You are on page 1of 35

Negative-Sequence

Differential Protection
Principles, Sensitivity, and Security
Bogdan Kasztenny
Normann Fischer
Hctor J. Altuve
Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories, Inc.
Copyright SEL 2014

The Need for Sensitivity


High-resistance line faults
Turn-to-turn faults

Transformers

Generators

Shunt reactors

Capacitor bank failures

Stator and Rotor Turn-to-Turn Faults

Stator turn-to-turn faults

Split-phase protection (hydro)

Zero-sequence overvoltage (steam)

No electrical protection for rotor turn-to-turn faults


Vibration sensors

Arent Stator Turn-to-Turn


Faults Implausible?

Construction indicates that


turn-to-turn faults are implausible

We do not protect against


turn-to-turn faults

Turn-to-turn faults evolve until


detected as ground or phase faults

We never see turn-to-turn faults

87Q Principle

Sensitive
Fast
Inherently secure

The Secret to Sensitivity


Differential Current?

Mathematically
Equivalent

No 87P differential = no 87Q differential

87Q Limitation

Generator
Model
Digital model
capable of
simulating stator
turn-to-turn faults
13.8 kV, 200 MW,
GSU-connected
AVR and speed
controls

Sample Generator Faults


Stator Turn-to-Turn Fault (5%)

I2
present

120 Hz
present

Sample Generator Faults


External Fault

I2
present

120 Hz
present

A Rotating Transformer?

Stator I1: (rotor) (field) = 0 dc in IF


Stator I2: (rotor) + (field) = 2 120 Hz in IF

Sample Generator Faults


External Fault
I2(60Hz)
IF(120Hz)

I2(60Hz)
IF(120Hz)

13

Sample Generator Faults


Stator Turn-to-Turn Fault
I2(60Hz)
IF(120Hz)

I2(60Hz)
IF(120Hz)

7 13

IF(120 Hz) Versus I2(60 Hz)

Rotor
Turn-to-Turn
Faults

Stator Field Current Unbalance

Evolving Fault Example


Prefault

External

5% Turn

Evolving Fault Example (60SF)


I2(60Hz)
IF(120Hz)

Stator Field Current Differential

Evolving Fault Example (87SF)


IF(120Hz)
I2(60Hz)

Evolving Fault Example (87SF)

Physical Machine Model

220 V, 20 kVA, 3 poles

2 windings / phase, 100 turns each

54 slots, 14/18 pitch

1, 2, 3, 5, and 10% turn-to-turn faults

Prime mover induction motor

External Fault Example


I2(60Hz)
IF(120Hz)

I2(60Hz)
IF(120Hz)

45

External Fault Example


I2(60Hz)

IF(120Hz)

Stator Turn-to-Turn Fault Example (3%)


I2(60Hz)
IF(120Hz)

I2(60Hz)
IF(120Hz)

50 45

Stator Turn-to-Turn Fault Example (3%)


I2(60Hz)
IF(120Hz)

Conclusions
Negative-sequence differential

Is excellent for protecting lines and transformers

Needs security for CT saturation

Cannot detect turn-to-turn faults in stators and


reactors

60SF and 87SF provide very sensitive stator


and rotor turn-to-turn fault protection

Questions?

The Secret to Sensitivity


Restraining Current?

87P

87Q

Lower restraint provides sensitivity but challenges security

Restraining Current Purpose


Reflect the stress on protection system
components, CTs in particular, that can cause
spurious differential current

The magnitude of every current that


contributes to the differential signal must
contribute to the restraining signal

Negative-sequence restraining current


does not meet this requirement for
balanced faults

The Secret to Sensitivity


Addressing CT Saturation!
Security problems under CT saturation
Need for external fault detection logic

A Rotating Transformer?

Turn-to-Turn Fault Protection With 32Q

Turn-to-Turn Fault Protection With 32Q

Turn-to-Turn Fault

System Fault

Stator Field Current Differential

Compensation
Frequency

Angle

Evolving Fault Example (60SF)