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436- 353 MECHANICS 2

UNIT 2

MECHANICS
OF
A RIGID BODY
J.M. KRODKIEWSKI
2008

THE UNIVERSITY OF MELBOURNE


Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering
.
1

MECHANICS OF A RIGID BODY


Copyright C 2008 by J.M. Krodkiewski
ISBN 0-7325-1535-1
The University of Melbourne
Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering

CONTENTS
1 THREE-DIMENSIONAL KINEMATICS OF A PARTICLE.
1.1 MOTION OF A PARTICLE IN TERMS OF THE INERTIAL FRAME.
1.1.1 Absolute linear velocity and absolute linear acceleration
1.2 MOTION IN TERMS OF THE NON-INERTIAL FRAMES (RELATIVE MOTION). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.2.1 Motion in terms of translating system of coordinates. .
1.2.2 Motion in terms of rotating system of coordinates. . .
1.2.3 Motion in terms of translating and rotating system of
coordinates. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.3 PROBLEMS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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6
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8
8
10
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24

2 THREE-DIMENSIONAL KINEMATICS OF A RIGID BODY


2.1 GENERAL MOTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2 ROTATION ABOUT A POINT THAT IS FIXED IN THE INERTIAL
SPACE (ROTATIONAL MOTION) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.3 PROBLEMS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

41
41

3 KINETICS OF SYSTEM OF PARTICLES.


3.1 MOTION OF CENTRE OF MASS - LINEAR MOMENTUM. . . . .
3.2 MOMENT OF MOMENTUM. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2.1 Moment of momentum about a fixed point in the inertial space. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2.2 Moment of momentum about a moving point in an inertial space. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2.3 Moment of relative momentum. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3 EQUATIONS OF MOTION AND THEIR FIRST INTEGRALS. . .
3.3.1 Conservation of momentum principle. . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3.2 Conservation of angular momentum principle. . . . . .
3.3.3 Impulse momentum principle. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.4 PROBLEMS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

80
82
83

4 KINETICS OF RIGID BODY.


4.1 LINEAR AND ANGULAR MOMENTUM. .
4.2 PROPERTIES OF MATRIX OF INERTIA.
4.2.1 Parallel axis theorem. . . . . . . .
4.2.2 Principal axes. . . . . . . . . . . .

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CONTENTS

4.2.3 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106


4.3 KINETIC ENERGY. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
4.3.1 Rotational motion. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
4.3.2 General motion. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128
4.3.3 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
4.4 EQUATIONS OF MOTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146
4.4.1 Eulers equations of motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146
4.4.2 Modified Eulers equations of motion . . . . . . . . . . . 149
4.4.3 Problems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154
4.5 MOTION OF THE GYROSCOPE WITH THREE DEGREE OF FREEDOM. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182
4.5.1 Modelling. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182
4.5.2 Analysis. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183
5 APPENDIXES
191
5.1 APPENDIX 1. REVISION OF THE VECTOR CALCULUS 191
5.2 APPENDIX 2. CENTRE OF GRAVITY, VOLUME AND
MOMENTS OF INERTIA OF RIGID BODIES. . . . . . . . . 194

CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION.
The purpose of this text is to provide the students with the theoretical background and engineering applications of the three dimensional mechanics of a rigid
body. It is divided into four chapters.
The first one, Three-Dimensional Kinematics of A Particle, deals with
the geometry of motion of an individual particle in terms of the inertial as well as
in terms of the non-inertial system of coordinates. The introduced in this chapter
translating, rotating as well as the translating and rotating system of coordinates
allows motion of the rigid body with respect to the inertial frame to be determined
and classified.
The second chapter, entitled Three-Dimensional Kinematics of A Rigid
Body, provides procedures for determination of the absolute velocity and the absolute
acceleration of any point that belong to the rigid body. Both, the general motion and
the motion about a fixed point is considered.
The last two chapters are related with the relationships between motion and
forces that act on bodies. The chapter Kinetics of A System of Particles oers
general principles that can be apply to any system of particles regardless of their
number and internal forces acting between the individual particles. Because each
continuum (fluid, gas, rigid or elastic body) can be considered as a system of particles,
the derived equations form a base for development of many branches of mechanics
(fluid mechanics, solid mechanics, rigid body mechanics etc.).
The developed principles are widely utilized in the chapter entitled Kinetics
of A Rigid Body. This chapter gives procedures for determination of matrix of
inertia of a rigid body and its principal axes. This makes possible to produce expression for the kinetic energy of the moving rigid body as well as to derive its equations
of motion. Both, the general motion as well as rotation of a rigid body is considered.
Each chapter is ended with several engineering problems. Solution to some
of them is provided. Students should produce solution to the other problems during
tutorials and in their own time.

Chapter 1
THREE-DIMENSIONAL KINEMATICS OF A PARTICLE.
1.1

MOTION OF A PARTICLE IN TERMS OF THE INERTIAL FRAME.


Z
Za

v
O

X
Oa

Ya

Xa

Figure 1
To consider motion of a particle we assume the existence of so-called absolute (motionless) system of coordinates Xa Ya Za (see Fig. 1).
DEFINITION: Inertial system of coordinated is one that does not rotate and
which origin is fixed in the absolute space or moves along straight line at
a constant velocity.
Inertial systems of coordinates are usually denoted by upper characters, e.g. XY Z, to
distinguish them from non-inertial systems of coordinates which are usually denoted
by lower characters, e.g. xyz.
1.1.1 Absolute linear velocity and absolute linear acceleration
Let us assume that a motion of a particle is given by a set of parametric equations
1.1 which determine the particle coordinates for any instant of time.
rX = rX (t)
rY = rY (t)
rZ = rZ (t)

(1.1)

MOTION OF A PARTICLE IN TERMS OF THE INERTIAL FRAME.

K
I

r(t)

r(t+ t)
J rZ (t)
O
Y
rX (t)
rY (t)

Figure 2
These coordinates represent scalar magnitude of components of so called absolute position vector r along the inertial system of coordinates XY Z.
r = IrX (t) + JrY (t) + KrZ (t)

(1.2)

were I, J, K are unit vectors of the inertial system of coordinates XY Z. Vector of the
absolute velocity, as the first derivative of the absolute position vector r with respect
to time, is given by the following formula.
r
rX
rY
rZ
= I lim
+ J lim
+ K lim
= IrX + JrY + KrZ
tO t
tO t
tO t
tO t
(1.3)
Similarly, vector of the absolute acceleration is defined as the second derivative of the
position vector with respect to time.
v = r = lim

v
= I
rX + J
rY + K
rZ
tO t

a=
r = lim

Scalar magnitude of velocity v (speed) can be expressed by formula


q

2
v = |v| = v v = rX
+ rY2 + rZ2

(1.4)

(1.5)

Scalar magnitude of acceleration is


a = |a| =

2
a a = rX
+ rY2 + rZ2

(1.6)

The distance done by the particle in a certain interval of time 0 < < t is given by
the formula 1.7.
Z tp
Z t
v d =
rX ( )2 + rY ( )2 + rZ ( )2 d = s(t)
(1.7)
s=
0

MOTION IN TERMS OF THE NON-INERTIAL FRAMES (RELATIVE MOTION).

1.2

MOTION IN TERMS OF THE NON-INERTIAL FRAMES (RELATIVE MOTION).

z
o

o
O

x
x
X

b
X

Figure 3
DEFINITION:System of coordinates which can not be classified as inertial
is called non-inertial system of coordinates.
The non-inertial systems of coordinates are denoted by lower characters (e.g.
xyz) to distinguish it from inertial one.
DEFINITION: If a non-inertial system of coordinates does not rotate (its
axes xyz are always parallel to an inertial system) the system is called translating
system of coordinates (Fig. 3 a).
DEFINITION: If a non-inertial system of coordinates rotates about origin
of an inertial system of coordinates, the system is called rotating system of
coordinates (Fig. 3b)
In a general case a non-inertial system of coordinates may translate and rotate.
DEFINITION: System of coordinates which can translate and rotate is
called translating and rotating system of coordinates (Fig.3c)
1.2.1 Motion in terms of translating system of coordinates.

Z
rP
ro
O

P
rP,o

y
Y

x
X
Figure 4

MOTION IN TERMS OF THE NON-INERTIAL FRAMES (RELATIVE MOTION).

Let XY Z be the inertial system of coordinates and xyz be the translating system
of coordinates. The relative motion of xyz system with respect to XY Z is usually
defined by a position vector ro (Fig.4). Let us consider a particle P which moves
with respect to the translating system of coordinates and its relative motion is given
by the position vector rP,o . The position vector of the particle P in the XY Z frame
can be composed from vectors ro and rP,o .
rP = ro + rP,o = IroX + JroY + KroZ + irP,ox + jrP,oy + krP,oz

(1.8)

Hence, the absolute velocity of the particle P , as the first derivative of vector rP with
respect to time is
oX + Jr
oY + Kr
oZ
r P = IroX + JroY + KroZ + Ir
P,oy + kr
P,oz
+irP,ox + jrP,oy + krP,oz + irP,ox + jr

(1.9)

= i = j = k = 0
Since, I = J = K
r P = IroX + JroY + KroZ + irP,ox + jrP,oy + krP,oz

(1.10)

In the expression for the absolute velocity one may distinguish two parts called velocity
of transportation and relative velocity.
DEFINITION: Velocity of transportation is the velocity of the particle it
would have if it would be motionless with respect to the non-inertial frame
(rP,o = const)
DEFINITION: Relative velocity is the velocity of the particle it would have
if the non-inertial system of coordinates would be motionless (ro = const).
According to the above definitions the velocity of transportation in the case considered
is
vT = r o = IroX + JroY + KroZ
(1.11)
and the relative velocity is
vR = irP,ox + jrP,oy + krP,oz

(1.12)

vP = r P = vT + vR

(1.13)

Hence, the absolute velocity

Similarly, one can prove that the absolute acceleration of the particle P is
rP = aT + aR
aP =

(1.14)

where aT and aR stand for the acceleration of transportation and the relative acceleration respectively.
DEFINITION: Acceleration of transportation is the acceleration of the
particle it would have if it would be motionless with respect to the noninertial frame (rP,o = const)

MOTION IN TERMS OF THE NON-INERTIAL FRAMES (RELATIVE MOTION).

10

DEFINITION: Relative acceleration is the acceleration of the particle it


would have if the non-inertial system of coordinates would be motionless
(ro = const).
In the case considered
aT =
ro = I
roX + J
roY + K
roZ

(1.15)

aR = i
rP,ox + j
rP,oy + k
rP,oz

(1.16)

1.2.2 Motion in terms of rotating system of coordinates.


Z
z
K
k

j
O

y
J

i
X

Figure 5
As it was mention before, the rotating system of coordinates has its origin coinciding
the origin of an inertial system of coordinates (Fig.5). First of all, we have to establish
matrix which transfers components of a vector from rotating system of coordinates
xyz to the inertial XY Z.
Matrix of direction cosines.
Let the relative motion of a particle P be determined by a position vector r, which
components in the rotating system of coordinates xyz (Fig.6) are
r = irx + jry + krz

(1.17)

Components of the vector r along the inertial system of coordinates XY Z may be


obtained as scalar products of the vector r and unit vectors IJK.
rX =
=
rY =
=
rZ =
=

r I = rx i I + ry j I + rz k I
rx cos iI + ry cos jI + rz cos kI
r J = rx i J + ry j J + rz k J
rx cos iJ + ry cos jJ + rz cos kJ
r K = rx i K + ry j K + rz k K
rx cos iK + ry cos jK + rz cos kK

(1.18)

MOTION IN TERMS OF THE NON-INERTIAL FRAMES (RELATIVE MOTION).

11

P
r
rz

rZ

kI
O
I

rx

J
o

jI

rX

ry

iI
rY

x
Figure 6

The last relationship can be written in the a matrix form

rX
rx
cos iI cos jI cos kI
rx
rY = cos iJ cos jJ cos kJ ry = [Cri ] ry
rZ
rz
rz
cos iK cos jK cos kK

(1.19)

The transfer matrix [Cri ] is called matrix of direction cosines.


From the manner we have developed the matrix of direction cosines it is easy
to notice that the inverse matrix equal the transpose one.
[Cri ]1 = [Cri ]T = [Cir ]

(1.20)

Another useful relationship should be noticed from Fig. 7. Cosine of angle between
two unit vectors e.g. i and J is equal to the component of one on the other.
i

Jx
iJ
iY

Figure 7

cos iJ =

Jx
iY
= iY =
= Jx
i
J

(1.21)

MOTION IN TERMS OF THE NON-INERTIAL FRAMES (RELATIVE MOTION).

12

Z
i
iZ
O i
Y

iX

Figure 8
From Fig. 8 one can see that components iX, iY, iZ ,which are equal to corresponding direction cosines, fulfil the following relationship.
i2X + i2Y + i2Z = cos2 iI + cos2 iJ + cos2 iK = 1

(1.22)

There exists six such relationships. Hence, only three direction angles can be chosen
independently. The three independent angles, which uniquely determined the position
of the rotating system of coordinates with respect to the inertial one, are called Eulers
angles.
Euler angles.

Z ,z

O,o

Y, y

X, x
Figure 9
Let us assume that the rotating system of coordinates xyz coincide the inertial one
XY Z. as shown in Fig.9. Now, let us turn the system of coordinates xyz with respect
to the inertial one XY Z about axis Z by an angle , so the system xyz takes position
x1 y1 z1 (Fig. 10). The matrix of direction cosines between system x1 y1 z1 and XY Z
is

MOTION IN TERMS OF THE NON-INERTIAL FRAMES (RELATIVE MOTION).

13

Z ,z1
y1

O,o

x1

Figure 10

cos sin 0
[Cr1 i ] = sin cos 0
0
0
1

(1.23)

In the next step, let us turn the system xyz about axis x1 by an angle . The new
position of the system xyz is shown in Fig. 11 as x2 y2 z2 . The matrix of direction
cosines between system x2 y2 z2 and x1 y1 z1 has the following form.

z2

Z ,z1
y2

O,o

y1

x1 ,x 2

Figure 11

1
0
0
[Cr2 r1 ] = 0 cos sin
0 sin cos

(1.24)

In the last step, the system xyz is turned by an angle about axis z2 to its final
position xyz (Fig. 12). The matrix of direction cosines between xyz and x2 y2 z2 is

MOTION IN TERMS OF THE NON-INERTIAL FRAMES (RELATIVE MOTION).

z2 ,z

14

Z ,z1

y2

O,o

y1

x2

Figure 12

cos sin 0
[Crr2 ] = sin cos 0
0
0
1

According to Eq. 1.19, one can write the following relationships

rx1
rX
rY = [Cr1 i ] ry1
rZ
rz1

rx2
rx1
ry1 = [Cr2 r1 ] ry2
rz1
rz2

rx
rx2
ry2 = [Crr2 ] ry
rz2
rz

(1.25)

(1.26)

(1.27)

(1.28)

Introducing Eq. 1.28 into Eq. 1.27) and than Eq. 1.27) into Eq. 1.26) one may
obtained

rx
rx
rX
rY = [Cr1 i ][Cr2 r1 ][Crr2 ] ry = [Cri ] ry
(1.29)
rZ
rz
rz

Hence the matrix of direction cosines between rotating system xyz and the inertial
XY Z is
[Cri ] = [Cr1 i ][Cr2 r1 ][Crr2 ]
(1.30)
The last formula allows to express the direction cosines as function of three independent angles known as Eulers angles. The angle is called angle of precession, angle
is called angle of mutation and the angle is called angle of spin.

MOTION IN TERMS OF THE NON-INERTIAL FRAMES (RELATIVE MOTION).

15

Angular velocity and angular acceleration.

A1

Z
A2
r2

r1
r0

r2
A2

A0
O

r0
r1

A0
A1

a
X

Figure 13
The introduced Euler angles can not be considered as vectorial values. To show it let
us consider transformation of point Ao due to rotation about axes x and y by 90o .
If we turn the vector ro by 90o first about axis x and then about axis y, the final
position of the point Ao is represented by vector r2 (Fig.13a). Let us do the same,
but now the vector ro is turned about axis y first and then about axis x (Fig. 13 b).
We can see that the final position depend on the order of rotation. Hence, angular
displacement can not be considered as a vector because at least the commutative law
would be violated.

Figure 14
It is easy to show, but the proof is here omitted, that the infinitesimal angular
displacement can be considered as vectorial magnitude. Vector of the infinitesimal
angular displacement is perpendicular to the plane of rotation and its sense is determined by the law of right-handed screw (Fig. 14). Such vectors which have
determined only direction and sense are called free vectors to distinguish them from
linear vectors (sense and line of action is determined) and position vectors ( position
of its tail, direction and sense is determined). According to the above rules the infinitesimal angular increments of Eulers angles d, d and d may be drawn as shown
in Fig. 15.

MOTION IN TERMS OF THE NON-INERTIAL FRAMES (RELATIVE MOTION).

16

The instantaneous axis of rotation

Z
d

d
d

d
y
O

Y
d
x

x1
Figure 15

The vectorial sum


(1.31)

d = d + d + d

of the three infinitesimal angular increments of Eulers angles determines direction of


so called instantaneous axis of rotation, having such a property that the rotation by
the angle d about this axis is equivalent to rotation by angles d, d, d about axes
Z x1 z respectively. The instantaneous axis go through origin of the rotating system
of coordinates.
Z

l
d
d
h
r

dr
A

O
Y
x
X

Figure 16
Now, let us consider point A fixed in the xyz system of coordinates determined
by a position vector r (Fig. 16). And let the axis l be the instantaneous axis of
rotation of the system xyz with respect to the inertial one. Let d be an infinitesimal

MOTION IN TERMS OF THE NON-INERTIAL FRAMES (RELATIVE MOTION).

17

angular displacement of the system of coordinates xyz. Hence, the point A at the
instance considered moves along circle of radius
(1.32)

h = r sin

The infinitesimal increment of vector r is tangential to the circle and is placed in


plane perpendicular to the axis l. Its scalar magnitude is
dr = h d = r d sin

(1.33)

Hence, the infinitesimal increment dr can be considered as a vector product of vector


d and r.
dr = d r
(1.34)
The velocity of the point A is
v=
The vector

d
dt

dr
d
=
r
dt
dt

(1.35)

is called vector of angular velocity .


=

d
dt

(1.36)

and the velocity of A can be expressed as follow.


v =r

(1.37)

If motion of the rotating system of coordinates is determined by Eulers angles, its


angular velocity, according to the above definition and Eq. ??, is
=

d
d Kd + i1 d + kd
d
d
=
=K + i1 + k
dt
dt
dt
dt
dt

The angular speed as well as its individual components are shown in Fig. 17.
The instantaneous axis of rotation

d
dt

d
dt

y
O

d
dt
X

x
x1

Figure 17

(1.38)

MOTION IN TERMS OF THE NON-INERTIAL FRAMES (RELATIVE MOTION).

18

The vector can be resolved along any system of coordinates. In particular


it can be resolved along axes of the inertial system of coordinates XY Z
(1.39)

= I X + JY + KZ

The scalar magnitude of the components X, Y, Z can be expressed as functions of


Eulers angles and their first derivatives.
d
d
d
+ I i1 + I k
dt
dt
dt
d
d
d
= J K + J i1 + J k
dt
dt
dt
d
d
d
= K K + K i1 + K k
dt
dt
dt

X = I K
Y
Z

(1.40)

Having the components of angular speed as explicit function of time it is possible to


find the vector of angular velocity for any instant of time. The locus of the lines of
action of the vector of angular speed in the inertial system of coordinates is called
space cone (Fig. 18 a)
space cone

instantaneous axis of rotation

body cone

Z
t0

ti

t0

ti

t0

y
Y

ti

Figure 18
The vector of angular speed can be as well resolved along axes of the system
of coordinates xyz
(1.41)
= ix + jy + kz
and the components can be expressed as a function of time.
d
d
d
+ i i1 + i k
dt
dt
dt
d
d
d
= j K + j i1 + j k
dt
dt
dt
d
d
d
= k K + k i1 + k k
dt
dt
dt

x = i K
y
z

(1.42)

MOTION IN TERMS OF THE NON-INERTIAL FRAMES (RELATIVE MOTION).

19

The components x, y, z determine for any instant of time direction of the angular
velocity in the rotating system of coordinates. The locus of these lines make up so
called body cone (Fig. 18 b). The rotational motion of the system xyz with respect
to the XY Z, can be hence considered as rolling without slipping of the body cone on
the space cone (Fig. 18 c).
The angular acceleration is defined as the first derivative of the vector of
angular velocity with respect to time.
=

d
dt

(1.43)

Derivative of a vector expressed in terms of a rotating system of coordinates


According to the consideration carried out in the previous paragraphs the rotational
motion of a system of coordinates xyz with respect to the inertial one can be defined
by three independent angles (e.g. Euler angles) or, alternatively the rotational motion
can be determined by its initial position and the vector of its angular velocity .
Let be the absolute angular velocity of the rotating system of coordinates
xyz (Fig. 19).
z
Z
Az

A
Ay

Ax

Y
O

Figure 19
Consider a vector A which is given by its components along the rotating system
of coordinates xyz.
A = iAx + jAy + kAz
(1.44)
Let us dierentiate this vector with respect to time.
= d (iAx + jAy + kAz )
A
dt

(1.45)

y + kA
z
= iA x + jA y + kA z + iAx + jA
A

(1.46)

Hence
The first three terms represent vector which can be obtained by direct dierentiating
of the components Ax , Ay , Az with respect to time. This vector will be denoted by
A0 .
A0 = iA x + jA y + kA z
(1.47)

MOTION IN TERMS OF THE NON-INERTIAL FRAMES (RELATIVE MOTION).

20

Thus
y + kA
z
= A0 + iAx + jA
A

(1.48)

According to definition of vector derivative, the first derivative of the unit vector i is
the ratio of the infinitesimal vector increment di and dt (Fig. 20).
z

y
O
Y

i vi
X

Figure 20
i = di = vi dt = vi
dt
dt
were vi is a velocity of head of the vector i. But, according to Eq. 1.37

(1.49)

vi = i

(1.50)

i = i

(1.51)

Hence
Similarly
j = j

and

k = k

(1.52)

Introducing the above expressions into Eq. 1.48 we have


= A0 + iAx + jAy + kAz = A0 + (iAx + jAy + kAz )
A

(1.53)

and eventually one may gain


= A0 + A
A

(1.54)

where:
A0 = iA x + jA y + kA z
- is the absolute angular velocity of the rotating system of coordinates xyz
along which the vector A was resolved to produce vector A0
A - is the dierentiated vector.
The last formula provides the rule for dierentiation of a vector that it is resolved
along a non-inertial system of coordinates. It can be applied to any vector (eg position
vector, velocity, angular velocity etc.)

MOTION IN TERMS OF THE NON-INERTIAL FRAMES (RELATIVE MOTION).

21

Motion in terms of rotating system of coordinates.


Let relative motion of a particle P (see Fig. 21) with respect to the rotating system
of coordinates xyz be determined by position vector rP .
rP = irP x + jrP y + krP z

(1.55)

where
rP x , rP y , rP z components of the vector rP along system of coordinates xyz.
The system xyz itself has its own rotational motion determined by absolute
angular velocity . We are interested in the absolute velocity and absolute acceleration of this particle.
z

rP

y
o

Figure 21
The absolute velocity of the particle P is
vP = r P = r0P + rP

(1.56)

In a similar manner, as it was done in case of translating system of coordinates, we


introduce notions of the relative velocity and the velocity of transportation. For the
case of a particle motionless in the rotating system of coordinates, according to Eq.
1.56 the velocity of transportation is
vT = rP

(1.57)

For the case of motionless system of coordinates xyz ( = 0), according to Eq. 1.56
the relative velocity is
(1.58)
vR = r0P
Hence
vP = vR + vT

(1.59)

The absolute acceleration one may obtain dierentiating equation 1.56 with respect
to time.

rP =

d 0
d
rP + ( rP ) = r00P + r0P + rP + (r0P + rP )
dt
dt

(1.60)

MOTION IN TERMS OF THE NON-INERTIAL FRAMES (RELATIVE MOTION).

22

Introducing Eq. 1.43 and developing the last term we have


aP =
rP = r00P + rP + ( rP ) + 2 r0P

(1.61)

Assuming that the point P is motionless (rP = constant) one may obtain the following
expression for acceleration of transportation
aT = rP + ( rP )

(1.62)

Here, the term rP is called tangential acceleration of transportation and the term
( rP ) is called normal acceleration of transportation.
Assumption, that the system of coordinates is motionless yields expression for
the relative acceleration.
aR = r00
(1.63)
The last term in equation 1.61 is called Coriolis acceleration aC .
aC = 2 r0

(1.64)

Now, we can state that the absolute acceleration is composed of acceleration of transportation, relative acceleration and Coriolis acceleration.
(1.65)

aP = aT + aR + aC

1.2.3 Motion in terms of translating and rotating system of coordinates.


Let us define motion of the translating and rotating system of coordinates xyz by
the position vector ro and the vector of the angular velocity (see Fig..22). The
relative motion of a point P with respect to the rotating and translating system of
coordinates xyz is determined by a position vector rP,o . Hence, the absolute position
vector rP in this case is
rP = ro + rP,o
(1.66)
z
P
Z
rP,o

rP
ro

x
X

Figure 22

MOTION IN TERMS OF THE NON-INERTIAL FRAMES (RELATIVE MOTION).

