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You are on page 1of 195

UNIT 2

MECHANICS

OF

A RIGID BODY

J.M. KRODKIEWSKI

2008

Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering

.

1

Copyright C 2008 by J.M. Krodkiewski

ISBN 0-7325-1535-1

The University of Melbourne

Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering

CONTENTS

1 THREE-DIMENSIONAL KINEMATICS OF A PARTICLE.

1.1 MOTION OF A PARTICLE IN TERMS OF THE INERTIAL FRAME.

1.1.1 Absolute linear velocity and absolute linear acceleration

1.2 MOTION IN TERMS OF THE NON-INERTIAL FRAMES (RELATIVE MOTION). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.2.1 Motion in terms of translating system of coordinates. .

1.2.2 Motion in terms of rotating system of coordinates. . .

1.2.3 Motion in terms of translating and rotating system of

coordinates. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.3 PROBLEMS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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24

2.1 GENERAL MOTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2.2 ROTATION ABOUT A POINT THAT IS FIXED IN THE INERTIAL

SPACE (ROTATIONAL MOTION) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2.3 PROBLEMS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

41

41

3.1 MOTION OF CENTRE OF MASS - LINEAR MOMENTUM. . . . .

3.2 MOMENT OF MOMENTUM. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3.2.1 Moment of momentum about a fixed point in the inertial space. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3.2.2 Moment of momentum about a moving point in an inertial space. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3.2.3 Moment of relative momentum. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3.3 EQUATIONS OF MOTION AND THEIR FIRST INTEGRALS. . .

3.3.1 Conservation of momentum principle. . . . . . . . . . . .

3.3.2 Conservation of angular momentum principle. . . . . .

3.3.3 Impulse momentum principle. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3.4 PROBLEMS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

80

82

83

4.1 LINEAR AND ANGULAR MOMENTUM. .

4.2 PROPERTIES OF MATRIX OF INERTIA.

4.2.1 Parallel axis theorem. . . . . . . .

4.2.2 Principal axes. . . . . . . . . . . .

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CONTENTS

4.3 KINETIC ENERGY. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127

4.3.1 Rotational motion. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127

4.3.2 General motion. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128

4.3.3 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130

4.4 EQUATIONS OF MOTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146

4.4.1 Eulers equations of motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146

4.4.2 Modified Eulers equations of motion . . . . . . . . . . . 149

4.4.3 Problems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154

4.5 MOTION OF THE GYROSCOPE WITH THREE DEGREE OF FREEDOM. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182

4.5.1 Modelling. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182

4.5.2 Analysis. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183

5 APPENDIXES

191

5.1 APPENDIX 1. REVISION OF THE VECTOR CALCULUS 191

5.2 APPENDIX 2. CENTRE OF GRAVITY, VOLUME AND

MOMENTS OF INERTIA OF RIGID BODIES. . . . . . . . . 194

CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION.

The purpose of this text is to provide the students with the theoretical background and engineering applications of the three dimensional mechanics of a rigid

body. It is divided into four chapters.

The first one, Three-Dimensional Kinematics of A Particle, deals with

the geometry of motion of an individual particle in terms of the inertial as well as

in terms of the non-inertial system of coordinates. The introduced in this chapter

translating, rotating as well as the translating and rotating system of coordinates

allows motion of the rigid body with respect to the inertial frame to be determined

and classified.

The second chapter, entitled Three-Dimensional Kinematics of A Rigid

Body, provides procedures for determination of the absolute velocity and the absolute

acceleration of any point that belong to the rigid body. Both, the general motion and

the motion about a fixed point is considered.

The last two chapters are related with the relationships between motion and

forces that act on bodies. The chapter Kinetics of A System of Particles oers

general principles that can be apply to any system of particles regardless of their

number and internal forces acting between the individual particles. Because each

continuum (fluid, gas, rigid or elastic body) can be considered as a system of particles,

the derived equations form a base for development of many branches of mechanics

(fluid mechanics, solid mechanics, rigid body mechanics etc.).

The developed principles are widely utilized in the chapter entitled Kinetics

of A Rigid Body. This chapter gives procedures for determination of matrix of

inertia of a rigid body and its principal axes. This makes possible to produce expression for the kinetic energy of the moving rigid body as well as to derive its equations

of motion. Both, the general motion as well as rotation of a rigid body is considered.

Each chapter is ended with several engineering problems. Solution to some

of them is provided. Students should produce solution to the other problems during

tutorials and in their own time.

Chapter 1

THREE-DIMENSIONAL KINEMATICS OF A PARTICLE.

1.1

Z

Za

v

O

X

Oa

Ya

Xa

Figure 1

To consider motion of a particle we assume the existence of so-called absolute (motionless) system of coordinates Xa Ya Za (see Fig. 1).

DEFINITION: Inertial system of coordinated is one that does not rotate and

which origin is fixed in the absolute space or moves along straight line at

a constant velocity.

Inertial systems of coordinates are usually denoted by upper characters, e.g. XY Z, to

distinguish them from non-inertial systems of coordinates which are usually denoted

by lower characters, e.g. xyz.

1.1.1 Absolute linear velocity and absolute linear acceleration

Let us assume that a motion of a particle is given by a set of parametric equations

1.1 which determine the particle coordinates for any instant of time.

rX = rX (t)

rY = rY (t)

rZ = rZ (t)

(1.1)

K

I

r(t)

r(t+ t)

J rZ (t)

O

Y

rX (t)

rY (t)

Figure 2

These coordinates represent scalar magnitude of components of so called absolute position vector r along the inertial system of coordinates XY Z.

r = IrX (t) + JrY (t) + KrZ (t)

(1.2)

were I, J, K are unit vectors of the inertial system of coordinates XY Z. Vector of the

absolute velocity, as the first derivative of the absolute position vector r with respect

to time, is given by the following formula.

r

rX

rY

rZ

= I lim

+ J lim

+ K lim

= IrX + JrY + KrZ

tO t

tO t

tO t

tO t

(1.3)

Similarly, vector of the absolute acceleration is defined as the second derivative of the

position vector with respect to time.

v = r = lim

v

= I

rX + J

rY + K

rZ

tO t

a=

r = lim

q

2

v = |v| = v v = rX

+ rY2 + rZ2

(1.4)

(1.5)

a = |a| =

2

a a = rX

+ rY2 + rZ2

(1.6)

The distance done by the particle in a certain interval of time 0 < < t is given by

the formula 1.7.

Z tp

Z t

v d =

rX ( )2 + rY ( )2 + rZ ( )2 d = s(t)

(1.7)

s=

0

1.2

z

o

o

O

x

x

X

b

X

Figure 3

DEFINITION:System of coordinates which can not be classified as inertial

is called non-inertial system of coordinates.

The non-inertial systems of coordinates are denoted by lower characters (e.g.

xyz) to distinguish it from inertial one.

DEFINITION: If a non-inertial system of coordinates does not rotate (its

axes xyz are always parallel to an inertial system) the system is called translating

system of coordinates (Fig. 3 a).

DEFINITION: If a non-inertial system of coordinates rotates about origin

of an inertial system of coordinates, the system is called rotating system of

coordinates (Fig. 3b)

In a general case a non-inertial system of coordinates may translate and rotate.

DEFINITION: System of coordinates which can translate and rotate is

called translating and rotating system of coordinates (Fig.3c)

1.2.1 Motion in terms of translating system of coordinates.

Z

rP

ro

O

P

rP,o

y

Y

x

X

Figure 4

Let XY Z be the inertial system of coordinates and xyz be the translating system

of coordinates. The relative motion of xyz system with respect to XY Z is usually

defined by a position vector ro (Fig.4). Let us consider a particle P which moves

with respect to the translating system of coordinates and its relative motion is given

by the position vector rP,o . The position vector of the particle P in the XY Z frame

can be composed from vectors ro and rP,o .

rP = ro + rP,o = IroX + JroY + KroZ + irP,ox + jrP,oy + krP,oz

(1.8)

Hence, the absolute velocity of the particle P , as the first derivative of vector rP with

respect to time is

oX + Jr

oY + Kr

oZ

r P = IroX + JroY + KroZ + Ir

P,oy + kr

P,oz

+irP,ox + jrP,oy + krP,oz + irP,ox + jr

(1.9)

= i = j = k = 0

Since, I = J = K

r P = IroX + JroY + KroZ + irP,ox + jrP,oy + krP,oz

(1.10)

In the expression for the absolute velocity one may distinguish two parts called velocity

of transportation and relative velocity.

DEFINITION: Velocity of transportation is the velocity of the particle it

would have if it would be motionless with respect to the non-inertial frame

(rP,o = const)

DEFINITION: Relative velocity is the velocity of the particle it would have

if the non-inertial system of coordinates would be motionless (ro = const).

According to the above definitions the velocity of transportation in the case considered

is

vT = r o = IroX + JroY + KroZ

(1.11)

and the relative velocity is

vR = irP,ox + jrP,oy + krP,oz

(1.12)

vP = r P = vT + vR

(1.13)

Similarly, one can prove that the absolute acceleration of the particle P is

rP = aT + aR

aP =

(1.14)

where aT and aR stand for the acceleration of transportation and the relative acceleration respectively.

DEFINITION: Acceleration of transportation is the acceleration of the

particle it would have if it would be motionless with respect to the noninertial frame (rP,o = const)

10

would have if the non-inertial system of coordinates would be motionless

(ro = const).

In the case considered

aT =

ro = I

roX + J

roY + K

roZ

(1.15)

aR = i

rP,ox + j

rP,oy + k

rP,oz

(1.16)

Z

z

K

k

j

O

y

J

i

X

Figure 5

As it was mention before, the rotating system of coordinates has its origin coinciding

the origin of an inertial system of coordinates (Fig.5). First of all, we have to establish

matrix which transfers components of a vector from rotating system of coordinates

xyz to the inertial XY Z.

Matrix of direction cosines.

Let the relative motion of a particle P be determined by a position vector r, which

components in the rotating system of coordinates xyz (Fig.6) are

r = irx + jry + krz

(1.17)

obtained as scalar products of the vector r and unit vectors IJK.

rX =

=

rY =

=

rZ =

=

r I = rx i I + ry j I + rz k I

rx cos iI + ry cos jI + rz cos kI

r J = rx i J + ry j J + rz k J

rx cos iJ + ry cos jJ + rz cos kJ

r K = rx i K + ry j K + rz k K

rx cos iK + ry cos jK + rz cos kK

(1.18)

11

P

r

rz

rZ

kI

O

I

rx

J

o

jI

rX

ry

iI

rY

x

Figure 6

rX

rx

cos iI cos jI cos kI

rx

rY = cos iJ cos jJ cos kJ ry = [Cri ] ry

rZ

rz

rz

cos iK cos jK cos kK

(1.19)

From the manner we have developed the matrix of direction cosines it is easy

to notice that the inverse matrix equal the transpose one.

[Cri ]1 = [Cri ]T = [Cir ]

(1.20)

Another useful relationship should be noticed from Fig. 7. Cosine of angle between

two unit vectors e.g. i and J is equal to the component of one on the other.

i

Jx

iJ

iY

Figure 7

cos iJ =

Jx

iY

= iY =

= Jx

i

J

(1.21)

12

Z

i

iZ

O i

Y

iX

Figure 8

From Fig. 8 one can see that components iX, iY, iZ ,which are equal to corresponding direction cosines, fulfil the following relationship.

i2X + i2Y + i2Z = cos2 iI + cos2 iJ + cos2 iK = 1

(1.22)

There exists six such relationships. Hence, only three direction angles can be chosen

independently. The three independent angles, which uniquely determined the position

of the rotating system of coordinates with respect to the inertial one, are called Eulers

angles.

Euler angles.

Z ,z

O,o

Y, y

X, x

Figure 9

Let us assume that the rotating system of coordinates xyz coincide the inertial one

XY Z. as shown in Fig.9. Now, let us turn the system of coordinates xyz with respect

to the inertial one XY Z about axis Z by an angle , so the system xyz takes position

x1 y1 z1 (Fig. 10). The matrix of direction cosines between system x1 y1 z1 and XY Z

is

13

Z ,z1

y1

O,o

x1

Figure 10

cos sin 0

[Cr1 i ] = sin cos 0

0

0

1

(1.23)

In the next step, let us turn the system xyz about axis x1 by an angle . The new

position of the system xyz is shown in Fig. 11 as x2 y2 z2 . The matrix of direction

cosines between system x2 y2 z2 and x1 y1 z1 has the following form.

z2

Z ,z1

y2

O,o

y1

x1 ,x 2

Figure 11

1

0

0

[Cr2 r1 ] = 0 cos sin

0 sin cos

(1.24)

In the last step, the system xyz is turned by an angle about axis z2 to its final

position xyz (Fig. 12). The matrix of direction cosines between xyz and x2 y2 z2 is

z2 ,z

14

Z ,z1

y2

O,o

y1

x2

Figure 12

cos sin 0

[Crr2 ] = sin cos 0

0

0

1

rx1

rX

rY = [Cr1 i ] ry1

rZ

rz1

rx2

rx1

ry1 = [Cr2 r1 ] ry2

rz1

rz2

rx

rx2

ry2 = [Crr2 ] ry

rz2

rz

(1.25)

(1.26)

(1.27)

(1.28)

Introducing Eq. 1.28 into Eq. 1.27) and than Eq. 1.27) into Eq. 1.26) one may

obtained

rx

rx

rX

rY = [Cr1 i ][Cr2 r1 ][Crr2 ] ry = [Cri ] ry

(1.29)

rZ

rz

rz

Hence the matrix of direction cosines between rotating system xyz and the inertial

XY Z is

[Cri ] = [Cr1 i ][Cr2 r1 ][Crr2 ]

(1.30)

The last formula allows to express the direction cosines as function of three independent angles known as Eulers angles. The angle is called angle of precession, angle

is called angle of mutation and the angle is called angle of spin.

15

A1

Z

A2

r2

r1

r0

r2

A2

A0

O

r0

r1

A0

A1

a

X

Figure 13

The introduced Euler angles can not be considered as vectorial values. To show it let

us consider transformation of point Ao due to rotation about axes x and y by 90o .

If we turn the vector ro by 90o first about axis x and then about axis y, the final

position of the point Ao is represented by vector r2 (Fig.13a). Let us do the same,

but now the vector ro is turned about axis y first and then about axis x (Fig. 13 b).

We can see that the final position depend on the order of rotation. Hence, angular

displacement can not be considered as a vector because at least the commutative law

would be violated.

Figure 14

It is easy to show, but the proof is here omitted, that the infinitesimal angular

displacement can be considered as vectorial magnitude. Vector of the infinitesimal

angular displacement is perpendicular to the plane of rotation and its sense is determined by the law of right-handed screw (Fig. 14). Such vectors which have

determined only direction and sense are called free vectors to distinguish them from

linear vectors (sense and line of action is determined) and position vectors ( position

of its tail, direction and sense is determined). According to the above rules the infinitesimal angular increments of Eulers angles d, d and d may be drawn as shown

in Fig. 15.

