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• I~

KNOW-HOW
The sum of knowledge, skill and experience - however acquired - necessary for fully acceptable job performance.

It has three dimensions:

Technical Know-How
Required depth and scope of specialised knowledge. As you read down the scale from A to H, you recognise increasing specialisation in some jobs,

and an increase in scope or range of general knowledge in others.

Depth: ranging from knowledge of the simplest work routines to unique and authoritative knowledge within complex disciplines.

Scope: variety of things, processes, products etc., from few to many, about which knowledge is required.

D Management Know-How
The knowledge required for harmonizing, integrating and managing activities and functions. It involves combining some or all of the elements of
planning, organizing, directing, executing, assessing and controlling, and takes account of the time scale / planning horizon in.the job.
Management Breadth is related to the size and complexity of an organisation reflecting such things as functional.diversity, business diversity,
geographic spread and strategic horizons. It may be exercised in an executive or advisory/consultative way.

L... ---d Human Relations Skills


The skills needed to communicate with and influence individuals and groups, within and outside the organisation in order to achieve results with and
through people.

1 Basic 2 Important 3 Critical


Dealing with other people is primarily Interaction with others demands understanding, Interaction with others is critical to the job or
concerned with requesting and providing providing support and/or influencing. Empathy role and is concerned with changing behaviour.
information. Ordinary courtesy, tact and and assertiveness are necessary but persuasion It involves inspiration, motivation, the
effectiveness in dealing with others are and reasoning are based on job-specific development of others and the creation of the
required. knowledge, more than inspiring and motivating. right working climate.

Legend
Blue = logical combinations
Red = less likely combinations c.
Grey = highly unlikely combinations c' ,J•.

-.... ­
- ,j
--­
O.
--­
. I. - ' II.
-
III.
I
·IV.
. ·V.
Task Activity Related Heterogeneous Functionally ComplElxNery
Performance of an Performance or Operational or Operational or Complete Large
isolated task or supervision of conceptual conceptual Full integration and Managerial
tasks, specific as to multiple activities, performan,;e and/or integration and management of all integration of all
objective and which are specific as management of management of functions within a activities in a very
to objective and large complex
content. Interacting areas that are functions which are large organisation.
content. Interacting
with others with co-workers is related to each other diverse in nature Management of a organisation,
principally required. as well as as to nature and and which are major strategic almost certainly
connected to appropriate objective and the decisive in function in very large with intemational
receiving awareness of related management of achieving the complex organisation dimensions
instructions. activities. relationships/interfac organisation's
es with other objectives
functions. OR
management of a
strategic function in

.. ~ H~man Relation Skills


A. BASIC; Basic knowledge of simple instructions, facts and information necessary to
.....
38
1 2

4")
3

50
1

50
2

57
3

1)6
1

fil1
2

76
3

81
a large organisation

;;7 100
2 3

1 ,~,
1

11'1
2

13:!
3

15."
1

1~2
2

17!:'
3

;ZOO
fterform straightforward tasks of a repetitive nature. Knowledge is generally acquired A
hrough a short period of instruction 43 50 57 57 66 lG 76 87 100 100 115 I."J': 13; 152 Il', 17:J 20i) 23rJ

Unskilled 50 5i 66 66 76 07 87 100 11'; I l' 13.7 Ire



, ...>/."" 1~'J :'01 .1 )(~Il ~l(' lh·!

B. ELEMENTARY VOCATIONAL: Knowledge of standardised work routines and )<"'J


methods and general facts and information andlor use of sim~le equipment, 50 57 66 66 76 87 81 10Ll 1I ~ "I rl IlL 1')/ 57 17S ;'0(1 'w' 2,,0
machines and materials. A certain amount of insight in the re ationshlp between B
activities is reqUired. Knowledge is usually acquired through training on the job. 57 Flo 76 76 87 100 100 115 , 1/ 1:37 1 ~,)~ 175 1l'; 200 iJu ;.. 0 21),1 :'(\i

Semi-skilled 66 f6 87 87 100 115 ! 5 n. '? ·\Ii.' 1('-; 2(111 ''0(, )'~(l lhi 'fi4 ,IJot ]50
C. VOCATIONAL: Knowledge and insight are required for application of practical
methods and techniques. work procedures and ~rocesses andior proficiency in the 66 76 87 87 100 115 , If; 112 Ir.;? 1'i? 175 ?'H' ?lJO ?3(.I 261 :,lf4 J(JoI :150
use of matenals, specialised eqUipment and too s. Knowledge IS acquired through
technical training and on the job experience. 76 87 100 100 115 132 137 15i 175 115 200 7 1 ') 230 7O,1 10.j 3C·l lS0 .Ion c
· Skilled 87 100 11'1 115 132 152
-
152 Ih 'uo 20u no '1:1 L6-:! Ju·l ,:::IJ :.l~,(J iOO '4';0