23

Let us assume that the relative position vector rP,o is determined by its components along the translating and rotating system of coordinates xyz.
rP,o = irP,ox + jrP,oy + krP,oz

(1.67)

According to the previously developed rules, the absolute velocity of the point P is
r P = r o + r0P,o + rP,o
where
r o + rP,o velocity of transportation
r0P,o relative velocity
The second derivative yields the absolute acceleration
ro + r00P,o + r0P ,o + rP,o + (r0P ,o + rP,o )

rP =
=
ro + rP,o + rP,o + r00P,o + 2 r0P ,o
Here:

ro + rP,o + rP,o = aT acceleration of transportation


r00P,o = aR relative acceleration
2 r0P ,o = aC Coriolis acceleration.

(1.68)

PROBLEMS.

1.3

24

PROBLEMS.

Problem 1

Z z1
z2
2

1
21
y1 y2

X 1 t
x1

2 1t
x

Figure 23
The frame 1 of the system shown in Fig. 23 rotates about the vertical axis Z
with a constant angular velocity 1 whereas the disc 2 has its own constant relative
angular velocity 21 . Calculate components of the absolute angular velocity 2 of
the disc 2 and its absolute acceleration 2 .
Solution.
System of coordinates x1 y1 z1 is rigidly attached to the frame 1 and system
x2 y2 z2 is body 2 system of coordinates. Absolute angular velocity of the body 2 is
2 = k1 1 + j1 21

(1.69)

Its first vector derivative with respect to time yields absolute angular acceleration.

i1 j1 k1

(1.70)
2 = 2 = 02 + 1 2 = k1 0 + j1 0 + 0 0 1 = i1 1 21
0 21 1

PROBLEMS.

25

Problem 2

O o1
.

o t
z2

y1
Y

x1 x2

Z z1
y2

o
y1

2
1

Figure 24
A radar antenna rotates about the vertical axis Z at the constant angular
speed o . At the same time the angle is being changed as follow
= a sin At
Produce
the components of the angular velocity and the angular acceleration of the
antenna
1. along the inertial XY Z system of coordinates
2. the body 2 system of coordinates x2 y2 z2
the magnitude of the angular velocity and acceleration of the antenna..
the components of velocity and acceleration of the probe P along the body 2
system of coordinates.
the magnitude of velocity and acceleration of the probe P .

PROBLEMS.

26

Solution.
A. Matrices of direction cosines.
Fig. 24 permits to produce matrices of direction cosines between the inertial system of coordinates XY Z, the rotating system of coordinates x1 y1 z1 and the
rotating system of coordinates x2 y2 z2 .

x1
X
cos o t sin o t 0
X
y1 = sin o t cos o t 0 Y = [CI1 ] Y
(1.71)
0
0
1
Z
z1
Z

x1
1
0
0
x1
x2
y2 = 0 cos sin y1 = [C12 ] y1
(1.72)
0 sin cos
z2
z1
z1

x2
X
y2 = [C12 ][CI1 ] Y
z2
Z

1
0
0
cos o t

sin o t
0 cos sin
=
0
0 sin cos

sin o t
cos o t

sin o t cos cos o t cos


=
sin o t sin cos o t sin

sin o t 0
X
cos o t 0 Y
0
1
Z

0
X

sin
Y
cos
Z

(1.73)

B. Angular velocities.
The angular velocity of the body 2 is determined by the following vector
equation.
2 = o k1 + i
1
(1.74)
Its components along the system of coordinates x2 y2 z2 may be calculated with help
of Eq. 1.72.

2x2
1
0
0
2x1
1
0
0

2y2 = 0 cos sin 2y1 = 0 cos sin 0


2z2
2z1
0 sin cos
0 sin cos
o

sin

=
(1.75)
o
o cos

Since

= asinAt

(1.76)

2x2 = aA cos At
2y2 = o sin(a sin At)
2z2 = o cos(a sin At)

(1.77)

the above components are

PROBLEMS.

27

The above equations may be considered as parametric equations of the body cone.
Parametric equations of the space cone are determined by components of the angular
velocity 2 along inertial system of coordinates. These components may be obtained
with help of the equation 1.71.

2X
2x1
cos o t sin o t 0
2Y = [CI1 ]1 2y1 = sin o t cos o t 0 0
0
0
1
o
2Z
2z1

cos o t
= sin o t
(1.78)
o

Introduction of Eq. 1.76 into Eq. 1.78 yields the parametric equations of the space
cone.
2X = aA cos At cos o t
2Y = aA cos At sin o t
2Z = o

(1.79)

Both, the space cone and body cone, are presented in Fig. 25. They were computed
for the following data
a = 1[m],

o = 1[1/s],

A = 3[1/s]
y2

Y
2

-3

-2

-1

-1

-2

-2

x2

-1

-3

-2

-1

z2

x2

a)

b)
Figure 25

Magnitude of the absolute angular velocity 2 is


q
q
q
2
2
2
2
2
2
2 = 2x2 + 2y2 + 2z2 = + ( o sin ) + (o cos ) = 2 + 2o
C. Angular acceleration.

(1.80)

PROBLEMS.

28

The absolute angular acceleration of the antenna can be obtained by dierentiation of the vector 2 Eq. 1.75.
+ j2 o cos k2 o sin
2 = 2 = 02 + 2 2 = i2

(1.81)

Hence, its magnitude is


q
p
2 + (o cos )2 + ( o sin )2 =
2 + o 2
2 =

(1.82)

where

= aA cos At

= aA2 sin At

(1.83)

D. Velocity of the point P .


Position of the point P is determined by the position vector l.
(1.84)

l = k2 l

Its first derivative with respect to time yields the absolute velocity of the point P .

i2

j2
k2

0
(1.85)
vP = l = l + 2 l = o sin o cos = i2 o l sin j2 l
0

0
1
Hence, magnitude of velocity of the point P is
p
2
vP = ( o l sin )2 + (l)

(1.86)

where and are determined by formulae 1.76 and 1.83.


E. Acceleration of the point P .
The absolute acceleration of point P may be obtained by dierentiation of the
vector of its absolute velocity.
aP = v P = vP0 + 2 vP

i2
j2
k2

o sin o cos
= i2 ( o l cos ) j2 (l
) +
o l sin
l
0
= i2 ( o l cos + o l cos )
+ 2o l sin cos )
+j2 (l
+k2 (l 2 2o l sin2 )
= i2 aPx2 + j2 aPy2 + k2 aPz2

Hence, its magnitude is


aP =

q
a2Px2 + a2Py2 + a2Pz2

(1.87)

(1.88)

PROBLEMS.

29

Problem 3
3

L
v

Figure 26
The belt conveyor 1 shown in Fig. 26 is mounted at the constant angle = 30o
with respect to the horizontal plane on the rotating table 2. The table rotates with
the constant angular speed = 1rad/s whereas the belt 3 moves with the constant
linear velocity v = 2m/s in the direction shown. Calculate magnitude of velocity and
acceleration of the particle 4 travelling without slipping for the position defined by
the distance L = 5m.

PROBLEMS.

30

Solution.

X x
t

Z
z

y
v

L
R
O

Figure 27
Axes XY Z form the inertial system of coordinates. Axes xyz are fixed to
the rotating table 2 and have its origin at O. Angular velocity of the system of
coordinates xyz is vertical and its components along xyz system of coordinates are
2 = j sin + k cos

(1.89)

Position vector which determines a position of the particle 4 is


R = jL

(1.90)

Its first derivative with respect to time produces the absolute velocity of the particle
4.

i
j
k

0
= R + 2 R = jL + 0 sin cos = iL cos + jv
(1.91)
R

0
L
0

Hence, magnitude of the velocity is


p
p
= (L cos )2 + v2 = (5 1 cos30o )2 + 22 = 4.76 m/s
|R|

(1.92)

The first derivative of the absolute velocity yields the absolute acceleration of the
particle.

i
j
k

= iv cos +
= R
+ 2 R
0

sin

cos

L cos
v
0
= i2v cos j 2 L cos2 + kL 2 sin cos

(1.93)

PROBLEMS.

31

Its magnitude may be calculated according to the following formula.


p
=
(2v cos )2 + (L 2 cos2 )2 + (L 2 sin cos )2
|R|
p
=
(2 1 2 cos 30o )2 + (5 12 cos2 30o )2 + (5 12 sin 30o cos30o )2
= 5.545 m/s2
(1.94)

PROBLEMS.

32

Problem 4

1
L
A

Figure 28
Wheel of radius is free to rotate about axle CD which turns about the vertical
axis with a constant speed . The wheel rolls without slipping on the horizontal plane.
Determine, as a function of its angular position , the magnitudes of velocity and
acceleration of the shown in the Fig. 28 point A .
Given are: , l, .

PROBLEMS.

33

Solution.
O

z1

t
Z
Y

y1
x1

1
L

21

C
O

x1

x2

F
D
L

z1
z2

y1

y2

Figure 29
Axes XYZ, in Fig. 29, form the inertial system of coordinates. Axis x1 y1 z1
are rigidly attached to the axle 1 and form the body 1 system of coordinates. Its
axis x1 coincides axis X of the inertial system of coordinates. Therefore the angular
speed of this system of coordinates is
(1.95)

1 = I = i1

Axes x2 y2 z2 are fixed to the wheel 2 and its axis x2 goes through the point A
whereas its axis z2 coincides axis z1 . Its absolute angular velocity 2 is assembled of
the absolute angular velocity 1 and the relative velocity 21.
(1.96)

2 = 1 + 21

Direction of the relative angular velocity 21 , according to the imposed constraints,


coincide axis z2 . Since the cone CEF may by considered as the body 2 cone and the
cone CEG may be considered as the space cone, the absolute angular velocity of the
body 2 mast have direction of the common generating line EC. Therefore
21 = 1 cot = 1

(1.97)

Since the vector 21 has opposite direction to the positive direction of axis z1 , vector
of the absolute angular velocity 2 is
L
2 = i1 + k1 ( )

(1.98)

PROBLEMS.

34

Position vector of the point A is


r = L + = k1 L + i2

(1.99)

Components of the above position vector along system of coordinates x1 y1 z1 are as


follows
rx1 = r i1 = k1 i1 L + i2 i1 = cos
ry1 = r j1 = k1 j1 L + i2 j1 = sin
rz1 = r k1 = k1 k1 L + i2 k1 = L

(1.100)

Absolute velocity of the point A as the first derivative of the vector r is

i1
j1
k1

0
0
vA = r = r0 + 1 r = i1 sin + j1 cos +
cos sin L
= i1 ( sin ) + j1 ( cos L) + k1 ( sin )
(1.101)
Magnitude of the absolute velocity is
p
|vA | = |r| = ( sin )2 + ( cos L)2 + ( sin )2

(1.102)

Similarly, the first derivative of the absolute velocity yields the absolute acceleration
of the point A.

i1

j
k
1
1

0
0
aA = v A = vA + 1 vA = i1 v Ax1 + j1 v Ay1 + k1 v Az1 +
v Ax1 vAy1 v Az1
= i1 (v Ax1 ) + j1 (v Ay1 vAz1 ) + k1 (v Az1 + vAy1 )
(1.103)
where, according to (1.101)
vAx1 = sin
vAy1 = cos L
vAz1 = sin
Hence, the magnitude of absolute acceleration is
q
aA = (v Ax1 )2 + (v Ay1 vAz1 )2 + (v Az1 + vAy1 )2

(1.104)

(1.105)

PROBLEMS.

35

Problem 5

Figure 30
A crane shown in Fig. 30 is revolving about vertical axis with the constant
angular speed = 1rad/s in the direction shown. Simultaneously the boom is being
lowered at the constant angular speed = 0.5rad/s. Calculate the magnitude of the
velocity and acceleration of the end P of the boom for the instant when it passes the
position = 30o . The boom has the length l = 10m.
Answer:
v = 7.07m/s

PROBLEMS.

36

Problem 6
0
y2
X

1 2
x1
z3

M
3

x2 x 3
z1 z2

Y y1

o1

y3

y2
l

Figure 31
The turret on a tank (see Fig. 31) rotates about the vertical axis at angular
speed t and the barrel is being raised at a constant angular speed b . The tank has
constant forward speed v. When the barrel is in position defined by angles t and
b a shell leaves the barrel with muzzle velocity vs and acceleration as . Determine
the absolute velocity vm and acceleration am of the barrel muzzle as well as absolute
velocity v and acceleration a of the shell when it leaves the barrel.
Answer:
The components of the absolute position vector of the point M that belong to the
barrel
rMbx2 = vt sin t rMby2 = vt cos t + l cos b
rMbz2 = l sin b
where l = constant
The components of the absolute velocity of the point M that belong to the barrel
vMbx2 = rMbx2 t l cos b t vt cos t vMby2 = rMby2 +t vt sin t
vMbz2 = rMbz2
The components of the absolute acceleration of the point M that belong to the barrel
aMbx2 = v Mbx2 t vMby2 aMby2 = v Mby2 + t vMbx2
aMbz2 = v Mbz2
The components of the absolute position vector of the point M that belong to the
shell
rMsx2 = vt sin t rMsy2 = vt cos t + l(t) cos b
rMsz2 = l(t) sin b

where l = vs l = as
The components of the absolute velocity of the point M that belong to the shell
vMsx2 = rMsx2 t l cos b t vt cos t vMsy2 = rMsy2 +t vt sin t
vMsz2 = rMsz2
The components of the absolute acceleration of the point M that belong to the barrel
aMsz2 = v Msz2
aMsx2 = v Msx2 t vMsy2 aMsy2 = v Msy2 + t vMsx2

PROBLEMS.

37

Problem 7
O
y

z1

Y
x

21 t
P

R
O

Z z

21

z1
l

y1

x1

O
2
1

Figure 32
The link 1 of the mechanical system shown in Fig. 32 performs the rotational
motion about the absolute axis Z. Its instantaneous position is determined by the
angle . The link 2 rotates with respect to the link 1 with the constant relative
angular velocity 21 . Point P belongs to the body 2.
Given are: l, R, 21 , , (t)
Produce the expression for:
1. the components of the linear absolute velocity of the point P along the body 1
system of coordinates x1 y1 z1 .
Answer:
vx1 = R 21 cos 21 t + R sin cos 21 t l cos
vy1 = R cos sin 21 t
vz1 = R 21 sin 21 t R sin sin 21 t
2. the components of the absolute acceleration of the point P along the body system
of coordinates x1 y1 z1 .
Answer:
ax1 = v x1 + vz1 sin vy1 cos
ay1 = v y1 + vx1 cos
az1 = v z1 vx1 sin

PROBLEMS.

38

Problem 8

Z,z 1

y1

X
x1

Z,z 1
1
R

y1

Figure 33
The link 1, shown in Fig. 33, rotates about the vertical axis Z and its instantaneous angular position is determined by the angle . The bead 2 moves along the
circular slide of radius R and its relative angular position with respect to the link 1
is determined by the angle .
Produce
1. the expressions for the components of the absolute linear velocity along system of
coordinates x1 y1 z1
Answer:
v = i1 ((R

+ R cos )) + j1 (R sin ) + k1 (R cos )


2. the expression for the absolute linear acceleration of the bead along system of
coordinates x1 y1 z1
Answer:
2
a = i1 (
(R + R cos ) + 2R sin ) + j1 (R sin R cos 2 (R + R cos )) +
2
k1 (R cos R sin )
.

PROBLEMS.

39

Problem 9

o1
y1

o2

Y
x2

x1

y2
P

Z
z1

z2

L
2
1

o1

o2

y1
D

Figure 34
The base 1 of the crane shown in Fig. 34 rotates about the vertical axis Z
of the inertial system of coordinates XY Z. Its motion is determined by the angular
displacement . The system of coordinates x1 y1 z1 is attached to the base 1. At
the same time the boom 2 is being raised. This relative motion about the axis x1
is determined by the angular displacement . The system of coordinates x2 y2 z2 is
attached to the boom.
Given are: L, D, (t), (t)
Produce the expressions for
1. the components of the absolute angular velocity of the boom 2 along the x2 y2 z2
system of coordinates
Answer:
2x2 =
2y2 = sin 2z2 = cos
2. the components of the absolute angular acceleration of the boom 2 along the x2 y2 z2
system of coordinates
Answer:

2x2 =
2y2 =
sin + cos 2z2 =
cos sin

PROBLEMS.

40

3. the components of the absolute linear velocity of the point P along the x2 y2 z2
system of coordinates
Answer:

vP x2 = D L cos
vP y2 = 0 vP z2 = L
4. the components of the absolute linear acceleration of the point P along the x2 y2 z2
system of coordinates
Answer:
2
aP x2 = D
L
cos + 2L sin
aP y2 = D 2 cos L 2 cos2 L
aP z2 =
2
2

L D sin + L sin cos

Chapter 2
THREE-DIMENSIONAL KINEMATICS OF A RIGID BODY
DEFINITION: A body which by assumption does not deform and therefore the distances between two of its points remains unchanged, regardless
of forces acting on the body, is called rigid body.

z
P
Z
G

k rP,o

rP

rG,o
o

ro

i
O

Y
x

Figure 1
To analyze motion of a rigid body usually we attach to the body a system
of coordinates xyz at an arbitrarily chosen point o (see Fig.1). Such a system of
coordinates is called body system of coordinates. The body system of coordinates, in
a general case, may translate and rotate. Hence, motion of the rigid body may be
determined in the same manner as the motion of the translating and rotating system
of coordinates. As we remember, motion of the translating and rotating system of
coordinates can be determined by a position vector ro and a vector of the angular
velocity . The angular velocity of the body system of coordinates is called angular
velocity of the rigid body.
2.1

GENERAL MOTION

DEFINITION: If the body system of coordinates translates and rotates,


it is said that the body performs the general motion.
Let the position of a point P with respect to the body system of coordinates (see

GENERAL MOTION

42

Fig.1) be defined by a position vector rP,o . Since components of the vector rP,o along
the system of coordinates xyz are constant, the relative velocity of P with respect to
the body system of coordinates, r0P ,o ,is always 0. Therefore its absolute velocity is
vP = r P = r o + r P,o = r o + r0P ,o + rP,o = r o + rP,o

(2.1)

Similarly, The absolute velocity of the point Q is


vQ = r o + rQ,o

(2.2)

Hence, the relative velocity of the point Q with respect to the point P is
vQP = vQ vP = r o + rQ,o (ro + rP,o ) = (rQ,o rP,o ) =
(2.3)
rQ,P
The absolute acceleration of P is
aP =
rP =
ro + rP,o + ( rP,o )

(2.4)

The relative acceleration of the point Q with respect to the point P is


aQP = aQ aP =
ro + rQ,o + ( rQ,o )
ro rP,o ( rP,o ) =
(2.5)
= + rQ,P + ( rQ,P )
The first term
atQP = rQ,P

(2.6)

anQP = ( rQ,P )

(2.7)

is called the tangential relative acceleration and the second one

is called the normal relative acceleration.


For the kinetics purposes we are often interested in components of the absolute
velocity of the centre of mass G along the body coordinates xyz. If position of the
centre of mass is defined by a vector rG,o , the components of its absolute velocity
along the body axes are
vGx = i (ro + rG,o )
vGy = j (ro + rG,o )
vGz = k (ro + rG,o

(2.8)

The components of angular velocity along the body coordinates are


x = i
y = j
z = k

(2.9)

Absolute angular acceleration may be obtained as follow


= = 0 + = 0

(2.10)

ROTATION ABOUT A POINT THAT IS FIXED IN THE INERTIAL SPACE (ROTATIONAL


MOTION)
43

2.2

ROTATION ABOUT A POINT THAT IS FIXED IN THE INERTIAL SPACE (ROTATIONAL MOTION)

DEFINITION: If one point of the body considered is motionless with


respect to the inertial frame, it is said that the body performs rotational
motion.
This motionless point is called centre of rotation and usually this centre is chosen as
the origin of the body system of coordinates (see Fig. 2).

rG

rP

X
x
Figure 2
The linear velocity of an arbitrarily chosen point P of the rigid body as well
as its acceleration is determined by the angular velocity of the body . Indeed
vP = r P = r0P + rP = rP

(2.11)

rP = rP + ( rP )
aP =

(2.12)

PROBLEMS.

2.3

44

PROBLEMS.

Problem 10
Y
1

X
2

y1

x11
1
Z z1
G

y1

Figure 3
Base 1 of the ventilator shown in Fig. 3, performs an oscillatory motion
about the vertical axis Z of the inertial system of coordinates XY Z. This motion is
determined by the following equation
= o sint.
The axis of relative rotation of the rotor 2 is fixed at the constant angle with
respect to the horizontal plane. The rotor 2 rotate with a constant angular velocity
in the direction shown. The centre of gravity G of the rotor is displaced from its
axis of rotation by distance . Determine:
1. components of the absolute angular velocity of the rotor along a system of
coordinates fixed to the rotor.
2. components of the absolute velocity of the centre of gravity of the rotor
along the same system of coordinates.
Given are: o , , L, , , .

PROBLEMS.

45

Solution.
Y

z 12 t

1
y1

z2
X

x11

y12 y2

z 12

z 11

y12

x12

x2

y1

x11 x12

Figure 4
In Fig. 4, system of coordinates x11 , y11 , z11 is rigidly attached to the base 1 and
rotates about the vertical axis Z of the inertial system of coordinates XY Z. The
angular displacement determines uniquely its instantaneous position. System of
coordinates x21 , y12 , z12 is rigidly attached to the base 1 and it is turned by angle about
axis x11 . System of coordinates x2 , y2 , z2 is fixed to the rotor 2. Its axis y2 coincides
axis y12 and its instantaneous position is determined by the angular displacement t.
Absolute angular velocity of the rotor 2 is
2 = 1 + 2,1 = k11 + j2 = (k21 cos + j21 sin ) + j2
= ((k2 cos t i2 sin t) cos + j2 sin ) + j2
= i2 ( cos sin t) + j2 ( sin + ) + k2 ( cos cos t)

(2.13)

Position vector of the centre of gravity G, according to Fig. 4, is


RG = L + = j21 L + k2 = j2 L + k2

(2.14)

Hence, its fist derivative with respect to time yields its absolute velocity

i2
j2
k2

RG = RG + 2 RG = cos sin t sin + cos cos t

0
L

= i2 (( sin + ) L cos cos t)


+j2 ( cos sin t)
+k2 (L cos sin t)

(2.15)

PROBLEMS.

46

Problem 11

Z
3
B
1

lAB

O c

Y
2
A
X
Figure 5
Fig. 5 shows the kinematic diagram of a spatial mechanism. Its link 1 can
move along axis X and is free to rotate about that axis. The link 2 is hinged to the
link 1 at the point A and at the point B is connected to the link 3 through a ball
joint. The link 3 can move in plane Y Z along axis which is parallel to Y .
Given are:
1. Motion of the point A (its position vector rA ).
2. Distance c between the point B and axis Y .
3. Length of the link 2 lAB .
Determine:
1. Positions of individual links.
2. Linear velocity of the link 3.
3. Angular velocity of the link 1.
4. Angular velocity of the link 2.

PROBLEMS.

47

Solution.

Z
3
z1 , z2

C
rC O c

rA
A
X
x1

rBC

y2

rBA
2

y1

x2
Figure 6

Let x1 y1 z1 be the body 1 system of coordinates. Its angular position with


respect to the inertial system of coordinates XY Z, may be determined by angle .
Since the link 2 can rotate with respect to the link 1 about axis z1 only, the relative
position of the body 2 system of coordinates x2 y2 z2 is uniquely determined by angle
.
A. Matrices of direction cosines.
From Fig. 6 one can see that the matrix of direction cosines between system
of coordinates x1 y1 z1 and inertial system of coordinates XY Z has the following form

X
1
0
0
x1
Y = 0 cos sin y1
(2.16)
z1
Z
0 sin cos

In the same manner we can easily derive matrix of direction cosines between body 2
system of coordinates x2 y2 z2 and system of coordinates x1 y1 z1 .

x1
cos sin 0
x2
y1 = sin cos 0 y2
(2.17)
z1
z2
0
0
1

Introduction of Eq. 2.17 into Eq. 2.16 yields matrix of direction cosines between the
body 2 system of coordinates and the inertial one.

X
1
0
0
cos sin 0
x2
Y = 0 cos sin sin cos 0 y2
z2
Z
0 sin cos
0
0
1

cos
sin
0
x2

y2
cos sin cos cos sin
(2.18)
=
z2
sin sin sin cos cos

PROBLEMS.

48

B. Positions of individual links.


To find positions of individual links let us consider the following vector equation
rC + rBC = rA + rBA

(2.19)

Kc + JrBC = IrA + j2 lAB

(2.20)

or
The above equation is equivalent to 3 scalar equations which may be obtained by
subsequent multiplication its both sides by unit vectors I, J, K.
0 = rA + I j2 lAB
rBC = J j2 lAB
c = K j2 lAB

(2.21)

The dot products, appearing in the above equations, can be taken directly from
matrix 2.18.
0 = rA lAB sin
rBC = lAB cos cos
c = lAB sin cos

(2.22)
(2.23)
(2.24)

= arcsin(rA /lAB )
= arcsin(c/lAB cos )
rBC = lAB cos cos

(2.25)
(2.26)
(2.27)

Hence,

The three above equations determine position of all links for any instant of time.
C. Angular velocities of individual links.
Since the link 1 performs rotational motion about axis X, its absolute angular
velocity 1 may be obtained by dierentiation of 2.26 with respect to time.
1 = I

(2.28)

2 = 1 + 21

(2.29)

21 = k2

(2.30)

Angular velocity of the link 2 is

Since
the absolute angular velocity 2 takes the following form
2 = I + k2

(2.31)

It components along body system of coordinates x2 y2 z2 are


2x2 = I i2 + k2 i2 = cos
2y2 = I j2 + k2 j2 = sin
= I k2 + k2 k2 =
2
z2

(2.32)

PROBLEMS.