16

Z

d

d

d

d

y

O

Y

d

x

x1

Figure 15

(1.31)

d = d + d + d

so called instantaneous axis of rotation, having such a property that the rotation by

the angle d about this axis is equivalent to rotation by angles d, d, d about axes

Z x1 z respectively. The instantaneous axis go through origin of the rotating system

of coordinates.

Z

l

d

d

h

r

dr

A

O

Y

x

X

Figure 16

Now, let us consider point A fixed in the xyz system of coordinates determined

by a position vector r (Fig. 16). And let the axis l be the instantaneous axis of

rotation of the system xyz with respect to the inertial one. Let d be an infinitesimal

17

angular displacement of the system of coordinates xyz. Hence, the point A at the

instance considered moves along circle of radius

(1.32)

h = r sin

plane perpendicular to the axis l. Its scalar magnitude is

dr = h d = r d sin

(1.33)

d and r.

dr = d r

(1.34)

The velocity of the point A is

v=

The vector

d

dt

dr

d

=

r

dt

dt

(1.35)

=

d

dt

(1.36)

v =r

(1.37)

angular velocity, according to the above definition and Eq. ??, is

=

d

d Kd + i1 d + kd

d

d

=

=K + i1 + k

dt

dt

dt

dt

dt

The angular speed as well as its individual components are shown in Fig. 17.

The instantaneous axis of rotation

d

dt

d

dt

y

O

d

dt

X

x

x1

Figure 17

(1.38)

18

it can be resolved along axes of the inertial system of coordinates XY Z

(1.39)

= I X + JY + KZ

Eulers angles and their first derivatives.

d

d

d

+ I i1 + I k

dt

dt

dt

d

d

d

= J K + J i1 + J k

dt

dt

dt

d

d

d

= K K + K i1 + K k

dt

dt

dt

X = I K

Y

Z

(1.40)

find the vector of angular velocity for any instant of time. The locus of the lines of

action of the vector of angular speed in the inertial system of coordinates is called

space cone (Fig. 18 a)

space cone

body cone

Z

t0

ti

t0

ti

t0

y

Y

ti

Figure 18

The vector of angular speed can be as well resolved along axes of the system

of coordinates xyz

(1.41)

= ix + jy + kz

and the components can be expressed as a function of time.

d

d

d

+ i i1 + i k

dt

dt

dt

d

d

d

= j K + j i1 + j k

dt

dt

dt

d

d

d

= k K + k i1 + k k

dt

dt

dt

x = i K

y

z

(1.42)

19

The components x, y, z determine for any instant of time direction of the angular

velocity in the rotating system of coordinates. The locus of these lines make up so

called body cone (Fig. 18 b). The rotational motion of the system xyz with respect

to the XY Z, can be hence considered as rolling without slipping of the body cone on

the space cone (Fig. 18 c).

The angular acceleration is defined as the first derivative of the vector of

angular velocity with respect to time.

=

d

dt

(1.43)

According to the consideration carried out in the previous paragraphs the rotational

motion of a system of coordinates xyz with respect to the inertial one can be defined

by three independent angles (e.g. Euler angles) or, alternatively the rotational motion

can be determined by its initial position and the vector of its angular velocity .

Let be the absolute angular velocity of the rotating system of coordinates

xyz (Fig. 19).

z

Z

Az

A

Ay

Ax

Y

O

Figure 19

Consider a vector A which is given by its components along the rotating system

of coordinates xyz.

A = iAx + jAy + kAz

(1.44)

Let us dierentiate this vector with respect to time.

= d (iAx + jAy + kAz )

A

dt

(1.45)

y + kA

z

= iA x + jA y + kA z + iAx + jA

A

(1.46)

Hence

The first three terms represent vector which can be obtained by direct dierentiating

of the components Ax , Ay , Az with respect to time. This vector will be denoted by

A0 .

A0 = iA x + jA y + kA z

(1.47)

20

Thus

y + kA

z

= A0 + iAx + jA

A

(1.48)

According to definition of vector derivative, the first derivative of the unit vector i is

the ratio of the infinitesimal vector increment di and dt (Fig. 20).

z

y

O

Y

i vi

X

Figure 20

i = di = vi dt = vi

dt

dt

were vi is a velocity of head of the vector i. But, according to Eq. 1.37

(1.49)

vi = i

(1.50)

i = i

(1.51)

Hence

Similarly

j = j

and

k = k

(1.52)

= A0 + iAx + jAy + kAz = A0 + (iAx + jAy + kAz )

A

(1.53)

= A0 + A

A

(1.54)

where:

A0 = iA x + jA y + kA z

- is the absolute angular velocity of the rotating system of coordinates xyz

along which the vector A was resolved to produce vector A0

A - is the dierentiated vector.

The last formula provides the rule for dierentiation of a vector that it is resolved

along a non-inertial system of coordinates. It can be applied to any vector (eg position

vector, velocity, angular velocity etc.)

21

Let relative motion of a particle P (see Fig. 21) with respect to the rotating system

of coordinates xyz be determined by position vector rP .

rP = irP x + jrP y + krP z

(1.55)

where

rP x , rP y , rP z components of the vector rP along system of coordinates xyz.

The system xyz itself has its own rotational motion determined by absolute

angular velocity . We are interested in the absolute velocity and absolute acceleration of this particle.

z

rP

y

o

Figure 21

The absolute velocity of the particle P is

vP = r P = r0P + rP

(1.56)

introduce notions of the relative velocity and the velocity of transportation. For the

case of a particle motionless in the rotating system of coordinates, according to Eq.

1.56 the velocity of transportation is

vT = rP

(1.57)

For the case of motionless system of coordinates xyz ( = 0), according to Eq. 1.56

the relative velocity is

(1.58)

vR = r0P

Hence

vP = vR + vT

(1.59)

The absolute acceleration one may obtain dierentiating equation 1.56 with respect

to time.

rP =

d 0

d

rP + ( rP ) = r00P + r0P + rP + (r0P + rP )

dt

dt

(1.60)

22

aP =

rP = r00P + rP + ( rP ) + 2 r0P

(1.61)

Assuming that the point P is motionless (rP = constant) one may obtain the following

expression for acceleration of transportation

aT = rP + ( rP )

(1.62)

Here, the term rP is called tangential acceleration of transportation and the term

( rP ) is called normal acceleration of transportation.

Assumption, that the system of coordinates is motionless yields expression for

the relative acceleration.

aR = r00

(1.63)

The last term in equation 1.61 is called Coriolis acceleration aC .

aC = 2 r0

(1.64)

Now, we can state that the absolute acceleration is composed of acceleration of transportation, relative acceleration and Coriolis acceleration.

(1.65)

aP = aT + aR + aC

Let us define motion of the translating and rotating system of coordinates xyz by

the position vector ro and the vector of the angular velocity (see Fig..22). The

relative motion of a point P with respect to the rotating and translating system of

coordinates xyz is determined by a position vector rP,o . Hence, the absolute position

vector rP in this case is

rP = ro + rP,o

(1.66)

z

P

Z

rP,o

rP

ro

x

X

Figure 22

23

Let us assume that the relative position vector rP,o is determined by its components along the translating and rotating system of coordinates xyz.

rP,o = irP,ox + jrP,oy + krP,oz

(1.67)

According to the previously developed rules, the absolute velocity of the point P is

r P = r o + r0P,o + rP,o

where

r o + rP,o velocity of transportation

r0P,o relative velocity

The second derivative yields the absolute acceleration

ro + r00P,o + r0P ,o + rP,o + (r0P ,o + rP,o )

rP =

=

ro + rP,o + rP,o + r00P,o + 2 r0P ,o

Here:

r00P,o = aR relative acceleration

2 r0P ,o = aC Coriolis acceleration.

(1.68)

PROBLEMS.

1.3

24

PROBLEMS.

Problem 1

Z z1

z2

2

1

21

y1 y2

X 1 t

x1

2 1t

x

Figure 23

The frame 1 of the system shown in Fig. 23 rotates about the vertical axis Z

with a constant angular velocity 1 whereas the disc 2 has its own constant relative

angular velocity 21 . Calculate components of the absolute angular velocity 2 of

the disc 2 and its absolute acceleration 2 .

Solution.

System of coordinates x1 y1 z1 is rigidly attached to the frame 1 and system

x2 y2 z2 is body 2 system of coordinates. Absolute angular velocity of the body 2 is

2 = k1 1 + j1 21

(1.69)

Its first vector derivative with respect to time yields absolute angular acceleration.

i1 j1 k1

(1.70)

2 = 2 = 02 + 1 2 = k1 0 + j1 0 + 0 0 1 = i1 1 21

0 21 1

PROBLEMS.

25

Problem 2

O o1

.

o t

z2

y1

Y

x1 x2

Z z1

y2

o

y1

2

1

Figure 24

A radar antenna rotates about the vertical axis Z at the constant angular

speed o . At the same time the angle is being changed as follow

= a sin At

Produce

the components of the angular velocity and the angular acceleration of the

antenna

1. along the inertial XY Z system of coordinates

2. the body 2 system of coordinates x2 y2 z2

the magnitude of the angular velocity and acceleration of the antenna..

the components of velocity and acceleration of the probe P along the body 2

system of coordinates.

the magnitude of velocity and acceleration of the probe P .

PROBLEMS.

26

Solution.

A. Matrices of direction cosines.

Fig. 24 permits to produce matrices of direction cosines between the inertial system of coordinates XY Z, the rotating system of coordinates x1 y1 z1 and the

rotating system of coordinates x2 y2 z2 .

x1

X

cos o t sin o t 0

X

y1 = sin o t cos o t 0 Y = [CI1 ] Y

(1.71)

0

0

1

Z

z1

Z

x1

1

0

0

x1

x2

y2 = 0 cos sin y1 = [C12 ] y1

(1.72)

0 sin cos

z2

z1

z1

x2

X

y2 = [C12 ][CI1 ] Y

z2

Z

1

0

0

cos o t

sin o t

0 cos sin

=

0

0 sin cos

sin o t

cos o t

=

sin o t sin cos o t sin

sin o t 0

X

cos o t 0 Y

0

1

Z

0

X

sin

Y

cos

Z

(1.73)

B. Angular velocities.

The angular velocity of the body 2 is determined by the following vector

equation.

2 = o k1 + i

1

(1.74)

Its components along the system of coordinates x2 y2 z2 may be calculated with help

of Eq. 1.72.

2x2

1

0

0

2x1

1

0

0

2z2

2z1

0 sin cos

0 sin cos

o

sin

=

(1.75)

o

o cos

Since

= asinAt

(1.76)

2x2 = aA cos At

2y2 = o sin(a sin At)

2z2 = o cos(a sin At)

(1.77)

PROBLEMS.

27

The above equations may be considered as parametric equations of the body cone.

Parametric equations of the space cone are determined by components of the angular

velocity 2 along inertial system of coordinates. These components may be obtained

with help of the equation 1.71.

2X

2x1

cos o t sin o t 0

2Y = [CI1 ]1 2y1 = sin o t cos o t 0 0

0

0

1

o

2Z

2z1

cos o t

= sin o t

(1.78)

o

Introduction of Eq. 1.76 into Eq. 1.78 yields the parametric equations of the space

cone.

2X = aA cos At cos o t

2Y = aA cos At sin o t

2Z = o

(1.79)

Both, the space cone and body cone, are presented in Fig. 25. They were computed

for the following data

a = 1[m],

o = 1[1/s],

A = 3[1/s]

y2

Y

2

-3

-2

-1

-1

-2

-2

x2

-1

-3

-2

-1

z2

x2

a)

b)

Figure 25

q

q

q

2

2

2

2

2

2

2 = 2x2 + 2y2 + 2z2 = + ( o sin ) + (o cos ) = 2 + 2o

C. Angular acceleration.

(1.80)

PROBLEMS.

28

The absolute angular acceleration of the antenna can be obtained by dierentiation of the vector 2 Eq. 1.75.

+ j2 o cos k2 o sin

2 = 2 = 02 + 2 2 = i2

(1.81)

q

p

2 + (o cos )2 + ( o sin )2 =

2 + o 2

2 =

(1.82)

where

= aA cos At

= aA2 sin At

(1.83)

Position of the point P is determined by the position vector l.

(1.84)

l = k2 l

Its first derivative with respect to time yields the absolute velocity of the point P .

i2

j2

k2

0

(1.85)

vP = l = l + 2 l = o sin o cos = i2 o l sin j2 l

0

0

1

Hence, magnitude of velocity of the point P is

p

2

vP = ( o l sin )2 + (l)

(1.86)

E. Acceleration of the point P .

The absolute acceleration of point P may be obtained by dierentiation of the

vector of its absolute velocity.

aP = v P = vP0 + 2 vP

i2

j2

k2

o sin o cos

= i2 ( o l cos ) j2 (l

) +

o l sin

l

0

= i2 ( o l cos + o l cos )

+ 2o l sin cos )

+j2 (l

+k2 (l 2 2o l sin2 )

= i2 aPx2 + j2 aPy2 + k2 aPz2

aP =

q

a2Px2 + a2Py2 + a2Pz2

(1.87)

(1.88)

PROBLEMS.

29

Problem 3

3

L

v

Figure 26

The belt conveyor 1 shown in Fig. 26 is mounted at the constant angle = 30o

with respect to the horizontal plane on the rotating table 2. The table rotates with

the constant angular speed = 1rad/s whereas the belt 3 moves with the constant

linear velocity v = 2m/s in the direction shown. Calculate magnitude of velocity and

acceleration of the particle 4 travelling without slipping for the position defined by

the distance L = 5m.

PROBLEMS.

30

Solution.

X x

t

Z

z

y

v

L

R

O

Figure 27

Axes XY Z form the inertial system of coordinates. Axes xyz are fixed to

the rotating table 2 and have its origin at O. Angular velocity of the system of

coordinates xyz is vertical and its components along xyz system of coordinates are

2 = j sin + k cos

(1.89)

R = jL

(1.90)

Its first derivative with respect to time produces the absolute velocity of the particle

4.

i

j

k

0

= R + 2 R = jL + 0 sin cos = iL cos + jv

(1.91)

R

0

L

0

p

p

= (L cos )2 + v2 = (5 1 cos30o )2 + 22 = 4.76 m/s

|R|

(1.92)

The first derivative of the absolute velocity yields the absolute acceleration of the

particle.

i

j

k

= iv cos +

= R

+ 2 R

0

sin

cos

L cos

v

0

= i2v cos j 2 L cos2 + kL 2 sin cos

(1.93)

PROBLEMS.

31

p

=

(2v cos )2 + (L 2 cos2 )2 + (L 2 sin cos )2

|R|

p

=

(2 1 2 cos 30o )2 + (5 12 cos2 30o )2 + (5 12 sin 30o cos30o )2

= 5.545 m/s2

(1.94)

PROBLEMS.

