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Bachelor of Science (Hons)

(Applied Chemistry)
(AS 225)

LABORATORY REPORT

Water and Wastewater Technology


(CMT564)
Experiment
Name
Name of Partners

Demonstrator
OBJECTIVES:

13 : Coagulation and Flocculation


Hanim Binti Ismail
Norhazwani Binti Zubairi
Norezzati Afifa Bt Razali
Norhaniza Bt Hamzah
Mr. Lee Kok Kheng

2009401538
2009659246
2009258728
2009902677

To identify the optimum condition of the sample in case of the pH of coagulation, volume of coagulant
and flocculants added into the sample.

RESULT:

st

1 Test

2 Test

6.0
2.0
1.0

6.5
2.0
1.0

7.0
2.0
1.0

pH
Volume of coagulant (mL)
Volume of flocculants (mL)

6.5
2.5
1.0

6.5
3.5
1.0

6.5
4.0
1.0

6.5
4.5
1.0

6.5
4.0
2.0

6.5
4.0
3.0

6.5
4.0
4.0

6.5
4.0
5.0

The volume of coagulant choose is 4.0mL


rd

3 Test

5.5
2.0
1.0

The pH choose is 6.5


nd

pH
Volume of coagulant (mL)
Volume of flocculants (mL)

pH
Volume of coagulant (mL)
Volume of flocculants (mL)

The volume of flocculants choose is 5.0mL

COMMENT :
The commonly used metal coagulants fall into two general categories: those based on aluminum and
those based on iron. The aluminum coagulants include aluminum sulfate, aluminum chloride and sodium
aluminate. The iron coagulants include ferric sulfate, ferrous sulfate, ferric chloride and ferric chloride
sulfate. Other chemicals used as coagulants include hydrated lime and magnesium carbonate. The
effectiveness of aluminum and iron coagulants arises principally from their ability to form multi-charged
polynuclear complexes with enhanced adsorption characteristics. The nature of the complexes formed may
be controlled by the pH of the system. Cationic coagulants provide positive electric charges to reduce the
negative of the colloids. As a result, the particles collide to form larger particles (flocs). Rapid mixing is required
to disperse the coagulant throughout the liquid. Care must be taken not to overdose the coagulants as this can
cause a complete charge reversal and restabilize the colloid complex.
Flocculation is a process where colloids come out of suspension in the form of flocs. The colloids are
merely suspended in a liquid and not actually dissolved in a solution. In the flocculated system there is no
formation of a cake since all the flocs are in the suspension. An anionic flocculants will react against a
positively charged suspension, adsorbing on the particles and causing destabilization either by bridging or
charge neutralization. In this process it is essential that the flocculating agent be added by slow and gentle
mixing to allow for contact between the small flocs and to agglomerate them into larger particles. Care must
also be taken to not overdose the polymer as doing so will cause settling/clarification problems. Anionic
polymers themselves are lighter than water. The choice of coagulant chemical depends upon the nature of the
suspended solid to be removed, the raw water conditions, the facility design, and the cost of the amount of
chemical necessary to produce the desired result.
CONCLUSION:

From this experiment, the optimum conditions used to prepare our sample are pH 6.5, volume of
coagulants is 4.0mL, and volume of flocculants is 5.0mL. The clarity of the sample is better than other
condition.
QUESTION:
1) Why must the flask be shaken gently after adding the flocculant?
Flask is shaken gently after adding the flocculants because to avoid it from breakdown again and to
increases the particle size from submicroscopic microfloc to visible suspended particles.
2) Can flocculant be added before the coagulant?
Cannot, because coagulant purpose to form flocks which is to combine the negatively charge of the
suspended solid with the cation. While the flocculant purpose to help the flocks to combine to form
molecule so that it will become heavy and this will form precipitate in the solution.
3) Coagulation and flocculation are sensitive to many variables. List the variables and explain its
influence in the treatment.
Sequence of chemical addition
The sequence of chemical addition for coagulation operations is to first adjust the pH , then add the metal
coagulant, then add the flocculent aid. This is because without this sequence the process will not occur
accordingly.

Rapid Mixing
The rapid mixing stage is possibly the most important component of coagulation-flocculation processes,
since it is here that destabilization reactions occur and where primary floc particles are formed, whose
characteristics markedly influence subsequent flocculation kinetics. In general it is likely that the metal
coagulant hydrolysis products that are formed within the time range 0.01 to 1.0 seconds are the most
important for effective destabilization. In many instances, traditional 30 to 60 second retention times
during rapid mixing are unnecessary and flocculation efficiency may not improve beyond rapid mix times
of approximately 5 seconds or less. Indeed, beyond a certain optimum rapid mix time, a detrimental
effect on flocculation efficiency may result.

Type of coagulant used


To make sure the flocks can produce

Coagulant dosage
To make sure all the flocks can combine to form a molecule, so that the precipitation form will be heavy
or bigger. So this can be easily to be filtrate to get the clear

REFERENCES:

Manual of Practical: Kasmawati Mohamed & Lee Kok Kheng,


Methods of Analysis for Water and Wastewater,
UPENA, 2007.
P. Aarne Vesilind, G Heine Lauren & M.Morgan Susan,
Introduction to Environmental Engineering,
3rd Edition
http://www.iwawaterwiki.org/xwiki/bin/view/Articles/CoagulationandFlocculationinWaterandWastewater
Treatment#HResidualaluminum
http://www.iwawaterwiki.org/xwiki/bin/view/Articles/CoagulationandFlocculationinWaterandWastewater
Treatment#HTheCoagulants