Quirk, R. and S.

Greenbaum 1973 3 major classes of adverbials: "Adjuncts", Disjuncts, Conjuncts (all instances of the term "adjunct" in this text refer to the category of adjuncts as described in Quirk & Greenbaum 1973, but will not systematically appear in quotes)

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"Adjuncts"
"Adjuncts" resemble S, O (C) in being integrated into the structure of the sentence/clause while other classes of adverbials are felt more like peripheral to it. 1. Adjuncts cannot appear initially in a negative declarative sentence: a. *Quickly, they didn't leave for home. 2. Adjuncts can be focused: in a cleft sentence, by a question or by clause negation: a. It was on Tuesday that we went to Chicago.; b. Does he write to his parents because he wants to (or does he write to them because he needs money)?; c. We didn't go to Chicago on Monday but we did go there on Tuesday. 3. Adjuncts can be elicitated by question forms: a. When did you go to Chicago? Unlike disjuncts or conjuncts: 1. To my regret, they didn't leave for home. 2. !*Does he write to his parents, to my regret (or does he write to them to my relief)?  !*We didn't go to Chicago, to my regret, (but we did go there, to my relief). 3. *!To whose relief did you go to Chicago? Some items can be used as if belonging to more than one class: - They aren't walking naturally. (manner) - Naturally, they aren't walking. (disjunct)

More syntactic features of adjuncts
1. they are related to VP so when the VP is under ellipsis (with or without a pro-form) they are understood as being included in this process: a. John greatly admires Bob, and so does Mary (= and M. greatly admires Bob) 2. They can be the focus of limiter adverbials such as only, also: a. They only want the car for an hour (not for longer). b. They will also meet afterwards (in addition to some other time)

Semantic classes of "adjucnts"
p. 210-242 (8.6 -8.46) 1. Viewpoint Paraphrase: "if we consider what we are saying from a ... [AP] ... point of veiw" : geographically, linguistically; corresponding participle clauses: [(eg.technically) speaking]; corresponding PPs: [from a AP point of view]; others: As far as .... is concerned, Looked at economically. 2. Focusing adjuncts mostly adverbs; cannot be modified (very...), and most of them cannot be coordinated – only one cliche coordination: purely and simply. Many focusing adjuncts can appear within the focal clause of a cleft sentence: - It was only John who protested. limiter: alone, just, merely, only, purely, simply; chiefly, especially, mainly, mostly, in particular; additives: also, either, even, neither, nor, too, as well as, in addition.

Quirk, R. and S. Greenbaum 1973

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About position and focus see in particular pp. 212 and 213. Inversion: 'NOT only .... + correlative clause' (a clause depending syntactically and semantically on 'not only'): Not only did she divorce him, she also sued him for violence. (Study other similar cases, section 8.11.) Also note the difference between: - It was only John who protested (focus in cleft) - It was not just that John protested, it was merely that he was rude. (correlative structure where the adverbials are followed by a complement that-clause.) 3. Intensifiers denote increase or decrease of the intensity of the predication; most of them are adverbs, some NPs and a few PPs; behave more like S-adverbials. Emphasizers: - actually, certainly, clearly a. I honestly don't know b. He certainly should come earlier. Study well the example in Quirk and Greenboum 1976 course book to understand what is their meaning. Some of them can function as other types of adjuncts: well, always (p. 215) Amplifiers: absolutely, althogether, completely, entirely, fully, quite, thouroughly, utterly, in all respects, most... Eg. - They fully appreciate your efforts to... They like her very much. I so wanted to see her. I can well understand ... Downtoners: -kind of/sort of (inf), quite/rather, more or less: - I kind of like him. - partly slightly somewhat, in part, to some extent, a little: - The incident somewhat influenced his actions in later life. - a bit; barely, hardly, little, scarcely; in the least, in the slightest, at all: - I didn't enjoy it in the least. - almost, nearly, as good as, all but: - I almost resigned NPs: a wink, a thing: - I didn't sleep a wink last night. Examples of expressions functioning as intensifiers, quantifiers, time frequency adjuncts and time duration adjuncts: - I like this film a lot. - She spent a lot for her jewelry. - He travels a lot - I slept a lot last night. 4. Process adjuncts manner, means, instrument proforms: in that way, that way, like that; question: in what way, how?; occur with dynamic verbs; appear after complement (object) in final position (may occur between V and O if O is very long), or after Aux's and just before the lexical verb: He has been badly treated. Sometimes, some manner adjuncts have an additional meaning: - The soldiers wounded him badly ('in such a way and to such an extent that it resulted in his being in a bad condition') 5. Subject adjuncts realized by AdvP or PP; relate to the subject, express the attitude of the subject – subject oriented adverbials. Appear with animate subjects interpreted as agents. - resentfully, with great unease - deliberately, (un)intentionally, purposely, reluctantly, voluntarily, wilfully, ... on purpose... - please, kindly, humbly, ... They have properties of S-adverbials, i.e. do not behave as regular VP adverbials. They appear closer to the left edge of the sentence.