49

where and are derivatives of expressions 2.25 and 2.26 respectively.


D. Velocity of the point B.
Velocity of the point B can be obtained by direct dierentiation of expression
2.27 with respect to time.
r B = vB = JrBC = JlAB ( sin cos cos sin )

(2.33)

PROBLEMS.

50

Problem 12
The point A of the body 1 shown in Fig. 7 can move along the vertical slide 2
which is located along the axis Z of the inertial system of coordinates XY Z. Motion
of the point A is determined by the following function of time
ZA = ZA (t)
The point B of the body 1 can move along the horizontal slide located in the plane
Y Z. This slide is by a apart from axis Y . The point C is in a constant contact
with the plane XY . According to the described constraints,motion of the body 1 is
uniquely determined by the function ZA .
Produce:
1. Components of the linear velocity of the point B and the point C.
2. Components of the absolute angular velocity of the body 1.

90 o

a
Z(t)

O
1

a
X

Figure 7

PROBLEMS.

51

Solution.
A. direction cosines

a
rBA

x
A

90 or

rA

Z(t)
rCA
O

rCB

rC

C
y
Figure 8

Let us consider the following vector equation (see Fig. 8).


rB = rA + rBA

(2.34)

JrBY + Ka = KZA (t) + ka

(2.35)

or
Hence

ZA
rBY
+K(1
)
(2.36)
a
a
Multiplication of the above vector equation by the units vectors associated with the
inertial system of coordinates I, J and K yields the direction cosines between the axis
z and axes of the inertial system of coordinates XY Z.
k=J

k I = coskI =0
rBY
k J = coskJ =
a
k K = coskK = 1
Since

ZA
a

cos2 kI + cos2 kJ + cos2 kK = 1

we have that
2

(0) +

BY

ZA
+ 1
=1
a

(2.37)

(2.38)
(2.39)

PROBLEMS.

52

The last relationship permits the unknown component rBY to be determined as the
explicit function of time
q
rBY = 2aZA ZA2 )
(2.40)

To determine the direction cosines between the axis y and axes of the inertial system
of coordinates, let us consider equation
rC = rA + rCA

(2.41)

IXC + JYC = KZA + ja

(2.42)

or
Since according to the above equation
j=I

rCX
rCY
ZA
+J
K
a
a
a

(2.43)

the wanted direction cosines are


rCX
a
rCY
j J = cosjJ =
a
ZA
j K = cosjK =
a
j I = cosjI =

(2.44)

The following property of the direction cosines


cos2 jI + cos2 jJ + cos2 jK = 1

(2.45)

2
2
+ rCY
+ ZA2 = a2
rCX

(2.46)

yields
The second equation for determination of the unknown rCX and rCY one may obtain
by consideration of the following vector equation
rC = rB + rCB

(2.47)

rCB = rB rC

(2.48)

It follows that
Multiplication of the above equation by unit vectors I, J and K respectively yields
components of the vector rCB along the initial system of coordinates.
rCBX = rB I rC I = rCX
rCBY

= rB J rC J =rBY rCY =

rCBZ = rB K rC K =a

q
2aZA ZA2 rCY

As one can see from Fig. 7 the length of the vector rCB is equal to
2
2
2
+ rCBY
+ rCBZ
= 2a2
rCBX

(2.49)

2a. Hence
(2.50)

PROBLEMS.

53

Therefore the second equation for determination of the components rCX and rCY
takes form
2
q
2
2
2aZA ZA rCY
+ a2 = 2a2
(2.51)
rCX +

The above equation together with Eq. 2.46 form set of two equations that determine
the components rCX and rCY as explicit functions of time. They are
s
2(a ZA )
rCX = a
2a ZA
ZA (a ZA )
rCY = p
ZA (2a ZA )
rCZ = 0
(2.52)
These equations allow the trajectory of the point C to be computed. This trajectory
is shown in Fig. 9 for a = 1
0.35
0.3
0.25
r CY 0.2
0.15
0.1
0.05
0
0

0.5

r CX

Figure 9
The unit vector associated with axis x can be produced as a vector product
of unit vectors j and k.
i=jk
(2.53)
where
j = I cos jI + J cos jJ + K cos jK
k = I cos kI + J cos kJ + K cos kK
Therefore

I
J
K

i = cos jI cos jJ cos jK

0
cos kJ cos kK
= I(cos jJ cos kK cos jK cos kJ)
+J( cos jI cos kK)
+K( cos jI cos kJ)

(2.54)

(2.55)

PROBLEMS.

54

Hence, the direction cosines between the axis x and axes XY Z are
cos iI = cos jJ cos kK cos jK cos kJ
cos iJ = cos jI cos kK
cos iK = cos jI cos kJ

(2.56)

B. Linear velocities
The linear velocity of the point B can be obtained by dierentiation of the
position vector rB which according to Eq. 2.40
q
(2.57)
rB = J 2aZA ZA2 + Ka
Hence

a ZA
vB = J p
Z
2 A
2aZA ZA

(2.58)

Similarly, dierentiation of the vector rC yields velocity of the point C. The position
vector rC according to Eq. 2.52
s
2(a ZA )
ZA (a ZA )
rC = Ia
+ Jp
(2.59)
2a ZA
ZA (2a ZA )

Hence

(2.60)

vC = IvCX + JvCY
where
vCX

2
1 2 Z A
p
= a
2 2a ZA (2a2 3aZA + ZA2 )
2

vCY

a 3aZA + ZA
= Z A p
3
ZA
(2a ZA )

(2.61)

Angular velocities.
The angular velocity of the link 1 may be obtained from the following vector
relationship
vB = vA + rBA
(2.62)
or
rBA = vB vA

(2.63)

The components of the vector rBA along the inertial system of coordinates are
rBAX = rBA I =ak I =acoskI =0
rBAY

= rBA J =ak J =acoskJ =rBY

q
= 2aZA ZA2 )

rBAZ = rBA K =ak K =acoskK =a ZA

(2.64)

PROBLEMS.

55

Hence, the equation 2.63 yields

I
J
K
x
z = I(0 0) + J(vBY 0) + K(0 Z A )
p y
2
0
2aZA ZA ) a ZA
= I(0) + J(vBY ) + K( Z A )
(2.65)

The above vector equation is equivalent to the following three scalar equation
q
y (a ZA ) z 2aZA ZA2 ) = 0

Hence

x (a ZA ) = vBY
q
x 2aZA ZA2 ) = Z A

(2.66)

Z A
x = p
(2.67)
2aZA ZA2 )
To produce the remaining components of the angular velocity let as consider the
vector relationship between the point C and A belonging to the same body 1.
or

vC = vA + rCA

(2.68)

(2.69)
rCA = vC vA
The developed earlier direction cosines (Eq. 2.44) permits the components of the
relative position vector to be obtain as an explicit function of time.
rCAX = rCA I =aj I =acosjI =rCX
rCAY = rCA J =aj J =acosjJ =rCY
rCAZ = rCA K =aj K =acosjK = ZA

(2.70)

where rCX and rCY are given by equation 2.52.Introducing them into Eq. 2.69 one
can get the following vector equation.

I
J
K
x y
z = I(vCX 0) + J(vCY 0) + K(0 Z A )
rCX rCY ZA
(2.71)
= I(vCX ) + J(vCY ) + K( Z A )
that is equivalent to three scalar equation of form 2.72

y ZA z rCY = vCX
z rCX + x ZA = vCY
x rCY y rCX = Z A

Hence, the wanted components of the angular velocity are


vCY x ZA
z =
rCX
Z A + x rCY
y =
rCX

(2.72)

PROBLEMS.

56

Problem 13
Z z1
y1

1
X

x1
Z

z1

32
a

s 21
O

3
y1

Figure 10
The base 1 of a robot shown in Fig. 10 rotates about the vertical Z and
its angular position is determined by the angle 1 . The link 2 can move along the
vertical slide of the base and its relative position is determined by s21 . The link 3 is
hinged to the link 2 and the angle 32 determines its relative position.
Upon assuming that 1 , s21 , 32 are given functions of time and a, l, are given
parameters, derive expressions for components of:
1. absolute angular velocity and acceleration of the link 3 along a body 3
system of coordinates.
2. linear velocity of the point P along the same system of coordinates.

PROBLEMS.

57

Solution.
Z z1
y1

1
X

x1
Z

z 1 z2
l

z3

32

l
y2

a
s 21

y3

s21
O

3
y1

Figure 11
In Fig. 11, the following systems of coordinates were introduced:
XY Z inertial system of coordinates
x1 y1 z1 body 1 rotating system of coordinates
x2 y2 z2 body 2 rotating and translating system of coordinates
x3 y3 z3 body 3 rotating and translating system of coordinates.
The angular velocity of the body 3 is
3 = 1 + 21 + 32
Since 21 = 0 one may obtain the following expression for the angular velocity of the
link 3.
3 = 1 + 32 = k2 1 + i3 32 = (k3 cos 32 + j3 sin 32 ) 1 + i3 32
= i3 32 + j3 1 sin 32 + k3 1 cos 32
(2.73)
The angular acceleration of the body 3 can be obtain as vector derivative of 3 with
respect to time.
3 = 3 = 03 + 3 3 = 03
= i3
32 + j3 (
1 sin 32 + 1 32 cos 32 ) + k3 (
1 cos 32 1 32 sin 32(2.74)
)
The position vector of the point P , according to Fig. 11 is
r = s21 + a + l = k2 s21 + j2 a + j3 l
= (k3 cos 32 + j3 sin 32 )s21 + (j3 cos 32 k3 sin 32 )a + j3 l
= j3 (s21 sin 32 + a cos 32 + l) + k3 (s21 cos 32 a sin 32 )

(2.75)

PROBLEMS.

58

Its first derivative with respect to time represents the wanted velocity of the point P .
r = r0 + 3 r

(2.76)

r0 = j3 (s 21 sin 32 + s21 32 cos 32 a 32 sin 32 )


+k3 (s 21 cos 32 s21 32 sin 32 a 32 cos 32 )

(2.77)

where

i3
j
k
3
3

1 sin 32
1 cos 32
3 r = 32

0 s21 sin 32 + a cos 32 + l s21 cos 32 a sin 32


= i3 [(s21 cos 32 a sin 32 ) 1 sin 32 (s21 sin 32 + a cos 32 + l) 1 cos 32 ]
+j3 [(s21 cos 32 a sin 32 ) 32 ]
(2.78)
+k3 [(s21 sin 32 + a cos 32 + l) 32 ]
Upon adding the two above expression together, one may obtain components of velocity of the point P in the following form
r = i3 (a 1 l 1 cos 32 ) + j3 (s 21 sin 32 ) + k3 (s 21 cos32 + l 32 )

(2.79)

PROBLEMS.

59

Problem 14
X
X

3
P

P
l
r

x1

x
z

Z3

r
O

Z3

z2

Z z1

a)

b)

y1

Figure 12
Fig. 12 shows the kinematic scheme of a mechanism. Its link 1 rotates with
the constant angular velocity about the horizontal axis Z of the motionless system
of coordinates XY Z. The link 3 is free to slide along and to rotate about axis Z3 .
The axis Z3 is fixed in the plane XZ and its position is determined by angle . The
link 2 joins point P of the link 1 and point Q of the link 3 by means of kinematic
constraints as is shown in Fig. 12. Derive the analytical expression for the linear
velocity of the link 3.
Given are:
angular velocity of the link 1.
r distance between points O and P .
l length of the link 2.
angle between axis Z and Z3

PROBLEMS.

60

Solution.
X
rP

x1

rQP

z
= t r

rQ

Z3
z2
Z z1

Y
y1

Figure 13
From Fig. 13 one can see that
rQ = rP + rQP

(2.80)

The above vectors can be expressed as follows.


rP = i1 r
rQ = K rQ cos + I rQ sin
rQP = k2 l = i1 l cos x + j1 l cos y + k1 l cos z

(2.81)
(2.82)
(2.83)

where x , y and z are angles between the axis z2 and axes of the system of coordinates x1 y1 z1 .Introduction of the above expressions into Eq. 2.80 yields
KrQ cos + IrQ sin = i1 r + i1 l cos x + j1 l cos y + k1 l cos z

(2.84)

Multiplication of the equation Eq. 2.84 by the unit vectors i1 , j1 and k1 respectively
oers three scalar equations.
rQ cos sin = r + l cos x
rQ sin sin = l cos y
rQ cos = l cos z

(2.85)
(2.86)
(2.87)

cos x = (rQ cos sin r)/l


cos y = (rQ sin sin )/l
cos z = (rQ cos )/l

(2.88)
(2.89)
(2.90)

Hence

PROBLEMS.

61

The direction cosines have to fulfil the following relationship


cos2 x + cos2 y + cos2 z = 1

(2.91)

Introduction of Eqs.. 2.88, 2.89 and 2.90 into Eq. (2.91) yields
(rQ cos sin r)2 + (rQ sin sin )2 + (rQ cos )2 = l2

(2.92)

After simple manipulation, the equation 2.15 takes form 2.93.


2
+ (2r cos sin )rQ + (r2 l2 ) = 0
rQ

(2.93)

Hence, the instantaneous position of the point Q is determined by the following


expression.
(2.94)
rQ = r cos sin (r2 cos2 sin2 r2 + l2 )1/2
Since axis Z3 is motionless, the fist derivative with respect to time of the above
expression yields absolute velocity of the point Q.
rQ = r sin sin r2 cos sin sin2 /(r2 cos2 sin2 r2 + l2 )1/2

(2.95)

There are two possible solution. One corresponds to sign + and the other corresponds to sing -.
X

P
l

Q+

r
Q-

Z3

Figure 14
The physical interpretation of those two solutions is given in Fig. 14.

PROBLEMS.

62

Problem 15
y2

2
A

x3

21 t

y1

y3
y2

O
o2
r

z3

A
o3

x2
x1 X

z1

z2

P
3
s

z1 z2

o2

2
l

y1

1
O

o1

Figure 15
A sketch of the Ferris Wheel is shown in Fig. 15. Its base 1 oscillates about the
horizontal axis X of the XY Z inertial system of coordinates. The instantaneous position of this base is determined by the angular position . The system of coordinates
x1 y1 z1 is rigidly attached to the base 1.
The relative angular velocity of the wheel 2 with respect to the base 1 is
constant and is equal to 21 . The system of coordinates x2 y2 z2 is rigidly attached to
the wheel 2.
The seat 3 is hinged to the wheel at the point A. The instantaneous position
of the seat 3 with respect to the wheel 2 is determined by the angular displacement
. The system of coordinates x3 y3 z3 is rigidly attached to the seat 3.
Produce expression for components of:
1. the absolute angular velocity of the seat 3 along the system of coordinates
x3 y3 z3
2. the absolute angular acceleration of the seat 3 along the system of coordinates x3 y3 z3
3. the absolute linear velocity of the point P along the system of coordinates
x3 y3 z3
Given are: r, l, s, 21 , (t), (t).

PROBLEMS.

63

Solution
3

y2

2
A

x3

21t

y1

y3

o2
r

z3

x1 X
z1 z2

A
o3
3

x2

y2

z1

z2

o2

o2

y1

1
O

o1

Figure 16
The absolute angular velocity of the system of coordinates x1 y1 z1 .
(2.96)

1 = i1
The absolute angular velocity of the system of coordinates x2 y2 z2 .
2 = 1 + 21 = i1 + k2 21
The absolute angular velocity of the system of coordinates x3 y3 z3
3 = 2 + 32 = i1 + k2 21 + i3

(2.97)

(2.98)

Since
i1 = i2 cos 21 t j2 sin 21 t = i3 cos 21 t (j3 cos k3 sin ) sin 21 t =
(2.99)
= i3 cos 21 t + j3 ( cos sin 21 t) + k3 (sin sin 21 t)
k2 = j3 sin + k3 cos
the components of the angular velocity along the system of coordinates are x3 y3 z3
3 = (i3 cos 21 t + j3 ( cos sin 21 t) + k3 (sin sin 21 t))
+ (j3 sin + k3 cos ) 21 + i3

= i3 cos 21 t + + j3 ( cos sin 21 t + 21 sin )

+k3 ( sin sin 21 t + 21 cos )


(2.100)

PROBLEMS.

64

The absolute angular velocity of the seat 3 is equal to 3 .


The absolute angular acceleration of the seat is equal to the absolute angular
acceleration of the system of coordinates x3 y3 z3
0

= 3 = 3 + 3 3 =
cos 21 t
21 sin 21 t +
= i3 (

21 cos cos 21 t + 21 cos


+j3
cos sin 21 t + cos sin 21 t

+k3
21 sin cos 21 t 21 sin(2.101)

sin sin 21 t + cos sin 21 t +

According to Fig. 16 the absolute position vector of the point P is

RP = k2 l + j2 r + k3 (s)
= (j3 sin + k3 cos ) l + (j3 cos k3 sin ) r + k3 (s)
= i3 (0) + j3 (l sin + r cos ) + k3 (l cos r sin s)

(2.102)

The first derivative of this vector yields the absolute liner velocity of the point P.
P = R0P + 3 RP
vP = R

= j3 l cos r sin ) + k3 l sin r cos

i3
j3
k3

+ cos 21 t + cos sin 21 t + 21 sin sin sin 21 t + 21 cos

0
l sin + r cos
l cos r sin s
= i3 vP x3 + j3 vP y3 + k3 vP z3
(2.103)

PROBLEMS.

65

Problem 16
O

x
X

z1
Y
y
1

y
2

32
x2

o2

x
1
1
a

b
2

Figure 17
Fig. 17 shows a diagram of a wheel excavator. Its base 1 rotates about the
vertical axis Y of the inertial system of coordinates XY Z. System of coordinates
x1 y1 z1 is rigidly attached to the base 1. Its instantaneous position is determined by
the angle . The arm 2 rotates with respect to the base 1 about axis that is parallel
to z1 . System of coordinates x2 y2 z2 is rigidly attached to the arm 2. Its relative
angular position is determined by an angle .
The wheel 3 rotates with respect to the arm 2 about axis that is parallel to
z1 with the angular velocity 32 .
Given are: (t), (t), 32 (t), a, b.
Produce
1. the expressions for the components of the absolute angular velocity of the wheel 3
along system of coordinates x2 y2 z2 .
Answer:

3x2 = sin 3y2 = cos


3z2 = + 32
2. the expressions for the components of the absolute linear velocity of the point P
along system of coordinates x2 y2 z2 .
Answer:
vP x2 = 0 vP y2 = b
vP z2 = a b cos
3. the expressions for components of the absolute acceleration of the point P along
system of coordinates x2 y2 z2 .
Answer:
aP x2 = vP z2 cos vP y2 aP y2 = v P y2 vP z2 sin
aP z2 = v P z2 + vP y2 sin

PROBLEMS.

66

Problem 17

z1

y3

z3

B
1
G

y1

rA
2

l/2

Figure 18
Fig. 18 shows the kinematic scheme of a mechanism. Its link 1 rotates with a
constant angular velocity 1 about the vertical axis Z. The link 2 can translate with
respect to the link 1 and its motion is determined by position vector of the point A.
rA = k1 rA
Given are:
1 angular velocity of the link 1
rA (t) position of the point A as a function of time.
l length of the link 3
Produce expressions for
1. the components of the absolute angular velocity of the link 3 along the body 3
system of coordinates x3 y3 z3 .
Answer:
3x3 =
3y3 =
3z3 = 1 cos
rA1 sin

where = arcsin l
= r2A 2
l rA

2. the components of the absolute velocity of the point B along the body 1 system
of coordinates x1 y1 z1 .
Answer:
p
2
vBx1 = 1 l2 rA
vBy1 = rA2rA 2
vBz1 = 0
l rA

3. the components of the absolute velocity of the point G along the body 3 system
of coordinates x3 y3 z3 .
Answer:
vGx1 = 2l 1 cos
vGy1 = rA sin vGz1 = rA cos + 2l

PROBLEMS.

67

Problem 18
y1

Y
X
z2

x1
Z

z1
y3

z3

y2

P
y1

R
1

Figure 19
The base 1 of the Ferris Wheel shown in Fig. 19 rotates about the vertical
axis Z of the inertial system of coordinates XY Z. Its angular position is determined
by the angular displacement (t) which is a given function of time. The system of
coordinates x1 y1 z1 is rigidly attached to this base. The wheel 2 of radius R performs
rotational motion about axis x1 with respect to the base 1. This relative motion is
determined by function (t). The system of coordinates x2 y2 z2 is rigidly attached to
the wheel 2. The seat 3 is hinged to the wheel 2. The relative angular position of
the seat 3 with respect to the wheel 2 is determined by angle (t). The system of
coordinates x3 y3 z3 is rigidly attached to the seat 3.
1. Derive expressions for the components of the absolute angular acceleration
of the seat 3 along the system of coordinates x2 y2 z2 .
2. Derive expressions for the components of the absolute linear velocity of the
point P along system of coordinates x2 y2 z2 .
Given are: (t), (t), (t), R, L

PROBLEMS.

68

Problem 19
Z
1

z1

2
y1

x2

z2

21
R

x1

C
X

x1

z1

y1
y2
C

Figure 20
The link 1 of the mechanical system shown in Fig. 20 is free to rotate about
axis X of the inertial system of coordinates XY Z. Its instantaneous position is
determined by the angle 1 . The system of coordinates is rigidly attached to the link
1. The link 2 can rotates with respect to the link 1 and its relative angular position
is determined by the angle 21 . Derive expression for the components of
1. the absolute angular acceleration of the link 2 along the body 2 system of
coordinates
2. the absolute linear velocity of the point P along the body 2 system of
coordinates .
Given are: 1 , 21 ,L, R

PROBLEMS.

69

Problem 20

1
y1

1 t
X

x1
Z

z1

z2

o2

y2

P
2
P

y1
a

y2

x2

o2
b

Figure 21
The helicopter blade 2 is hinged at to the helicopter rotor 1 as shown in Fig.
21. The distance between the hinge and the rotor axis is c. The helicopter body
is stationary with respect to the inertial system of coordinates XY Z. Its rotor 1
rotates with a constant angular velocity 1 about the vertical axis Z. The system
of coordinates x1 y1 z1 is rigidly attached to the rotor 1. The relative position of the
blade 2 with respect to the rotor 1 is determined by the angular displacement . This
relative angular displacement is a given function of time. The system of coordinates
x2 y2 z2 is rigidly attached to the blade 2. The position of the point P which belong
to the blade is determined by its coordinates a and b along the system of coordinates
x2 y2 z2 .
Produce:
1. the components of the absolute velocity and the absolute acceleration of the point
P along the system of coordinates x2 y2 z2
2. the components of the absolute angular acceleration of the blade 2 along the
system of coordinates x2 y2 z2

PROBLEMS.

70

Problem 21
0

vA

A
a

2,1 y1

z1

x1

o1

o1

2
x1

Figure 22
The point A of the plane 1, shown in Fig. 22, follows the circular path of
radius R with the constant linear velocity vA . Its longitudinal axis E F is always
tangential to the path of the point A. This path belongs to the horizontal plane of
the inertial space XY Z. System of coordinates x1 , y1 , z1 is rigidly attached to the
plane 1. Its propeller 2 rotates with the constant angular velocity 2,1 with respect
to the plane 1.
Produce:
1. Components of the absolute velocity of the tip P of the propeller 2 along the
system of coordinates x1 , y1 , z1 as a function of the angular displacements and .
Answer:
vP x1 = r sin b
vP y1 = (R

+ a + r cos )
vP z1 = r cos
2. Components of the absolute acceleration of the tip P along the system of coordinates x1 , y1 , z1 as a function of the angular displacements and .
Answer:
aP x1 = v P x1 v
P y1
aP y1 = v P y1 v
P x1
aP z1 = v P z1
3. Components of the angular acceleration of the propeller 2 along the system of
coordinates x1 , y1 , z1 as a function of the angular displacements and .
Answer:
x1 =
2,1
y1 = 0
z1 = 0

PROBLEMS.

71

Problem 22
z1 z2 z 3

z1
3

z2

1
x1
x2
x3

z1

b
o

x1

y2
y1 2

y3
y2

b)

a)

x3

3
x2

Figure 23
Fig. 23a) shows the self-steering mechanism of the yacht 1. The system of
coordinates x1 , y1 , z1 is attached to the yacht. The shaft 2 of this mechanism is free
to rotate about the axis x1 . The system of coordinates x2 , y2 , z2 is attached to this
shaft. Its instantaneous position is determined by the angle 2 (see Fig. 23b)). The
link 3 is hinged to the link 2 at the point o. The instantaneous position of the body 3
system of coordinates x3 , y3 , z3 with respect to the system of coordinates x2 , y2 , z2 is
determined by the angle 3 . The yacht is travelling along a straight line with velocity
v. Given are: a, b, v(t), 2 (t), 3 (t).
Produce the expression for
1. the components of the absolute angular velocity of the link 3 along the system of
coordinates x3 , y3 , z3
Answer:
3x3 = 2 cos 3 3y3 = 2 sin 3
3z3 = 3
2. the components of the absolute angular acceleration of the link 3 along the system
of coordinates x3 , y3 , z3
Answer:
3x3 =
2 cos 3 2 3 sin 3 3y3 =
2 sin 3 2 3 cos 3
3z3 =
3
3. the components of the absolute velocity of the point A shown in Fig. 23a) along
the system of coordinates x3 , y3 , z3 .
Answer:
vAx3 = v cos 3 b 2 sin 3 vAy3 = v sin 3 a 3 b 2 cos 3 vAz3 = a 2 sin 3

PROBLEMS.

