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# Negative-Sequence

Differential Protection
Principles, Sensitivity, and Security
Bogdan Kasztenny
Normann Fischer
Hctor J. Altuve
Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories, Inc.

## The Need for Sensitivity

High-resistance line faults
Turn-to-turn faults

Transformers

Generators

Shunt reactors

## No electrical protection for rotor turn-to-turn faults

Vibration sensors

## Arent Stator Turn-to-Turn

Faults Implausible?

## Construction indicates that

turn-to-turn faults are implausible

## We do not protect against

turn-to-turn faults

## Turn-to-turn faults evolve until

detected as ground or phase faults

## We never see turn-to-turn faults

87Q Principle

Sensitive
Fast
Inherently secure

## The Secret to Sensitivity

Differential Current?

Mathematically
Equivalent

## No 87P differential = no 87Q differential

87Q Limitation

Generator
Model
Digital model
capable of
simulating stator
turn-to-turn faults
13.8 kV, 200 MW,
GSU-connected
AVR and speed
controls

## Sample Generator Faults

Stator Turn-to-Turn Fault (5%)

I2
present

120 Hz
present

## Sample Generator Faults

External Fault

I2
present

120 Hz
present

A Rotating Transformer?

## Stator I1: (rotor) (field) = 0 dc in IF

Stator I2: (rotor) + (field) = 2 120 Hz in IF

External Fault
I2(60Hz)
IF(120Hz)

I2(60Hz)
IF(120Hz)

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## Sample Generator Faults

Stator Turn-to-Turn Fault
I2(60Hz)
IF(120Hz)

I2(60Hz)
IF(120Hz)

7 13

Rotor
Turn-to-Turn
Faults

Prefault

External

5% Turn

I2(60Hz)
IF(120Hz)

IF(120Hz)
I2(60Hz)

I2(60Hz)
IF(120Hz)

I2(60Hz)
IF(120Hz)

45

I2(60Hz)

IF(120Hz)

I2(60Hz)
IF(120Hz)

I2(60Hz)
IF(120Hz)

50 45

## Stator Turn-to-Turn Fault Example (3%)

I2(60Hz)
IF(120Hz)

Conclusions
Negative-sequence differential

reactors

## 60SF and 87SF provide very sensitive stator

and rotor turn-to-turn fault protection

Questions?

## The Secret to Sensitivity

Restraining Current?

87P

87Q

## Restraining Current Purpose

Reflect the stress on protection system
components, CTs in particular, that can cause
spurious differential current

## The magnitude of every current that

contributes to the differential signal must
contribute to the restraining signal

## Negative-sequence restraining current

does not meet this requirement for
balanced faults

## The Secret to Sensitivity

Security problems under CT saturation
Need for external fault detection logic

A Rotating Transformer?

## Turn-to-Turn Fault Protection With 32Q

Turn-to-Turn Fault

System Fault

Compensation
Frequency

Angle