32

Problem 4

1

L

A

Figure 28

Wheel of radius is free to rotate about axle CD which turns about the vertical

axis with a constant speed . The wheel rolls without slipping on the horizontal plane.

Determine, as a function of its angular position , the magnitudes of velocity and

acceleration of the shown in the Fig. 28 point A .

Given are: , l, .

PROBLEMS.

33

Solution.

O

z1

t

Z

Y

y1

x1

1

L

21

C

O

x1

x2

F

D

L

z1

z2

y1

y2

Figure 29

Axes XYZ, in Fig. 29, form the inertial system of coordinates. Axis x1 y1 z1

are rigidly attached to the axle 1 and form the body 1 system of coordinates. Its

axis x1 coincides axis X of the inertial system of coordinates. Therefore the angular

speed of this system of coordinates is

(1.95)

1 = I = i1

Axes x2 y2 z2 are fixed to the wheel 2 and its axis x2 goes through the point A

whereas its axis z2 coincides axis z1 . Its absolute angular velocity 2 is assembled of

the absolute angular velocity 1 and the relative velocity 21.

(1.96)

2 = 1 + 21

coincide axis z2 . Since the cone CEF may by considered as the body 2 cone and the

cone CEG may be considered as the space cone, the absolute angular velocity of the

body 2 mast have direction of the common generating line EC. Therefore

21 = 1 cot = 1

(1.97)

Since the vector 21 has opposite direction to the positive direction of axis z1 , vector

of the absolute angular velocity 2 is

L

2 = i1 + k1 ( )

(1.98)

PROBLEMS.

34

r = L + = k1 L + i2

(1.99)

follows

rx1 = r i1 = k1 i1 L + i2 i1 = cos

ry1 = r j1 = k1 j1 L + i2 j1 = sin

rz1 = r k1 = k1 k1 L + i2 k1 = L

(1.100)

i1

j1

k1

0

0

vA = r = r0 + 1 r = i1 sin + j1 cos +

cos sin L

= i1 ( sin ) + j1 ( cos L) + k1 ( sin )

(1.101)

Magnitude of the absolute velocity is

p

|vA | = |r| = ( sin )2 + ( cos L)2 + ( sin )2

(1.102)

Similarly, the first derivative of the absolute velocity yields the absolute acceleration

of the point A.

i1

j

k

1

1

0

0

aA = v A = vA + 1 vA = i1 v Ax1 + j1 v Ay1 + k1 v Az1 +

v Ax1 vAy1 v Az1

= i1 (v Ax1 ) + j1 (v Ay1 vAz1 ) + k1 (v Az1 + vAy1 )

(1.103)

where, according to (1.101)

vAx1 = sin

vAy1 = cos L

vAz1 = sin

Hence, the magnitude of absolute acceleration is

q

aA = (v Ax1 )2 + (v Ay1 vAz1 )2 + (v Az1 + vAy1 )2

(1.104)

(1.105)

PROBLEMS.

35

Problem 5

Figure 30

A crane shown in Fig. 30 is revolving about vertical axis with the constant

angular speed = 1rad/s in the direction shown. Simultaneously the boom is being

lowered at the constant angular speed = 0.5rad/s. Calculate the magnitude of the

velocity and acceleration of the end P of the boom for the instant when it passes the

position = 30o . The boom has the length l = 10m.

Answer:

v = 7.07m/s

PROBLEMS.

36

Problem 6

0

y2

X

1 2

x1

z3

M

3

x2 x 3

z1 z2

Y y1

o1

y3

y2

l

Figure 31

The turret on a tank (see Fig. 31) rotates about the vertical axis at angular

speed t and the barrel is being raised at a constant angular speed b . The tank has

constant forward speed v. When the barrel is in position defined by angles t and

b a shell leaves the barrel with muzzle velocity vs and acceleration as . Determine

the absolute velocity vm and acceleration am of the barrel muzzle as well as absolute

velocity v and acceleration a of the shell when it leaves the barrel.

Answer:

The components of the absolute position vector of the point M that belong to the

barrel

rMbx2 = vt sin t rMby2 = vt cos t + l cos b

rMbz2 = l sin b

where l = constant

The components of the absolute velocity of the point M that belong to the barrel

vMbx2 = rMbx2 t l cos b t vt cos t vMby2 = rMby2 +t vt sin t

vMbz2 = rMbz2

The components of the absolute acceleration of the point M that belong to the barrel

aMbx2 = v Mbx2 t vMby2 aMby2 = v Mby2 + t vMbx2

aMbz2 = v Mbz2

The components of the absolute position vector of the point M that belong to the

shell

rMsx2 = vt sin t rMsy2 = vt cos t + l(t) cos b

rMsz2 = l(t) sin b

where l = vs l = as

The components of the absolute velocity of the point M that belong to the shell

vMsx2 = rMsx2 t l cos b t vt cos t vMsy2 = rMsy2 +t vt sin t

vMsz2 = rMsz2

The components of the absolute acceleration of the point M that belong to the barrel

aMsz2 = v Msz2

aMsx2 = v Msx2 t vMsy2 aMsy2 = v Msy2 + t vMsx2

PROBLEMS.

37

Problem 7

O

y

z1

Y

x

21 t

P

R

O

Z z

21

z1

l

y1

x1

O

2

1

Figure 32

The link 1 of the mechanical system shown in Fig. 32 performs the rotational

motion about the absolute axis Z. Its instantaneous position is determined by the

angle . The link 2 rotates with respect to the link 1 with the constant relative

angular velocity 21 . Point P belongs to the body 2.

Given are: l, R, 21 , , (t)

Produce the expression for:

1. the components of the linear absolute velocity of the point P along the body 1

system of coordinates x1 y1 z1 .

Answer:

vx1 = R 21 cos 21 t + R sin cos 21 t l cos

vy1 = R cos sin 21 t

vz1 = R 21 sin 21 t R sin sin 21 t

2. the components of the absolute acceleration of the point P along the body system

of coordinates x1 y1 z1 .

Answer:

ax1 = v x1 + vz1 sin vy1 cos

ay1 = v y1 + vx1 cos

az1 = v z1 vx1 sin

PROBLEMS.

38

Problem 8

Z,z 1

y1

X

x1

Z,z 1

1

R

y1

Figure 33

The link 1, shown in Fig. 33, rotates about the vertical axis Z and its instantaneous angular position is determined by the angle . The bead 2 moves along the

circular slide of radius R and its relative angular position with respect to the link 1

is determined by the angle .

Produce

1. the expressions for the components of the absolute linear velocity along system of

coordinates x1 y1 z1

Answer:

v = i1 ((R

2. the expression for the absolute linear acceleration of the bead along system of

coordinates x1 y1 z1

Answer:

2

a = i1 (

(R + R cos ) + 2R sin ) + j1 (R sin R cos 2 (R + R cos )) +

2

k1 (R cos R sin )

.

PROBLEMS.

39

Problem 9

o1

y1

o2

Y

x2

x1

y2

P

Z

z1

z2

L

2

1

o1

o2

y1

D

Figure 34

The base 1 of the crane shown in Fig. 34 rotates about the vertical axis Z

of the inertial system of coordinates XY Z. Its motion is determined by the angular

displacement . The system of coordinates x1 y1 z1 is attached to the base 1. At

the same time the boom 2 is being raised. This relative motion about the axis x1

is determined by the angular displacement . The system of coordinates x2 y2 z2 is

attached to the boom.

Given are: L, D, (t), (t)

Produce the expressions for

1. the components of the absolute angular velocity of the boom 2 along the x2 y2 z2

system of coordinates

Answer:

2x2 =

2y2 = sin 2z2 = cos

2. the components of the absolute angular acceleration of the boom 2 along the x2 y2 z2

system of coordinates

Answer:

2x2 =

2y2 =

sin + cos 2z2 =

cos sin

PROBLEMS.

40

3. the components of the absolute linear velocity of the point P along the x2 y2 z2

system of coordinates

Answer:

vP x2 = D L cos

vP y2 = 0 vP z2 = L

4. the components of the absolute linear acceleration of the point P along the x2 y2 z2

system of coordinates

Answer:

2

aP x2 = D

L

cos + 2L sin

aP y2 = D 2 cos L 2 cos2 L

aP z2 =

2

2

Chapter 2

THREE-DIMENSIONAL KINEMATICS OF A RIGID BODY

DEFINITION: A body which by assumption does not deform and therefore the distances between two of its points remains unchanged, regardless

of forces acting on the body, is called rigid body.

z

P

Z

G

k rP,o

rP

rG,o

o

ro

i

O

Y

x

Figure 1

To analyze motion of a rigid body usually we attach to the body a system

of coordinates xyz at an arbitrarily chosen point o (see Fig.1). Such a system of

coordinates is called body system of coordinates. The body system of coordinates, in

a general case, may translate and rotate. Hence, motion of the rigid body may be

determined in the same manner as the motion of the translating and rotating system

of coordinates. As we remember, motion of the translating and rotating system of

coordinates can be determined by a position vector ro and a vector of the angular

velocity . The angular velocity of the body system of coordinates is called angular

velocity of the rigid body.

2.1

GENERAL MOTION

it is said that the body performs the general motion.

Let the position of a point P with respect to the body system of coordinates (see

GENERAL MOTION

42

Fig.1) be defined by a position vector rP,o . Since components of the vector rP,o along

the system of coordinates xyz are constant, the relative velocity of P with respect to

the body system of coordinates, r0P ,o ,is always 0. Therefore its absolute velocity is

vP = r P = r o + r P,o = r o + r0P ,o + rP,o = r o + rP,o

(2.1)

vQ = r o + rQ,o

(2.2)

Hence, the relative velocity of the point Q with respect to the point P is

vQP = vQ vP = r o + rQ,o (ro + rP,o ) = (rQ,o rP,o ) =

(2.3)

rQ,P

The absolute acceleration of P is

aP =

rP =

ro + rP,o + ( rP,o )

(2.4)

aQP = aQ aP =

ro + rQ,o + ( rQ,o )

ro rP,o ( rP,o ) =

(2.5)

= + rQ,P + ( rQ,P )

The first term

atQP = rQ,P

(2.6)

anQP = ( rQ,P )

(2.7)

For the kinetics purposes we are often interested in components of the absolute

velocity of the centre of mass G along the body coordinates xyz. If position of the

centre of mass is defined by a vector rG,o , the components of its absolute velocity

along the body axes are

vGx = i (ro + rG,o )

vGy = j (ro + rG,o )

vGz = k (ro + rG,o

(2.8)

x = i

y = j

z = k

(2.9)

= = 0 + = 0

(2.10)

MOTION)

43

2.2

ROTATION ABOUT A POINT THAT IS FIXED IN THE INERTIAL SPACE (ROTATIONAL MOTION)

respect to the inertial frame, it is said that the body performs rotational

motion.

This motionless point is called centre of rotation and usually this centre is chosen as

the origin of the body system of coordinates (see Fig. 2).

rG

rP

X

x

Figure 2

The linear velocity of an arbitrarily chosen point P of the rigid body as well

as its acceleration is determined by the angular velocity of the body . Indeed

vP = r P = r0P + rP = rP

(2.11)

rP = rP + ( rP )

aP =

(2.12)

PROBLEMS.

2.3

44

PROBLEMS.

Problem 10

Y

1

X

2

y1

x11

1

Z z1

G

y1

Figure 3

Base 1 of the ventilator shown in Fig. 3, performs an oscillatory motion

about the vertical axis Z of the inertial system of coordinates XY Z. This motion is

determined by the following equation

= o sint.

The axis of relative rotation of the rotor 2 is fixed at the constant angle with

respect to the horizontal plane. The rotor 2 rotate with a constant angular velocity

in the direction shown. The centre of gravity G of the rotor is displaced from its

axis of rotation by distance . Determine:

1. components of the absolute angular velocity of the rotor along a system of

coordinates fixed to the rotor.

2. components of the absolute velocity of the centre of gravity of the rotor

along the same system of coordinates.

Given are: o , , L, , , .

PROBLEMS.

45

Solution.

Y

z 12 t

1

y1

z2

X

x11

y12 y2

z 12

z 11

y12

x12

x2

y1

x11 x12

Figure 4

In Fig. 4, system of coordinates x11 , y11 , z11 is rigidly attached to the base 1 and

rotates about the vertical axis Z of the inertial system of coordinates XY Z. The

angular displacement determines uniquely its instantaneous position. System of

coordinates x21 , y12 , z12 is rigidly attached to the base 1 and it is turned by angle about

axis x11 . System of coordinates x2 , y2 , z2 is fixed to the rotor 2. Its axis y2 coincides

axis y12 and its instantaneous position is determined by the angular displacement t.

Absolute angular velocity of the rotor 2 is

2 = 1 + 2,1 = k11 + j2 = (k21 cos + j21 sin ) + j2

= ((k2 cos t i2 sin t) cos + j2 sin ) + j2

= i2 ( cos sin t) + j2 ( sin + ) + k2 ( cos cos t)

(2.13)

RG = L + = j21 L + k2 = j2 L + k2

(2.14)

Hence, its fist derivative with respect to time yields its absolute velocity

i2

j2

k2

0

L

+j2 ( cos sin t)

+k2 (L cos sin t)

(2.15)

PROBLEMS.

46

Problem 11

Z

3

B

1

lAB

O c

Y

2

A

X

Figure 5

Fig. 5 shows the kinematic diagram of a spatial mechanism. Its link 1 can

move along axis X and is free to rotate about that axis. The link 2 is hinged to the

link 1 at the point A and at the point B is connected to the link 3 through a ball

joint. The link 3 can move in plane Y Z along axis which is parallel to Y .

Given are:

1. Motion of the point A (its position vector rA ).

2. Distance c between the point B and axis Y .

3. Length of the link 2 lAB .

Determine:

1. Positions of individual links.

2. Linear velocity of the link 3.

3. Angular velocity of the link 1.

4. Angular velocity of the link 2.

PROBLEMS.

47

Solution.

Z

3

z1 , z2

C

rC O c

rA

A

X

x1

rBC

y2

rBA

2

y1

x2

Figure 6

respect to the inertial system of coordinates XY Z, may be determined by angle .

Since the link 2 can rotate with respect to the link 1 about axis z1 only, the relative

position of the body 2 system of coordinates x2 y2 z2 is uniquely determined by angle

.

A. Matrices of direction cosines.

From Fig. 6 one can see that the matrix of direction cosines between system

of coordinates x1 y1 z1 and inertial system of coordinates XY Z has the following form

X

1

0

0

x1

Y = 0 cos sin y1

(2.16)

z1

Z

0 sin cos

In the same manner we can easily derive matrix of direction cosines between body 2

system of coordinates x2 y2 z2 and system of coordinates x1 y1 z1 .

x1

cos sin 0

x2

y1 = sin cos 0 y2

(2.17)

z1

z2

0

0

1

Introduction of Eq. 2.17 into Eq. 2.16 yields matrix of direction cosines between the

body 2 system of coordinates and the inertial one.