D. ADVANCED VOCATIONAL: Knowledge of specialised (generally non-theoretical)


B7 100 115 115 132 152 \,,7 IT'" 200 c'c,(I ':30 2(;'1 26·j~ .il)11 350 :;r.·O 100 4fCl
methods, techniques and processes is required. Knowledge is acquired through

....·
technical training and substantial on the job e~erienCeidevelopment, part
professional qualification or by acquiring a bac elors degree. 100 115 132 132 152 175 In, 20C' 230 2,30 ?fi4 J(H )()4 ~!in 4(1) '100 ~;)() '~ -~ o
132 152 152 175 200 ;>00 7]0 264 104 j .1) 150 461 , 1R! 'i:.'H bl,b
. Specialised 115 ;>"d l'i(1

E. PROFESSIONAL: Sufficiency in a technical, scientific or specialised field, as well as ,,·,Rn


an understanding of theoretical concepts and principles and their context. Knowledge 115 137 IG2 152 175 200 2(111 230 264 }64 .304 350 ('in 'l:JiJ d It) S?~ I-\)!'
IS normall(' acqUired through professional or academic qualification or by a significant
amount 0 practical knowledge gained through vaned and stretching experience. 132 15? 1ttl 175 200 230 :::30 264 304 30.1 l'ill 400 1,00 ~"',O 573 "~'H i)[Il1 ml1 E
Conceptual thinking and working 152 175 200 200 230 264 264 304 350 35,) clOD 460 4130 :;7.'l 6ml r-1IJ(( rno BOO
· F. SEASONED PROFESSIONAL: proficienc¢, in a. specialised field or a broad insight
Into the relatlonshlg between different fields. roficlency and insight are acquired 152 17" 200 200 230 264 '64 304 350 i5(, '11)0 460 ,,(,0 ~213 60B (,I,'P ?UO ~OO
through deep and road experience built on concepts and principles or through wide F
exposure to complex practices and precedents. 175 200 230 230 264 304 104 350 400 1[,1(1 ,J{)U 528 ')28 f100 700 1r'O !lOC.! _'!(J

Technical specialist or major functional manager 700 230 26·1 264 304 350 :'150 400 460 lGC ~28 608 1-i('8 70ll 800 dUli ,r'il 111'i1'
G. PROFESSIONAL MASTERY: Determinative mastery of concepts. principles and
gractices within a specialised field andlor authoritative insight into the relationships 200 /~jO 264 264 304 350 ',50 400 460 41'( 'i28 608 003 ~~o 800 ~nn 9)0 1056
etween mulhple fields. Knowledge is gained through deep development in a
specialised field or through comprehensive business experience. 230 26'1 304 3011 350 400 100 460 528 5~)n GOR 700 roc Hon 920 '}._.J :o~r) 1216 G
Highly specialised or general management. 264 30~ 350 350 400 460 160 528 608 (;OL\ (flO 800 030e ~IZO 1056 0;,,( , 2'6 1400
H. EXCEPTIONAL MASTERY: Externally recognised mastery of concepts and 14(\0
principles, theories and their applications within a scientificlspecialist field and 264 304 ~5\J 350 400 460 1f30 528 60R ",y~ /ilr n'ltl JUO \1;'0 1056 luSt; 1/16
groundbreaking work within thiS field. H
304 350 ,100 400 460 528 ~~)B 608 700 700 flOn 9?O lJ20 1056 1216 12 1 1; I lUI" If,(l'

Unique authority JbO 400 160 1160 528 608 jOfJ 700 1100 S:Wr, ~ , '11 1n~1, 1f1~'h '21'1 1401l 11'}(1 1finr· 18-11

ED © Hay Group, Inc.


