328.5.2A
Slip on & Socket welding refer to Fig. 328.5.2B
Other socket welding component refer to

Fig.328.5.2C and MSS SP-119

Single welded for slip on flange shall be at the hub


GENERAL NOTE: The size of an equal leg fillet weld is

the leg length of the largest inscribed isosceles right
triangle (theoretical throat p 0.707 size).

GENERAL NOTE: The size of unequal leg fillet weld is

the leg lengths of the largest right triangle which can be
inscribed within the weld cross section [e.g., 13 mm 19
mm (12 in. 34 in.)].

Seal Welds
Seal welding shall be done by a qualified

Seal welds shall cover all exposed threads

Welded Branch Connection

Typical acceptable detail branch

connections see Fig. 328.5.4A 328.5.4E

Fig. 328.5.4D for basic types of weld

attachments used in fabrication of branch

Size of welds shall be calculated in

accordance with Para 304.3.3 but
not less than size in Fig.328.5.4D

Nomenclature & symbols in Fig.328.5.4D

Branch connections/fittings which abut the

outside of the run or insert in an opening run
shall be attached by fully penetrated groove

Welds shall be finished with cover fillet welds

having a throat dimension not less than tc,
sketch 1 & 2

Attaching reinforcing
pad/saddle to branch pipe
Full penetrated groove weld & finished with

cover fillet throat dimension tc

Fillet welds having a throat dimension 0.7tc.

See Fig. 328.5.4D sketch (5)

Outer edge of reinforcing pad/saddle shall be

attached to the run pipe by fillet welds having

throat dimension 0.5Tr.
Fig. 328.5.4D sketch 3,4 and 5

A vent hole shall be provided at the side of

any pad or saddle to reveal leakage in the

weld during welding & heat treatment.
A pad/saddle may be made in more than one

piece & each piece has a vent hole, the

strength of joint shall be equivalent to based

Examination & repairs of welds

between branch and run shall be
made before attaching a

Fabricated Laps

Typical fabricated laps shown Fig. 328.5.5

Laps shall be machined
(front and back) or trued
after welding. Plate
flanges per para. 304.5
or lap joint flanges per
ASME B16.5 may be
used. Welds may be
machined to radius, as in
sketch (e), if necessary
to match ASME B16.5 lap
joint flanges.

Welding for Severe Cyclic

WPS shall be employed which provides a
smooth, regular, fully penetrated inner surface


Weld Repair
Weld defect shall be removed to sound

Use a Qualified WPS
Repair shall be made by Qualified welder
Preheating & PWHT shall be as original



QW-202.3 Weld Repair and Buildup.
WPS qualified on groove welds shall be applicable for weld repairs
to groove and fillet welds and for weld buildup under the
following provisions:
(a) There is no limitation on the thickness of base metal
or deposited weld metal for fillet welds.
(b) For other than fillet welds, the thickness range for
base metal and deposited weld metal for each welding
process shall be in accordance with QW-451, except there
need be no upper limit on the base metal thickness provided
qualification was made on base metal having a thickness
of 112 in. (38 mm) or more.


ASME B31.3

Purpose of preheat.??
To minimize detrimental effects of high
temperature and severe thermal gradients
inherent in welding


Where Preheat apply ?


joint welds





welds of threaded joints

Preheat Requirements &

See Table 330.1.1 for recommended

minimum temperature
If the ambient temp. < 00 Celsius, the

recommendations in Table 330.1.1 become

Governed thickness = thicker component

measure at the joint

Preheat for unlisted material

Preheat for unlisted material shall be
specified in WPS

Temperature Verification
Temperature shall be checked by use of;

Tempil Stick
Thermocouple pyrometers
Other suitable equipments

may be temporarily attached directly to pressure
containing parts using capacitor discharge method of
welding without WPS qualification
After removal,
the area shall visually examined for evidence of
defects to be repaired

Preheat Zone
Preheat Zone


Preheat Dissimilar materials

When two dissimilar welded together.

It is recommended to use higher

temperature shown in Table 330.1.1

Interrupted Welding
If the welding is interrupted,
Cooling rate shall be control or other

means shall be used to prevent

detrimental effects in piping
Preheat shall be applied before

welding resume

Heat Treatment
Heat treatment shall be in accordance with
the material groupings & thickness in table

PWHT Governing Thickness

Use thicker component at the joint
Reinforcement pad/saddle shall not be

consider in determining requirements.

PWHT is required, when, weld through

thickness > min. thick PWHT

PWHT not required for:

(1) not required for P-No. 1 materials when weld throat
thickness is 16 mm (58 in.) or less, regardless of base
metal thickness.
(2) not required for P-No. 3, 4, 5, or 10A materials when weld
throat thickness is 13 mm (12 in.) or less, regardless of
base metal thickness, provided that not less than the
recommended preheat is applied, and the specified minimum
tensile strength of the base metal is less than 490 MPa (71
(3) not required for ferritic materials when welds are made with
filler metal which does not air harden. Austenitic welding
materials may be used for welds to ferritic materials when
the effects of service conditions, such as differential thermal
expansion due to elevated temperature, or corrosion, will not
adversely affect the weldment.

Heating Method

Local Flame Heating

Electric Resistance

Induction Heating
Exothermic Chemical Reaction
It shall be able to control and provide uniformity

Cooling Method
Cooling in Furnace
In air
Local insulation
Other suitable means

Temperature verification
similar to
Preheat requirements

Hardness Test
Hardness test are intended to
verify satisfactory PWHT;
Batch Furnace min. 10% of welds
Local PWHT 100% tested
Dissimilar metal each metal shall
be met max. hardness table 331.1.1

Alternative Heat Treatment


Normalizing & Tempering


May be applied in lieu of heat treatment

after welding, bending or forming,
provided mechanical properties meet
requirements & approved by designer

Dissimilar Materials
PWHT welded joints between dissimilar

ferritic metals or between ferritic metal

using dissimilar ferritic metal shall be at
the higher temperature ranges in table
PWHT welded joints incld both ferritic &
austenitic components & filler metals
shall be as required for the ferritic materials

Partial Heat Treatment

When an entire piping assembly cant fitted

into furnace?

It is permissible to heat treated

in more than 1 heat overlap at

least 300mm & outside the furnace

Any Question.???