X

1

0

0

cos sin 0

x2

Y = 0 cos sin sin cos 0 y2

z2

Z

0 sin cos

0

0

1

cos

sin

0

x2

y2

cos sin cos cos sin

(2.18)

=

z2

sin sin sin cos cos

PROBLEMS.

48

To find positions of individual links let us consider the following vector equation

rC + rBC = rA + rBA

(2.19)

(2.20)

or

The above equation is equivalent to 3 scalar equations which may be obtained by

subsequent multiplication its both sides by unit vectors I, J, K.

0 = rA + I j2 lAB

rBC = J j2 lAB

c = K j2 lAB

(2.21)

The dot products, appearing in the above equations, can be taken directly from

matrix 2.18.

0 = rA lAB sin

rBC = lAB cos cos

c = lAB sin cos

(2.22)

(2.23)

(2.24)

= arcsin(rA /lAB )

= arcsin(c/lAB cos )

rBC = lAB cos cos

(2.25)

(2.26)

(2.27)

Hence,

The three above equations determine position of all links for any instant of time.

C. Angular velocities of individual links.

Since the link 1 performs rotational motion about axis X, its absolute angular

velocity 1 may be obtained by dierentiation of 2.26 with respect to time.

1 = I

(2.28)

2 = 1 + 21

(2.29)

21 = k2

(2.30)

Since

the absolute angular velocity 2 takes the following form

2 = I + k2

(2.31)

2x2 = I i2 + k2 i2 = cos

2y2 = I j2 + k2 j2 = sin

= I k2 + k2 k2 =

2

z2

(2.32)

PROBLEMS.

49

D. Velocity of the point B.

Velocity of the point B can be obtained by direct dierentiation of expression

2.27 with respect to time.

r B = vB = JrBC = JlAB ( sin cos cos sin )

(2.33)

PROBLEMS.

50

Problem 12

The point A of the body 1 shown in Fig. 7 can move along the vertical slide 2

which is located along the axis Z of the inertial system of coordinates XY Z. Motion

of the point A is determined by the following function of time

ZA = ZA (t)

The point B of the body 1 can move along the horizontal slide located in the plane

Y Z. This slide is by a apart from axis Y . The point C is in a constant contact

with the plane XY . According to the described constraints,motion of the body 1 is

uniquely determined by the function ZA .

Produce:

1. Components of the linear velocity of the point B and the point C.

2. Components of the absolute angular velocity of the body 1.

90 o

a

Z(t)

O

1

a

X

Figure 7

PROBLEMS.

51

Solution.

A. direction cosines

a

rBA

x

A

90 or

rA

Z(t)

rCA

O

rCB

rC

C

y

Figure 8

rB = rA + rBA

(2.34)

(2.35)

or

Hence

ZA

rBY

+K(1

)

(2.36)

a

a

Multiplication of the above vector equation by the units vectors associated with the

inertial system of coordinates I, J and K yields the direction cosines between the axis

z and axes of the inertial system of coordinates XY Z.

k=J

k I = coskI =0

rBY

k J = coskJ =

a

k K = coskK = 1

Since

ZA

a

we have that

2

(0) +

BY

ZA

+ 1

=1

a

(2.37)

(2.38)

(2.39)

PROBLEMS.

52

The last relationship permits the unknown component rBY to be determined as the

explicit function of time

q

rBY = 2aZA ZA2 )

(2.40)

To determine the direction cosines between the axis y and axes of the inertial system

of coordinates, let us consider equation

rC = rA + rCA

(2.41)

(2.42)

or

Since according to the above equation

j=I

rCX

rCY

ZA

+J

K

a

a

a

(2.43)

rCX

a

rCY

j J = cosjJ =

a

ZA

j K = cosjK =

a

j I = cosjI =

(2.44)

cos2 jI + cos2 jJ + cos2 jK = 1

(2.45)

2

2

+ rCY

+ ZA2 = a2

rCX

(2.46)

yields

The second equation for determination of the unknown rCX and rCY one may obtain

by consideration of the following vector equation

rC = rB + rCB

(2.47)

rCB = rB rC

(2.48)

It follows that

Multiplication of the above equation by unit vectors I, J and K respectively yields

components of the vector rCB along the initial system of coordinates.

rCBX = rB I rC I = rCX

rCBY

= rB J rC J =rBY rCY =

rCBZ = rB K rC K =a

q

2aZA ZA2 rCY

As one can see from Fig. 7 the length of the vector rCB is equal to

2

2

2

+ rCBY

+ rCBZ

= 2a2

rCBX

(2.49)

2a. Hence

(2.50)

PROBLEMS.

53

Therefore the second equation for determination of the components rCX and rCY

takes form

2

q

2

2

2aZA ZA rCY

+ a2 = 2a2

(2.51)

rCX +

The above equation together with Eq. 2.46 form set of two equations that determine

the components rCX and rCY as explicit functions of time. They are

s

2(a ZA )

rCX = a

2a ZA

ZA (a ZA )

rCY = p

ZA (2a ZA )

rCZ = 0

(2.52)

These equations allow the trajectory of the point C to be computed. This trajectory

is shown in Fig. 9 for a = 1

0.35

0.3

0.25

r CY 0.2

0.15

0.1

0.05

0

0

0.5

r CX

Figure 9

The unit vector associated with axis x can be produced as a vector product

of unit vectors j and k.

i=jk

(2.53)

where

j = I cos jI + J cos jJ + K cos jK

k = I cos kI + J cos kJ + K cos kK

Therefore

I

J

K

0

cos kJ cos kK

= I(cos jJ cos kK cos jK cos kJ)

+J( cos jI cos kK)

+K( cos jI cos kJ)

(2.54)

(2.55)

PROBLEMS.

54

Hence, the direction cosines between the axis x and axes XY Z are

cos iI = cos jJ cos kK cos jK cos kJ

cos iJ = cos jI cos kK

cos iK = cos jI cos kJ

(2.56)

B. Linear velocities

The linear velocity of the point B can be obtained by dierentiation of the

position vector rB which according to Eq. 2.40

q

(2.57)

rB = J 2aZA ZA2 + Ka

Hence

a ZA

vB = J p

Z

2 A

2aZA ZA

(2.58)

Similarly, dierentiation of the vector rC yields velocity of the point C. The position

vector rC according to Eq. 2.52

s

2(a ZA )

ZA (a ZA )

rC = Ia

+ Jp

(2.59)

2a ZA

ZA (2a ZA )

Hence

(2.60)

vC = IvCX + JvCY

where

vCX

2

1 2 Z A

p

= a

2 2a ZA (2a2 3aZA + ZA2 )

2

vCY

a 3aZA + ZA

= Z A p

3

ZA

(2a ZA )

(2.61)

Angular velocities.

The angular velocity of the link 1 may be obtained from the following vector

relationship

vB = vA + rBA

(2.62)

or

rBA = vB vA

(2.63)

The components of the vector rBA along the inertial system of coordinates are

rBAX = rBA I =ak I =acoskI =0

rBAY

q

= 2aZA ZA2 )

(2.64)

PROBLEMS.

55

I

J

K

x

z = I(0 0) + J(vBY 0) + K(0 Z A )

p y

2

0

2aZA ZA ) a ZA

= I(0) + J(vBY ) + K( Z A )

(2.65)

The above vector equation is equivalent to the following three scalar equation

q

y (a ZA ) z 2aZA ZA2 ) = 0

Hence

x (a ZA ) = vBY

q

x 2aZA ZA2 ) = Z A

(2.66)

Z A

x = p

(2.67)

2aZA ZA2 )

To produce the remaining components of the angular velocity let as consider the

vector relationship between the point C and A belonging to the same body 1.

or

vC = vA + rCA

(2.68)

(2.69)

rCA = vC vA

The developed earlier direction cosines (Eq. 2.44) permits the components of the

relative position vector to be obtain as an explicit function of time.

rCAX = rCA I =aj I =acosjI =rCX

rCAY = rCA J =aj J =acosjJ =rCY

rCAZ = rCA K =aj K =acosjK = ZA

(2.70)

where rCX and rCY are given by equation 2.52.Introducing them into Eq. 2.69 one

can get the following vector equation.

I

J

K

x y

z = I(vCX 0) + J(vCY 0) + K(0 Z A )

rCX rCY ZA

(2.71)

= I(vCX ) + J(vCY ) + K( Z A )

that is equivalent to three scalar equation of form 2.72

y ZA z rCY = vCX

z rCX + x ZA = vCY

x rCY y rCX = Z A

vCY x ZA

z =

rCX

Z A + x rCY

y =

rCX

(2.72)

PROBLEMS.

56

Problem 13

Z z1

y1

1

X

x1

Z

z1

32

a

s 21

O

3

y1

Figure 10

The base 1 of a robot shown in Fig. 10 rotates about the vertical Z and

its angular position is determined by the angle 1 . The link 2 can move along the

vertical slide of the base and its relative position is determined by s21 . The link 3 is

hinged to the link 2 and the angle 32 determines its relative position.

Upon assuming that 1 , s21 , 32 are given functions of time and a, l, are given

parameters, derive expressions for components of:

1. absolute angular velocity and acceleration of the link 3 along a body 3

system of coordinates.

2. linear velocity of the point P along the same system of coordinates.

PROBLEMS.

57

Solution.

Z z1

y1

1

X

x1

Z

z 1 z2

l

z3

32

l

y2

a

s 21

y3

s21

O

3

y1

Figure 11

In Fig. 11, the following systems of coordinates were introduced:

XY Z inertial system of coordinates

x1 y1 z1 body 1 rotating system of coordinates

x2 y2 z2 body 2 rotating and translating system of coordinates

x3 y3 z3 body 3 rotating and translating system of coordinates.

The angular velocity of the body 3 is

3 = 1 + 21 + 32

Since 21 = 0 one may obtain the following expression for the angular velocity of the

link 3.

3 = 1 + 32 = k2 1 + i3 32 = (k3 cos 32 + j3 sin 32 ) 1 + i3 32

= i3 32 + j3 1 sin 32 + k3 1 cos 32

(2.73)

The angular acceleration of the body 3 can be obtain as vector derivative of 3 with

respect to time.

3 = 3 = 03 + 3 3 = 03

= i3

32 + j3 (

1 sin 32 + 1 32 cos 32 ) + k3 (

1 cos 32 1 32 sin 32(2.74)

)

The position vector of the point P , according to Fig. 11 is

r = s21 + a + l = k2 s21 + j2 a + j3 l

= (k3 cos 32 + j3 sin 32 )s21 + (j3 cos 32 k3 sin 32 )a + j3 l

= j3 (s21 sin 32 + a cos 32 + l) + k3 (s21 cos 32 a sin 32 )

(2.75)

PROBLEMS.

58

Its first derivative with respect to time represents the wanted velocity of the point P .

r = r0 + 3 r

(2.76)

+k3 (s 21 cos 32 s21 32 sin 32 a 32 cos 32 )

(2.77)

where

i3

j

k

3

3

1 sin 32

1 cos 32

3 r = 32

= i3 [(s21 cos 32 a sin 32 ) 1 sin 32 (s21 sin 32 + a cos 32 + l) 1 cos 32 ]

+j3 [(s21 cos 32 a sin 32 ) 32 ]

(2.78)

+k3 [(s21 sin 32 + a cos 32 + l) 32 ]

Upon adding the two above expression together, one may obtain components of velocity of the point P in the following form

r = i3 (a 1 l 1 cos 32 ) + j3 (s 21 sin 32 ) + k3 (s 21 cos32 + l 32 )

(2.79)

PROBLEMS.

59

Problem 14

X

X

3

P

P

l

r

x1

x

z

Z3

r

O

Z3

z2

Z z1

a)

b)

y1

Figure 12

Fig. 12 shows the kinematic scheme of a mechanism. Its link 1 rotates with

the constant angular velocity about the horizontal axis Z of the motionless system

of coordinates XY Z. The link 3 is free to slide along and to rotate about axis Z3 .

The axis Z3 is fixed in the plane XZ and its position is determined by angle . The

link 2 joins point P of the link 1 and point Q of the link 3 by means of kinematic

constraints as is shown in Fig. 12. Derive the analytical expression for the linear

velocity of the link 3.

Given are:

angular velocity of the link 1.

r distance between points O and P .

l length of the link 2.

angle between axis Z and Z3

PROBLEMS.

60

Solution.

X

rP

x1

rQP

z

= t r

rQ

Z3

z2

Z z1

Y

y1

Figure 13

From Fig. 13 one can see that

rQ = rP + rQP

(2.80)

rP = i1 r

rQ = K rQ cos + I rQ sin

rQP = k2 l = i1 l cos x + j1 l cos y + k1 l cos z

(2.81)

(2.82)

(2.83)

where x , y and z are angles between the axis z2 and axes of the system of coordinates x1 y1 z1 .Introduction of the above expressions into Eq. 2.80 yields

KrQ cos + IrQ sin = i1 r + i1 l cos x + j1 l cos y + k1 l cos z

(2.84)

Multiplication of the equation Eq. 2.84 by the unit vectors i1 , j1 and k1 respectively

oers three scalar equations.

rQ cos sin = r + l cos x

rQ sin sin = l cos y

rQ cos = l cos z

(2.85)

(2.86)

(2.87)

cos y = (rQ sin sin )/l

cos z = (rQ cos )/l

(2.88)

(2.89)

(2.90)

Hence

PROBLEMS.

61

cos2 x + cos2 y + cos2 z = 1

(2.91)

Introduction of Eqs.. 2.88, 2.89 and 2.90 into Eq. (2.91) yields

(rQ cos sin r)2 + (rQ sin sin )2 + (rQ cos )2 = l2

(2.92)

2

+ (2r cos sin )rQ + (r2 l2 ) = 0

rQ

(2.93)

expression.

(2.94)

rQ = r cos sin (r2 cos2 sin2 r2 + l2 )1/2

Since axis Z3 is motionless, the fist derivative with respect to time of the above

expression yields absolute velocity of the point Q.

rQ = r sin sin r2 cos sin sin2 /(r2 cos2 sin2 r2 + l2 )1/2

(2.95)

There are two possible solution. One corresponds to sign + and the other corresponds to sing -.

X

P

l

Q+

r

Q-

Z3

Figure 14

The physical interpretation of those two solutions is given in Fig. 14.

PROBLEMS.

62

Problem 15

y2

2

A

x3

21 t

y1

y3

y2

O

o2

r

z3

A

o3

x2

x1 X

z1

z2

P

3

s

z1 z2

o2

2

l

y1

1

O

o1

Figure 15

A sketch of the Ferris Wheel is shown in Fig. 15. Its base 1 oscillates about the

horizontal axis X of the XY Z inertial system of coordinates. The instantaneous position of this base is determined by the angular position . The system of coordinates

x1 y1 z1 is rigidly attached to the base 1.

