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Abu Bakr

After Prophets demise, Muslims were in chaos.


Umar was emotionally charged & refused to accept tragic
reality.
Abu Bakr calmed people:
Whoever worshipped Muhamad, he was dead but those who
worship Allah, and Hes alive & shant die.
Election
Childhood friend of Prophet.
Closest companion of Prophet.
First man to embrace Islam.
Prophets father-in-law.
Led prayer in Prophets illness.
As-Siddiq.
Pilgrimage leader.
I have been given authority over you & Im not the best of you. If
I do well help me; & if I do wrong set me right Obey me as long as
I obey Allah & His messenger. But if I disobey Allah & His
messenger, you owe me no obedience.

Al-Aswad Al-Ansi
Anas Tribe
Black man = Aswad.
Create mystery = Veiled Prophet.
Invaded Yemen & Najran.
Prophet dispatched Firuz Al-Dhulaymi.
Firuz won & Aswad was killed.
After Prophets demise, supporters recollected under
Qais ibn Yaghus.
Firuz dispatched to deal with them.
Won & troops surrendered.

Tulayha Al-Asadi

Wealthy leader - Banu Ghatafan & Asad


Initially accepted Islam.
Rebelled
Defeated by Khalid ibn Al-Walid.
Fled to Syria.
Embraced Islam.
Sajjah Al-Harith
Taghlib Tribe.
Arab Christian.
Tribe rejected Islam.
Claimed Prophethood.
Marched with 4,000 soldiers.
Heard of Tulayhas defeat so retreated.
Married Musailama.
Khalid killed her forces.
Accepted Islam after husbands defeat.
Musailamah Al-Kadhab / Battle of Yamama
Claimed prophethood in Prophets time.
Called arch-liar.
Married Sajjah.
Army of 40,000 Bedouin.
Muslim army 13,000.
Killed by Wahshi ibn Harb. (1)
Defeated by Khalid.
Compilation of Quran
Many Huffaz died.
Umar persuaded Abu Bakr to compile the Quran.
Hesitant to do what Prophet did not do.
Zayd bin Thabit was appointed.

1()

A slave hired by Abu Sufyans wife who killed Hamza in Uhud. Embraced Islam
later.

Collected Quran from papyrus, stones, pulp leaves,


shoulder blades of animals, leather, wooden boards &

hearts of men.
Copied into sheets called suhuf.
Passed from Abu Bakr to Umar to Hafsa.
Expedition to Byzantine Empire
Heraclius sent army led by brother, Theodorus.
Khalid & 9,000 men marched in 18 days from Iraq.
Won Battle of Ajnadayn.

Expedition to Persia
Volunteer force of 18,000.
Khalid = leader.
From March to May, 633, won 4 battles.
Secured provincial Capital, Hira.
July 633 Al-Anbar was secured.
Battle of Firaz; Khalid crushed 3 coordinated attacks.
Persians, Byzantines & Arab Christians.
December 633, Persians rule in Iraq concluded.

Abu Bakrs Death


Fell ill in August 634. Never recovered.
If I was asked by Allah as to whom I appointed my
successor, I will say I have appointed the best of your
men.
Died last week of August.
Buried next to Prophet.

Umar ibn Al-Khattab

lack of refinement
backwardness
Contingent of 6,000 supported Muslims.
Saad made best use of archers.
On 3rd & final day, Rustam was captured & killed while

Amir Al-Muminin
In this task, I seek your assistance. If I follow the right path
follow me. If I deviate from the right path, correct me so that
we are not led astray.

Battle

of Marwa
634
Muslims made bridge of boats.
Muslim leader = Abu Ubaydah Thaqafi
Persian leader = Rustam.
Persian army 4,000 + elephants.
Elephants destroyed bridge.
Thaqafi died & kinsmen.
Muthanna saved Muslims by holding bridge.

Battle

Battle

of Buwayb
635
Defeat fresh in Muslims minds
Muthanna severly wounded yet led.
Persian leader = Mehran Hamadani.
Muslims + Christian Arabs.
Persians 12,000
Mehran killed by young man from Taghlib tribe.
Southern Iraq under Muslims rule.
of Qadissiya
636
Muslim leader = Saad ibn Abi Waqas
Persian leader = Yazdgird
Commander = Rustam
Muslim = 30,000
Persian = 60,000
Saad sent 14 Muslims to negotiate.
Yazdgird ridiculed them mentioning:
Arabs poverty