72

Problem 23

y2

z1

z2

Y y1

3
1

x1 x2

Figure 24
The ship 1 (Fig. 24) rotates about the axis Y of the absolute system of
coordinates XY Z. Its instantaneous position is determined by the angle . System
of coordinates x1 , y1 , z1 is rigidly attached to the ship. The housing 2 performs the
rotational motion about axis x1 . The relative position of the housing with respect to
the ship is given by the angular displacement . System of coordinates x2 , y2 , z2 is
fixed to the housing. The gyroscope 3 rotates about axis with respect to the housing.
Its relative angular velocity is .
Produce:
1. components of the absolute angular velocity of the gyroscope along the
system of coordinates x2 , y2 , z2
2. components of the absolute angular acceleration of the gyroscope along
system of coordinates x2 , y2 , z2
3. components of the absolute linear velocity of the point P along the system
of coordinates x2 , y2 , z2
4. components of the absolute linear velocity of the point P along the system
of coordinates x1 , y1 , z1

PROBLEMS.

73

Problem 24
z1

z2
z3

o3
y3

z1

x3

21
x1

y1

o1 y1
o2 y2

x1
x2

o1
Z

O X
Y

Figure 25
Fig. 25 shows the sketch of a Ferris Wheel. Its base 1 oscillates about the
horizontal axis X of the inertial system of coordinates XY Z. Its instantaneous
position is determined by the angular displacement . The wheel 2 of radius R
rotates with respect to the base 1 with the constant velocity 21 about axis y1 of
the body 1 system of coordinates x1 y1 z1 . The system of coordinates x2 y2 z2 is rigidly
attached to the wheel 2. The seat 3 is free to rotate about axis y3 and its relative
position is determined by the angular position .
Produce the expressions for
1. the components of the absolute angular velocity of the seat 3 along the system of
coordinates x2 y2 z2
Answer:
3 = i2 ( cos ) + j2 ( 21 + )
+ k2 ( sin )
2. the components of the absolute angular acceleration of the seat 3 along the system
of coordinates x2 y2 z2
Answer:
3 = i2 (
cos
21 sin sin ) + j2 (
) + k2 (
sin +
21 cos cos )
3. the components of the absolute linear velocity of the point o3 along the system of
coordinates x2 y2 z2
Answer:
vo3 = i2 (21 R) + j2 (L R cos ) + k2 (0)

PROBLEMS.

74

Problem 25
1

y1

y1

A
A

z1

f
O

x1
X

y1 y2

f
Z

z2
P

z1

A
x2

x1
OA

Z z1 P
z2

x1

a)

x2

b)

Figure 26
The link 1 of the mechanical system shown in Fig. 26 rotates about the horizontal axis Z of the inertial system of coordinates XY Z. Its instantaneous position
is determined by the angular displacement . The system of coordinates x1 y1 z is
attached to the link 1. The link 2 is free to rotate about the axis y1 and its relative
angular position is determined by the angle . The system of coordinates x2 y2 z2 is
attached to the link 2. The dimensions f and L locate position of the point P with
respect to this system of coordinates.
Produce
1. the components of the absolute angular velocity of the link 2 along the system of
coordinates x2 y2 z2 .
Answer:
+ k2 ( cos )
2 = i2 ( sin ) + j2 ()
2. the components of the absolute angular acceleration of the link 2 along the system
of coordinates x2 y2 z2 .

PROBLEMS.

75

Answer:
+ k2 (
2 = i2 (
sin cos ) + j2 ()
cos sin )
3. the components of the absolute linear velocity of the point P along the system of
coordinates x2 y2 z2 .
Answer:
f cos ) + j2 (L sin ) + k2 (f sin )
vP = i2 (L

PROBLEMS.

76

Problem 26

z1
Z

z1

y1 x1
O

o1

o1

Y
z2

Y(t
)

a
y2

o2

o2
x2

Figure 27
Figure 27 shows the suspension of the casting ladle 2. The point o1 of the
carriage 1 moves along the horizontal axis Y of the inertial system of coordinates
XY Z. Its motion is determined by the displacement Y (t). This carriage is free to
rotate about the axis x1 of the body 1 system of coordinates x1 y1 z1 . Its angular
position is given by the function of time (t). The ladle 2 rotates about the axis y2 of
the body 2 system of coordinates x2 y2 z2 . Its relative angular position is determined
by the angle (t).
Produce:
1. the expression for the components of the absolute angular velocity of the ladle 2
along the system of coordinates x2 y2 z2 .
Answer:
2 = i2 cos + j2 + k2 sin
2. the expression for the components of the absolute angular acceleration of the ladle
2 along the system of coordinates x2 y2 z2 .
Answer:
2 = i2 (
cos sin ) + j2 + k2 (
sin + cos )
3. the components of the absolute velocity of the point P along the system of coordinates x2 y2 z2 .

PROBLEMS.

Answer:
vP = i2 (Y sin sin + Y cos sin + Y sin cos + L cos )+
+j2 (Y cos Y sin )+
+k 2 (Y sin cos Y cos cos + Y sin sin + L sin )+

i2
j2
k2

+
cos

sin
Y sin sin + L sin a Y cos Y sin cos L cos + b

77

PROBLEMS.

78

Problem 27

y2

Z z1

z2
G

y1

a
O

x2

a
x1
X
Figure 28

Fig. 28 shows the physical model of a mechanical system. The link 1 of this
system rotates about the vertical axes Z of the inertial frame XYZ. Its instantaneous
position is given by the absolute angular displacement . The system of coordinates
x 1 y 1 z 1 is rigidly attached to the link 1. The link 2 is hinged to the link 1 at the
point A. The other end of this link P always stays in contact with the cylindrical
surface 3 of radius R (b>R). The system of coordinates x 2 y 2 z 2 is attached to
the body 2 and coincides with its principal axes. The link 2 possesses the mass m
and its principal moments of inertia about the system of coordinates x 2 y 2 z 2 are
I x2 , I y2 and I z2 . Its centre of gravity G is located by the distance c. The angular
displacement determines the relative position of the link 2 with respect to the
system of coordinates x 1 y 1 z 1 .
Produce:
1. The expression for the components of the absolute angular velocity of the link 2
along the system of coordinates x 2 y 2 z 2 in terms of and
2. The expression for the components of the absolute angular acceleration of the link
2 along the system of coordinates x 2 y 2 z 2 in terms of and
3. The expression for the components of the absolute velocity of the point P

PROBLEMS.

along the system of coordinates x 2 y 2 z 2 in terms of and


4. The kinetic energy of the link 2 as a function of and .
5. The expression for the angular displacement as a function of .

79

Chapter 3
KINETICS OF SYSTEM OF PARTICLES.
Z

m
r

O
Y
X
Figure 1
Newton second law for a single particle (see Fig. 1) can be formulated in the
following form
d
F = (mr)
(3.1)
dt
where
F - is the resultant force acting on the particle
m - mass of the particle
r - is its absolute velocity.
If the mass is constant, the second law can be rewritten in more simple way.
F = m
r

(3.2)

If the position vector r and force F are determined by its components along the
absolute rectangular system of coordinates (r = IrX + JrY + KrZ , F = IFX + JFY +
KFZ ) the above equation is equivalent to three scalar equations.
rX
FX = m
FY = m
rY
FZ = m
rZ

(3.3)

If number of particles n is relatively low, we are able to produce free body diagram
for each particle separately and create 3n dierential equations which permit each

KINETICS OF SYSTEM OF PARTICLES.

81

dynamic problem to be solved. But, if number of particles approaches infinity this


way of solving dynamic problems fails.
This chapter is concerned with formulation of equations of motion of any
system of particles regardless of their number and internal forces acting between the
individual particles. Because each continuum (fluid, gas, rigid or elastic body) can be
considered as system of particles, the derived equations form a base for development
of many branches of mechanics (fluid mechanics, solid mechanics, etc.).

Fi
Z

Fij

mi
r ij

ri

mj
Fji

rj

Fj

O
Y
X
Figure 2

Since the internal forces are to be eliminated from equations ofPmotion, the resultant
force F have to be resolved into resultant of all internal forces N
j=1 Fij and resultant
of all external forces Fi acting on the i th particle (see Fig. 2).
F = Fi +

N
X

Fij

(3.4)

j=1

Here
N represents number of particles involved
Fi represents resultant of all forces coming from sources external to the
system considered (gravity force or any force explicitly determined in time).
Fij - represents internal force acting on a particle i as result of interaction with
a particle j.
Hence, the second Newton law may be adopted in the following form
r = Fi +
mi

N
X

Fij

(3.5)

j=1

According to the third Newton law we can assume that


Fij = Fji

and

Fii = Fjj = 0

(3.6)

MOTION OF CENTRE OF MASS - LINEAR MOMENTUM.

3.1

82

MOTION OF CENTRE OF MASS - LINEAR MOMENTUM.

Let us consider system of N particles in an inertial space. The motion of an individual


particle mi is defined by the position vector ri (Fig. 3).

mi
G

ri
rG
O

Y
X
Figure 3

DEFINITION: The following vector


P=

PN

i=1

(3.7)

mi r i

is called inertial linear momentum of the system of particles.


The first derivative of the linear momentum is
=
P

N
X

(3.8)

mi
ri

i=1

According to Newton second law


=
P

N
N
N
N
N X
X
X
X
X
(Fi +
Fij ) =
Fi +
Fij
i=1

j=1

i=1

(3.9)

i=1 j=1

Taking into account that according to Eq. 3.6 Fij = Fji and Fii = Fjj = 0 the
formula 3.9 can be rewritten in form
=
P

PN

i=1

Fi = Fex

(3.10)

The last formula permits to formulate the following statement.


STATEMENT: The rate of change of the linear momentum of a system
of particles is equal to the resultant of all external forces acting on the
system of particles.

MOMENT OF MOMENTUM.

83

Let vector rG be the position vector of the centre of mass of a system of particles
(Fig. 3 ). According to the definition of a centre of particles we have
rG m =

N
X

(3.11)

ri mi

i=1

where

P
m= N
i=1 mi - is the total mass of the system of particles.
Dierentiating the equation 3.11 with respect to time one can obtain
r G m =

N
X

(3.12)

r i mi = P

i=1

Second dierentiation yields

rG m = P

(3.13)

rG m = Fex

(3.14)

Hence, according to Eq. 3.10 is


The last result permits the following statement to be formulated.
STATEMENT: The centre of mass of a system of particles moves as if the
entire mass of the system was concentrated at that point and all external
forces were applied there.
3.2

MOMENT OF MOMENTUM.

Considering system of particles, always three kinds of moment of momentum (angular


momentum) are introduced.
1. Angular momentum about a fixed point in the inertial space.
2. Angular momentum about a moving point in the inertial space.
3. Relative angular momentum about a moving point in the inertial space.
In this paragraph the three above types of angular momentum are defined and discussed.
3.2.1 Moment of momentum about a fixed point in the inertial space.
Let mi be a particle which belongs to a system of N particles and ri be its position
vector in the inertial space XY Z (Fig. 4).
DEFINITION: The following vector
HO =

PN

i=1 ri

(mi r i )

(3.15)

is called angular momentum about the fixed point O.


The first derivative of angular momentum is
O=
H

N
N
N
X
X
X
(ri (mi r i )) +
(ri (mi
ri )) =
(ri (mi
ri ))
i=1

i=1

i=1

(3.16)

MOMENT OF MOMENTUM.

84

mi
ri

O
Y
X
Figure 4
Applying the second Newton law to the equation 3.16 we have
O=
H

N
X
i=1

ri (Fi +

N
X

Fij ) =

j=1

N
X
i=1

ri Fi +

N X
N
X
i=1 j=1

ri Fij

(3.17)

To show that the last term is equal to zero, let us consider two particles mi and mj
(Fig. 5)

Fij

mi
r ij

ri

mj

rj

O
Y
X
Figure 5

From the above figure one can see that


ri Fij + rj Fji = ri Fij rj Fij = (ri rj ) Fij = rij Fij

(3.18)

Since vectors rij and Fij are parallel then


ri Fij + rj Fji = 0

(3.19)

Taking into account the above equation, one may say that
N
N X
X
i=1 j=1

ri Fij = 0

(3.20)

MOMENT OF MOMENTUM.

85

and the equation 3.17 takes form


O=
H

N
X
i=1

ri Fi

(3.21)

The left hand side of equation 3.21 represents resultant moment MO of all external
forces acting on the system of particles with respect to the fixed point O. Hence, we
may conclude this paragraph with the following statement.
STATEMENT: The rate of change of the angular momentum of a system
of particles about a fixed point is equal to the sum of moments of all
external forces acting on the system of particles about that point.
O = MO
H

(3.22)

3.2.2 Moment of momentum about a moving point in an inertial space.


Let motion of the point C (6) be defined by the position vector rC and let us denote
by mi an arbitrarily chosen particle of a system assembled out of N particles.
Z

mi
r i,C
ri

rC

O
Y
X

Figure 6

If the motion of the particle mi is determined by vector ri , the relative motion of the
particle mi with respect to the point C is determined by the formula (3.23).
ri,C = ri rC

(3.23)

DEFINITION: The following vector


HC =

PN

i=1 ri,C

(mi r i )

(3.24)

is called angular momentum about the moving point C.


Its first derivative is
C=
H

N
X
i=1

r i,C (mi r i ) +

N
X
i=1

ri,C (mi
ri )

(3.25)

MOMENT OF MOMENTUM.

86

Introducing Eq. 3.23 into Eq. 3.25 and taking advantage from the second Newton
law, the first derivative of the angular momentum can be written as follow.
C=
H

N
X
i=1

r i (mi r i )

N
X
i=1

r C (mi r i ) +

N
X
i=1

ri,C (Fi +

N
X

Fij )

(3.26)

j=1

But

PN
r i (mi r i ) = 0 since r i is parallel to mi r i,
PN
Pi=1
N
i=1 ri,C
j=1 Fij = 0 because ri,C Fij + rj,C Fji = (ri,C rj,C ) Fij =
rij Fij = 0 (see Fig. 7)
mj
ri,j

mi

rj

Fi,j

r i,C

rj,C
C

rC

ri
O

Y
X

Figure 7

Hence
C =
H
where

N
X
i=1

r C (mi r i ) +

N
X
i=1

ri,C Fi = rC P + MC

(3.27)

P
(m r ) - is the linear momentum of the system considered
P= N
i=1
PN i i
MC = i=1 ri,C Fi - is resultant moment of all external forces about the
moving point C.
According to consideration curried out in chapter 2 section 1, P = r G m. Hence
C = rC r G m + MC
H

(3.28)

If the arbitrarily chosen point C coincides the gravity centre G (rC = r G ), the above
formula yields
G = MG
H
(3.29)
The last relationship allows to formulate the following statement.
STATEMENT: The rate of change of angular momentum about centre of
gravity of a system of particles is equal to moment about that centre of
all external forces acting on the system of particles.

MOMENT OF MOMENTUM.

87

3.2.3 Moment of relative momentum.


Let us once more consider a system of particles shown in Fig. 8 and the arbitrarily
chosen point C.
Z

mi
ri

r i,C r G,C
C

rC

O
Y
X

Figure 8

DEFINITION: The following vector


hC =

PN

(ri,C mi )

i=1 ri,C

(3.30)

is called moment of relative momentum.


Its first derivative is
h C =

N
X
i=1

r i,C (ri,C mi ) +

N
X
i=1

ri,C (
ri,C mi )

(3.31)

But, according to Fig 8,


ri,C = ri rC

(3.32)

Hence
r i,C = r i r C

ri,C =
ri
rC

and

(3.33)

The first term in the right hand side of equation 3.31 is equal to 0. Hence, introduction
of Eq. 3.33 into it yields
h C =

N
X
i=1

N
X
i=1

N
X
i=1

ri,C (
ri mi )
ri,C (Fi +

N
X
i=1

N
X
j=1

Fij ) +
rC

ri,C Fi +
rC

= MC +
rC mrG,C

ri,C (
rC mi )

N
X

N
X
(ri,C mi )
i=1

(ri,C mi )

i=1

(3.34)

EQUATIONS OF MOTION AND THEIR FIRST INTEGRALS.

88

If C always coincides the centre of gravity G (rG,C = 0), moment of the relative
angular momentum about the systems centre of gravity is
h G = MG

(3.35)

The above considerations allows to formulate the following statement.


STATEMENT: The rate of change of the relative angular momentum
about the centre of gravity is equal to moment of all external forces acting
on the system of particles about that centre.
Taking into account that the right hand sides of equations 3.35 and 3.29 are equal,
we arrive to conclusion that
G = h G
H

and

HG = hG

(3.36)

The last expression is obvious because for motionless system of particles both moments of momentum are equal to 0.
3.3

EQUATIONS OF MOTION AND THEIR FIRST INTEGRALS.

In the previous sections of this chapter four vectorial equations has been derived. Not
all of them are independent. The independent pairs of equations are.

=F
=F
=F
P
P
P
(3.37)
G = MG
O = MO
H
H
h G = MG
Depending on the dynamic problem to be solved, we can choose one of these three
pairs of equations. Each of them is equivalent to six scalar equations. It means, that
these problems can only be solved, without additional equations expressing interaction between individual particles, which have six scalar unknown only. Very small
range of dynamic problems fulfil these requirements.
3.3.1 Conservation of momentum principle.
Let us assumed that the component of the resultant of all external forces F along the
fixed in the inertial space axis defined by the unit vector is equal to zero.
Z

O
Y
X

Figure 9

EQUATIONS OF MOTION AND THEIR FIRST INTEGRALS.

89

= F by the unit vector yields the following scalar


The scalar multiplication of P
equation
=F=0
P
(3.38)
Hence,
P = const

(3.39)

STATEMENT: If component of a resultant of all external forces along a


fixed in an inertial space axis is equal to zero, its momentum is conserved
along that axis ( P = const).
3.3.2 Conservation of angular momentum principle.
Let us assumed that the component of the resultant moment MO of all external forces
F along the fixed in the inertial space axis defined by the unit vector is equal to
zero.
Z

MO

O
Y
X

Figure 10

O = MO by the unit vector , results in the


The scalar multiplication of equation H
following scalar relationship
O = MO = 0
H

(3.40)

HO = const

(3.41)

Hence,

STATEMENT: If component of a resultant moment MO of all external


forces along a fixed in an inertial space axis is equal to zero, its angular
momentum is conserved along that axis.

EQUATIONS OF MOTION AND THEIR FIRST INTEGRALS.

90

3.3.3 Impulse momentum principle.


If the resultant force and moment of all external forces are explicit functions of time,
the derived equations of motion

=F
=F
=F
P
P
P
(3.42)
O = MO
G = MG
H
H
h G = MG

can be integrated with respect to time.


Z t
Z t
Z t
Z t

O dt =
Pdt
=
H
Fdt,
MO dt,
to
to
to
to
Z t
Z t
Z t
Z t

HG dt =
MG dt,
MG dt
hG dt =
to

to

to

(3.43)

to

The following expression are called respectively


Z t
= P(t) P(to ) = P
Pdt

(3.44)

to

- increment of the linear momentum


Z t
O dt = HO (t) HO (to ) = HO
H

(3.45)

to

- increment of the angular momentum about point O


Z t
G dt = HG (t) HG (to ) = HG
H

(3.46)

to

- increment of the angular momentum about G


Z t
h G dt = hG (t) hG (to ) = hG

(3.47)

to

- increment of the relative angular momentum about G


Z t
Fdt = UF

(3.48)

to

- the linear impulse

MO dt = UMO

(3.49)

MG dt = UMG

(3.50)

to

-the angular impulse about point O


Z

to

-the angular impulse about point G


Introduction of the above notations into 3.43 yields
P = UF ,

HO = UMO ,

HG = hG = UMG

(3.51)

The above formulae allows to formulate the following statement


STATEMENT: For any system of particles an increment of the linear
(angular) momentum is equal to the linear (angular) impulse of all external
forces.

PROBLEMS.

3.4

91

PROBLEMS.

Problem 28

Figure 11
On a massless and free to rotate about the vertical axis Z table, two dogs take
position at B and S as shown in Fig. 11. The dog B has a mass mB greater then
that of the dog S (mB > mS ).At the instant t = 0, when a food was placed outside
the table at F , the dogs as well as the table were motionless. Show, that regardless
of relative velocities developed by the dogs with respect to the table, the small dog
S will reach the food first.

PROBLEMS.

92

Solution
.
RB
B

F .
RS
RB

RS

Figure 12
According to the introduced definition (see Eq. 3.15), the angular momentum
of the system considered about fixed in the inertial space point O (see Fig. 12) in
arbitrarily chosen instance of time is
B + RS mS R
S
HO = RB mB R
= K(mB RB R B + mS RS R S )

(3.52)

This angular momentum has to be equal to zero since the system is conserved about
the vertical axis Z and at the beginning the system was motionless. Taking into
account that RS = RB = R, we have
mB
R S =
RB
mS

(3.53)

B
Since m
> 1, the absolute velocity of the small dog R S is always greater then the
mS
absolute velocity of the big dog R B .

PROBLEMS.

93

Problem 29
1

2
D

Figure 13
The sprinkler shown in Fig. 13 distributes water of density at the volume
rate Q. Each of the two nozzles has the exit area equal to A. The friction moment
between the rotating part 1 and the stationary one 2 is equal M. Produce expression
for the steady state angular velocity of the rotating part 1. The diameter d of the
nozzle as well as D are small as compare with the distance R shown in the drawing
13.

PROBLEMS.

94

Solution
F

F
O

G
p

Z,z

Z,z

B
vA

B
vR

M
x

y
Y

a)

B
vT

b)
Figure 14

Let us consider the system of particles limited by the boundary shown in Fig.
14a) by the dash-dot line. This system is assembled of the rotating part 1 and water
that is shadowed in Fig. 14a). Axes XY Z forms the inertial system of coordinates
and axes xyz are attached to the part 1. The forces F represents external forces
acting on the system of particles due to its interaction with the stationary part 2.
The resultant force due to gravitation is denoted by G. The friction between the
rotating and stationary part of the sprinkler is represented by moment M. The
pressure p is due to interaction of particles of water that belong to the system and
the cut-o stream of water. All the above specified forces should be classified as
external with respect to the system considered. The atmospheric pressure is evenly
distributed over the entire outer surface of the system of particles. Since its resultant
is always equal to zero, it is not shown in this diagram.
Position of the particles shown in the Fig. 14a) corresponds to an arbitrarily
chosen instant of time t. Fig. 14b) presents position of these particles after a small
increment in time t. The increment in the linear momentum associated with the
increment of time t is due to volume of water B and C as well as loss of water in
the volume E.
Let us produce expression for the linear momentum of particles in the volume
B. If the diameter of the nozzle is small with respect to the distance R, one can assume
B
that all particles that belong to the volume B have the same absolute velocity vA
.
Therefore the increment in the linear momentum is
B
PB = mB vA

(3.54)

PROBLEMS.

95

where mB stands for total mass of particles in the volume B and is equal to
1
mB = Qt
(3.55)
2
B
is equal to sum of the velocity of transportation vTB and the
The absolute velocity vA
B
relative velocity vR
.

i
j
k

Q
Q
B
B
B
0
0
+ j( ) =
vA = vT + vR = R + i =
A
A
R cos R sin 0
Q
(3.56)
= i(R sin ) + j(R cos ) + k(0)
A
Hence

Q
B
B
P = m i(R sin ) + j(R cos )
(3.57)
A
Increment in the angular momentum about fixed point O is

i
j
k

B
B
R sin
0 =
HB
O = R P = m R cos
Q
R sin R cos
0
A

Q
= k mB (R2 R cos )
(3.58)
A
In the same manner one may produce expressions for increment in the angular momentum of particles associated with the volume C and E.

Q
C
C
2
(3.59)
HO = k m (R R cos )
A

HE
(3.60)
O = 0
Hence the total increment in the angular momentum is

Q
B
C
E
2
(3.61)
HO =HO + HO + HO = k m(R R cos )
A
where m is
m = mB + mC = Q t
(3.62)
To solve the problem, one may take advantage of the angular momentum - angular
impulse principle.
HO = UMO
(3.63)
where
UMO = kMt
(3.64)
Introduction of 3.61, 3.62 and 3.64 into 3.63 yields
Q
Q t(R2 R cos )t = Mt
(3.65)
A
Hence the wanted angular speed of the sprinkler is
=

Q2 R cos
A

R2

(3.66)

Chapter 4
KINETICS OF RIGID BODY.
4.1

LINEAR AND ANGULAR MOMENTUM.