The relative angular velocity of the wheel 2 with respect to the base 1 is

constant and is equal to 21 . The system of coordinates x2 y2 z2 is rigidly attached to

the wheel 2.

The seat 3 is hinged to the wheel at the point A. The instantaneous position

of the seat 3 with respect to the wheel 2 is determined by the angular displacement

. The system of coordinates x3 y3 z3 is rigidly attached to the seat 3.

Produce expression for components of:

1. the absolute angular velocity of the seat 3 along the system of coordinates

x3 y3 z3

2. the absolute angular acceleration of the seat 3 along the system of coordinates x3 y3 z3

3. the absolute linear velocity of the point P along the system of coordinates

x3 y3 z3

Given are: r, l, s, 21 , (t), (t).

PROBLEMS.

63

Solution

3

y2

2

A

x3

21t

y1

y3

o2

r

z3

x1 X

z1 z2

A

o3

3

x2

y2

z1

z2

o2

o2

y1

1

O

o1

Figure 16

The absolute angular velocity of the system of coordinates x1 y1 z1 .

(2.96)

1 = i1

The absolute angular velocity of the system of coordinates x2 y2 z2 .

2 = 1 + 21 = i1 + k2 21

The absolute angular velocity of the system of coordinates x3 y3 z3

3 = 2 + 32 = i1 + k2 21 + i3

(2.97)

(2.98)

Since

i1 = i2 cos 21 t j2 sin 21 t = i3 cos 21 t (j3 cos k3 sin ) sin 21 t =

(2.99)

= i3 cos 21 t + j3 ( cos sin 21 t) + k3 (sin sin 21 t)

k2 = j3 sin + k3 cos

the components of the angular velocity along the system of coordinates are x3 y3 z3

3 = (i3 cos 21 t + j3 ( cos sin 21 t) + k3 (sin sin 21 t))

+ (j3 sin + k3 cos ) 21 + i3

(2.100)

PROBLEMS.

64

The absolute angular acceleration of the seat is equal to the absolute angular

acceleration of the system of coordinates x3 y3 z3

0

= 3 = 3 + 3 3 =

cos 21 t

21 sin 21 t +

= i3 (

+j3

cos sin 21 t + cos sin 21 t

+k3

21 sin cos 21 t 21 sin(2.101)

RP = k2 l + j2 r + k3 (s)

= (j3 sin + k3 cos ) l + (j3 cos k3 sin ) r + k3 (s)

= i3 (0) + j3 (l sin + r cos ) + k3 (l cos r sin s)

(2.102)

The first derivative of this vector yields the absolute liner velocity of the point P.

P = R0P + 3 RP

vP = R

i3

j3

k3

0

l sin + r cos

l cos r sin s

= i3 vP x3 + j3 vP y3 + k3 vP z3

(2.103)

PROBLEMS.

65

Problem 16

O

x

X

z1

Y

y

1

y

2

32

x2

o2

x

1

1

a

b

2

Figure 17

Fig. 17 shows a diagram of a wheel excavator. Its base 1 rotates about the

vertical axis Y of the inertial system of coordinates XY Z. System of coordinates

x1 y1 z1 is rigidly attached to the base 1. Its instantaneous position is determined by

the angle . The arm 2 rotates with respect to the base 1 about axis that is parallel

to z1 . System of coordinates x2 y2 z2 is rigidly attached to the arm 2. Its relative

angular position is determined by an angle .

The wheel 3 rotates with respect to the arm 2 about axis that is parallel to

z1 with the angular velocity 32 .

Given are: (t), (t), 32 (t), a, b.

Produce

1. the expressions for the components of the absolute angular velocity of the wheel 3

along system of coordinates x2 y2 z2 .

Answer:

3z2 = + 32

2. the expressions for the components of the absolute linear velocity of the point P

along system of coordinates x2 y2 z2 .

Answer:

vP x2 = 0 vP y2 = b

vP z2 = a b cos

3. the expressions for components of the absolute acceleration of the point P along

system of coordinates x2 y2 z2 .

Answer:

aP x2 = vP z2 cos vP y2 aP y2 = v P y2 vP z2 sin

aP z2 = v P z2 + vP y2 sin

PROBLEMS.

66

Problem 17

z1

y3

z3

B

1

G

y1

rA

2

l/2

Figure 18

Fig. 18 shows the kinematic scheme of a mechanism. Its link 1 rotates with a

constant angular velocity 1 about the vertical axis Z. The link 2 can translate with

respect to the link 1 and its motion is determined by position vector of the point A.

rA = k1 rA

Given are:

1 angular velocity of the link 1

rA (t) position of the point A as a function of time.

l length of the link 3

Produce expressions for

1. the components of the absolute angular velocity of the link 3 along the body 3

system of coordinates x3 y3 z3 .

Answer:

3x3 =

3y3 =

3z3 = 1 cos

rA1 sin

where = arcsin l

= r2A 2

l rA

2. the components of the absolute velocity of the point B along the body 1 system

of coordinates x1 y1 z1 .

Answer:

p

2

vBx1 = 1 l2 rA

vBy1 = rA2rA 2

vBz1 = 0

l rA

3. the components of the absolute velocity of the point G along the body 3 system

of coordinates x3 y3 z3 .

Answer:

vGx1 = 2l 1 cos

vGy1 = rA sin vGz1 = rA cos + 2l

PROBLEMS.

67

Problem 18

y1

Y

X

z2

x1

Z

z1

y3

z3

y2

P

y1

R

1

Figure 19

The base 1 of the Ferris Wheel shown in Fig. 19 rotates about the vertical

axis Z of the inertial system of coordinates XY Z. Its angular position is determined

by the angular displacement (t) which is a given function of time. The system of

coordinates x1 y1 z1 is rigidly attached to this base. The wheel 2 of radius R performs

rotational motion about axis x1 with respect to the base 1. This relative motion is

determined by function (t). The system of coordinates x2 y2 z2 is rigidly attached to

the wheel 2. The seat 3 is hinged to the wheel 2. The relative angular position of

the seat 3 with respect to the wheel 2 is determined by angle (t). The system of

coordinates x3 y3 z3 is rigidly attached to the seat 3.

1. Derive expressions for the components of the absolute angular acceleration

of the seat 3 along the system of coordinates x2 y2 z2 .

2. Derive expressions for the components of the absolute linear velocity of the

point P along system of coordinates x2 y2 z2 .

Given are: (t), (t), (t), R, L

PROBLEMS.

68

Problem 19

Z

1

z1

2

y1

x2

z2

21

R

x1

C

X

x1

z1

y1

y2

C

Figure 20

The link 1 of the mechanical system shown in Fig. 20 is free to rotate about

axis X of the inertial system of coordinates XY Z. Its instantaneous position is

determined by the angle 1 . The system of coordinates is rigidly attached to the link

1. The link 2 can rotates with respect to the link 1 and its relative angular position

is determined by the angle 21 . Derive expression for the components of

1. the absolute angular acceleration of the link 2 along the body 2 system of

coordinates

2. the absolute linear velocity of the point P along the body 2 system of

coordinates .

Given are: 1 , 21 ,L, R

PROBLEMS.

69

Problem 20

1

y1

1 t

X

x1

Z

z1

z2

o2

y2

P

2

P

y1

a

y2

x2

o2

b

Figure 21

The helicopter blade 2 is hinged at to the helicopter rotor 1 as shown in Fig.

21. The distance between the hinge and the rotor axis is c. The helicopter body

is stationary with respect to the inertial system of coordinates XY Z. Its rotor 1

rotates with a constant angular velocity 1 about the vertical axis Z. The system

of coordinates x1 y1 z1 is rigidly attached to the rotor 1. The relative position of the

blade 2 with respect to the rotor 1 is determined by the angular displacement . This

relative angular displacement is a given function of time. The system of coordinates

x2 y2 z2 is rigidly attached to the blade 2. The position of the point P which belong

to the blade is determined by its coordinates a and b along the system of coordinates

x2 y2 z2 .

Produce:

1. the components of the absolute velocity and the absolute acceleration of the point

P along the system of coordinates x2 y2 z2

2. the components of the absolute angular acceleration of the blade 2 along the

system of coordinates x2 y2 z2

PROBLEMS.

70

Problem 21

0

vA

A

a

2,1 y1

z1

x1

o1

o1

2

x1

Figure 22

The point A of the plane 1, shown in Fig. 22, follows the circular path of

radius R with the constant linear velocity vA . Its longitudinal axis E F is always

tangential to the path of the point A. This path belongs to the horizontal plane of

the inertial space XY Z. System of coordinates x1 , y1 , z1 is rigidly attached to the

plane 1. Its propeller 2 rotates with the constant angular velocity 2,1 with respect

to the plane 1.

Produce:

1. Components of the absolute velocity of the tip P of the propeller 2 along the

system of coordinates x1 , y1 , z1 as a function of the angular displacements and .

Answer:

vP x1 = r sin b

vP y1 = (R

+ a + r cos )

vP z1 = r cos

2. Components of the absolute acceleration of the tip P along the system of coordinates x1 , y1 , z1 as a function of the angular displacements and .

Answer:

aP x1 = v P x1 v

P y1

aP y1 = v P y1 v

P x1

aP z1 = v P z1

3. Components of the angular acceleration of the propeller 2 along the system of

coordinates x1 , y1 , z1 as a function of the angular displacements and .

Answer:

x1 =

2,1

y1 = 0

z1 = 0

PROBLEMS.

71

Problem 22

z1 z2 z 3

z1

3

z2

1

x1

x2

x3

z1

b

o

x1

y2

y1 2

y3

y2

b)

a)

x3

3

x2

Figure 23

Fig. 23a) shows the self-steering mechanism of the yacht 1. The system of

coordinates x1 , y1 , z1 is attached to the yacht. The shaft 2 of this mechanism is free

to rotate about the axis x1 . The system of coordinates x2 , y2 , z2 is attached to this

shaft. Its instantaneous position is determined by the angle 2 (see Fig. 23b)). The

link 3 is hinged to the link 2 at the point o. The instantaneous position of the body 3

system of coordinates x3 , y3 , z3 with respect to the system of coordinates x2 , y2 , z2 is

determined by the angle 3 . The yacht is travelling along a straight line with velocity

v. Given are: a, b, v(t), 2 (t), 3 (t).

Produce the expression for

1. the components of the absolute angular velocity of the link 3 along the system of

coordinates x3 , y3 , z3

Answer:

3x3 = 2 cos 3 3y3 = 2 sin 3

3z3 = 3

2. the components of the absolute angular acceleration of the link 3 along the system

of coordinates x3 , y3 , z3

Answer:

3x3 =

2 cos 3 2 3 sin 3 3y3 =

2 sin 3 2 3 cos 3

3z3 =

3

3. the components of the absolute velocity of the point A shown in Fig. 23a) along

the system of coordinates x3 , y3 , z3 .

Answer:

vAx3 = v cos 3 b 2 sin 3 vAy3 = v sin 3 a 3 b 2 cos 3 vAz3 = a 2 sin 3

PROBLEMS.

72

Problem 23

y2

z1

z2

Y y1

3

1

x1 x2

Figure 24

The ship 1 (Fig. 24) rotates about the axis Y of the absolute system of

coordinates XY Z. Its instantaneous position is determined by the angle . System

of coordinates x1 , y1 , z1 is rigidly attached to the ship. The housing 2 performs the

rotational motion about axis x1 . The relative position of the housing with respect to

the ship is given by the angular displacement . System of coordinates x2 , y2 , z2 is

fixed to the housing. The gyroscope 3 rotates about axis with respect to the housing.

Its relative angular velocity is .

Produce:

1. components of the absolute angular velocity of the gyroscope along the

system of coordinates x2 , y2 , z2

2. components of the absolute angular acceleration of the gyroscope along

system of coordinates x2 , y2 , z2

3. components of the absolute linear velocity of the point P along the system

of coordinates x2 , y2 , z2

4. components of the absolute linear velocity of the point P along the system

of coordinates x1 , y1 , z1

PROBLEMS.

73

Problem 24

z1

z2

z3

o3

y3

z1

x3

21

x1

y1

o1 y1

o2 y2

x1

x2

o1

Z

O X

Y

Figure 25

Fig. 25 shows the sketch of a Ferris Wheel. Its base 1 oscillates about the

horizontal axis X of the inertial system of coordinates XY Z. Its instantaneous

position is determined by the angular displacement . The wheel 2 of radius R

rotates with respect to the base 1 with the constant velocity 21 about axis y1 of

the body 1 system of coordinates x1 y1 z1 . The system of coordinates x2 y2 z2 is rigidly

attached to the wheel 2. The seat 3 is free to rotate about axis y3 and its relative

position is determined by the angular position .

Produce the expressions for

1. the components of the absolute angular velocity of the seat 3 along the system of

coordinates x2 y2 z2

Answer:

3 = i2 ( cos ) + j2 ( 21 + )

+ k2 ( sin )

2. the components of the absolute angular acceleration of the seat 3 along the system

of coordinates x2 y2 z2

Answer:

3 = i2 (

cos

21 sin sin ) + j2 (

) + k2 (

sin +

21 cos cos )

3. the components of the absolute linear velocity of the point o3 along the system of

coordinates x2 y2 z2

Answer:

vo3 = i2 (21 R) + j2 (L R cos ) + k2 (0)

PROBLEMS.

74

Problem 25

1

y1

y1

A

A

z1

f

O

x1

X

y1 y2

f

Z

z2

P

z1

A

x2

x1

OA

Z z1 P

z2

x1

a)

x2

b)

Figure 26

The link 1 of the mechanical system shown in Fig. 26 rotates about the horizontal axis Z of the inertial system of coordinates XY Z. Its instantaneous position

is determined by the angular displacement . The system of coordinates x1 y1 z is

attached to the link 1. The link 2 is free to rotate about the axis y1 and its relative

angular position is determined by the angle . The system of coordinates x2 y2 z2 is

attached to the link 2. The dimensions f and L locate position of the point P with

respect to this system of coordinates.

Produce

1. the components of the absolute angular velocity of the link 2 along the system of

coordinates x2 y2 z2 .

Answer:

+ k2 ( cos )

2 = i2 ( sin ) + j2 ()

2. the components of the absolute angular acceleration of the link 2 along the system

of coordinates x2 y2 z2 .

PROBLEMS.

75

Answer:

+ k2 (

2 = i2 (

sin cos ) + j2 ()

cos sin )

3. the components of the absolute linear velocity of the point P along the system of

coordinates x2 y2 z2 .

Answer:

f cos ) + j2 (L sin ) + k2 (f sin )

vP = i2 (L

PROBLEMS.