Measuring PROBLEM SOL VING

Step 1
Find the points for Know-How
(from the KH-chart) on the
horizontal axis. "29 33 38 I d3 50 57 66 tR 8, 100 11') 13L 15? 175 201.' 'JII ,1'>': .Wh1 ) r:.~ 1( I~)

';0 57 jiB 7r, 87 100 11" 112 l!i' I 7', 21]0 ).lll '-'~~ III 350 400 460 528

I"
r.v """, .M '0 41 .:>0 ,T)i PIO 7(; ?l 111(' 11" 112 l'i. I, 200 230 264 304 350 400 460
Step 2
". 19 ?? 2" 29 '33 18 '\3 50 5­ GB -16 BY lila 115 137 1b7 175 200 230 264 304 350 11.11
.,,.... 7i; rtf I
Find the problem solving . '. 16 19 , ~ ( 25 29 :13 3A 4;3 [il.j 51 66 87 1()(} 115 132 152 175 200 1 ~~t -1, r

.,.,
percentage (from the PS- : . 14 'Ib 19 r/ 25 29 l' 3R d, 50 66 76 87 100 115 132 152 I ,11
.' -'r,
chart) on the vertical axis. '. 12 1,1 II', 19 27 i~ )~.l JJ 'In 43 50 57 66 76 87 100 '115 I I, .'

If; 19 22 2~ )9 33 38 43 50 57 66 16 87 rCIl
1,1 16 H! ~')
~.- 75 29 33 38 43 so !Jf
1/ 14 16 19 22 25 29 33 38 ~ .~
fit
0
"
1\,)
Step 3 q
! 8 10 12 14 16 19 22 25 29 J. ..,~

The value found at the G 7 f: 9 10 12 14 16 19 22 )'; . ~ :<:J


. ,
intersection of these two
constitute the points for
5
5
6
5
7
6
8
7
9
8
10
g
12
II'
14
12
Ir.
14
,
18
1(,
~2
10
2'-'
,..
;..:~ I

l.r,
'l;J
ZC, JR
lJ I ,1\
~H
'(I
,Ie,
;), 1
";1
,
tit"
rir
If
i,0
,
t~'11 ~r~
115
'11(l ..
, "'1
'.

i r..
:,>.t
, ~l?
.-')1:'
I:
problem solving. 4 4 5 6 7 I 9 10 1 1ii f' 7} irJ "I t ,Ii n ,I{ 1 11 ~l I 1"

PROBLEM SOLVING
Problem Solving is the 'self starting' thinking required for analysing, evaluating, reasoning, arriving at and drawing conclusions. Problem Solving deals

with the intensity of the mental process which uses Know-How to identify, define and solve problems. Therefore, for evaluation purposes, Problem

Solving is treated as the percentage utilisation of Know-How.

It has two dimensions:

Thinking Environment (Freedom to Think)


Assesses the extent to which thinking is constrained by the context (business environment, organisation, guidelines, procedures or supervision) within which it
must take place
.a Thinking Challenge
The complexity of the problems encountered and the extent to which original thinking must be employed to arrive at solutions.
1. Repetitive 2. Patterned 3. Variable 4. Adaptive 5. Uncharted
Identical situations requiring Similar situations requiring Differing situations requiring a Situations requiring a Pathfinding situations requiring
solution by simple choice of solution by discriminating search for solutions within the significant degree of evaluative creative thinking and the
things learned. choice of things learned. area of experience and judgement and innovative development of new concepts
acquired knowledge. thinking to analyse, evaluate and imaginative approaches
and arrive at conclusions contributing significantly to the
advancement of knowledge
and thought.

A. STRICT ROUTINE I 10% I 14% I 1'),\() I 2.3':,",., 11';\


Thinking within precise and detailed rules and
instructions and/or rigid supervision (personal or
system). 12% 16% I })';'(\ I 2~!'/;, I JH ,,,

B. ROUTINE
Thinking within standard instructions and routines
and/or continuous supervision.
I 12% I 16% 22% I 2geyu JG':·\

14% 19% ;J5°l, I "3J'~'~ I 4~'",

C. SEMI-ROUTINE
Thinking within well-defined, but somewhat
14% 19% 25% :'3% I '13""
diversified, procedures and precedents and/or
subject to supervision. 16% 22% 29% ',8% '>0';'"

D. STANDARDISED 16% 22% 29% 38"10 'iiY


Thmkmg wlthm sUbstantially diversified, established
procedures, standards and precedents; generally
supervised 19% 25% 33% I ·13 1};, I ".J{ /1

E. CLEARLY DEFINED
Thinking within clearly defined policies, principle~
19% /5% 33% I 43% I ~7!}~

and specific objectives, under readily available


direction. 22'10 29 l i o 38% 50% hf.: "I

F. BROADLY DEFINED
Thinking within broad policies and specific
I /7% <:9% 38"'0 50% I 66%

objectives under general direction.