According to consideration presented in chapter 2, motion of a rigid body may be


determined by its angular velocity and the position vector ro which defines motion
of the origin o of the body system of coordinates xyz. (Fig. 1).
i

z
Z

ri,o
G
z

ri rG

rG,o
o
y

ro

dm

Y
x
X

Figure 1
The rigid body can be considered as a system of particles assembled of infinitesimal elements dm which positions with respect to the body frame is given by the
position vector ri,o . The mass of an individual element dm is
(4.1)

dm = (xyz)dxdydz

where is density. Hence, the total mass of the rigid body can be expressed as follow
Z
ZZZ
(xyz)dxdydz = dm
(4.2)
m=
V

The centre of gravity of the rigid body, according to the above notations, with respect
to the body system of coordinates is
Z
1
rG,o =
ri,o dm
(4.3)
m
m

LINEAR AND ANGULAR MOMENTUM.

97

According to consideration in the previous chapter linear momentum P is


P = r G m

(4.4)

r G = r o + r G,o = r o + r0G,o + rG,o = r o + rG,o

(4.5)

where
Introducing Eq. 4.5 into Eq. 4.4 one can obtain
P = (ro + rG,o )m

(4.6)

Angular relative momentum of the element dm with respect to the origin o is


dho = ri,o r i,o dm = ri,o (r0i ,o + ri,o )dm
= ri,o (+ ri,o )dm
Hence, the total angular relative momentum has form
Z
ho = ri,o (+ ri,o )dm

(4.7)

(4.8)

Let us calculate the triple cross product,


ri,o ( ri,o ) = (ri,o ri,o ) ri,o (ri,o )

(4.9)

If both vectors involved are given by their components along the body system of
coordinates, namely
= i x + j y + kz

and

ri,o = ix + jy + kz

(4.10)

the triple product is as follows.


ri,o ( ri,o )
= (i x + j y + k z )(x2 + y 2 + z 2 ) (ix + jy + kz)(x x + y y + z z )
=
i( x (y 2 + z 2 ) xyy xz z )
+j( y (x2 + z 2 ) yx x yz z )
(4.11)
+k(z (x2 + y 2 ) zxx zy y )
Hence
ho =

i(+ x
+j( x

Zm

+k( x

(y + z )dm y
yxdm + y

xydm z

(x2 + z 2 )dm z

zxdm y

zydm + z

Zm

xzdm)
yzdm)

(x2 + y 2 )dm)

(4.12)

LINEAR AND ANGULAR MOMENTUM.

Introducing notations
R
Ix = (y 2 + z 2 )dm,

R
Iy = (x2 + z 2 )dm,

Ixy =

98

xy dm,

Iyz =

yz dm,

R
Iz = (x2 + y 2 )dm
m

Ixz =

xz dm

(4.13)

the components of vector ho ,according to 4.12, are


hox = Ix x Ixy y Ixz z
hoy = Iyx x + Iy y Iyz z
hoz = Izx x Izy y + Iz z

(4.14)

where: Ix , Iy , Iz are called moments of inertia and Ixy , Iyz , Ixz are called products
of inertia.
The above relations can be written in the following matrix form.

hox
x
Ix Ixy Ixz
hoy = Iyx Iy Iyz y
(4.15)
hoz
Izx Izy Iz
z
or shorter

{ho } = [I]{}

(4.16)

Matrix [I] is called inertia matrix.


The formula 4.16 produces components of vector ho along body system of
coordinates. Matrix {} is assembled of components of angular velocity along body
system of coordinates.

Z
i
ri

dm

G
rG
z

O
y

X
x
Figure 2
For the particular case of rotational motion of the rigid body about the fixed
in the inertial space point O (see Fig. 2) the angular momentum is
Z
Z
Z
(4.17)
HO = dHO = ri r i dm = ri (ri )dm
m

PROPERTIES OF MATRIX OF INERTIA.

99

or in the matrix form


{HO } = [I]{}
4.2

(4.18)

PROPERTIES OF MATRIX OF INERTIA.

The introduced definitions of moment of inertia e.g.


Z
Ix = (y 2 + z 2 )dm

(4.19)

and product of inertia e.g.


Iyz =

(4.20)

yz dm

permit elements of the inertia matrix to be calculated for bodies of a simple geometrical shape like a cylinder, sphere, rectangular block etc. As an example let as calculate
the moments and products of inertia for the rectangular block shown in Fig. 3.

dm
o
y

z
x

Figure 3

Ix =

ZZZ

Zc Zb Za
(y + z )dxdydz = ( ( (y 2 + z 2 )dx)dy)dz
2

Zc Z b
Zc Z b
2
2
a
= ( (y + z )x |0 )dy)dz = a ( (y 2 + z 2 )dy)dz
0

= a

Zc
0

1
( y 3 |b0 +z 2 y |b0 )dz = a
3

Zc

1
( b3 + z 2 b)dz
3

1
1
1
= a( b3 z |c0 + z 3 b |c0 ) = a (b3 c + c3 b)
3
3
3
1
1
2
2
2
abc(b + c ) = m(b + c2 )
=
3
3

(4.21)

PROPERTIES OF MATRIX OF INERTIA.

100

In a similar manner the remaining elements may be calculated. The result of such
calculations is collected in appendix B.
For bodies having more complicated shape (see Fig. 4) a division into small
elements have to be carried out.

mi

zi
yi

y
xi

x
Figure 4
Then, each element can be considered as a particle and the integration may
be replaced by summation.
N
X
(yi2 + zi2 )mi
Ix

(4.22)

i=1

Eventually, the inertia matrix with respect to the arbitrarily chosen system of coordinates may be analytically established.

Ix Ixy Ixz
[I] = Iyx Iy Iyz
(4.23)
Izx Izy Iz

The following considerations allow us to calculate inertia matrix with respect to any
system of coordinates if once it has been established for a system of coordinates.
4.2.1 Parallel axis theorem.
Let us assume, that the inertia matrix of a body is known about the body system of
coordinates xyz (Fig. 5).

Ix Ixy Ixz
[I] = Iyx Iy Iyz
(4.24)
Izx Izy Iz

Let a, b, c be coordinates of the centre of gravity G of the body considered. Let


xG, yG, zG be the body system of coordinates parallel to xyz having its origin at G.

PROPERTIES OF MATRIX OF INERTIA.

101

zG
dm
z
xG

zG

yG
yG
z

xG

c
O

b
x
y
Figure 5

Moment of inertia of the body along axis x, according to the previously introduced definition, is
Z
Z
2
2
Ix =
(y + z )dm = ((b + yG )2 + (c + zG )2 )dm =
m

2
2
(b2 + yG
+ 2byG + c2 + zG
+ 2czG )dm

2
(yG

2
zG
)dm

b dm +

= IxG + b2 m + c2 m + 2b

c dm +

yG dm + 2c

1
m

But,
1
m

xG dm,

2byG dm +

2czG dm

(4.25)

zG dm

zG dm,

1
m

yG dm

(4.26)

represents components of the distance between origin G and the centre of gravity,
which is actually 0. Hence,
Ix = IxG + m(b2 + c2 )
Now, let us consider a product of inertia.
Z
Z
yzdm = (yG + b)(zG + c)dm
Iyz =
m

yG zG dm + c

yG dm + b

zG dm +

(4.27)

bcdm = IyzG + bcm (4.28)

PROPERTIES OF MATRIX OF INERTIA.

102

Similarly, one may derive expressions for the remained products and moments of
inertia. All these equations can be written in the following matrix form.

2
ac
b + c2 ab
bc
[I] = [IG ] + m ba a2 + c2
(4.29)
2
ca
cb a + b2

The above formula is known as the parallel axes theorem and allows for calculation
of inertia matrix about any axes xyz parallel to xG, yG, zG or vise versa.

2
ac
b + c2 ab
bc
[IG ]=[I]-m ba a2 + c2
(4.30)
2
ca
cb a + b2
4.2.2 Principal axes.
Inertia matrices about axes having the same origin.

Let us assumed that the matrix of inertia of a body is known about the system of
coordinates x1, y1, z1 (see Fig. 6). Introduce new body system of coordinates x2 , y2 , z2
which has the same origin O, but it is turned with respect to the first one. The
relative position of the system x2 y2 z2 can be uniquely determined by the matrix of
direction cosines [C12 ].

z2

z1

dm

t 23
y2
o

y1

x1
x2

Figure 6

x1
x2
t11 t12 t13
x1
y2 = [C12 ] y1 = t21 t22 t23 y1
z2
z1
t31 t32 t33
z1

(4.31)

where e.g.t23 = cos(y2 z1 )


If the body rotates with an angular velocity , components of its angular
momentum along axes x1 , y1 , z1 , according to Eq. 4.16, are

hox1
x1
hoy1 = [I]1 y1
(4.32)
hoz1
z1

PROPERTIES OF MATRIX OF INERTIA.

103

Or in shorter form,
{ho }1 = [I]1 {}1

(4.33)

{ho }2 = [I]2 {}2

(4.34)

Similarly
But
{ho }2 = [C12 ]{h}1

and

{}2 = [C12 ]{}1

(4.35)

Hence, introducing Eq. 4.35 into 4.34 yields


[C12 ]{h}1 = [I]2 [C12 ]{}1

(4.36)

Upon introducing 4.33 into the above formula we have


[C12 ][I]1 {}1 = [I]2 [C12 ]{}1

(4.37)

and after a little manipulation one may obtain


[I]2 = [C12 ][I]1 [C12 ]T

(4.38)

The above formula permits to calculate the matrix of inertia along the system of
coordinates x2 , y2 , z2 when the matrix of inertia about the system of coordinates
x1 , y1 , z1 is known.
Principal axes.
zp

z1

yp
o

y1

x1
xp

Figure 7
In this paragraph will be proved existence of such a system of coordinates
xp yp zp (see Fig. 7), turned with respect to the arbitrarily chosen system x1 y1 z1 , that
all products of inertia about these axes are equal to 0.

0
Ixp 0
[I]p = 0 Iyp 0
(4.39)
0
0 Izp

PROPERTIES OF MATRIX OF INERTIA.

104

Axes xp yp zp are called principal axes.


According to the previous considerations we have
[I]p = [C1p ][I]1 [C1p ]T

(4.40)

[C1p ]T [I]p = [I]1 [C1p ]T

(4.41)

or
or


t11 Ixp t21 Iyp t31 Izp


t11
t21
t31
t12 Ixp
t12 , [I]1
t22 , [I]1
t32
, t22 Iyp
, t32 Izp = [I]1

t13 Ixp
t23 Iyp
t33 Izp
t13
t23
t33
(4.42)
The above relationship is fulfilled if and only if the corresponding columns are identical. Hence,

t11
t11
= [I]1 t12
Ixp [1] t12

t13
t13

t21
t21
= [I]1 t22
Iyp [1] t22

t23
t23

t31
t31
Izp [1] t32
= [I]1 t32
(4.43)

t33
t33

where

1 0 0
[1] = 0 1 0
0 0 1

The relationships 4.39 form three sets of linear

t11
([I]1 Ixp [1]) t12

t13

t21
([I]1 Iyp [1]) t22

t23

t31
([I]1 Izp [1]) t32

t33

homogeneous equations of form

= 0

= 0

= 0
(4.44)

The above sets of equations have not trivial solutions if and only if their common
characteristic determinant is equal to 0
|[I]1 Ip [1]| = 0

(4.45)

PROPERTIES OF MATRIX OF INERTIA.

or

Ix1 Ip Ix1 y1 Ix1 z1

Iy1 x1 Iy1 Ip Iy1 z1

Iz1 x1
Iz1 y1 Iz1 Ip

105

=0

(4.46)

The last equation, if developed, forms an algebraic equation of third order. Hence,
it has three roots. It may be proved that for any matrix of inertia [I]1 , the roots of
equation 4.46 Ixp , Iyp , Izp are always real and positive. For each of these roots the
sets of equations 4.44 becomes linearly dependent. Only two of them within each set
are independent and may be used to identify the unknown direction cosines t11 , t12 ,
t13 .
(Ix1 Ixp )t11 + (Ix1 y1 )t12 + (Ix1 z1 )t13 = 0
(Iy1 x1 )t11 + (Iy1 Ixp )t12 + (Iy1 z1 )t13 = 0

(4.47)

Since the direction cosines have to fulfill the following relationship


t211 + t212 + t213 = 1

(4.48)

Equations 4.47 and 4.48 form set of equation which determines the direction cosines
t11 , t12 , t13 .
In similar manner one may obtain equations which allows the other direction
cosines to be determined.
(Ix1 Iyp )t21 + (Ix1 y1 )t22 + (Ix1 z1 )t23 = 0
(Iy1 x1 )t21 + (Iy1 Iyp )t22 + (Iy1 z1 )t23 = 0
t221 + t222 + t223 = 1

(4.49)

(Ix1 Izp )t31 + (Ix1 y1 )t32 + (Ix1 z1 )t33 = 0


(Iy1 x1 )t31 + (Iy1 Izp )t32 + (Iy1 z1 )t33 = 0
t231 + t232 + t233 = 1

(4.50)

Solutions of the above equations determine uniquely a position of the principal axes.

PROPERTIES OF MATRIX OF INERTIA.

106

4.2.3 Problems
Problem 30

Figure 8
The figure above shows an element assembled of two identical thin and uniform
bars. The bars were welded together at right angles at A. Each of the bars have a
length l and mass m. Calculate the principal moments of inertia of the assembly
along axes through its centre of gravity. Use the following numerical values; l = 1m,
m = 12kg.

PROPERTIES OF MATRIX OF INERTIA.

107

Solution.
y1

y2
x3

y3

l/4
G1
1

x2
G

l/4

G2

x1
2

Figure 9
Coordinates of the centre of gravity of the whole assembly are (see Fig. 9)
l
4
Inertia matrix about axes x1 y1 z1 for the element 1.
ml2

0 0
3
I1,1 = 0 0 0
2
0 0 ml3

(4.51)

xG = yG =

(4.52)

Inertia matrix about axes x1 y1 z1 for the element 2.

0 0
0
2
0
I1,2 = 0 ml3
ml2
0 0
3

(4.53)

Inertia matrix about axes x1 y1 z1 for the whole assembly.

ml2
0
0
3
2
I1 = 0 ml3
0
2ml2
0
0
3

(4.54)

Inertia matrix about axes x2 y2 z2 for the whole assembly.


2
ac
b + c2 ab
2
2

ba a + c
bc
I2 = I1 2m
2
ca
cb a + b2
ml2

l2 l2
0
0
3
16
16
2
2
l2
= 0 ml
0 2m l
3

2ml2
3

5 3 0
ml
3 5 0
=
24
0 0 10
2

16

16

0
0

l2
8

(4.55)

PROPERTIES OF MATRIX OF INERTIA.

108

Since axis x3 is axis of symmetry of the body considered, x3 y3 z3 are principal axes.
Transfer matrix C23 between axes x2 y2 z2 and x3 y3 z3 is.

x3
x2
cos 45o cos 45o cos 90o
y3 = cos 135o cos 45o cos 90o y2
z3
cos 90o cos 90o cos 0o
z2

2 2
0
x2
2
2
2
2

y2
(4.56)
=
2
0
2
z2
0
0 1

Hence, inertia matrix about the principal axes x3 y3 z3

2 2
0
5
2
2
2
ml 2 2
T

3
I3 = C23 I2 C23 =
2
0
2
24
0
0
0 1

4 0 0
= 0 1 0
0 0 5

is

0
3 0
2
2

2
5 0 2
0
2
2
0 10
0
0
1

(4.57)

PROPERTIES OF MATRIX OF INERTIA.

109

Problem 31
r1

R1

O1
O
y
l

l
r2

R2
O2

Figure 10
The rigid body, shown in the figure 10, rotates about a fixed point O. To
analyze its motion it is necessary to know the principal axes through the point O and
principal moments of inertia.
Calculate the angular position of the principal axes with respect to the given
system of coordinates xyz as well as magnitudes of the principal moments of inertia.
The balls 1 and 2 are homogeneous and have masses m1 and m2 respectively whereas
the rods can be considered as rigid and massless. Assume the following numerical
data:
m1 = 1kg - mass of the ball 1
m2 =2kg - mass of the ball 2
r1 = 5/2 m - radius of the ball 1
r2 = 5m- radius of the ball 2
R1 = 1m
R2 = 2m
l = 1m

PROPERTIES OF MATRIX OF INERTIA.

110

Solution.
z1
r1

R1

O1

z2

y1
O
y
l

R2
O2

r2

Figure 11
Moment of inertia of the ball 1 about axes x1 y1 z1 (see Fig. 11)
2
Ix1 = Iy1 = Iz1 = m1 r12 = 0.5 kgm2
5

(4.58)

Moment of inertia of the ball 2 about axes x2 y2 z2


2
Ix2 = Iy2 = Iz2 = m2 r22 = 4 kgm2
5

(4.59)

Coordinates of the points O1 and O2 with respect to system of coordinates xyz are
as follow
O1 (0, l, R1 )

O2 (0, l, R2 )

(4.60)

Hence, according to parallel axes theorem the matrix of inertia of the ball 1 about
system of coordinates xyz is

0
0
0
(l + R12 )
Ix1 0
0
R12
(lR1 )
[I1 ] = 0 Iy1 0 + m1
0
0 Iz1
0
(R1 (l))
l2

2.5 0
0
= 0 1.5 1 kgm2
(4.61)
0
1 1.5
and the matrix of inertia of the ball 2 is

0
0
0
(l + R22 )
Ix2 0
0
R22
(lR2 )
[I2 ] = 0 Iy2 0 + m1
l2
0
0 Iz2
0
(R2 (l))

14 0 0
(4.62)
= 0 12 4 kgm2
0 4 6

PROPERTIES OF MATRIX OF INERTIA.

111

Hence, matrix of inertia of the whole assembly about system of coordinates xyz is

16.5 0
0
[I] = [I1 ] + [I2 ] = 0 13.5 5 kgm2
(4.63)
0
5 7.5

Principal moments of inertia are roots of the following equation

16.5 Ip
0
0

=0

0
13.5

I
5
p

0
5
7.5 Ip

(4.64)

or in a more developed form

(16.5 Ip )[(13.5 Ip )(7.5 Ip ) 25] = 0

(4.65)

Root of the above equation are:


Ipx = 16.5kgm2 ,

Ipy = 16.33kgm2 ,

Ipz = 4.67kgm2

(4.66)

If matrix of directional cosines between principal axes and the system of coordinates
xyz is defined as follow

x
xp
t11 t12 t13
yp = t21 t22 t23 y
(4.67)
zp
t31 t32 t33
z

The corresponding equations for its elements take form

(16.5 Ipx )t11 + (0)t12 + (0)t13 = 0


(0)t11 + (13.5 Ipx )t12 + (5)t13 = 0
t211 + t212 + t213 = 1

(4.68)

(16.5 Ipy )t21 + (0)t22 + (0)t23 = 0


(0)t21 + (13.5 Ipy )t22 + (5)t23 = 0
t221 + t222 + t223 = 1

(4.69)

(16.5 Ipz )t31 + (0)t32 + (0)t33 = 0


(0)t31 + (13.5 Ipz )t32 + (5)t33 = 0
t231 + t232 + t233 = 1

(4.70)

They are fulfilled for


t11 = 1 t12 = 0.00000
t21 = 0 t22 = 0.86700
t31 = 0 t32 = 0.4926

t13 = 0.0000
t23 = 0.4926
t33 = 0.8700

(4.71)

PROPERTIES OF MATRIX OF INERTIA.

112

Hence, matrix of directional cosines Cxyzxp yp zp is


cos 90o
cos 90o
1
0
0
cos 0o
Cxyzxp yp zp = 0 0.867 0.4926 = cos 90o cos 29.88o cos 60.48o
cos 90o cos 119.75o cos 29.88o
0 0.4926 0.87
(4.72)
Position of the principal axes with respect to the system of coordinates xyz is shown
in Fig 12.
zp

z
60.48 o
yp
119.75 o

29.88 o y

x xp

Figure 12

PROPERTIES OF MATRIX OF INERTIA.

113

Problem 32
y

Figure 13
Matrix of inertia of a flat object shown in Fig. 13 about axes x, y, z is

Ix Ixy Ixz
10 5 0
Iyx Iy Iyz = 5 3 0 kgm2
Izx Izy Iz
0
0 13

Determine position of the principal axes of the object through the origin O.

PROPERTIES OF MATRIX OF INERTIA.

114

Solution.
The principal moments of inertia can be obtained by solving the following
equation.

10 Ip 5

5
=0
0
3 Ip
(4.73)

0
0
13 Ip
which can be developed as follow

(Ip2 3Ip 10Ip + 30 25)(13 Ip ) = 0

(4.74)

Hence
Ipx
Ipy
Ipz

169 20
= 12.6
=
2
13 169 20
= 0.4
=
2
= 13kgm2
13 +

(4.75)

Since the object is flat, the principal axis zp must coincide the axis z. The directional
cosines between the principal axis xp and axes x and y may be obtained from the
following set of equations.
(10 12.6)t11 + (5)t12 = 0
t211 + t212 = 0

(4.76)
(4.77)

From Eq. 4.76 one can get


t11 =

5
t12 = 1.92t12
2.6

(4.78)

Introduction of Eq. 4.78 into Eq. 4.77 yields


3.7t212 + t212 = 1
Hence

1
= 0.46
=+
4.7
r
1
t12 =
= 0.46
4.7
t012

Equation 4.78 yields

(4.79)

(4.80)
(4.81)

t011 = 0.885

(4.82)

t11 = 0.885

(4.83)

(xp , x)0 = arccos(t011 ) = 152.5o


(xp , y)0 = arccos(t012 ) = 62.5o

(4.84)

Corresponding angles are

PROPERTIES OF MATRIX OF INERTIA.

115

(xp , x) = arccos(t11 ) = 27.5o


(xp , y) = arccos(t12 ) = 117.5o
y

(4.85)

yp

117.5 o
x

O
z

27.5o
xp

Figure 14
The solution 4.119 have to be neglected since those angles determine left
handed system of coordinates and this is in disagreement with the adopted assumptions. The only possible position of axes xp and yp with respect to system of coordinates xy is shown in Fig. 14

PROPERTIES OF MATRIX OF INERTIA.

116

Problem 33

y
b
C
y

Figure 15
The rectangular plate, shown in Fig. 15, rotates about axis x x. Determine
moment of inertia of the plate about this axis of rotation.
Given are:
a, b - length of sides of the plate.
- angle between side a and the axis of rotation x x.
m - mass of the plate.
Moment of inertia of the rectangular plate about axis y y is determine by
the following formula
1
Iy = mb2
12

PROPERTIES OF MATRIX OF INERTIA.

117

Problem 34

2r

Figure 16
The cam shown in Fig. 16 can be considered as a thin, flat, uniform and rigid
body of mass M. Compute the principal moments of inertia of the cam about axes
through the point O.
Given are: r = 1[m], M = 20[kg]
Answer:
Ipx = 16.375kgm2
Ipy = 21.625kgm2
Ipz = 38kgm2

PROPERTIES OF MATRIX OF INERTIA.

118

Problem 35
y
(b)

(a)

l1

yG

l/2

xG
90 o

l2

Figure 17
Two uniform and rigid rods of length l1 and l2 are joined together to form
a rigid body (see Fig. 17a). Their masses are m1 and m2 respectively. Determine
matrix of inertia of this body about axis xyz.
Moments of inertia of the uniform rod of length l and mass m, shown in Fig.
17b, about axis through its centre of gravity G are as follows.
IxG = 0,

IyG = IzG =

1 2
ml
12

PROPERTIES OF MATRIX OF INERTIA.

119

Problem 36

yG

l1

G
xG
1
2

l2

Figure 18
To find its matrix of inertia, the golf club shown in Fig. 18 was approximated
by the slender rod 1 and the particle 2. Mass of the rod and the particle is m1 and
m2 respectively.
Produce
1. expression for the matrix of inertia of the golf club about axes xG yG zG through its
centre of gravity G.
Answer:

1
m l2 b2 (m1 +m2 )
ab(m1 + m2 )
0
3 1 1

ab(m1 + m2 )
m2 l22 a2 (m1 +m2 )
0
IG =
1
2
2
2
2
0
0
m l +m2 l2 (a +b )(m1 +m2 )
3 1 1

l1
2 l2
where a = mm1 +m
b = 2(mm11+m
2
2)
2. expression for the principal moments of inertia about axes through the centre of
gravity
Answer:
The principal moment of inertia are solution of the following equation
1

m1 l12 b2 (m1 +m2 ) Ip


ab(m1 + m2 )
0
3
2
2

+
m
)
[m
l
a
(m
+m
)]
I
0
ab(m
1
2
2 2
1
2
p

1
2
2
2
2

m
l
+m
l
(a
+b
)(m
+m
)
Ip
0
0
1
2
1
2
1
2
3

=0

PROPERTIES OF MATRIX OF INERTIA.

120

Problem 37

l1

2
G

l2

Figure 19
Two uniform bars of length l 1 and l 2 and mass m 1 and m 2 respectively were
joined together to form the rigid body shown in Fig. B2.
Produce:
1. The expression for the coordinates of the centre of gravity G of the rigid body.
Answer:
l2
l1
xG = 2(mm12+m
;
yG = 2(mm11+m
2)
2)
2. The matrix of inertia of the rigid body about axes xyz.