76

Problem 26

z1

Z

z1

y1 x1

O

o1

o1

Y

z2

Y(t

)

a

y2

o2

o2

x2

Figure 27

Figure 27 shows the suspension of the casting ladle 2. The point o1 of the

carriage 1 moves along the horizontal axis Y of the inertial system of coordinates

XY Z. Its motion is determined by the displacement Y (t). This carriage is free to

rotate about the axis x1 of the body 1 system of coordinates x1 y1 z1 . Its angular

position is given by the function of time (t). The ladle 2 rotates about the axis y2 of

the body 2 system of coordinates x2 y2 z2 . Its relative angular position is determined

by the angle (t).

Produce:

1. the expression for the components of the absolute angular velocity of the ladle 2

along the system of coordinates x2 y2 z2 .

Answer:

2 = i2 cos + j2 + k2 sin

2. the expression for the components of the absolute angular acceleration of the ladle

2 along the system of coordinates x2 y2 z2 .

Answer:

2 = i2 (

cos sin ) + j2 + k2 (

sin + cos )

3. the components of the absolute velocity of the point P along the system of coordinates x2 y2 z2 .

PROBLEMS.

Answer:

vP = i2 (Y sin sin + Y cos sin + Y sin cos + L cos )+

+j2 (Y cos Y sin )+

+k 2 (Y sin cos Y cos cos + Y sin sin + L sin )+

i2

j2

k2

+

cos

sin

Y sin sin + L sin a Y cos Y sin cos L cos + b

77

PROBLEMS.

78

Problem 27

y2

Z z1

z2

G

y1

a

O

x2

a

x1

X

Figure 28

Fig. 28 shows the physical model of a mechanical system. The link 1 of this

system rotates about the vertical axes Z of the inertial frame XYZ. Its instantaneous

position is given by the absolute angular displacement . The system of coordinates

x 1 y 1 z 1 is rigidly attached to the link 1. The link 2 is hinged to the link 1 at the

point A. The other end of this link P always stays in contact with the cylindrical

surface 3 of radius R (b>R). The system of coordinates x 2 y 2 z 2 is attached to

the body 2 and coincides with its principal axes. The link 2 possesses the mass m

and its principal moments of inertia about the system of coordinates x 2 y 2 z 2 are

I x2 , I y2 and I z2 . Its centre of gravity G is located by the distance c. The angular

displacement determines the relative position of the link 2 with respect to the

system of coordinates x 1 y 1 z 1 .

Produce:

1. The expression for the components of the absolute angular velocity of the link 2

along the system of coordinates x 2 y 2 z 2 in terms of and

2. The expression for the components of the absolute angular acceleration of the link

2 along the system of coordinates x 2 y 2 z 2 in terms of and

3. The expression for the components of the absolute velocity of the point P

PROBLEMS.

4. The kinetic energy of the link 2 as a function of and .

5. The expression for the angular displacement as a function of .

79

Chapter 3

KINETICS OF SYSTEM OF PARTICLES.

Z

m

r

O

Y

X

Figure 1

Newton second law for a single particle (see Fig. 1) can be formulated in the

following form

d

F = (mr)

(3.1)

dt

where

F - is the resultant force acting on the particle

m - mass of the particle

r - is its absolute velocity.

If the mass is constant, the second law can be rewritten in more simple way.

F = m

r

(3.2)

If the position vector r and force F are determined by its components along the

absolute rectangular system of coordinates (r = IrX + JrY + KrZ , F = IFX + JFY +

KFZ ) the above equation is equivalent to three scalar equations.

rX

FX = m

FY = m

rY

FZ = m

rZ

(3.3)

If number of particles n is relatively low, we are able to produce free body diagram

for each particle separately and create 3n dierential equations which permit each

81

way of solving dynamic problems fails.

This chapter is concerned with formulation of equations of motion of any

system of particles regardless of their number and internal forces acting between the

individual particles. Because each continuum (fluid, gas, rigid or elastic body) can be

considered as system of particles, the derived equations form a base for development

of many branches of mechanics (fluid mechanics, solid mechanics, etc.).

Fi

Z

Fij

mi

r ij

ri

mj

Fji

rj

Fj

O

Y

X

Figure 2

Since the internal forces are to be eliminated from equations ofPmotion, the resultant

force F have to be resolved into resultant of all internal forces N

j=1 Fij and resultant

of all external forces Fi acting on the i th particle (see Fig. 2).

F = Fi +

N

X

Fij

(3.4)

j=1

Here

N represents number of particles involved

Fi represents resultant of all forces coming from sources external to the

system considered (gravity force or any force explicitly determined in time).

Fij - represents internal force acting on a particle i as result of interaction with

a particle j.

Hence, the second Newton law may be adopted in the following form

r = Fi +

mi

N

X

Fij

(3.5)

j=1

Fij = Fji

and

Fii = Fjj = 0

(3.6)

3.1

82

particle mi is defined by the position vector ri (Fig. 3).

mi

G

ri

rG

O

Y

X

Figure 3

P=

PN

i=1

(3.7)

mi r i

The first derivative of the linear momentum is

=

P

N

X

(3.8)

mi

ri

i=1

=

P

N

N

N

N

N X

X

X

X

X

(Fi +

Fij ) =

Fi +

Fij

i=1

j=1

i=1

(3.9)

i=1 j=1

Taking into account that according to Eq. 3.6 Fij = Fji and Fii = Fjj = 0 the

formula 3.9 can be rewritten in form

=

P

PN

i=1

Fi = Fex

(3.10)

STATEMENT: The rate of change of the linear momentum of a system

of particles is equal to the resultant of all external forces acting on the

system of particles.

MOMENT OF MOMENTUM.

83

Let vector rG be the position vector of the centre of mass of a system of particles

(Fig. 3 ). According to the definition of a centre of particles we have

rG m =

N

X

(3.11)

ri mi

i=1

where

P

m= N

i=1 mi - is the total mass of the system of particles.

Dierentiating the equation 3.11 with respect to time one can obtain

r G m =

N

X

(3.12)

r i mi = P

i=1

rG m = P

(3.13)

rG m = Fex

(3.14)

The last result permits the following statement to be formulated.

STATEMENT: The centre of mass of a system of particles moves as if the

entire mass of the system was concentrated at that point and all external

forces were applied there.

3.2

MOMENT OF MOMENTUM.

momentum) are introduced.

1. Angular momentum about a fixed point in the inertial space.

2. Angular momentum about a moving point in the inertial space.

3. Relative angular momentum about a moving point in the inertial space.

In this paragraph the three above types of angular momentum are defined and discussed.

3.2.1 Moment of momentum about a fixed point in the inertial space.

Let mi be a particle which belongs to a system of N particles and ri be its position

vector in the inertial space XY Z (Fig. 4).

DEFINITION: The following vector

HO =

PN

i=1 ri

(mi r i )

(3.15)

The first derivative of angular momentum is

O=

H

N

N

N

X

X

X

(ri (mi r i )) +

(ri (mi

ri )) =

(ri (mi

ri ))

i=1

i=1

i=1

(3.16)

MOMENT OF MOMENTUM.

84

mi

ri

O

Y

X

Figure 4

Applying the second Newton law to the equation 3.16 we have

O=

H

N

X

i=1

ri (Fi +

N

X

Fij ) =

j=1

N

X

i=1

ri Fi +

N X

N

X

i=1 j=1

ri Fij

(3.17)

To show that the last term is equal to zero, let us consider two particles mi and mj

(Fig. 5)

Fij

mi

r ij

ri

mj

rj

O

Y

X

Figure 5

ri Fij + rj Fji = ri Fij rj Fij = (ri rj ) Fij = rij Fij

(3.18)

ri Fij + rj Fji = 0

(3.19)

Taking into account the above equation, one may say that

N

N X

X

i=1 j=1

ri Fij = 0

(3.20)

MOMENT OF MOMENTUM.

85

O=

H

N

X

i=1

ri Fi

(3.21)

The left hand side of equation 3.21 represents resultant moment MO of all external

forces acting on the system of particles with respect to the fixed point O. Hence, we

may conclude this paragraph with the following statement.

STATEMENT: The rate of change of the angular momentum of a system

of particles about a fixed point is equal to the sum of moments of all

external forces acting on the system of particles about that point.

O = MO

H

(3.22)

Let motion of the point C (6) be defined by the position vector rC and let us denote

by mi an arbitrarily chosen particle of a system assembled out of N particles.

Z

mi

r i,C

ri

rC

O

Y

X

Figure 6

If the motion of the particle mi is determined by vector ri , the relative motion of the

particle mi with respect to the point C is determined by the formula (3.23).

ri,C = ri rC

(3.23)

HC =

PN

i=1 ri,C

(mi r i )

(3.24)

Its first derivative is

C=

H

N

X

i=1

r i,C (mi r i ) +

N

X

i=1

ri,C (mi

ri )

(3.25)

MOMENT OF MOMENTUM.

86

Introducing Eq. 3.23 into Eq. 3.25 and taking advantage from the second Newton

law, the first derivative of the angular momentum can be written as follow.

C=

H

N

X

i=1

r i (mi r i )

N

X

i=1

r C (mi r i ) +

N

X

i=1

ri,C (Fi +

N

X

Fij )

(3.26)

j=1

But

PN

r i (mi r i ) = 0 since r i is parallel to mi r i,

PN

Pi=1

N

i=1 ri,C

j=1 Fij = 0 because ri,C Fij + rj,C Fji = (ri,C rj,C ) Fij =

rij Fij = 0 (see Fig. 7)

mj

ri,j

mi

rj

Fi,j

r i,C

rj,C

C

rC

ri

O

Y

X

Figure 7

Hence

C =

H

where

N

X

i=1

r C (mi r i ) +

N

X

i=1

ri,C Fi = rC P + MC

(3.27)

P

(m r ) - is the linear momentum of the system considered

P= N

i=1

PN i i

MC = i=1 ri,C Fi - is resultant moment of all external forces about the

moving point C.

According to consideration curried out in chapter 2 section 1, P = r G m. Hence

C = rC r G m + MC

H

(3.28)

If the arbitrarily chosen point C coincides the gravity centre G (rC = r G ), the above

formula yields

G = MG

H

(3.29)

The last relationship allows to formulate the following statement.

STATEMENT: The rate of change of angular momentum about centre of

gravity of a system of particles is equal to moment about that centre of

all external forces acting on the system of particles.

MOMENT OF MOMENTUM.

87

Let us once more consider a system of particles shown in Fig. 8 and the arbitrarily

chosen point C.

Z

mi

ri

r i,C r G,C

C

rC

O

Y

X

Figure 8

hC =

PN

(ri,C mi )

i=1 ri,C

(3.30)

Its first derivative is

h C =

N

X

i=1

r i,C (ri,C mi ) +

N

X

i=1

ri,C (

ri,C mi )

(3.31)

ri,C = ri rC

(3.32)

Hence

r i,C = r i r C

ri,C =

ri

rC

and

(3.33)

The first term in the right hand side of equation 3.31 is equal to 0. Hence, introduction

of Eq. 3.33 into it yields

h C =

N

X

i=1

N

X

i=1

N

X

i=1

ri,C (

ri mi )

ri,C (Fi +

N

X

i=1

N

X

j=1

Fij ) +

rC

ri,C Fi +

rC

= MC +

rC mrG,C

ri,C (

rC mi )

N

X

N

X

(ri,C mi )

i=1

(ri,C mi )

i=1

(3.34)

88

If C always coincides the centre of gravity G (rG,C = 0), moment of the relative

angular momentum about the systems centre of gravity is

h G = MG

(3.35)

STATEMENT: The rate of change of the relative angular momentum

about the centre of gravity is equal to moment of all external forces acting

on the system of particles about that centre.

Taking into account that the right hand sides of equations 3.35 and 3.29 are equal,

we arrive to conclusion that

G = h G

H

and

HG = hG

(3.36)

The last expression is obvious because for motionless system of particles both moments of momentum are equal to 0.

3.3

In the previous sections of this chapter four vectorial equations has been derived. Not

all of them are independent. The independent pairs of equations are.

=F

=F

=F

P

P

P

(3.37)

G = MG

O = MO

H

H

h G = MG

Depending on the dynamic problem to be solved, we can choose one of these three

pairs of equations. Each of them is equivalent to six scalar equations. It means, that

these problems can only be solved, without additional equations expressing interaction between individual particles, which have six scalar unknown only. Very small

range of dynamic problems fulfil these requirements.

3.3.1 Conservation of momentum principle.

Let us assumed that the component of the resultant of all external forces F along the

fixed in the inertial space axis defined by the unit vector is equal to zero.

Z

O

Y

X

Figure 9

89

The scalar multiplication of P

equation

=F=0

P

(3.38)

Hence,

P = const

(3.39)

fixed in an inertial space axis is equal to zero, its momentum is conserved

along that axis ( P = const).

3.3.2 Conservation of angular momentum principle.

Let us assumed that the component of the resultant moment MO of all external forces

F along the fixed in the inertial space axis defined by the unit vector is equal to

zero.

Z

MO

O

Y

X

Figure 10

The scalar multiplication of equation H

following scalar relationship

O = MO = 0

H

(3.40)

HO = const

(3.41)

Hence,

forces along a fixed in an inertial space axis is equal to zero, its angular

momentum is conserved along that axis.

90

If the resultant force and moment of all external forces are explicit functions of time,

the derived equations of motion

=F

=F

=F

P

P

P

(3.42)

O = MO

G = MG

H

H

h G = MG

Z t

Z t

Z t

Z t

O dt =

Pdt

=

H

Fdt,

MO dt,

to

to

to

to

Z t

Z t

Z t

Z t

HG dt =

MG dt,

MG dt

hG dt =

to

to

to

(3.43)

to

Z t

= P(t) P(to ) = P

Pdt

(3.44)

to

Z t

O dt = HO (t) HO (to ) = HO

H

(3.45)

to

Z t

G dt = HG (t) HG (to ) = HG

H

(3.46)

to

Z t

h G dt = hG (t) hG (to ) = hG

(3.47)

to

Z t

Fdt = UF

(3.48)

to

MO dt = UMO

(3.49)

MG dt = UMG

(3.50)

to

Z

to

Introduction of the above notations into 3.43 yields

P = UF ,

HO = UMO ,

HG = hG = UMG

(3.51)

STATEMENT: For any system of particles an increment of the linear

(angular) momentum is equal to the linear (angular) impulse of all external

forces.

PROBLEMS.

3.4

91

PROBLEMS.

Problem 28

Figure 11

On a massless and free to rotate about the vertical axis Z table, two dogs take

position at B and S as shown in Fig. 11. The dog B has a mass mB greater then

that of the dog S (mB > mS ).At the instant t = 0, when a food was placed outside

the table at F , the dogs as well as the table were motionless. Show, that regardless

of relative velocities developed by the dogs with respect to the table, the small dog

S will reach the food first.

PROBLEMS.

92

Solution

.

RB

B

F .