2'i'.};, 33% I 43% I 57% I l6"11

G. GENERALLY DEFINED
Thinking within general policies, principles and
organisation goals under guidance.
I 25% I 33"/" I 4)'1" 57% 76%

29~~1' :~8~. SO'h 66% I 87%

H. ABSTRACTLY DEFINED 29% 38';u 50~o 66%


Thinking within business philosophy and cultural
norms; SUbject to the general laws of nature and 87%
science. 13'1,. •13% 57'/ • 76'11

ID © Hay Group, Inc.


ACCOUNTABILITY
Accountability is concerned with the extent to which a job is answerable for actions and their consequences. It is a measure of its impact on specific,

generally quantifiable, end-results.

It has three dimensions which in order of importance are:

Freedom to Act
Assesses the extent to which the job or role is subject to personal or procedural guidance or control which may be exercised from within or outside
the organisation.

Nature of Impact
This is concerned with the extent to which the position impacts directly on end results.

IDJ Magnitude

Gauges how much of the organisation is impacted by the job or role. This may be measured in quantitative ways, e.g. annual money sums,
or qualitative assessment e.g. large.

Nature of Impact - Magnitude 0 (Indeterminate) Nature of Impact - Magnitude 1 and Larger

A Minimal Performance of simple and repetitive activities, with no direct R Remote


relationship to other jobs. Providing information, keeping data up to date and providing incidental services, for use
by others in the performance of their job.
B Limited Operation or maintenance of simple/ancillary
equipment/machines Indirect
C Contributory
Performance of routine activities, such as storing / providing
Contributing explanatory, advisory or supporting input for use by others In making
information, for use by others.
decisions and performing their job.
C Important Operation or maintenance of major / complex plant or
equipment S Shared
Performance/supervision of activities which require Explicit joint accountability for end results.
technical insight and proficiency and/or administrative activities (N.B.: except own subordinates and superiors).
where knowledge, analysis and interpretation is of importance; Direct
there is an impact on the end results of others. P Prime
D Critical Control of a major process unit. Decisive, controlling impact on end results. Shared accountability of others is of
minor/secondary importance
Performance of specialised advisory, diagnostic and/or

operational services.

© Hay Group, Inc.


----=--.: 1- ~__._ _----==

Very Small I Small Medium Large Very Large

US$ 50,000-500,0001 US$ 500,000- 5m US$ 5m - 50m US$ 50m-500m US$ 500m-5bn

•• Nature of Impact -. A B c o R c s p R c s p R c s p R c s p R c s p

A. PRESCRIBED: jobs subject to: 8 I 10 I 1<1 I III


10 I 14 I ICJ
1'1 ':1 I" )", "',
• direct and detailed instructions
A
• close supervision/immediate feedback 9 I 12 I 16 I :u
12 I 16
')2

The nature of the tasks or work is totally confining, tasks can be


"
performed only one way. 10 I 14 I 19 I 25
14 I 19 I 7',
J '1 II

'-'
B. CONTROLLED: jobs subject to: 1H
• instructions and established routines
12 1 16 I 22 I 29
16 22 29 .38 22 29

• supervision/fairly prompt feedback :)"i· ,r, B


There is some latitude to rearrange the sequence given to 19 25 33 43 25 i3
l:l
141 191 251 13

completion oftasks and duties.


16
22
29
3~ 22 29 38 50 29 38
,I' 'JP i I

C. STANDARDISED: jobs subject to:


19
25
33
43
25 33 43 57 33 43 57
76 43 57
I,

• standardised work routines, practices and procedures


• general work instructions
22
29
38
50
29 38 50 66 38 50 66
81 50 66 tl

c
• supervision of progress and results

The 'what' of the job is known, with respect to the 'how'there is a

certain amount offreedom to determine the work routine.


25
33
43
57
33 43 57 76 43 57 76
100 57 76 I 1 1)() li'l 761 100 III

D. GENERALLY REGULATED: jobs subject to: ,), -I


• practices and procedures which have clear precedents or are 29
:18 50
66
18 50 66 87 50 66 I 87
115 66 87 115 152 87 115 11~
1')2
covered by operational guidelines/policies
l3 43
57
76
~3 57 76 100 57
132 76 100 132 175 100 132 132
175

o
• review of end results after the fact 76 I 100

Freedom to determine the work routine ('hOW) based on precedents

in order to reach the prescribed results ('what).