Answer:
m1 l12
0
0

3
m2 l22
I= 0

0
3
1
2
2
0
0
(m1 l1 + m2 l2 )
3
3. The principal moments of inertia about the axes through the center of gravity G.
Answer:
IG =

m1 l12
2

(m
+
m
)y
(m
+
m
)x
y
0
1
2 G
1
2 G G
3

m2 l22
2
= (m1 + m2 )xG yG
=

(m
+
m
)x
0
1
2
G
3
1
2
2
2
2
0
0
(m1 l1 + m2 l2 ) (m1 + m2 ) (xG + yG )
3

IxG yG 0
IxG
IyG
0
= IxG yG
0
0
IzG
4. The matrix of directional cosines between the system of coordinates xyz and the
principal axes through the center of gravity G.
Answer:
(IxG +IyG ) (IxG +IyG )2 4(IxG IyG Ix2G yG )
Ixp =
2

(IxG +IyG )+ (IxG +IyG )2 4(IxG IyG Ix2G yG )


Iyp =
2
Izp = IzG

PROPERTIES OF MATRIX OF INERTIA.

121

The moment of inertia of a uniform bar of mass m and length l about the axis
through its center of gravity is
IG =

1
ml2
12

PROPERTIES OF MATRIX OF INERTIA.

122

Problem 38

3
l
2
1

O
Y
l

l
X
Figure 20
Three uniform rods each of mass m and length l are joined together to form
the rigid body shown in Fig. 20.
Produce
1.
The matrix of inertia of the body about axes XY Z
2.
The principal moments of inertia about axes through the point O
3.
The matrix of directional cosines that locate the principal axes through
the point O in relation to the system of coordinates XY Z.

PROPERTIES OF MATRIX OF INERTIA.

123

Solution.
Z
3

G3(a,b,c)
2
1

l
c=l/2

O
Y
l

b=l
X

Figure 21
The matrix of inertia of the rod 1 about axes XY Z.

0 0 0
I1O = 0 13 0 ml2
0 0 13

The matrix of inertia of the rod 2 about axes XY Z.

1
0
0
3
I2O = 0 0 0 ml2
0 0 13

The matrix of inertia of the rod 3 about axes XY Z.

2
ac
b + c2 ab
bc
I3O = I1G3 + m ba a2 + c2
2
ca
cb a + b2

2
1
l 2
+
(
)
0
0
l
0
0
2
12
2
1
0 ml2 + m
0
( 2l )2 l2
= 0 12
2
0 0 0
0
l2
l2

4
0
0
3
= 0 13 12 ml2
0 12 1

(4.86)

(4.87)

PROPERTIES OF MATRIX OF INERTIA.

124

The matrix of inertia of the body about axes XY Z.


IO = I1O + I2O + I3O =

1
4

0 0
0
0
0 0 0
3
3
= 0 13 0 ml2 + 0 0 0 ml2 + 0 13 12 ml2
0 0 13
0 0 13
0 12 1

5
0
0
3
= 0 23 12 ml2
0 12 35

(4.88)

The principal moments of inertia about axes through the origin O are roots of the
following equation

5 2

ml Ip
0
0

3
2
1
2
2
=0

0
ml

ml
(4.89)
p
3
2

5
1
2
2

0
2 ml
ml

I
p
3
They are

5 2
ml = 1.666ml2 : 1.873ml2 : 0.459ml2
3
Taking into consideration the matrix of inertia IO , one can see that
Z
Z
XY dm = 0 and
XZdm = 0
m

(4.90)

(4.91)

Therefore the axis X coincides with the principal axis Xp and the root associated
with the first raw of the determinant 4.91 ( 53 ml2 = 1.666ml2 ) stands for the moment
of inertia about the principal axis Xp .
IXp = 1.666ml2

(4.92)

Indeed, if the matrix of directional cosines is of the following form


t11 t12 t13


cosh(Xp X) cosh(Xp Y ) cosh(Xp Z)
CXY ZXp Yp Zp = t21 t22 t23 = cosh(Yp X) cosh(Yp Y ) cosh(Yp Z)
cosh(Zp X) cosh(Zp Y ) cosh(Zp Z)
t31 t32 t33
(4.93)
the equations for determination of its elements associated with the above root are
5
( 1.666)t11 + (0) t12 + (0) t13 = 0
3
2
(0) t11 + ( 1.666)t12 (0.5) t13 = 0
3
5
(0) t11 (0.5) t12 + ( 1.666)t13 = 0
3

(4.94)

The first equation is fulfilled for any magnitudes of t11 , t12 and t13 . The two last
equations if and only if t12 = t13 = 0. Because
t211 + t212 + t213 = 1

(4.95)

PROPERTIES OF MATRIX OF INERTIA.

125

the magnitude of t11 must be 1. Hence


h(Xp X) = 0, h(Xp Y ) = 90o h(Xp Z) = 90o

(4.96)

Let us assign the remaining roots as follows


IY p = 1.873ml2 and IZp = 0.459ml2

(4.97)

The axis Y is located by the directional cosines linked with second raw of 4.93. They
are
5
( 1.873)t21 + (0)t22 + (0) t23 = 0
3
2
(0) t21 + ( 1.873)t22 (0.5) t23 = 0
3
t221 + t222 + t223 = 1

(4.98)

t21 = 0, t22 = 0.3823, t23 = 0.9236

(4.99)

They are fulfilled for

Hence the angles between axis Yp and XY Z are


h(Yp X) = 90o , h(Yp Y ) = 67.52o h(Yp Z) = 157.45

(4.100)

h(Yp X) = 90o , h(Yp Y ) = 112.47o h(Yp Z) = 22.54

(4.101)

The axis Z is located by the directional cosines linked with third raw of 4.93. They
are
5
( 0.459)t31 + (0)t32 + (0) t33 = 0
3
2
(0) t31 + ( 0.459)t32 (0.5) t33 = 0
3
t231 + t232 + t233 = 1

(4.102)

These equations are fulfilled for


t31 = 0, t32 = 0.92360, t33 = 0.3823

(4.103)

Hence the angles between axis Zp and XY Z are


h(Zp X) = 90o , h(Zp Y ) = 22.54o h(Zp Z) = 67.52o

(4.104)

h(Zp X) = 90o , h(Zp Y ) = 157.45 h(Zp Z) = 112.47o

(4.105)

The analysis oers two acceptable solutions shown in Fig. 22

PROPERTIES OF MATRIX OF INERTIA.

126
Z

Yp(2)

67.52o
Zp(1)

X
Y
22.54o
Zp(2)

Yp(1)

Figure 22
To verify the result obtained let us transfer the inertia matrix from the system
(1)
(1)
(1)
of coordinates X, Y, Z into Xp , Yp , Zp .The matrix of directional cosines is

t11 t12 t13


1
0
0
CXY ZXp(1) Yp(1) Zp(1) = t21 t22 t23 = 0 0.3823 0.9236
(4.106)
t31 t32 t33
0 0.92360 0.3823
Hence

= CXY ZXp(1) Yp(1) Zp(1) IO CTXY ZX (1) Y (1) Z (1)


I(1)
p

p5 p p
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
3
= 0 0.3823 0.9236 0 23 12 0 0.382 3 0.923 6
0 12 35
0 0.923 6 0.382 3
0 0.92360 0.3823

1.6667
0.0
0.0

0.0
1.8723
0.0
=
(4.107)
0.0
0.0
0.45919

As one can see this transformation results in the diagonal matrix having elements
equal to the principal moments of inertia
IXp = 1.666ml2 , IY p = 1.873ml2 and IZp = 0.459ml2

(4.108)

KINETIC ENERGY.

4.3

127

KINETIC ENERGY.

4.3.1 Rotational motion.


DEFINITION: It is said that a rigid body performs the rotational motion
if one point of the body considered, due to its constraints, is motionless
with respect to the inertial space.
The kinetic energy of a particle of mass dm (see Fig. 23) is
1
1
dT = r 2i dm = r i r i dm
(4.109)
2
2
where ri is the position vector of the particle. If the vector ri is given by its com-

dm

ri
O

X
x
Figure 23
ponents along the body system of coordinates rotating with angular velocity , the
above expression may be developed as follow
1
1
1
dT = r i (r0i + ri )dm = r i ( ri )dm = (ri r i )dm
2
2
2
But, according to consideration in the previous chapter

(4.110)

(ri r i )dm = dHO


Hence

1
dT = dHO
2
Upon integrating of Eq. 4.111 over the entire body we are finally getting

x
T = 12 HO = 12 [x , y , z ][I] y
z

(4.111)

(4.112)

where

x , y , z -are components of the absolute angular velocity of the body along


a body system of coordinates
[I] is the inertia matrix about that system of coordinates.

KINETIC ENERGY.

128

4.3.2 General motion.


DEFINITION: It is said that a rigid body performs the general motion if its
motion can not be classified as the rotational one.
Kinetic energy of a particle dm of a rigid body (see Fig. 24) is
1
dT = r 2i dm
2

(4.113)

In the general motion its position vector ri may be defined as follows

dm

ri

ri,G
G

rG

O
x

X
Figure 24
(4.114)

ri = rG +ri,G
Introducing Eq. 4.114 into Eq. 4.113 one can obtain that
1
1
dT = (rG + r i,G )2 dm = (r2G dm + r 2i,G dm + 2rG r i,G dm)
2
2

(4.115)

Integration over the entire body yields the total kinetic energy in the fallowing form
Z
Z
Z
1 2
2
T = (rG dm + r i,G dm + 2rG r i,G dm)
(4.116)
2
m

KINETIC ENERGY.

129

But

dm = m

r 2i,G dm

=
2rG

r i,G ( ri,G )dm =


Z

r i,G dm = 2rG

(ri,G r i,G )dm

ri,G r i,G dm = hG
Z

ri,G dm

= 2rG (

ri,G dm) = 2rG ( rG,G m) = 0 (4.117)

The last relation becomes obvious if we notice that for the chosen system of coordinates rG,G = 0.
Implementation of Eq. 4.117 into Eq. 4.116 gives the following formula for
kinetic energy.

x
T = 12 r 2G m + 12 hG = 12 r 2G m + 12 [ x , y , z ][I] y
z

(4.118)

where:
[I] - is inertia matrix about system of coordinates through centre of gravity of
the body.
x , y , z -are components of the angular velocity of the body along that system of coordinates.
The last formula permits to formulate the following statement.
STATEMENT: Kinetic energy of a rigid body is equal to the sum of its
energy in the translational motion with velocity of its centre of gravity
(energy of translation) and the energy in the rotational motion about its
centre of gravity (energy of rotation).

KINETIC ENERGY.

130

4.3.3 Problems
Problem 39
y1

Z, z1

x1

z2

Z, z1
A

y1

x1

z1

A
l

1
2

x2

Figure 25
Fig. 25 shows a mechanical system. Its link 1 is free to rotate about the
vertical axis Z of the inertial system of coordinates XY Z. Moment of inertia of the
link 1 about axis Z is I1Z . The link 2 of the system is hinged to the link 1 at the
point A as it is shown in Fig. 25. Distance between the point A and axis of rotation
Z is a. Distance between the centre of gravity G and the point A is equal to l.
Axes x2 , y2 , z2 are principal axis of inertia of the link 2 and the principal moments of
inertia about these axes are I2x2 , I2y2 , I2z2 respectively. Mass of the link 2 is equal to
m. Derive expression for the kinetic energy of the system as a function of angles
and .

KINETIC ENERGY.

131

Solution
y1

Z, z1

x1

z2

Z, z1

rA

y1

x1

z1

A
rGA

1
2

x2

Figure 26
The kinetic energy of the system T is sum of the kinetic energy possessed by
the link 1 T1 and kinetic energy possessed by the link 2 T2 .
T = T1 + T2

(4.119)

The link 1 performs the rotational motion about axis Z which is fixed in the inertial
space. Therefore its kinetic energy is
1
T1 = I1Z 21
2

(4.120)

The link 2 performs the general motion in the inertial space. Therefore its kinetic
energy is determined by the following equation.

0
2x2
I2x2 0
1
1
2
T2 = m2 vG
+ [ 2x2, 2y2, 2z2 ] 0 I2y2 0 2y2,
(4.121)
2
2
0
0 I2z2
2z2
In the above equation vG stands for the absolute velocity of the centre of gravity of
the link 2 and 2x2, 2y2, 2z2 are components of its absolute angular velocity. Angular
velocity of the link 1 is
1 = K
(4.122)
The absolute angular velocity of the link 2 is
2 = 1 + 21 = K + j1

(4.123)

KINETIC ENERGY.

132

Its components along the body system of coordinates x2 , y2 , z2 are


i2 = k1 i2 + j2 i2 = sin
2x2 = 2 i2 = (K + j1 )
j2 = k1 j2 + j2 j2 =
2y2 = 2 j2 = (K + j1 )
k2 = k1 k2 + j2 k2 = cos
2z2 = 2 k2 = (K + j1 )

(4.124)

The absolute velocity of the centre of gravity of the link 2 may be obtained by
integration of its position vector.
rG = rA + rGA = j2 a k2 l

(4.125)

Hence,
r G

i2
j2
k2

= vG = r0G + 2 rG = sin cos

0
a
l
= i2 (l a cos ) + j2 (l sin ) + k2 (a sin )

(4.126)

Taking into consideration Eqs.. 4.122, 4.124 and 4.126 the wanted expression for the
kinematic energy function is
T =

1
I1Z 2
2

a cos
l

+ m2 l a cos l sin a sin


l sin
2
a sin

sin

I
0
0
2x2

+
sin cos 0 I2y2 0

2
0
0 I2z2
cos

KINETIC ENERGY.

133

Problem 40
x1

y3

x3

O,G

z3

x3

y1

y3
Y

4
G

c
2

z3

Figure 27
The mixing tank 1 and rotor of the electric motor 2, combined, are considered
as rigid body (see Fig. 27). Its principal moments of inertia about axes through
its centre of gravity are Ix1 , Iy1 , Iz1 and its mass is m. The tank rotates with the
constant angular velocity about axis z3 relatively to the housing 3. At the same
time the housing 3 rotates about the axis X. Its motion is determined by the angular
displacement . Given are: a, b, c, , Ix1 , Iy1 , Iz1 , m, .
Produce expressions for kinetic energy function of the mixing tank 1.
Answer:

2
I
+
ma
0
0

cos
t
x1

0
Iy1 + ma2 0 sin t
T = 12 cos t sin t
0
0
Iz1

KINETIC ENERGY.

134

Problem 41
R
L/2

(t)
X

L/2

x
Y

z Z
1

o
y

zG

b)

a)
G

H(t)

xG

R
yG
L

Figure 28
To displace the cylinder 4 of mass m, the arm of the robot shown in Fig. 28a
translates and rotates with respect to the inertial frame XY Z. The translation is
determined by function H(t) and the rotation is determined by the angular displacement (t). Upon assuming that the elements 2,3 and 4 forms one rigid body, derive
expression for the kinetic energy of the cylinder 4.
Given are: H(t), (t), a, b, R, L, m
The principal moments of inertia of a cylinder (see Fig. 28b) through centre
of gravity G are
IxG =
T =

mR2
;
2

IyG = IzG =

Answer:
1
+ b2 2 ) + 12 2 12
m(3R2 + L2 )

1
m(H
2

1
m(3R2 + L2 )
12

KINETIC ENERGY.

135

Problem 42
y1

x1 x2
Z z1

xG
l

Y
y2

a)

z2

y1

zG

yG

a
1
l

b)

Figure 29
The base 1 of the robot arm, shown in Fig. 29a), rotates about the vertical
axis Z of the inertial system of coordinates XY Z. The instantaneous position of this
base is determined by the angular displacement .The link 2 is hinged to the base 1
at the point A. The relative instantaneous position of the link 2 with respect to the
base 1 is determined by the angular displacement . The link 2 can be considered
as a rigid cylinder of length l, radius r and mass m attached rigidly to the massless
element AB. The system of coordinates x1 y1 z1 and x2 y2 z2 are rigidly attached to the
links 1 and 2 respectively. Produce kinetic energy function for the link 2 as a function
of (t) and (t).
The principal moments of inertia of the cylinder shown in Fig. 29b) about
axes through its centre of gravity G are as follows
1
1
IxG = IyG = mr2 + ml2
4
12

1
IzG = mr2
2

KINETIC ENERGY.

136

Problem 43

X
yG

m
r

xG

a)

yG

L/2

L/2
r

r
G

2r
1

zG
l

b)

2r

2,1

r r
Z

Figure 30
The exciter shown in Fig. 30a) is design to produce the oscillatory motion of
an object. Its rotor 2 can be treated as a rigid body assembled of two spheres each
of mass ms and a cylinder of mass mc . These elements are join together by means
of massless elements as it is shown in Fig. 30a). This rotor rotates with respect to
its housing 1 with the constant angular velocity 2,1 . The oscillatory motion of the
housing 1 is determined by the angular displacement . Produce expression for the
kinetic energy of the rotor of the exciter.
The principal moments of inertia for the sphere shown in Fig. 30b) are
2
IxG = IyG = IzG = mr2
5
The principal moments of inertia for the cylinder shown in Fig. 30b) are
1
1
IxG = IyG = mr2 + ml2
4
12

1
IzG = mr2
2

KINETIC ENERGY.

137

Problem 44

0
y2
X

1 2
x1
z3

x2 x 3
z1 z2
t

Y y1

o1

y3

y2
l

Figure 31
The turret 2 of the tank 1 shown in Fig. 31is rotating about the vertical
axis with the angular velocity t and the barrel 3 is being raised with the constant
angular velocity b . The tank has the constant forward linear velocity v. The system
of coordinates x3 , y3 , z3 is rigidly attached to the barrel 3 and coincides with its
principal axes. Moments of inertia about these axes are Ix3 , Iy3 and Iz3 respectively.
Mass of the barrel is m and its centre of gravity is by l apart from o1 .
Produce expression for the kinetic energy of the barrel when the barrel passes
the position defined by angles t and b .
Answer:

2
I

ml
0
0

x3
3x3

2
3y3
0
Iy3
0
+ 12 3x3 3y3 3z3
T = 12 mvG
2
3z3
0
0 Iz3 ml
where
3y3 = t sin b
3z3 = t cos b
3x3 = b
0
vG = rG + 3 rG
rG = i3 (vt sin t )+j3 (vt cos b cos t +l)+k3 (vt sin b cos t )

KINETIC ENERGY.

138

Problem 45

z2
Z z1

o2 y2
x2
l

o1
y1

x1

Figure 32
The base 1 of the crane shown in Fig. 32 rotates with the constant angular
velocity about the vertical axis Z of the inertial system of coordinates XY Z. The
system of coordinates x1 y1 z1 is attached to the base. At the same time its boom 2 of
mass m is being lowered. This relative motion about the axis is determined by the
angular displacement . The system of coordinates x2 y2 z2 is attached to the boom.
Its origin coincides with the booms centre of gravity G. The distance l determines
the position of the centre of gravity. The axes of the system of coordinates x2 y2 z2
coincide with principal axes of the boom. The principal moments of inertia about
these axes are Ix , Iy , Iz respectively.
Produce the expression for the kinetic energy of the boom.
Answer:

sin

I
+
ml
0
0
x

0
Iy + ml2 0
T = 12 sin cos

0
0
Iz
cos

KINETIC ENERGY.

139

Problem 46

y1

y2
x2

21 t

o2 o1

x1

2
l

z1
X

o2 o1

x1
Figure 33
The massless link 1 (see Fig. 33) is free to rotate about the horizontal axis
Y of the inertial system of coordinates XY Z. The system of coordinates x1 y1 z1 is
rigidly attached to the link 1. Its angular position is determined by the angle . The
link 2 that can be considered as a slender and uniform bar of mass m and length l
rotates with respect to the link 1 with the constant velocity 21 .
Produce the expression for the kinetic energy of the link 2.
Answer:

1 2
2
ml
+
ma
0
0
t

sin

21
3
0
ma2 12 mal cos 21 t
T = 12 [ sin 21 t, cos 21 t, 21 ]
0
12 mal 13 ml2
21

KINETIC ENERGY.

140

Problem 47

z1 Z

z2

y1 y2

Y
a
b

x1

x2
Figure 34
Figure 34 shows the physical model of a mechanism. The slide 0 is motionless
with respect to the inertial system of coordinates XYZ . It is parallel to the axis Y
and its position is determined by the dimensions a and b. The link 1 rotates about
the vertical axis Z and its instantaneous position is given by the angular displacement
. The system of coordinates x 1 y 1 z 1 is rigidly attached to the link 1. The link
2 is hinged to the link 1 at the point O and it is supported by the slide 0. The
system of coordinates x 2 y 2 z 2 is rigidly attached to the link 2 and coincides with
its principal axis. The angular displacement defines the relative position of the
link 2 with respect to the link 1. The principal moments of inertia of the link 2 are
I x2 , I y2 , I z2 and its mass is m. The distance l identifies the position of the center of
gravity G of the link 2.
Produce:
1. The expression for the components of the absolute angular velocity of the link 2
along the system of coordinates x 2 y 2 z 2 in terms of and .
Answer:
2 = i2 ( sin ) + j2 + k2 ( cos )
2. The expression for the components of the absolute angular acceleration of the link
2 along the system of coordinates x 2 y 2 z 2 in terms of and .

KINETIC ENERGY.

141

Answer:
2 = i2 (
sin cos ) + j2 + k2 (
cos sin )
3. The expression for the components of the absolute velocity of the point G along
the system of coordinates x 2 y 2 z 2 in terms of and .
Answer:

v2 = i2 (0) + j2 l cos + k2 (l)


4. The kinetic energy of the link 2 as a function of and .
hAnswer:
i
2
1
T = 2 Ix2 2 sin2 + Iy2 + Iz2 2 cos2
5. The expression for the angular displacement as a function of .
Answer:

= arctan ab cos

KINETIC ENERGY.

142

Problem 48

y2

Z z1

z2
G

y1

a
O

x2

a
x1
X

Figure 35
Fig. 35 shows the physical model of a mechanical system. The link 1 of this
system rotates about the vertical axes Z of the inertial frame XYZ. Its instantaneous
position is given by the absolute angular displacement . The system of coordinates
x 1 y 1 z 1 is rigidly attached to the link 1. The link 2 is hinged to the link 1 at the
point A. The other end of this link P always stays in contact with the cylindrical
surface 3 of radius R (b>R). The system of coordinates x 2 y 2 z 2 is attached to
the body 2 and coincides with its principal axes. The link 2 possesses the mass m
and its principal moments of inertia about the system of coordinates x 2 y 2 z 2 are
I x2 , I y2 and I z2 . Its centre of gravity G is located by the distance c. The angular
displacement determines the relative position of the link 2 with respect to the
system of coordinates x 1 y 1 z 1 .
Produce:
1. The expression for the components of the absolute angular velocity of the link 2
along the system of coordinates x 2 y 2 z 2 in terms of and
2. The expression for the components of the absolute angular acceleration of the link
2 along the system of coordinates x 2 y 2 z 2 in terms of and
3. The expression for the components of the absolute velocity of the point P along
the system of coordinates x 2 y 2 z 2 in terms of and
4. The kinetic energy of the link 2 as a function of and .
5. The expression for the angular displacement as a function of .

KINETIC ENERGY.

143

Solution
1. The absolute angular velocity of the link 2 is
2 = 1 + 21 = k1 + i2
Its components along the system coordinates x 2 y 2 z 2 are

2x2 = i2 k1 + i2 =

2y2 = j2 k1 + i2 = sin

2k2 = k2 k1 + i2 = cos

2. The components of the absolute angular acceleration along the system of


coordinates x 2 y 2 z 2 can be produced by dierentiation of the vector of the absolute
velocity

2 = 02 + 2 2 = 02 = i2 + j2
sin + cos + k2
cos sin
3.

y2

Z z1

z2
rP

y1

a
O

x2

a
x1
X

Figure 36
The absolute position vector of the point P (see Fig. 36) is
rP = j1 a + j2 b

(4.127)

KINETIC ENERGY.

144

Its components along the system of coordinates x 2 y 2 z 2 are as follows


rP x2 = i2 (j1 a + j2 b) = 0
rP y2 = j2 (j1 a + j2 b) = a cos + b
rP z2 = k2 (j1 a + j2 b) = a sin

(4.128)

The first time derivative of the position vector rP yields the absolute velocity of the
point P
0

r P = rP + 2 rP

j2
k2

i2

= j2 a sin + k2 a cos +
sin
cos =
0 a cos + b a sin

2
2

= i2 a sin a cos b cos + j2 a sin + a sin

+ k2 a cos + a cos + b

= i2 (a b cos ) + k2 b
(4.129)
4.

z2

y2

Z z1

y1
D
b

x2

a
x1
X

Figure 37

KINETIC ENERGY.

145

The angular displacement is not an independent variable. There is a relationship between the variable and the independent coordinate imposed by the
kinematic constrains. To develop this relationship let us consider the vector equation
shown in Fig. 37.