RS

RB

RS

Figure 12

According to the introduced definition (see Eq. 3.15), the angular momentum

of the system considered about fixed in the inertial space point O (see Fig. 12) in

arbitrarily chosen instance of time is

B + RS mS R

S

HO = RB mB R

= K(mB RB R B + mS RS R S )

(3.52)

This angular momentum has to be equal to zero since the system is conserved about

the vertical axis Z and at the beginning the system was motionless. Taking into

account that RS = RB = R, we have

mB

R S =

RB

mS

(3.53)

B

Since m

> 1, the absolute velocity of the small dog R S is always greater then the

mS

absolute velocity of the big dog R B .

PROBLEMS.

93

Problem 29

1

2

D

Figure 13

The sprinkler shown in Fig. 13 distributes water of density at the volume

rate Q. Each of the two nozzles has the exit area equal to A. The friction moment

between the rotating part 1 and the stationary one 2 is equal M. Produce expression

for the steady state angular velocity of the rotating part 1. The diameter d of the

nozzle as well as D are small as compare with the distance R shown in the drawing

13.

PROBLEMS.

94

Solution

F

F

O

G

p

Z,z

Z,z

B

vA

B

vR

M

x

y

Y

a)

B

vT

b)

Figure 14

Let us consider the system of particles limited by the boundary shown in Fig.

14a) by the dash-dot line. This system is assembled of the rotating part 1 and water

that is shadowed in Fig. 14a). Axes XY Z forms the inertial system of coordinates

and axes xyz are attached to the part 1. The forces F represents external forces

acting on the system of particles due to its interaction with the stationary part 2.

The resultant force due to gravitation is denoted by G. The friction between the

rotating and stationary part of the sprinkler is represented by moment M. The

pressure p is due to interaction of particles of water that belong to the system and

the cut-o stream of water. All the above specified forces should be classified as

external with respect to the system considered. The atmospheric pressure is evenly

distributed over the entire outer surface of the system of particles. Since its resultant

is always equal to zero, it is not shown in this diagram.

Position of the particles shown in the Fig. 14a) corresponds to an arbitrarily

chosen instant of time t. Fig. 14b) presents position of these particles after a small

increment in time t. The increment in the linear momentum associated with the

increment of time t is due to volume of water B and C as well as loss of water in

the volume E.

Let us produce expression for the linear momentum of particles in the volume

B. If the diameter of the nozzle is small with respect to the distance R, one can assume

B

that all particles that belong to the volume B have the same absolute velocity vA

.

Therefore the increment in the linear momentum is

B

PB = mB vA

(3.54)

PROBLEMS.

95

where mB stands for total mass of particles in the volume B and is equal to

1

mB = Qt

(3.55)

2

B

is equal to sum of the velocity of transportation vTB and the

The absolute velocity vA

B

relative velocity vR

.

i

j

k

Q

Q

B

B

B

0

0

+ j( ) =

vA = vT + vR = R + i =

A

A

R cos R sin 0

Q

(3.56)

= i(R sin ) + j(R cos ) + k(0)

A

Hence

Q

B

B

P = m i(R sin ) + j(R cos )

(3.57)

A

Increment in the angular momentum about fixed point O is

i

j

k

B

B

R sin

0 =

HB

O = R P = m R cos

Q

R sin R cos

0

A

Q

= k mB (R2 R cos )

(3.58)

A

In the same manner one may produce expressions for increment in the angular momentum of particles associated with the volume C and E.

Q

C

C

2

(3.59)

HO = k m (R R cos )

A

HE

(3.60)

O = 0

Hence the total increment in the angular momentum is

Q

B

C

E

2

(3.61)

HO =HO + HO + HO = k m(R R cos )

A

where m is

m = mB + mC = Q t

(3.62)

To solve the problem, one may take advantage of the angular momentum - angular

impulse principle.

HO = UMO

(3.63)

where

UMO = kMt

(3.64)

Introduction of 3.61, 3.62 and 3.64 into 3.63 yields

Q

Q t(R2 R cos )t = Mt

(3.65)

A

Hence the wanted angular speed of the sprinkler is

=

Q2 R cos

A

R2

(3.66)

Chapter 4

KINETICS OF RIGID BODY.

4.1

determined by its angular velocity and the position vector ro which defines motion

of the origin o of the body system of coordinates xyz. (Fig. 1).

i

z

Z

ri,o

G

z

ri rG

rG,o

o

y

ro

dm

Y

x

X

Figure 1

The rigid body can be considered as a system of particles assembled of infinitesimal elements dm which positions with respect to the body frame is given by the

position vector ri,o . The mass of an individual element dm is

(4.1)

dm = (xyz)dxdydz

where is density. Hence, the total mass of the rigid body can be expressed as follow

Z

ZZZ

(xyz)dxdydz = dm

(4.2)

m=

V

The centre of gravity of the rigid body, according to the above notations, with respect

to the body system of coordinates is

Z

1

rG,o =

ri,o dm

(4.3)

m

m

97

P = r G m

(4.4)

(4.5)

where

Introducing Eq. 4.5 into Eq. 4.4 one can obtain

P = (ro + rG,o )m

(4.6)

dho = ri,o r i,o dm = ri,o (r0i ,o + ri,o )dm

= ri,o (+ ri,o )dm

Hence, the total angular relative momentum has form

Z

ho = ri,o (+ ri,o )dm

(4.7)

(4.8)

ri,o ( ri,o ) = (ri,o ri,o ) ri,o (ri,o )

(4.9)

If both vectors involved are given by their components along the body system of

coordinates, namely

= i x + j y + kz

and

ri,o = ix + jy + kz

(4.10)

ri,o ( ri,o )

= (i x + j y + k z )(x2 + y 2 + z 2 ) (ix + jy + kz)(x x + y y + z z )

=

i( x (y 2 + z 2 ) xyy xz z )

+j( y (x2 + z 2 ) yx x yz z )

(4.11)

+k(z (x2 + y 2 ) zxx zy y )

Hence

ho =

i(+ x

+j( x

Zm

+k( x

(y + z )dm y

yxdm + y

xydm z

(x2 + z 2 )dm z

zxdm y

zydm + z

Zm

xzdm)

yzdm)

(x2 + y 2 )dm)

(4.12)

Introducing notations

R

Ix = (y 2 + z 2 )dm,

R

Iy = (x2 + z 2 )dm,

Ixy =

98

xy dm,

Iyz =

yz dm,

R

Iz = (x2 + y 2 )dm

m

Ixz =

xz dm

(4.13)

hox = Ix x Ixy y Ixz z

hoy = Iyx x + Iy y Iyz z

hoz = Izx x Izy y + Iz z

(4.14)

where: Ix , Iy , Iz are called moments of inertia and Ixy , Iyz , Ixz are called products

of inertia.

The above relations can be written in the following matrix form.

hox

x

Ix Ixy Ixz

hoy = Iyx Iy Iyz y

(4.15)

hoz

Izx Izy Iz

z

or shorter

{ho } = [I]{}

(4.16)

The formula 4.16 produces components of vector ho along body system of

coordinates. Matrix {} is assembled of components of angular velocity along body

system of coordinates.

Z

i

ri

dm

G

rG

z

O

y

X

x

Figure 2

For the particular case of rotational motion of the rigid body about the fixed

in the inertial space point O (see Fig. 2) the angular momentum is

Z

Z

Z

(4.17)

HO = dHO = ri r i dm = ri (ri )dm

m

99

{HO } = [I]{}

4.2

(4.18)

Z

Ix = (y 2 + z 2 )dm

(4.19)

Iyz =

(4.20)

yz dm

permit elements of the inertia matrix to be calculated for bodies of a simple geometrical shape like a cylinder, sphere, rectangular block etc. As an example let as calculate

the moments and products of inertia for the rectangular block shown in Fig. 3.

dm

o

y

z

x

Figure 3

Ix =

ZZZ

Zc Zb Za

(y + z )dxdydz = ( ( (y 2 + z 2 )dx)dy)dz

2

Zc Z b

Zc Z b

2

2

a

= ( (y + z )x |0 )dy)dz = a ( (y 2 + z 2 )dy)dz

0

= a

Zc

0

1

( y 3 |b0 +z 2 y |b0 )dz = a

3

Zc

1

( b3 + z 2 b)dz

3

1

1

1

= a( b3 z |c0 + z 3 b |c0 ) = a (b3 c + c3 b)

3

3

3

1

1

2

2

2

abc(b + c ) = m(b + c2 )

=

3

3

(4.21)

100

In a similar manner the remaining elements may be calculated. The result of such

calculations is collected in appendix B.

For bodies having more complicated shape (see Fig. 4) a division into small

elements have to be carried out.

mi

zi

yi

y

xi

x

Figure 4

Then, each element can be considered as a particle and the integration may

be replaced by summation.

N

X

(yi2 + zi2 )mi

Ix

(4.22)

i=1

Eventually, the inertia matrix with respect to the arbitrarily chosen system of coordinates may be analytically established.

Ix Ixy Ixz

[I] = Iyx Iy Iyz

(4.23)

Izx Izy Iz

The following considerations allow us to calculate inertia matrix with respect to any

system of coordinates if once it has been established for a system of coordinates.

4.2.1 Parallel axis theorem.

Let us assume, that the inertia matrix of a body is known about the body system of

coordinates xyz (Fig. 5).

Ix Ixy Ixz

[I] = Iyx Iy Iyz

(4.24)

Izx Izy Iz

xG, yG, zG be the body system of coordinates parallel to xyz having its origin at G.

101

zG

dm

z

xG

zG

yG

yG

z

xG

c

O

b

x

y

Figure 5

Moment of inertia of the body along axis x, according to the previously introduced definition, is

Z

Z

2

2

Ix =

(y + z )dm = ((b + yG )2 + (c + zG )2 )dm =

m

2

2

(b2 + yG

+ 2byG + c2 + zG

+ 2czG )dm

2

(yG

2

zG

)dm

b dm +

= IxG + b2 m + c2 m + 2b

c dm +

yG dm + 2c

1

m

But,

1

m

xG dm,

2byG dm +

2czG dm

(4.25)

zG dm

zG dm,

1

m

yG dm

(4.26)

represents components of the distance between origin G and the centre of gravity,

which is actually 0. Hence,

Ix = IxG + m(b2 + c2 )

Now, let us consider a product of inertia.

Z

Z

yzdm = (yG + b)(zG + c)dm

Iyz =

m

yG zG dm + c

yG dm + b

zG dm +

(4.27)

102

Similarly, one may derive expressions for the remained products and moments of

inertia. All these equations can be written in the following matrix form.

2

ac

b + c2 ab

bc

[I] = [IG ] + m ba a2 + c2

(4.29)

2

ca

cb a + b2

The above formula is known as the parallel axes theorem and allows for calculation

of inertia matrix about any axes xyz parallel to xG, yG, zG or vise versa.

2

ac

b + c2 ab

bc

[IG ]=[I]-m ba a2 + c2

(4.30)

2

ca

cb a + b2

4.2.2 Principal axes.

Inertia matrices about axes having the same origin.

Let us assumed that the matrix of inertia of a body is known about the system of

coordinates x1, y1, z1 (see Fig. 6). Introduce new body system of coordinates x2 , y2 , z2

which has the same origin O, but it is turned with respect to the first one. The

relative position of the system x2 y2 z2 can be uniquely determined by the matrix of

direction cosines [C12 ].

z2

z1

dm

t 23

y2

o

y1

x1

x2

Figure 6

x1

x2

t11 t12 t13

x1

y2 = [C12 ] y1 = t21 t22 t23 y1

z2

z1

t31 t32 t33

z1

(4.31)

If the body rotates with an angular velocity , components of its angular

momentum along axes x1 , y1 , z1 , according to Eq. 4.16, are

hox1

x1

hoy1 = [I]1 y1

(4.32)

hoz1

z1

103

Or in shorter form,

{ho }1 = [I]1 {}1

(4.33)

(4.34)

Similarly

But

{ho }2 = [C12 ]{h}1

and

(4.35)

[C12 ]{h}1 = [I]2 [C12 ]{}1

(4.36)

[C12 ][I]1 {}1 = [I]2 [C12 ]{}1

(4.37)

[I]2 = [C12 ][I]1 [C12 ]T

(4.38)

The above formula permits to calculate the matrix of inertia along the system of

coordinates x2 , y2 , z2 when the matrix of inertia about the system of coordinates

x1 , y1 , z1 is known.

Principal axes.

zp

z1

yp

o

y1

x1

xp

Figure 7

In this paragraph will be proved existence of such a system of coordinates

xp yp zp (see Fig. 7), turned with respect to the arbitrarily chosen system x1 y1 z1 , that

all products of inertia about these axes are equal to 0.

0

Ixp 0

[I]p = 0 Iyp 0

(4.39)

0

0 Izp

104

According to the previous considerations we have

[I]p = [C1p ][I]1 [C1p ]T

(4.40)

(4.41)

or

or

t11

t21

t31

t12 Ixp

t12 , [I]1

t22 , [I]1

t32

, t22 Iyp

, t32 Izp = [I]1

t13 Ixp

t23 Iyp

t33 Izp

t13

t23

t33

(4.42)

The above relationship is fulfilled if and only if the corresponding columns are identical. Hence,

t11

t11

= [I]1 t12

Ixp [1] t12

t13

t13

t21

t21

= [I]1 t22

Iyp [1] t22

t23

t23

t31

t31

Izp [1] t32

= [I]1 t32

(4.43)

t33

t33

where

1 0 0

[1] = 0 1 0

0 0 1

t11

([I]1 Ixp [1]) t12

t13

t21

([I]1 Iyp [1]) t22

t23

t31

([I]1 Izp [1]) t32

t33

= 0

= 0

= 0

(4.44)

The above sets of equations have not trivial solutions if and only if their common

characteristic determinant is equal to 0

|[I]1 Ip [1]| = 0

(4.45)

or

Iz1 x1

Iz1 y1 Iz1 Ip

105

=0

(4.46)

The last equation, if developed, forms an algebraic equation of third order. Hence,

it has three roots. It may be proved that for any matrix of inertia [I]1 , the roots of

equation 4.46 Ixp , Iyp , Izp are always real and positive. For each of these roots the

sets of equations 4.44 becomes linearly dependent. Only two of them within each set

are independent and may be used to identify the unknown direction cosines t11 , t12 ,

t13 .

(Ix1 Ixp )t11 + (Ix1 y1 )t12 + (Ix1 z1 )t13 = 0

(Iy1 x1 )t11 + (Iy1 Ixp )t12 + (Iy1 z1 )t13 = 0

(4.47)

t211 + t212 + t213 = 1

(4.48)

Equations 4.47 and 4.48 form set of equation which determines the direction cosines

t11 , t12 , t13 .

In similar manner one may obtain equations which allows the other direction

cosines to be determined.

(Ix1 Iyp )t21 + (Ix1 y1 )t22 + (Ix1 z1 )t23 = 0

(Iy1 x1 )t21 + (Iy1 Iyp )t22 + (Iy1 z1 )t23 = 0

t221 + t222 + t223 = 1

(4.49)

(Iy1 x1 )t31 + (Iy1 Izp )t32 + (Iy1 z1 )t33 = 0

t231 + t232 + t233 = 1

(4.50)

Solutions of the above equations determine uniquely a position of the principal axes.