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- Intentionally, he didn't write to them about the accident. Contrast: - Wisely, he did not answer the questions. (speaker oriented) - He wisely didn't answer the questions. (subject oriented) - He did not answer the questions wisely. (manner) - He wisely answered the quesitions (ambiguous) 6. Place adjuncts meanings: static position, direction, movement, passage; realized by: PPs, clauses, NPs, AdvPs; answer a where question: - He lives in Mostar. with a copular verb, place expressions function as Ac (adverbial complement) (contra Quirk p. 225, but see p. 226 top). (Ignore the rest of 8.25 on p. 226 ("adjuncts" with phrasal verbs)) Pay attention to the combination of position and direction adjuncts (p. 226-7, section 8.26-27) Study also the W.O. of subject and the verb in sentences with intial place adjuncts (s. 8.28): - There she is. - Here are your shoes. - Away goes the postman. -Away he goes. Pay attention to the position of place adjuncts with respect to O (section 8.29) Note the following examples (from QandG): - I want my car in the garage (not obligatory, thus adjunct, predicational link with O: P+A function  predicative adjunct denoting place) - They plan a meeting at my house – postM PP (meaning 'meeting at my house'); or A (meaning 'planning at my house) - They offered a barbecue nearby – P+A – predicative link with O, but adjunct rlation with V. - I like my dinner in the kitchen – P+A - I only like barbecues on the beach – PostM PP: a specific sort of barbecues: those on the beach; or 'I like them if/when they are held on the beach  P+A. 7. Time adjuncts realized by AdvP, clauses, NPs, and PPs. See the relevant sections (p. 229 for references) Time when adjuncts: meaning – point of time (both groups); when used for a past event, they occur with simple past. - Group A - most often in the final position (except 'just' and several others): - I will speak about subordinate clauses next week. - Groupe B – more often initially: - Until then you should go through today's lesson. Pay attention to individual adverbs described in 8.31-33. Time duration adjuncts – how long: (a) length of time; (b) duration from some previous point of time Groupe A with past tenses (simple and progressive), Groupe B with present (past) perfect. Time frequency adjuncts – how often: realized by adverbs, NPs. (1) definite frequency, (2) indefinite frequency. (1) : weekly, once a week; once, again, on five occasions... (2) : normally; always; often; sometimes; Different positions – (1) finally; (2) between Aux and the main V, or before Aux. Pay special attention to the postions these adverb(ials) and their interpretations (8.36-43). With copula be, time adjuncts function as adverbial complements (Ac) (contra Q, p. 240): - The match is tomorrow/in five days/from nine to eleven... vs. *The match is. Determine the function of time expressions: - It is much warmer now. They threw him in prison for life. They offered us the house for the summer. I suggest an informal discussion occasionally. 8. Other types of adjuncts: purpose: few adverbs, other phrases source: PPs... origin: PPs...

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9. Relative position of adjuncts Study well the order of different adjuncts and the factors influencing their order, such as their semantics and the length of the phrase.

Disjuncts
Superior role to that of sentence elements: detached from and superordinate to the rest of the sentence. Normally appear initially. Style d. express the speaker's comment on the form of what is being said, define under what conditions he is speaking: - seriously, personally, strictly speaking, to be precise, if I may say so, very frnakly, bluntly, briefly, candidly, confientially, generally, honestly, personally Content disjuncts (attitudinal d.) convey the speaker's comment on the content of what s/he is saying. Generally, appear only in declarative clauses = speaker-oriented adverbials. Examples: - Certainty (the truth value of what is being said): admittedly, certainly, definitely, indeed, surely, undeniably, undoubtedly, unquestionably; (doubt) quite likely, maybe, perhaps, possibly, presumably, reportedly, supposedly. Conviction: clearly, evidently, obviously, plainly; Doubt: apparently. Reality: actually, really; (contrast with reality): only apparently, ideally, nominally, officially, superficially, technically, theoretically; True in principle: basically, essentially, fundamentally, Other comments: evalutation : annoyingly, curiously, fortunately, funnily enough, happily, hopefully, luckily, naturally, not unnaturally, preferably, strangely, suprisingly, understandably, unfortunately, unhappily, unluckily... - Wisely, John consulted his lawyer – I think it was wise of John to consult her lawyer. (disjunct, content) (other examples: rightly, wrongly, foolishly, wisely) - John wisely consulted his lawyer. – John did a wise thing to cunsult his lawyer. (subject oriented a.) Productive derivation: –ing base+-ly : surprisingly Realized also by PPs (to my regret) and relative clauses (sentential and nomianl): What is especially fortunate, the child ...

Conjuncts
Linking words or phrases; mostly adverbs or PPs. Normal position: initial; some conjuncts are restricted to initial position. - Anyway, do you know the answer? They may appear as correlatives: - Though he is poor, yet he is satisfied with his situation. They may appear with certain coordinating and subordinating conjunctions: - I bought him a present and nevertheless/still, he is not happy.