CO + OD = CD
(4.130)
or
Ja+j1 (a + b cos ) = I (R sin ) + JR cos

(4.131)

Multiplication of the above equation by the unit vectors I and J results in the following
set of scalar algebraic equations
I Ja+I j1 (a + b cos ) = I I (R sin ) + I JR cos
J Ja+J j1 (a + b cos ) = J I (R sin ) + J JR cos

(4.132)

or
sin (a + b cos ) = R sin
a + cos (a + b cos ) = R cos

(4.133)

Hence
R2 = sin2 (a + b cos )2 + a2 + 2a cos (a + b cos ) + cos2 (a + b cos )2
R2 = (a + b cos )2 + a2 + 2a cos (a + b cos )
(4.134)
or
(a + b cos )2 + 2a cos (a + b cos ) (R2 a2 ) = 0

(4.135)

Introducing the following substitution


z = (a + b cos )

(4.136)

z 2 + (2a cos ) z (R2 a2 ) = 0

(4.137)

q
1
2
2
2
(2a cos ) (2a cos ) + 4(R a )
z=
2

(4.138)

the above equation is


Hence

Taking advantage of the substitution 4.136 the angular displacement is specified by


q
1
1 1
2
2
2
cos =
(z a) =
(2a cos ) (2a cos ) + 4(R a ) a
b
b 2

q
1
2
2
2
(a cos ) (a cos ) + (R a ) a
b

s
2
R
a
1 1
cos cos2 +
(4.139)
b
a

EQUATIONS OF MOTION

4.4

146

EQUATIONS OF MOTION

4.4.1 Eulers equations of motion


General case
Each rigid body can be considered as a rigidly tied together system of particles.
Hence, its motion is governed by the same equations which govern any system of
particles.
X
= F=
P
Fi
(4.140)
X
ri,G Fi
(4.141)
h G = MG =

Under influence of a set of external forces Fi (see Fig. 38) the considered body moves
Fi

dm

ri

ri,G
G

rG

y
vG

O
x

Figure 38
in the inertial system of coordinates XY Z. Let vG be its absolute velocity of its
centre of gravity G and its absolute angular velocity. To derive the formula for
the linear momentum P let us introduce a body system of coordinates xyz. The
body system of coordinates has its origin at the body centre of gravity G and its axes
coincides principal axes of inertia. Such selection of the body system of coordinates,
according to considerations in the previous section, is always possible.
The linear momentum of the body considered is
P = mvG

(4.142)

If components of velocity vG along the body system of coordinates are known


vG = ivGx + jvGy + kvGz

(4.143)

the first derivative of the linear momentum is


0
= m(vG
P
+ vG )

(4.144)

EQUATIONS OF MOTION

147

where
0
vG
= iv Gx + jv Gy + kv Gz

and

(4.145)

= ix + jy + k z

Introduction of Eq. 4.145 into Eq. 4.144)yields

i
j
k

P = m (iv Gx + jv Gy + kv Gz ) + x y z
vGx vGy vGz
= im(v Gx + vGz y vGy z )
+jm(v Gy + vGx z vGz x )
+km(v Gz + vGy x vGx y )
= iFx + jFy + kFz

(4.146)

The above vector equation is equivalent to three following scalar equations


m(v Gx + vGz y vGy z ) = Fx
m(v Gy + vGx z vGz x ) = Fy
m(v Gz + vGy x vGx y ) = Fz

(4.147)

Components of moment of the relative momentum, according to Eq. 4.15, in the case
considered may be adopted in the following form.

0
x
hGx
IGx 0
IGx x
hGy = 0 IGy 0 y = IGy y
(4.148)
0
0 IGz
hGz
z
IGz z

Taking into account the above relationship, the equation 4.141 may be transformed
to form 4.149.
h G = h0G + hG

i
j
k

y
z
= iIGx x + jIGy y + kIGz z + x
IGx x IGy y IGz z
=
i(IGx x + (IGz IGy ) z y )
+j(IGy y + (IGx IGz ) x z )
+k(IGz z + (IGy IGx )y x )
=
iMGx + jMGy + kMGz

(4.149)

Now, one can formulate three additional scalar equations.


IGx x + (IGz IGy )z y = MGz
IGy y + (IGx IGz ) x z = MGy
IGz z + (IGy IGx ) y x = MGz

(4.150)

Eventually, we obtained six independent equations which allow to obtain either kinematic parameters ( and vG ) in case all the external forces are known, or resultant
external force F and resultant moment MG one has to apply to the rigid body to
keep it going according to the assumed motion.

EQUATIONS OF MOTION

148

Rotational motion
In a case, when the rigid body performs the rotational motion about the point O
which is fixed in the inertial space (see Fig. 39) it can be considered as system with
three degree of freedom. Hence only three equations are necessary to describe its
motion. The wanted equations may be obtained from equation 4.18.
X
O = MO =
H
ri Fi
(4.151)

dm

Fi
G

rG
O

ri

R
y

X
x

Figure 39
Let us introduce through point of rotation O body system of coordinates which
axes coincide principal axis of the body. Components of the angular momentum along
these axes are

0
x
HOx
IOx 0
IOx x
HOy = 0 IOy 0 y = IOy y
(4.152)
0
0 IOz
HOz
z
IOz z

Hence, the equation 4.151 may be rewritten as follows

O = H0O + HO = MO
H

(4.153)

In a similar way to that shown in the previous paragraph, one may transform the
above equation into three equivalent equations known as Eulers equations.
IOx x + (IOz IOy )z y = MOz
IOy y + (IOx IOz ) x z = MOy
IOz z + (IOy IOx ) y x = MOz

(4.154)

The three unknown components of the reaction R in the pivot O are determined by
Eq. 4.147
m(v Gx + vGz y vGy z ) = Fx
m(v Gy + vGx z vGz x ) = Fy
m(v Gz + vGy x vGx y ) = Fz

(4.155)

EQUATIONS OF MOTION

149

where
vG = rG

(4.156)

The external force F comprises both, the known driving forces Fd and the unknown
reaction R.
F = R + Fd
(4.157)
4.4.2 Modified Eulers equations of motion
General case
The modified equations of motion corresponds to the particular case of motion of a
rigid body which fulfils the following requirements:
1. The body has an axis of symmetry (see Fig. 40).
2. The body rotates with a relative angular velocity about its axis of
symmetry z with respect to a translating and rotating system of coordinates xyz.

x
Figure 40
For further consideration we will assume that the translating and rotating
system of coordinates xyz has its origin at the centre of gravity of the symmetric
body.
As an example of possible application let us consider rotor of a turbo-compressor
of a jet shown in Fig. 41.

z
vG

Figure 41
The system of coordinates xyz is fixed to the jet and its origin is chosen at the
centre of gravity G of the rotor. This system of coordinates possesses its own angular

EQUATIONS OF MOTION

150

speed . The rotor of the turbo-compressor itself rotates with angular velocity
about axis of symmetry z. Hence, all the above requirements are fulfilled.
In such cases, equations of motion of a rigid body may be formulated in terms
of kinematic parameters of the system xyz (vG , ) and the relative angular velocity
of the body .

y
Fi

dm

yb

ri,G

xb

rG

vG

z zb

z
O
Y
X

b)

a)
Figure 42

The motion of the body ( Fig. 42) is govern by equations


X
= F=
P
Fi
X
ri,G Fi
h G = MG =

(4.158)
(4.159)

Components of the angular momentum along the body system of coordinates xb , yb , zb


(see Fig. 42b), according to Eq. 4.15(see page 98), are

hGxb

Ax
b

hGyb = IG
Ayb
(4.160)
xb, yb ,zb
hGzb
Azb
where

[IG ]xb, yb ,zb is matrix of inertia of the body about the body system of coordinates.
Axb , Ayb , Azb are components of the absolute angular velocity of the body
along the body system of coordinates.
Taking into consideration that

hGxb
hGx
hGyb = [Cxyzxb yb zb ] hGy
(4.161)
hGzb
hGz

EQUATIONS OF MOTION

and

151

Axb
Ax
Ayb = [Cxyzxb yb zb ] Ay
Azb
Az

(4.162)

the relationship 4.160 can be rewritten as follows

Ax
hGx

hGy = ([Cxyzxb yb zb ]T IG
[Cxyzxb yb zb ]) Ay
(4.163)
xb, yb ,zb
hGz
Az

Generally, the product [Cxyzxb yb zb ]T IG x y ,z [Cxyzxb yb zb ] is a function of time.


b, b b
But, in the case considered

cos (t) sin (t) 0


[Cxyzxb yb zb ] = sin (t) cos (t) 0
(4.164)
0
0
1
and because of symmetry of the body

Hence

IG

xb, yb ,zb

0
IG 0
= 0 IG 0
0 0 IGz

(4.165)

[Cxyzxb yb zb ]T IG x y ,z [Cxyzxb yb zb ]
b, b b

0
cos (t) sin (t) 0
cos (t) sin (t) 0
IG 0
= sin (t) cos (t) 0 0 IG 0 sin (t) cos (t) 0
0 0 IGz
0
0
1
0
0
1

0
IG 0

0 IG 0
=
(4.166)
0 0 IGz

The Eq. 4.166 allows the relationship 4.163 to be simplified.


0
Ax
hGx
IG 0
hGy = 0 IG 0 Ay
0 0 IGz
hGz
Az

(4.167)

A = + = i x + j y + k( z + )

(4.168)

It is easy to see from Fig. 42 a that the absolute angular velocity of the body A is

Introduction of Eq. 4.168


hGx
IG
hGy = 0
0
hGz

into Eq. 4.167 yields


0
0
x
IGx x

IG 0 y =
IGy y
0 IGz
z +
IGz ( z + )

(4.169)

EQUATIONS OF MOTION

152

Since the vector of the angular relative momentum hG is resolved along non-inertial
system of coordinates its derivative takes form
h G = h0 + hG

i
j
k

y
z
= iIG x + jIG y + kIGz ( z + ) + x
IGx x IGy y IGz ( z + )
= i(IG x + (IGz IG ) z y + IGz y )
+j(IG y (IGz IG ) x z IGz x )

+k(IGz ( z + ))
= iMGx + jMGy + kMGz

(4.170)

The above vector equation may be rewritten in the scalar form


IG x + (IGz IG ) z y + IGz y = MGx
IG y (IGz IG ) x z IGz x = MGy
= MGz
IGz ( z + )

(4.171)

The equation 4.158, treated in the same way as in the previous section, yields three
additional equations
m(v Gx + vGz y vGy z ) = Fx
m(v Gy + vGx z vGz x ) = Fy
m(v Gz + vGy x vGx y ) = Fz

(4.172)

Rotational motion.
In case of rotational motion (see Fig. 43) the origin of the rotating system of coordinates x, y, z is always chosen at a point of rotation O.
z

Z
R
G

rG

Fi

y
ri

Figure 43

EQUATIONS OF MOTION

153

Let be the angular velocity of the rotating system of coordinates xyz and the
body rotates about its axis of symmetry z with the angular velocity with respect
to the rotating system of coordinates xyz. Hence the absolute angular velocity of the
body considered is
A = + = i( x ) + j( y ) + k(z + )

(4.173)

Similar consideration to this in the previous section leads to conclusion that the
components of the angular momentum about the point O are

0
HOx
x
IO 0
IO x
HOy = 0 IO 0 y =

IO y
(4.174)
0 0 IOz
HOz
z +
IOz (z + )

Its first derivative with respect to time is


O = H0O + HO
H

i
j
k

+ x

= iIO x + jIO y + kIOz ( z + )


y
z

IO x IO y IOz ( z + )

Implementation of Eq. 4.175 into the principle of moment of momentum


O = MO
H

(4.175)

(4.176)

yields three scalar equations in the following form


IO x + (IOz IO ) z y + IOz y = MOx
IO y (IOz IO ) x z IOz x = MOy
= MOz
IOz ( z + )

(4.177)

which permit the unknown vector to be obtained. The above equations are known
as modified Eulers equations.
The equation 4.158, if treated in the same way as it has been done in the
previous section, yields
m(v Gx + vGz y vGy z ) = Fx
m(v Gy + vGx z vGz x ) = Fy
m(v Gz + vGy x vGx y ) = Fz

(4.178)

Since velocity of the centre of gravity vG can be obtained from the formula below

j
k

(4.179)
vG = rG = x y z
0 0 rGz

the equations 4.178 allow to the unknown components of the reactions R at the
constrain O to be determined.

EQUATIONS OF MOTION

154

4.4.3 Problems.
Problem 49

y1
z 3 z1

O,G

O
A

o1,o3

z 3 z1

x1

a
b

O
x3

4
G

c
2

x3

y3

y3

Figure 44
The mixing tank 1 and rotor of the electric motor 2, combined, are considered
as rigid body. Its principal moments of inertia about axes through its centre of gravity
are Ix , Iy , Iz and its mass is m. The tank rotates with the constant angular velocity
about axis z3 relatively to the housing 3. At the same time it rotates with the
constant angular velocity about the axis X. Derive expressions for all components
of reactions at A and B when the mixing tank passes an angular position . The
senses of the angular velocities and necessary dimensions are shown in Fig. 44.
Given are: a, b, c, , , Ix = Iy , Iz , m, .

EQUATIONS OF MOTION

155

Solution.
z3

O
R A =0
z3

a
G

R Ax3 A
R Bz3
B
R Bx3

R Ay3 b
RB

y3

y3

Figure 45
In Fig. 45 the x3 y3 z3 system of coordinates is fixed to the housing 3. Its
absolute angular velocity is
3 = i3
(4.180)
The relative angular velocity of the mixing tank 1 with respect to the x3 y3 z3 system
of coordinates is
= k3
(4.181)
The absolute position vector of the centre of gravity G can be determine along the
system x3 y3 z3 as follows
rG = k3 a
(4.182)
Hence, the absolute velocity of G is

i3 j3 k3

vG = 3 rG = i3 (ak3 ) = 0 0
0 0 a

= j3 a

(4.183)

Since axis z3 is axis of symmetry for the tank, its motion is governed by the modified
Euler equations. The tank performs the rotational motion about point O. But in
the case considered it is more convenient to take advantage of the equations for the
general case.
m(v Gx3 + vGz3 y3 vGy3 z3 ) = RAx3 + RBx3
m(v Gy3 + vGx3 z3 vGz3 y3 ) = RAy3 + RBy3 + mgsin
m(v Gz3 + vGy3 x3 vGx3 y3 ) = RBz3 mgcos
I x3 + (Iz I) y3 z3 + Iz y3 = RAy3 b + RBy3 (b + c)
I y3 (Iz I) x3 z3 Iz x3 = RAx3 b RBx3 (b + c)
= Mz3
Iz3 ( z3 + )

(4.184)

(4.185)

EQUATIONS OF MOTION

156

where I and Iz are moments of inertia of the body about axes x1 y1 z1 through the
centre of gravity G.
According to Eqs. 4.180 and 4.183
vGx3 = 0
x3 =

vGy3 = a
y3 = 0

vGz3 = 0
z3 = 0

(4.186)
(4.187)

Introducing Eqs. 4.57 and 4.187 into Eqs. 4.184 and 4.185 one can obtain
0
0
2
m(a )
0
Iz
0

=
=
=
=
=
=

RAx3 + RBx3
RAy3 + RBy3 + mg sin
RBz3 mg cos
RAy3 b + RBy3 (b + c)
RAx3 b RBx3 (b + c)
Mz3

(4.188)

The first five equations allow for determination of the unknown reaction at A and B.
RAx3 =
RAy3 =
RBx3 =
RBy3 =
RBz3 =

1
Iz
c
b+c
mg sin

c
1
Iz
c
b
mg sin
c
ma2 2 + mg cos

(4.189)

The last equation oers the driving moment of the tank. In the case considered it is
equal to zero.

EQUATIONS OF MOTION

157

Problem 50

C
G

l1

l2

Figure 46
Figure 46 shows a mobile concrete mixer. The line AC is the axis of symmetry
of the mixing tank which is supported by a bearing at A and rollers at B. The bearing
at A may react load in any direction but the rollers at B may only provide a reaction
through C in a plane normal to AC. The mixing tank, which rotates about AC at
10RP M, clockwise when viewed from the rear, has a mass of 730kg; its centre of mass
is at G. Its moment of inertia about AC is 9000kgm2 , and about any axis through
G normal to AC is 11000kgm2 . The dimensions shown in the Fig. 46 are as follows:
l1 = 1.2m, l2 = 1.8m = 20o .
The concrete mixer is driven on horizontal ground round a bend to the left
of 30m radius at a steady speed 40km/h. Find the bearing reactions at A and C
induced by motion of the vehicle.

EQUATIONS OF MOTION

158

Solution.
According to the given data
= 10 RP M = 10 /30 rad/s = 1.05 rad/s
v = 40 km/h = 40 1000/3600 m/s = 11.1 m/s
= v/R = 11.1/30 = 0.37 rad/s
l2 = 1.8 m
l1 = 1.2 m
Iz = 9000 kgm2
I = 11000 kgm2
G = 730 kg 9.81 m/s = 7161 N
= 20o
vx2 = v sin = 11.1 sin 20o = 3.8 m/s
vy2 = 0
vz2 = v cos = 11.1 cos 20o = 10.4 m/s
x2 = cos = 0.37 cos 20o = 0.348 rad/s
y2 = 0
z2 = sin = 0.37 sin 20o = 0.126 rad/s
G

z1

y1
x1

x2

R Cy2
RA

R Cz2= 0

y2

RA z2

z2

C
G

v
A

z1
R Cx2

M A z2 G

RA x2
l1

Figure 47

l2

EQUATIONS OF MOTION

159

Eulers modified equations applied to the tank yield


m(v x2 + vz2 y2 vy2 z2 ) = RCx2 + RAx2 G cos
m(v y2 + vx2 z2 vz2 x2 ) = RCy2 + RAy2
m(v z2 + vy2 x2 vx2 y2 ) = RAz2 G sin
I x2 + (Iz I) y2 z2 + Iz y2 = RCy2 (l2 l1 ) + RAy2 l1
I y2 (Iz I)x2 z2 + Iz x2 = +RCx2 (l2 l1 ) RAx2 l1
= MAz2
Iz ( z2 + )

(4.190)

(4.191)

Introducing the given data into the above equations one may obtain
RCx2 + RAx2 7161 cos 20o
RCy2 + RAy2
RAz2 7161 sin 20o
RCy2 (1.8 1.2) + RAy2 1.2
+RCx2 (1.8 1.2) RAx2 1.2
MAz2

=
=
=
=
=
=

0
730(3.8 0.126 (10.4)0.348)
0
0
(9000 11000)0.348 0.126 9000 0.348 (1.05)
0
(4.192)

Hence
RCx2 + RAx2
RCy2 + RAy2
RAz2
RCy2 + 2RAy2
+RCx2 2RAx2
MAz2

=
=
=
=
=
=

6729
2990
2450
0
5627
0

Eventually
RAx2 = 367 N
RAy2 = 996 N
RAz2 = 2450 N

RCx2 = 6362 N
RCy2 = 1994 N
Mz2 = 0

EQUATIONS OF MOTION

160

Problem 51

A
l

Figure 48
Derive dierential equations of motion of the system shown in Fig. 48. The
link CA rotates with a constant angular speed about its vertical axis. The uniform
rod AB of mass m and length l is hinged at A to the link CA.

EQUATIONS OF MOTION

161

Solution.
y1

x1

z1

z2
x1

A
l/2
2

mg

x2

Figure 49
Let us introduce the following systems of coordinates (see Fig. 49):
XY Z inertial system of coordinates.
x1 y1 z1 body 1 system of coordinates
x2 y2 z2 body 2 system of coordinates
The absolute angular speed of the link 1 is
1 = K = k1

(4.193)

The relative angular speed of the link 2 with respect to the link 1 can be obtain by
dierentiation of the generalized coordinate
= j1 = j2
21 =

(4.194)

The absolute angular velocity of the link 2 is


2 = 1 + 21 = j2 + k1
= i2 sin + j2 + k2 cos

(4.195)

Since the link 2 performs rotational motion about the point A, its motion is governed
by Eulers equations
Ix 2x2 + (Iz Iy ) 2y2 2z2 = Mx2
Iy 2y2 + (Ix Iz ) 2x2 2z2 = My2
Iz 2z2 + (Iy Ix )2x2 2y2 = Mz2

(4.196)

EQUATIONS OF MOTION

162

z1

y2

R 2,1y2

1
M2,1y2 =0
R 2,1y2

z2
R 2,1z2
A

R 2,1x2
l/2

A
R 2,1x2

M2,1z2
x1

M2,1x2

M2,1x2
G
x2

mg

x2
Figure 50

were according to Fig. 50,


Ix = 0

Iy = Iz = I =

ml2
3

Mx2 = M2,1x2
1
My2 =
mgl cos
2
Mz2 = M21z2

(4.197)

Upon introducing Eqs. 4.195 and 4.197 into Eq. 4.196 one may obtain
0 = M2,1x2
1
I
+ I 2 sin cos =
mgl cos
2
I sin I
sin = M21z2

(4.198)
(4.199)
(4.200)

Equation 4.199 presents the wanted equation of motion.


1
I
+ I2 sin cos mgl cos = 0
2

(4.201)

After solving it with respect to the unknown function , the equation 4.200 allows
the interaction moment M21z2 to be obtained.

EQUATIONS OF MOTION

163

Problem 52
1

y2 Y y1

3
O
Z

z1

z2

x1 x2
X

Figure 51
To record the angular velocity of the floating platform 1 about the vertical
axis Y a gyroscope was installed as presented in Fig. 51. The shown spring, of a
stiness k, keeps the ring 2 in the horizontal position ( = 0) if the platform does
not rotate ( = 0). The damper c produces a moment which can be approximated
by a linear function
Mc = c
(4.202)
The ring 2 may be considered as massless. The gyroscope 3 is symmetrical with
respect to its axis of relative rotation z2 and its moments of inertia are Ix2 = Iy2 = I,
and Iz2 . The gyroscope rotates, relative to the ring 2, with the constant angular
velocity .
Upon assuming that the platform can rotate about a vertical axis only, derive
the relationship between its constant angular velocity = p and angular position of
the gyroscope .