38
50
66
87
50 66 87 115 66 87 115
152 87 115 152 200 115 152 152
-'00
E. DIRECTED: jobs are:
• Free to determine how to achieve clearly defined, medium term lJ 57
Ii" 100
57 If) 100 132 76 100 I 132
175 lOCI 132 175 230 132 175 230 I 3041 175
230

(annual) objectives. E
• Covered by functional precedents and policies :>0 66
8
,1;) 6ft 87 115 152 87
1151152
200 115 152 200 264 152 200 264 I 350 1 200
264

• Required to achieve results in a defined area of operational

activity.
') 76
100
I 1;: 76
100 132 175 lUO 132 175
230 11i' 175 230 304 175 230 304 I 400 I 230
304

Free to determine 'how' to reach the QrescdbfHLIfllilJ~t'I I


I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1 I I I
I J
F. GENERALLY DIRECTED: jobs SUbject to: in f',­ 11
1'1/ ~~
200 11'1 1')2 I 200
264 no I 264 3501 i'00 I 264
350 I 460 I 2litl
350

• functional policy objectives F


• general, longer term (2-3 year) objectives 7f'; 1110
1l; 230
304 , 7' 230 I 304 400 230 304 400 I 528 I 'II J4
400

Within the broadly defined objectives, one is free to determine the

'how' and 'what'.


"'I 21),1 I 350 4601 26<1 I 350 460 I 608 1 3~O
460
6081 80n
G. GUIDED: jobs, by nature Of size, are subject to:
• general direction and/or broad lines of policy 100 400 528
7001 920

• broad, long term (5 year plus) objectives


Determination of policy for entire company (interpretation of
460 608
80011056' G
company strategy). 528 700
92011216

n. 105611400

H. STRATEGICALLY GUIDED
1216 1600 ~ H

20r I )1;,\ 1 lr,n I ·160 hilR I :-l~11'1 I ,tr 140011840

EB © Hay Group. Inc.


Determine SHORT AND LONG (PERCENTAGE) PROFILE

PS-Points > AC-Points AC = PS

37 21 41 36 26 36 32 32 29 26 45
35 20 44 34 22 43 32 25 42 31 27 40 30 30 38 29 33 36 28 36 34 26 40 32 25 43
32 19 47 32 21 46 31 23 45 29 26 44 28 28 42 27 31 40 26 34 38 24 38 36 23 41
30 17 51 30 19 49 29 22 48 28 24 46 27 27 45 26 29 43 25 32 41 23 36 39 22 39

28 16 55 27 18 53 27 20 52 26 22 50 25 25 48 24 28 46 23 31 44 22 34 42 21 37
26 15 58 25 17 56 25 19 55 24 21 54 23 23 52 22 26 49 22 29 47 21 32 45 20 35
24 14 62 23 15 60 23 17 59 22 19 56 22 22 55 21 24 53 20 27 51 19 30 49 19 32
22 12 65 21 14 63 21 16 62 20 18 60 20 20 59 19 22 56 19 25 55 18 27 53 17 30

20 11 68 19 13 66 19 15 65 19 16 64 18 18 62 18 20 60 17 23 58 17 25 56 16 28
18 10 70 18 12 70 17 13 68 17 15 66 17 17 65 16 19 63 16 21 62 15 23 59 15 26
16 9 74 16 10 72 16 12 72 15 13 70 15 15 68 15 17 66 15 19 65 14 21 62 14 24
15 8 76 15 9 75 14 11 74 14 12 72 14 14 72 13 15 70 13 17 68 13 19 66 12 22

80 13 7 79 13 8 77 13 10 76 13 11 76 12 12 74 12 14 72 12 16 70 12 18 69 11 20
82 12 6 81 12 7 80 11 9 79 11 10 78 11 11 76 11 13 76 10 14 74 10 16 72 10 18

.
84 11 5 83 11 6 82 10 8 81 10 9 80 10 10 77 10 11 77 10 13 76 9 15 75 9 16
86 9 5

. 85 10 5

...............................
84

..
9 7

.
83

Applied Research
9 8 82

I d'
9

L'
9


..
81 9 10 80 9 11

..............................
.
79 8 13

. 77

Line Jobs
8 15

Fundamental Research and Development n ~~ep~o:e •

Direct Line
Support

Step 1: Determine the step difference between PS and AC, using the Hay step-values (table on the left)
Step 2: If AC > PS, then A-profile; if PS > AC, then P-profile; if PS = AC, then Level profile.
The short profile number is determined by the amount of step difference
Step 3: The percentage profile can be read off at intersection of problem solving % and step difference (see above table)