swimming to safety.
Saad chased remaining troops to Babal.
In 2 months, Capital, Maadin, was captured.
Persians lost 2/3 of army.
Muslims lost only 1/5.
Saad led 1st Friday prayer at Chosroes I palace.
No sculptures / statues were destroyed.
of Fihl
Jordan, west of Lake Tiberius.
Offers of jizya & surrender sent but futilely.
Khalid saw through Roman tactics.
Retreated drawing Romans in.
Attacked ferociously.
Romans suffered high causalities. Fled.
of Yarmouk
Heraclius was mad.
Wanted to recover Holy Land.
Khalid regrouped his troops.
Both sides invoked their faith.
Christians with banners & emblems.
Muslims reciting Quran.
Romans suffered great loss & defeat.
Muslims lost 3,000.
Amr ibn Al-As continued siege on Jerusalem.
Abu Ubaydah reinforced him.
People agreed to surrender but only to Caliph himself.
Umar rode there with slave taking turns on camel.
Close to their arrival, it was slaves turn.
Umar refused to sit on camel.
Entered Jerusalem leading camel while slave rode.
Muawiya, Uthmans nephew, appointed governor of Syria.
Battle of Nihawand

Battle

Battle

642
Persian ruler mobilized troops.
Umar knew so collected army.
Muslims outnumbered 3:1.
Persians put spikes & thorns.
Muslims front lines were killed.
Muslims turned on Persians surrounding them.
30,000 Persians killed.
Fall of Alexandria
635
Fustat governor surrendered.
Alexandria:
Thousand years old.
Well-defended.
Large population.
Numerous public buildings.
Historic Lighthouse.
Muslims initially failed.
Umar wrote letter to Amr ibn Al-As expressing displeasure.
Letter read to army.
Stormed into city.
By 643
Isfahan & Khorasan.
Ray, Fars & Sindh captured.

Umars Death
644 (10 years reign).
Abu LuLua stabbed from behind during prayer.
Stabbed 13 other Muslims.
7 died.
Umar died few days later.
Appointed a panel of six. Anyone of them could be Caliph.

Uthman ibn Affan

Consensus chose Uthman.


Persia, Armenia & North Africa conquered.
Appointed relatives as Governors & Advisors.
Wanted to increase loyalty to himself.
People assumed he was unfairly favoring his family.
Criticisms grew alienating him from hid people.
Decided to divide booty amongst governors not army.
Place funds for state purposes.
Strong disapproval.
1/5 given to cousin, Marwan ibn Hakm.
Surrounded by bad advisors.
Took advantage of his age & weakness.
Compilation of Mushaf Al-Uthmany
Knew that soldiers from different places read Quran
differently.
Appointed Zayd bin Thabit to make one accurate copy.
Compared with Mushaf Hafsa.
Different copied were burnt.
Criticized despite intention that only real Quran is read.

Unrest
People erupted.
Iraq
Kufa
Egypt
Delegations sent.
Egyptians arrived 1st.
Besieged Uthmans house.
Uthman agreed to their demands so they left.
Hearing he tricked them, Egyptians returned.
Uthmans messenger to governor of Egypt caught.
Letter ordered leaders of delegation to be killed.
Uthman denied letter.
Muslims attempted to help Caliph.
Hasan & Husayn brought him water.
Uthmans Death
Egyptian force led by Abu Bakrs son entered the house.
Murdered Caliph. Buried in secrecy.
35AH. (12 years reign)

Naila, Uthmans wife, was injured.


Muawiya sent support that arrived too late.

Ali moved headquarters to Kufa for more supporters.

Ali bin Abi Talib

Election
Proclaimed Caliph.
Muawiya disagreed & called for avenging of Uthmans
death.
Changes
Replaced governors appointed by Uthman.
Divided wealth kept aside.
Slow response to Uthmans death due to lack of evidence.
Battle of Camel
35AH
Aisha, Talha & Zubayr openly denounced Ali.
Ali sent new governor to Makkah. People refused him.
People set out to Iraq for more supporters.
Ali forced to pursue them.
Armies met at Basra.
Peaceful negotiations interrupted by extremist.
Battle began around Aishas Camel.
Named Battle of Camel
Talha & Zubayr killed.
Aisha escorted back to Madinah.
New governor appointed in Basra.

Battle

of Siffin
Conflict between Ali & Muawiya grew to climax.
Forces met at Siffin in 37AH.
Muawiyas forces seemed to be losing.
Muawiya ordered soldiers to fix Quran to their lances.
Signaling that matter should be decided by

consultation of Quran.
Amr bin Al-As = Muawiya
Abu Musa Al-Ashari = Ali
Kharijites (3000 4000) refused arbitration.
La hukma illa lillah (lit. No decision except Allahs).
Kharijites rode to Al-Nahrawan.
Ali followed & killed many.
Arbitrators came to PRIVATE decision.
Both step down
New Caliph elected.
PUBLIC announcement.
Abu Musa abided to his word.
Amr claimed that Ali should step down &

Muawiya remains Caliph.


No decision.
Alis Death
Abd Ar-Rahman ibn Muljam attacked Ali.
Ali died 2 days later, 40AH.
Buried in secret.
Khulfa Ar-Rashidun era came to an end.