EQUATIONS OF MOTION

164

Solution.
The system of coordinates x1 y1 z1 ,which is attached to the platform, rotates
with respect to the inertial frame XY Z with angular velocity 1 .
1 = j1 = j2 cos k2 sin

(4.203)

The relative angular velocity of the ring 2 with respect to the system of coordinate
x1 y1 z1 is
21 = i2

(4.204)

Therefore, the absolute angular velocity of the system of coordinates x2 y2 z2 is


2 = 1 + 21 = i2 + j2 cos + k2 ( sin )

(4.205)

Since the gyroscope 3 rotates about its axis of symmetry z2 with relative velocity ,
the modified Eulers equations may be used to derive its equations of motion.
I x2 + (Iz2 I) y2 z2 + Iz2 y2 = Mx2
I y2 (Iz2 I)x2 z2 Iz2 x2 = My2
= Mz2
Iz2 ( z2 + )

(4.206)

Since the ring 2 is massless its equilibrium conditions yields


Mx2 = k c

(4.207)

Introduction of Eqs. 4.205) and (4.207) into the first equation of the set 4.206
produces equation of motion of the gyroscope.
I + (Iz2 I)( 2 sin cos ) + Iz2 cos = k c

(4.208)

Because for a constant angular velocity = o the angle o is supposed to be constant,


the above equation yields
(Iz2 I)( 2o sin o cos o ) + Iz2 o cos o = ko

(4.209)

If angular velocity o << , the first term of Eq. 4.209 can be omitted and the
required relationship has the following explicit form
o =

ko
Iz2 cos o

(4.210)

EQUATIONS OF MOTION

165

Problem 53

1
2

Z
l

Figure 52
Link 1 of the mechanical system shown in Fig. 52 performs rotational motion
about the horizontal and motionless axis Z. Its motion is determined by angle
which is a known function of time. Link 2, which can be considered as a uniform and
rigid rod of mass m and length l, is hinged to the link 1 at point A.
Derive the equation of motion of the link 2. Given are:
(t) equation of motion of the link 1
m mass of the link 2
l length of the link 2

EQUATIONS OF MOTION

166

Solution.
z2

X
A

21
x1 x2

Z z1

x1 x2
1

y1

rG

Z z1
l

y1

y2

Figure 53
In Fig. 53 system of coordinates x1 y1 z1 is rigidly attached to the link 1 and
rotates with respect to the inertial system of coordinates XY Z about the horizontal
axis Z. Its instantaneous position is determined by the angle . System of coordinates
x2 y2 z2 is fixed to the link 2 and rotates about axis x1 of the system of coordinates
x1 y1 z1 . Angle determines its instantaneous position with respect to the system of
coordinates x1 y1 z1 . Since the link 2 performs rotational motion about the point A,
the following Euler equations of motion can be utilized.
Ix 2x2 + (Iz Iy )2y2 2z2 = M2x2
Iy 2y2 + (Ix Iz )2x2 2z2 = M2y2
Iz 2z2 + (Iy Ix )2x2 2y2 = M2z2

(4.211)

where
Ix = 13 (ml2 ) moment of inertia of the body 2 about axis x2
Iy = 0 moment of inertia of the body 2 about axis y2
Iz = 13 (ml2 ) moment of inertia of the body 2 about axis z2 .
Components of the absolute angular velocity of the link 2 along its body
system of coordinates x2 y2 z2 may be determined as follows
2 = 1 + 21 = k1 + i2

(4.212)

Hence,
2x2 = i2 2 =
2y2 = j2 2 = sin
2z2 = k2 2 = cos

(4.213)

Moment M2 is due to the interaction force R21 and interaction moment M21 (see
Fig. 54) in the constrain A and the gravity force G.
M2 = M21 +M2G

(4.214)

EQUATIONS OF MOTION

167

M 2,1y2
R2,1y2

M 2,1y2

R2,1x2

x2

M 2,1x2 =0

z2

A
M 2,1z2
R2,1z2
1 Z z1
A
x1 x2
rG
l
1
G
2

R2,1y2

y2

y2

y1
Figure 54

Since the link 1 is free to rotate about axis x2 , component of the interaction moment
along axis x is
M21x2 = 0
(4.215)
Moment produced by the gravity force G is a vector product of position vector rG
and the gravity force G.Hence
rG G = j2 (l/2) Jmg = (mlg/2)j2 J
(mlg/2)j2 (j1 cos + i2 sin )
(mlg/2)j2 ((j2 cos k2 sin ) cos + i2 sin )
(mlg/2)j2 (i2 sin + j2 cos cos k2 cos sin )

i2

j
k
2
2

1
0
= (mlg/2) 0

sin cos cos cos sin


= (mlg/2)(i2 (cossin) + k2 (sin))

M2G =
=
=
=

(4.216)

Upon introducing Eqs. 4.213 and 4.214 into first equation of the set 4.211 one can
obtain equation of motion in the following form
(4.217)
+ 2 sin cos + (3g/2l) cos sin = 0
The second and third equation allow the unknown components of interaction moment
M21 to be obtained.
Ix 2x2 + (Iz Iy )2y2 2z2 = M2x2
Iy 2y2 + (Ix Iz )2x2 2z2 = M2y2
Iz 2z2 + (Iy Ix )2x2 2y2 = M2z2

(4.218)

EQUATIONS OF MOTION

M21y2 = 0

cos sin ) (1/3)ml2 sin


M21z2 = (1/3)ml2 (
+(1/2)mglsin

168

(4.219)

EQUATIONS OF MOTION

169

Problem 54

1
x1

R
m

C
D

z1
r

Figure 55
Wheel of radius r and mass m is free to rotate about axle CD which turns
about the vertical axis with a constant angular speed . The wheel rolls without
slipping on the horizontal plane. Determine the reaction between the wheel and the
horizontal plane. Given are:
r =0.5m
R =2m
m =100kg
=1rad/s
Iz1 =12.5kgm2 , Iy1 = Ix1 =10kgm2 principal moments of inertia of the
wheel

EQUATIONS OF MOTION

170

Solution
z1

O,o

z2

Y
y2
x2

1
x1 12 t x2

R
m

C
D

z1

O,o

y2

12

z2
r

y1

Figure 56

m(v Gx2 + vGz2 2y2 vGy2 2z2 ) = F1x2


m(v Gy2 + vGx2 2z2 vGz2 2x2 ) = F1y2
m(v Gz2 + vGy2 2x2 vGx2 2y2 ) = F1z2
Io 2x2 + (Ioz Io ) 2y2 2z2 + Ioz 12 2y2 = M1x2
Io 2y2 (Ioz Io ) 2x2 2z2 Ioz 12 2x2 = M1y2
Ioz ( 2z2 + 12 ) = M1z2
Io = Ix1 + mR2 ;

Ioz = Iz1

2 = i2
2x2 =

2y2 = 0

2z2 = 0

R
r
rG = k2 R

i2 j2 k2

vG = r G = r0G + 2 rG = 0 + 0 0 = j2 (R)
0 0 R
12 =

vGx2 = 0

vGy2 = R

vGz2 = 0

EQUATIONS OF MOTION

171

0 = F1x2
0 = F1y2
Rm 2 = F1z2
0 = M1x2
R
= M1y2
Ioz 2
r
0 = M1z2

0 = F1x2 = R12x2 mg + N
0 = F1y2 = R12y2 + T
Rm 2 = F1z2 = R12z2
0 = M1x2 = M12x2 RT
R
= M1y2 = Rmg + RN
Ioz 2
r
0 = M1z2 = rT
T =0
N = mg + Ioz 2

R
r

R12x2 = mg N = Ioz 2
R12y2 = 0
R12z2 = Rm 2
M12x2 = RT = 0

R
r

EQUATIONS OF MOTION

172

2
R12

M12

C
D

Figure 57

x2
x2
2

R 12x2

1
x1

M12y2=0

M12x2
C

O,o M =0
12z2

M12x2
z1

y 2 R 12y2

z2

R 12z2
r

12 t R 12x2

G
y1
T

Figure 58

EQUATIONS OF MOTION

173

Problem 55
X

x1

z1
1

Figure 59
On the rotating about the vertical axis X platform 1 (see Fig. 59) a turbine is
installed. Rotor of the turbine has mass m and its centre of gravity G is at a distance
a from the axis X. Axis z1 is axis of symmetry of the rotor and its principal moments
of inertia I2x1 = I2y1 = I2 and I2z1 are known.
If the platform rotates with the constant angular velocity and the rotor has
the relative angular velocity , determine components of reactions at the bearings A
and B along system of coordinates x1 y1 z1 fixed to the platform 1.
Given are: I2 , I2z1 , m, , , a, b.

EQUATIONS OF MOTION

174

Problem 56
1

a
v

Figure 60
The thin and uniform bar 1 has mass m and length l. Its end A is moving with
constant velocity v along the horizontal axis Y of the inertial system of coordinates
XY Z. Upon assuming that there is no friction in the constraints A and B and all the
motion is in the vertical plane Y Z, produce the expression for the dynamic reactions
in these constraints as a function of the bar angular position .
Answer:
Solution of the folowing set of equations yields the wanted reactions.

l
l 2
cos + sin m = RAX + RB cos
2
2

l
l 2
sin cos m = mg + RB sin + RAY
2
2

a
ml2
l
l
l
= RAY sin + RAX cos + RB

12
2
2
2 cos

EQUATIONS OF MOTION

175

Problem 57
B

X,x1
O

y1 y2

X,x1
x2

2
l

y1 y2 O

z1

z2

z1

r
z2 z 3

x3

X
2

3
G
y3

Figure 61
Body 3 (see Fig. 61) is driven by means of the massless links 1 and 2 that are
hinged to each other at the point O. Link 1 rotates about the vertical axis X with
the constant angular velocity and the body 3 rolls over the horizontal motionless
ring 4 without slipping. Axis z2 is the axis of symmetry of body 3 and its moments
of inertia about the body system of coordinates x3 y3 z3 are Ix3 = Iy3 = I and Iz
respectively.
Derive the expression for the components of the reaction N and T between
the body 3 and the ring 4.
Given are:
m - mass of the body 3
I, Iz - moments of inertia of the body 3
l - distance between the point of rotation O and centre of gravity G of the
body 3
r - radius of the ring 4
- angular velocity of the link 1
- angle between axis z2 and the horizontal plane
Hint: The body 3 performs rotational motion about the point O.

EQUATIONS OF MOTION

176

Problem 58
z2

3
Y
G3

y2

2
1

X
x2

Figure 62
Fig. 62 shows the physical model of a shaker frequently used to excite the
rolling motion of a ship. The housing 2 of the gyroscope 3 performs oscillatory
motion about axis Y of the inertial system of coordinates XY Z. This motion is
determined by the following equation
= 0 sin t
The system of coordinates x2 y2 z2 is rigidly attached to the housing. The gyroscope
3 of mass m and moments of inertia I3x2 = I3y2 = I3 and I3z about axes x2 y2 z2
respectively, rotates with the constant angular velocity . Upon assuming that the
mass of the housing is negligible, derive an expression for the components of the
moment transmitted to the board 1 of the ship.

EQUATIONS OF MOTION

177

Problem 59
Y

a)

G3
G1

G3
G1

a
O

x2

b)

G3
y2

x1

z2

t
z1

y1

G3
G1

Z
z1

Figure 63
Fig. 63a) shows a gyrostabilizer for stabilization of the monorail car 1. To
test this gyrostabilizer, the car 1 was forced to move along the coordinate (see Fig.
63b)) according to the following equation
= A sin ft
Simultaneously the housing 2 was rotated with respect to the car 1 with constant
angular velocity . The relative angular velocity of the gyroscope 3 with respect to

EQUATIONS OF MOTION

178

the housing 2 was . XY Z is the inertial system of coordinates. x1 y1 z1 is the body


1 system of coordinates. x2 y2 z2 is the body 2 system of coordinates.
Given are:
A, f - amplitude and frequency of the oscillatory motion of the car 1
- angular velocity of the housing 2 with respect to the car 1
- angular velocity of the gyroscope 3 with respect to the housing 2
a, b, c, dimensions shown in Fig.63a)
m- mass of the gyroscope 3
Ix = Iy = I, Iz - principal moments of inertia of the gyroscope 3 about axes through
its centre of gravity.
Produce expressions for interaction forces between the gyroscope 3 and its
housing 2.
Answer:
m((a + b)
sin t) mg sin sin t = R32x2
m((a + b) 2 ) + mg cos = R32y2
m((a + b)
cos t) mg sin cos t = R32z2
I(
cos t
sin t) + (Iz I)
sin t + Iz = M32x2
2
(Iz I) sin t cos t Iz cos t = M32y2
Iz (
sin t +
cos t) = Md

EQUATIONS OF MOTION

179

Problem 60
0

x1
A

z1

a
1
G

2
l

l
b

Figure 64
The aircraft landing gear shown in Fig. 64 is being retracted while the aircraft
0 moves with constant velocity along a horizontal straight line. The instantaneous
position of the arm 1 is determined by the angular displacement . The wheel 2
rotates with the constant relative angular velocity with respect to the arm 1.
Given are:
a, b, l, - dimensions shown
m - mass of the wheel 2
Iz - moment of inertia of the wheel 2 about its axis of relative rotation
I = Ix = Iy - moments of inertia of the wheel 2 about axes perpendicular to the axis
of relative rotation
(t) - the angular displacement of the arm 1 with respect to the plane.
- the angular velocity of the wheel 2 with respect to the arm
Produce the expression for the components of the interaction forces between
the wheel 2 and the arm 1 along the body 1 system of coordinates x1 y1 z1 .

EQUATIONS OF MOTION

180

Problem 61

a
O

t
o1

x1
z1 , z2

2
2

y1

y2

x2

21 t
O
o1

x1

Figure 65
Fig. 65 presents the physical model of a ventilator. Its base 1 rotates with
the constant angular velocity about the vertical axis Y of the inertial system of
coordinates XY Z. The system of coordinates x1 y1 z1 is attached to this base. The
rotor 2 is free to rotate about the axis z1 . The relative angular velocity of the rotor
2 with respect to the base 1 is constant and its magnitude is 21 . The system of
coordinates x2 y2 z2 is attached to the rotor 2. The axis z2 is the axis of symmetry
of the rotor and its moments of inertia about the system of coordinates x2 y2 z2 are
Ix2 = Iy2 = I2 , Iz2 respectively. The mass of the rotor is m.
Produce the expression for the components of the interaction force between
the rotor 2 and its base 1.
Answer:
Rx1 = ma 2
Ry1 = mg
Rz1 = bm 2
Mx1 = Iz2 21 My1 = 0
Mz1 = Md = 0

EQUATIONS OF MOTION

181

Problem 62

Z z1
z2

a/2
A

a/2

y1 y2

O
1

a
x1
x2

X
b
b

Figure 66
The link 1 of the mechanical system shown in Fig.66 rotates about the vertical
axis Z of the inertial system of coordinates XYZ with a constant angular velocity .
The system of coordinates x 1 y 1 z 1 is rigidly attached to this link. Two uniform bars,
each of length a and mass m, were joined together to form the link 2 of this system.
The system of coordinates x 2 y 2 z 2 is rigidly attached to the link 2. Its instantaneous
relative position with respect to the system of coordinates x 1 y 1 z 1 is determined by
the angular displacement . Produce:
1.
The free body diagram for the link 2.
2.
The dierential equation of motion of the link 2 in terms of the variable .
3.
The equations for the determination of the interaction forces between the link
2 and 1 in the kinematic constraints A and B.
The moment of inertia of a uniform bar of mass m and length l about the axis
through its centre of gravity is

MOTION OF THE GYROSCOPE WITH THREE DEGREE OF FREEDOM.

1
ml2
12

IG =
4.5

182

MOTION OF THE GYROSCOPE WITH THREE DEGREE OF


FREEDOM.

4.5.1 Modelling.
Physical model.
Let us consider motion of a rigid body about a fixed in an inertial space point O (Fig.
67).
z

Z z1

G
.

y1

Y
1

x1 x

Figure 67
Axis x of the rotating system of coordinates xyz stays always in plane XY of
the absolute system of coordinates XY Z. The angle , between those two axes is
called angle of precession and together with angle of mutation determines uniquely
position of axes the rotating system of coordinates xyz. For further consideration,
we shell assume that axis z is axis of symmetry of the body. Since the body is free to
rotate about axis z it has three degree of freedom. Let be the angular velocity of
the body with respect to xyz. The body has mass m. Its centre of gravity is located
on axis z at the point G. Its position is given by a distance r. IOx = IOy = IO and
IOz represent principal moment of inertia of the body about axis xyz.
Kinematic analysis
Angular velocity of the system of coordinates xyz is

+
= K + i
=

(4.220)

MOTION OF THE GYROSCOPE WITH THREE DEGREE OF FREEDOM.

183

Scalar multiplication of the above equation by unit vectors i, j, and k respectively


yields its components along the rotating system of coordinates xyz.
)
=

x = i (K+i
)
= sin
y = j (K+i
)
= cos
z = k (K+i

(4.221)

Equations of motion.
The introduced assumptions allow to take advantage from the modified Eulers equations.
IO x + (IOz IO ) z y + IOz y = MOx
IO y (IOz IO )x z IOz x = MOy
= MOz
IOz ( z + )

(4.222)

Components of moment
MO = kr K(mg)

(4.223)

are
Mx

My

Mz

1
0
0

0
1 = rmgsin
= (i (k K))rmg = rmg 0
0 sin cos

0
1
0

0
1 = 0
= (j (k K))rmg = rmg 0
0 sin cos

0
0
1

0
1 = 0
(4.224)
= (k (k K))rmg = rmg 0
0 sin cos

Upon introducing Eq. 4.224 and 4.221 into Eq. 4.222 one can obtain equations of
motion in the following form.
+ (IOz IO ) 2 sin cos + IOz sin rmg sin = 0
IO
sin + IO
cos (IOz IO )
cos IOz
= 0
IO

sin + )
= 0

IOz (cos

(4.225)

4.5.2 Analysis.
General solutions of the mathematical model 4.225 can not be obtain by means of any
analytical methods. But, very often, we can procure a number of particular solutions
by guessing their form.

MOTION OF THE GYROSCOPE WITH THREE DEGREE OF FREEDOM.

184

Particular solutions.
Let us predict the particular solution of the set of equations 4.225 in the following
form
= pt
= o
= o

(4.226)

where
p, o , o are constant values. Hence
= p

=0

=0

=0

= 0

(4.227)

Upon introducing Eq. 4.226 into Eq. 4.225 one can see that second and third equation
is fulfilled for any instant of time. The first equation yields
(IOz IO )p2 sin o cos o + IOz o p sin o rmg sin o = 0

(4.228)

The predicted solution 4.226 may be considered as an solution, if the equation 4.228
is fulfilled. It is fulfilled for
o = 0
o =

(4.229)

regardless of magnitude p, o or for any set of parameters p, o , o satisfying the


following relationship
p
IOz o (IOz o )2 + 4(IOz IO )rmg cos o
(4.230)
p1,2 =
2(IOz IO ) cos o
The precession p1 , which corresponds to sign + is called slow precession to distinguish
it from fast precession p2 corresponding to sign . The relationship 4.230 permits to
compute so called static characteristic of a gyroscope.
Let us adopt, for further analysis, dimensions of the gyroscope shown in Fig.
68

R
b

R=0.04m

b=0.015m
m=0.6kg
0.025m
r=
0.015m

Figure 68

MOTION OF THE GYROSCOPE WITH THREE DEGREE OF FREEDOM.

185

For r = 0.025m, IO = 0.000629kgm2 > IOz = 0.000482kgm2 the static characteristic of the gyroscope for a few values of angular velocity (o = 0, 5, 10, 15, 20
and 25s1 ) is shown in Fig. 69.For high angular velocity o = 25s1 (see Fig. 70)
the gyroscope can perform the fast and slow regular precession p for any mutation
angle o . If angular velocity o is slower e.g. o = 15s1 , the gyroscope can perform
regular precession only for certain range of angle of mutation o .
Fig. 71 present static characteristics for r = 0.015m. In this case IO =
0.000388kgm2 < IOz = 0.000482kgm2 .
The presented characteristics determine regular precession which may be obtained only for certain set of initial conditions which strictly correspond to the assumed form of particular solution 4.226. More particular solution can be obtained
by numerical integration of the mathematical model 4.225.
Numerical solution of equations of motion.
Fig. 73. presents a few numerical solutions carried out for r = .025m. The diagrams
in this figure show instantaneous positions yG of the point G of the gyroscope versus
its angle of precession . For all cases the initial speed of the gyroscope was assumed
to be i = 15s1 .
Fig 73A presents solution for initial conditions chosen in vicinity of upper
i = 0, i = 0, i = 0, i = 15s1 ).
equilibrium position o = 0(i = 0.01s1 ,
Since the gyroscope can not perform regular precession (see Fig. 70), it execute large
oscillations.
Fig. 73B corresponds to situation when the gyroscope, performing regular
o = 0, o = p1 = 25s1 , o = 15s1 see Fig. 70) was pushed
precession (o = 1.26,
i = 8s1 . Due to the following initial
out of its motion at t = 0 with initial velocity
i = 8s1 , i = 0, i = 0, i = 15s1 the gyroscope
conditions i = 1.26rad,
performs small oscillation around regular precession.
Similar behavior can be observed if it is pushed out of its regular fast precession
o = 0, o = p2 = 136, o = 15 see Fig. 70). This situation is
(o = 1.26rad,
presented in Fig. 73C.
Figures 73D and 73E show solution of disturbed motion of the gyroscope about

slow (o = 16.17s1 ) and fast ( o = 77.1s1 ) precession which correspond to angle


of mutation o = 2.51rad (see Fig. 70). Those solution were obtained for initial
i = 8s1 , i = 0, i = 16.170s1 , i = 15s1 and
conditions i = 2.51rad,
1
i = 8s , i = 0, i = 77.1s1 , i = 15s1 respectively.
i = 2.51rad,
Fig. 73F presents motion of the gyroscope in vicinity of the lower equilibrium
i = 20s1 ,
position (o = ) caused by the following initial conditions i = 2.51,
1
i = 0, i = 0, i = 15s .

MOTION OF THE GYROSCOPE WITH THREE DEGREE OF FREEDOM.

186

Slow precession p1 versus angle of nutation


r=0.025 [m]
60
50
40
30

[rad/s]
20
10
0
0

0.63

= 0

= 5

1.26

= 10

o [rad]

1.88

= 15

2.51

= 20

3.14

= 25 [rad]

Fast precession p versus angle of nutation

2
r=0.025 [m]
400
300
200
p

100

[rad/s]

0
-100
-200
-300
-400
0

0.63

1.26

1.88

2.51

3.14

o [rad]
= 0

= 5

= 10

= 15

Figure 69

= 20

= 25 [rad]

MOTION OF THE GYROSCOPE WITH THREE DEGREE OF FREEDOM.

= 25 [rad/s]

Slow & fast precession for

187

versus angle of nutation

r=0.025 [m]
200
150
100
50
p
[rad/s]

0
-50
-100
-150
-200
0

0.63

1.26

1.88

slow precession

2.51

fast precession

p
2

= 15 [rad/s] versus angle of nutation

Slow & fast precession for

3.14

[rad]

r=0.025 [m]
200
150
100
50
p
[rad/s]

0
-50

-100
-150
-200
0

0.63

1.26

slow precession

1.88
o

Figure 70

2.51

3.14

[rad]
fast precession

p
2

MOTION OF THE GYROSCOPE WITH THREE DEGREE OF FREEDOM.

Slow precession p1 versus angle of nutation

188

r = 0.015 [m]
60
50
40
p

30

[rad/s]
20
10
0
0

0.63

= 0

= 5

1.26

= 10

o [rad]

1.88

= 15

2.51

= 20

3.14

= 25 [rad]

Fast precession p versus angle of nutation

r = 0.015 [m]
400
300
200
100
p
2

[rad/s]

0
-100
-200
-300
-400
0

0.63

1.26

1.88

2.51

3.14

o [rad]
= 0

= 5

= 10

= 15

Figure 71

= 20

= 25 [rad]

MOTION OF THE GYROSCOPE WITH THREE DEGREE OF FREEDOM.

= 20 [rad/s]

Slow & fast precession for

versus angle of nutation

189

r = 0.015 [m]
200
150
100
50
p
[rad/s]

0
-50
-100
-150
-200
0

0.63

1.26

1.88

slow precession

2.51

fast precession

p
2

= 10 [rad/s] versus angle of nutation

Slow & fast precession for

3.14

[rad]

r = 0.015 [m]
200
150
100
50
p
[rad/s]

0
-50
-100
-150
-200
0

0.63

1.26

slow precession

1.88
o

Figure 72

2.51

3.14

[rad]
fast precession

p
2

MOTION OF THE GYROSCOPE WITH THREE DEGREE OF FREEDOM.

[rad]

0
0

[rad]
-20
20

[rad]

0
20

[rad]

0
20

[rad]

0
20

[rad]
yG [m]

0
G

yG

O
Figure 73

0
-0.04

190

Chapter 5
APPENDIXES
5.1

APPENDIX 1. REVISION OF THE VECTOR CALCULUS

NOTATION.
z

V
k
i

Vz

y
Vx

Vy

The vector quantities are printed in boldface type V or, in handwriting, should
always be indicated by symbol V to distinguish them from the scalar quantities V.
Vector quantities are usually defined in the right-handed system of coordinates by
its scalar components Vx , Vy , Vz .
(5.1)

V = iVx + jVy + kVz


were i, j, k are unit vectors of the system of coordinates xyz.

SCALAR MAGNITUDE of a vector V is


V =

q
Vx2 + Vy2 + Vz2

(5.2)

DIRECTION COSINES l, m, n are the cosines of angles between a vector V and


axes xyz.. Thus
l = cos ]Vi =

Vx
V

n = cos ]Vj =

Vy
V

m = cos ]Vk =

Vz
V

(5.3)

Useful relations
l2 + n2 + m2 = 1

(5.4)

DOT OR SCALAR PRODUCT of two vectors P and Q is defined as scalar

APPENDIX 1. REVISION OF THE VECTOR CALCULUS

192

magnitude
P Q =P Q cos

(5.5)

where stands for the angle between the two vectors.

Useful relations

PQ=

Px

PQ=QP

(5.6)

ii=jj=kk=1

(5.7)

ij=jk=ij=0

Q
x

Py Pz Qy = Px Qx + Py Qy + Pz Qz
Qz

Px = i P

Py = j P

Pz = k P

(5.8)
(5.9)
(5.10)

VECTOR OR CROSS PRODUCT of two vectors P and Q is defined as a


vector with the magnitude P Q sin and direction specified by the right-hand rule as
shown.
Px Q

Useful relations
P (Q + R) = P Q + P R

(5.11)

Q P = P Q

(5.12)

ij=k

jk=i

ki=j

(5.13)

ii=jj=kk=0

i
j
k

P Q = Px Py Pz
Qx Qy Qz

(5.14)

(P Q) R

(5.16)

(5.15)

TRIPLE CROSS-SCALAR PRODUCT is defined as

APPENDIX 1. REVISION OF THE VECTOR CALCULUS

193

Useful relations
(P Q) R = (R P) Q = (Q R) P

Px Py Pz

(P Q) R = Qx Qy Qz
Rx Ry Rz

(5.17)

P (Q R)

(5.19)

P (Q R) = Q (R P) R (P Q)

(5.20)

dP
P
= lim
=P
t0
dt
t

(5.21)

(5.18)

TRIPLE VECTOR PRODUCT is defined as

Useful relations

DERIVATIVE OF A VECTOR

Useful relations
d(Pf )
+ Pf
= Pf
dt
d(P Q)
Q+PQ

= P
dt
d(P Q)
Q+PQ

= P
dt

(5.22)
(5.23)
(5.24)

APPENDIX 2. CENTRE OF GRAVITY, VOLUME AND MOMENTS OF INERTIA


OF RIGID BODIES.
194

5.2

APPENDIX 2. CENTRE OF GRAVITY, VOLUME AND MOMENTS OF INERTIA OF RIGID BODIES.

Sphere
z

R
G

4
V = R3
3

2
Ixx = Iyy = Izz = mR2
5

Hemisphere
z
3R
8
y

G
R
x

2
V = R3
3

Ixx = Iyy = 0.259mR2

2
Izz = mR2
5

Cone
z
1h
4
y

h
G
R

1
V = R2 h
3

Ixx = Iyy =

3
m(4R2 + h2 )
80

Cylinder
z

1h
2
1h
2
x

y
G
R

Izz =

3
mR2
10

APPENDIX 2. CENTRE OF GRAVITY, VOLUME AND MOMENTS OF INERTIA


OF RIGID BODIES.
195

V = R2 h

Ixx = Iyy =

1
m(3R2 + h2 )
12

1
Izz = mR2
2

Rectangular block
z

y
c

a
b

V = abc

Ixx =

1
m(b2 + c2 )
12

Iyy =

1
m(a2 + c2 )
12

Slender rod
z
R
l
G

V =0

Ixx = Iyy =

1 2
ml
12

Izz = 0

Izz =

1
m(a2 + b2 )
12