106

4.2.3 Problems

Problem 30

Figure 8

The figure above shows an element assembled of two identical thin and uniform

bars. The bars were welded together at right angles at A. Each of the bars have a

length l and mass m. Calculate the principal moments of inertia of the assembly

along axes through its centre of gravity. Use the following numerical values; l = 1m,

m = 12kg.

107

Solution.

y1

y2

x3

y3

l/4

G1

1

x2

G

l/4

G2

x1

2

Figure 9

Coordinates of the centre of gravity of the whole assembly are (see Fig. 9)

l

4

Inertia matrix about axes x1 y1 z1 for the element 1.

ml2

0 0

3

I1,1 = 0 0 0

2

0 0 ml3

(4.51)

xG = yG =

(4.52)

0 0

0

2

0

I1,2 = 0 ml3

ml2

0 0

3

(4.53)

ml2

0

0

3

2

I1 = 0 ml3

0

2ml2

0

0

3

(4.54)

2

ac

b + c2 ab

2

2

ba a + c

bc

I2 = I1 2m

2

ca

cb a + b2

ml2

l2 l2

0

0

3

16

16

2

2

l2

= 0 ml

0 2m l

3

2ml2

3

5 3 0

ml

3 5 0

=

24

0 0 10

2

16

16

0

0

l2

8

(4.55)

108

Since axis x3 is axis of symmetry of the body considered, x3 y3 z3 are principal axes.

Transfer matrix C23 between axes x2 y2 z2 and x3 y3 z3 is.

x3

x2

cos 45o cos 45o cos 90o

y3 = cos 135o cos 45o cos 90o y2

z3

cos 90o cos 90o cos 0o

z2

2 2

0

x2

2

2

2

2

y2

(4.56)

=

2

0

2

z2

0

0 1

2 2

0

5

2

2

2

ml 2 2

T

3

I3 = C23 I2 C23 =

2

0

2

24

0

0

0 1

4 0 0

= 0 1 0

0 0 5

is

0

3 0

2

2

2

5 0 2

0

2

2

0 10

0

0

1

(4.57)

109

Problem 31

r1

R1

O1

O

y

l

l

r2

R2

O2

Figure 10

The rigid body, shown in the figure 10, rotates about a fixed point O. To

analyze its motion it is necessary to know the principal axes through the point O and

principal moments of inertia.

Calculate the angular position of the principal axes with respect to the given

system of coordinates xyz as well as magnitudes of the principal moments of inertia.

The balls 1 and 2 are homogeneous and have masses m1 and m2 respectively whereas

the rods can be considered as rigid and massless. Assume the following numerical

data:

m1 = 1kg - mass of the ball 1

m2 =2kg - mass of the ball 2

r1 = 5/2 m - radius of the ball 1

r2 = 5m- radius of the ball 2

R1 = 1m

R2 = 2m

l = 1m

110

Solution.

z1

r1

R1

O1

z2

y1

O

y

l

R2

O2

r2

Figure 11

Moment of inertia of the ball 1 about axes x1 y1 z1 (see Fig. 11)

2

Ix1 = Iy1 = Iz1 = m1 r12 = 0.5 kgm2

5

(4.58)

2

Ix2 = Iy2 = Iz2 = m2 r22 = 4 kgm2

5

(4.59)

Coordinates of the points O1 and O2 with respect to system of coordinates xyz are

as follow

O1 (0, l, R1 )

O2 (0, l, R2 )

(4.60)

Hence, according to parallel axes theorem the matrix of inertia of the ball 1 about

system of coordinates xyz is

0

0

0

(l + R12 )

Ix1 0

0

R12

(lR1 )

[I1 ] = 0 Iy1 0 + m1

0

0 Iz1

0

(R1 (l))

l2

2.5 0

0

= 0 1.5 1 kgm2

(4.61)

0

1 1.5

and the matrix of inertia of the ball 2 is

0

0

0

(l + R22 )

Ix2 0

0

R22

(lR2 )

[I2 ] = 0 Iy2 0 + m1

l2

0

0 Iz2

0

(R2 (l))

14 0 0

(4.62)

= 0 12 4 kgm2

0 4 6

111

Hence, matrix of inertia of the whole assembly about system of coordinates xyz is

16.5 0

0

[I] = [I1 ] + [I2 ] = 0 13.5 5 kgm2

(4.63)

0

5 7.5

16.5 Ip

0

0

=0

0

13.5

I

5

p

0

5

7.5 Ip

(4.64)

(4.65)

Ipx = 16.5kgm2 ,

Ipy = 16.33kgm2 ,

Ipz = 4.67kgm2

(4.66)

If matrix of directional cosines between principal axes and the system of coordinates

xyz is defined as follow

x

xp

t11 t12 t13

yp = t21 t22 t23 y

(4.67)

zp

t31 t32 t33

z

(0)t11 + (13.5 Ipx )t12 + (5)t13 = 0

t211 + t212 + t213 = 1

(4.68)

(0)t21 + (13.5 Ipy )t22 + (5)t23 = 0

t221 + t222 + t223 = 1

(4.69)

(0)t31 + (13.5 Ipz )t32 + (5)t33 = 0

t231 + t232 + t233 = 1

(4.70)

t11 = 1 t12 = 0.00000

t21 = 0 t22 = 0.86700

t31 = 0 t32 = 0.4926

t13 = 0.0000

t23 = 0.4926

t33 = 0.8700

(4.71)

112

cos 90o

cos 90o

1

0

0

cos 0o

Cxyzxp yp zp = 0 0.867 0.4926 = cos 90o cos 29.88o cos 60.48o

cos 90o cos 119.75o cos 29.88o

0 0.4926 0.87

(4.72)

Position of the principal axes with respect to the system of coordinates xyz is shown

in Fig 12.

zp

z

60.48 o

yp

119.75 o

29.88 o y

x xp

Figure 12

113

Problem 32

y

Figure 13

Matrix of inertia of a flat object shown in Fig. 13 about axes x, y, z is

Ix Ixy Ixz

10 5 0

Iyx Iy Iyz = 5 3 0 kgm2

Izx Izy Iz

0

0 13

Determine position of the principal axes of the object through the origin O.

114

Solution.

The principal moments of inertia can be obtained by solving the following

equation.

10 Ip 5

5

=0

0

3 Ip

(4.73)

0

0

13 Ip

which can be developed as follow

(4.74)

Hence

Ipx

Ipy

Ipz

169 20

= 12.6

=

2

13 169 20

= 0.4

=

2

= 13kgm2

13 +

(4.75)

Since the object is flat, the principal axis zp must coincide the axis z. The directional

cosines between the principal axis xp and axes x and y may be obtained from the

following set of equations.

(10 12.6)t11 + (5)t12 = 0

t211 + t212 = 0

(4.76)

(4.77)

t11 =

5

t12 = 1.92t12

2.6

(4.78)

3.7t212 + t212 = 1

Hence

1

= 0.46

=+

4.7

r

1

t12 =

= 0.46

4.7

t012

(4.79)

(4.80)

(4.81)

t011 = 0.885

(4.82)

t11 = 0.885

(4.83)

(xp , y)0 = arccos(t012 ) = 62.5o

(4.84)

115

(xp , y) = arccos(t12 ) = 117.5o

y

(4.85)

yp

117.5 o

x

O

z

27.5o

xp

Figure 14

The solution 4.119 have to be neglected since those angles determine left

handed system of coordinates and this is in disagreement with the adopted assumptions. The only possible position of axes xp and yp with respect to system of coordinates xy is shown in Fig. 14

116

Problem 33

y

b

C

y

Figure 15

The rectangular plate, shown in Fig. 15, rotates about axis x x. Determine

moment of inertia of the plate about this axis of rotation.

Given are:

a, b - length of sides of the plate.

- angle between side a and the axis of rotation x x.

m - mass of the plate.

Moment of inertia of the rectangular plate about axis y y is determine by

the following formula

1

Iy = mb2

12

117

Problem 34

2r

Figure 16

The cam shown in Fig. 16 can be considered as a thin, flat, uniform and rigid

body of mass M. Compute the principal moments of inertia of the cam about axes

through the point O.

Given are: r = 1[m], M = 20[kg]

Answer:

Ipx = 16.375kgm2

Ipy = 21.625kgm2

Ipz = 38kgm2

118

Problem 35

y

(b)

(a)

l1

yG

l/2

xG

90 o

l2

Figure 17

Two uniform and rigid rods of length l1 and l2 are joined together to form

a rigid body (see Fig. 17a). Their masses are m1 and m2 respectively. Determine

matrix of inertia of this body about axis xyz.

Moments of inertia of the uniform rod of length l and mass m, shown in Fig.

17b, about axis through its centre of gravity G are as follows.

IxG = 0,

IyG = IzG =

1 2

ml

12

119

Problem 36

yG

l1

G

xG

1

2

l2

Figure 18

To find its matrix of inertia, the golf club shown in Fig. 18 was approximated

by the slender rod 1 and the particle 2. Mass of the rod and the particle is m1 and

m2 respectively.

Produce

1. expression for the matrix of inertia of the golf club about axes xG yG zG through its

centre of gravity G.

Answer:

1

m l2 b2 (m1 +m2 )

ab(m1 + m2 )

0

3 1 1

ab(m1 + m2 )

m2 l22 a2 (m1 +m2 )

0

IG =

1

2

2

2

2

0

0

m l +m2 l2 (a +b )(m1 +m2 )

3 1 1

l1

2 l2

where a = mm1 +m

b = 2(mm11+m

2

2)

2. expression for the principal moments of inertia about axes through the centre of

gravity

Answer:

The principal moment of inertia are solution of the following equation

1

ab(m1 + m2 )

0

3

2

2

+

m

)

[m

l

a

(m

+m

)]

I

0

ab(m

1

2

2 2

1

2

p

1

2

2

2

2

m

l

+m

l

(a

+b

)(m

+m

)

Ip

0

0

1

2

1

2

1

2

3

=0

120

Problem 37

l1

2

G

l2

Figure 19

Two uniform bars of length l 1 and l 2 and mass m 1 and m 2 respectively were

joined together to form the rigid body shown in Fig. B2.

Produce:

1. The expression for the coordinates of the centre of gravity G of the rigid body.

Answer:

l2

l1

xG = 2(mm12+m

;

yG = 2(mm11+m

2)

2)

2. The matrix of inertia of the rigid body about axes xyz.

Answer:

m1 l12

0

0

3

m2 l22

I= 0

0

3

1

2

2

0

0

(m1 l1 + m2 l2 )

3

3. The principal moments of inertia about the axes through the center of gravity G.

Answer:

IG =

m1 l12

2

(m

+

m

)y

(m

+

m

)x

y

0

1

2 G

1

2 G G

3

m2 l22

2

= (m1 + m2 )xG yG

=

(m

+

m

)x

0

1

2

G

3

1

2

2

2

2

0

0

(m1 l1 + m2 l2 ) (m1 + m2 ) (xG + yG )

3

IxG yG 0

IxG

IyG

0

= IxG yG

0

0

IzG

4. The matrix of directional cosines between the system of coordinates xyz and the

principal axes through the center of gravity G.

Answer:

(IxG +IyG ) (IxG +IyG )2 4(IxG IyG Ix2G yG )

Ixp =

2

Iyp =

2

Izp = IzG

121

The moment of inertia of a uniform bar of mass m and length l about the axis

through its center of gravity is

IG =

1

ml2

12

122

Problem 38

3

l

2

1

O

Y

l

l

X

Figure 20

Three uniform rods each of mass m and length l are joined together to form

the rigid body shown in Fig. 20.

Produce

1.

The matrix of inertia of the body about axes XY Z

2.

The principal moments of inertia about axes through the point O

3.

The matrix of directional cosines that locate the principal axes through

the point O in relation to the system of coordinates XY Z.

123

Solution.

Z

3

G3(a,b,c)

2

1

l

c=l/2

O

Y

l

b=l

X

Figure 21

The matrix of inertia of the rod 1 about axes XY Z.

0 0 0

I1O = 0 13 0 ml2

0 0 13

1

0

0

3

I2O = 0 0 0 ml2

0 0 13

2

ac

b + c2 ab

bc

I3O = I1G3 + m ba a2 + c2

2

ca

cb a + b2

2

1

l 2

+

(

)

0

0

l

0

0

2

12

2

1

0 ml2 + m

0

( 2l )2 l2

= 0 12

2

0 0 0

0

l2

l2

4

0

0

3

= 0 13 12 ml2

0 12 1

(4.86)

(4.87)

124

IO = I1O + I2O + I3O =

1

4

0 0

0

0

0 0 0

3

3

= 0 13 0 ml2 + 0 0 0 ml2 + 0 13 12 ml2

0 0 13

0 0 13

0 12 1

5

0

0

3

= 0 23 12 ml2

0 12 35

(4.88)

The principal moments of inertia about axes through the origin O are roots of the

following equation

5 2

ml Ip

0

0

3

2

1

2

2

=0

0

ml

ml

(4.89)

p

3

2

5

1

2

2

0

2 ml

ml

I

p

3

They are

5 2

ml = 1.666ml2 : 1.873ml2 : 0.459ml2

3

Taking into consideration the matrix of inertia IO , one can see that

Z

Z

XY dm = 0 and

XZdm = 0

m

(4.90)

(4.91)

Therefore the axis X coincides with the principal axis Xp and the root associated

with the first raw of the determinant 4.91 ( 53 ml2 = 1.666ml2 ) stands for the moment

of inertia about the principal axis Xp .

IXp = 1.666ml2

(4.92)

cosh(Xp X) cosh(Xp Y ) cosh(Xp Z)

CXY ZXp Yp Zp = t21 t22 t23 = cosh(Yp X) cosh(Yp Y ) cosh(Yp Z)

cosh(Zp X) cosh(Zp Y ) cosh(Zp Z)

t31 t32 t33

(4.93)

the equations for determination of its elements associated with the above root are

5

( 1.666)t11 + (0) t12 + (0) t13 = 0

3

2

(0) t11 + ( 1.666)t12 (0.5) t13 = 0

3

5

(0) t11 (0.5) t12 + ( 1.666)t13 = 0

3

(4.94)

The first equation is fulfilled for any magnitudes of t11 , t12 and t13 . The two last

equations if and only if t12 = t13 = 0. Because

t211 + t212 + t213 = 1

(4.95)

125

h(Xp X) = 0, h(Xp Y ) = 90o h(Xp Z) = 90o

(4.96)

IY p = 1.873ml2 and IZp = 0.459ml2

(4.97)

The axis Y is located by the directional cosines linked with second raw of 4.93. They

are

5

( 1.873)t21 + (0)t22 + (0) t23 = 0

3

2

(0) t21 + ( 1.873)t22 (0.5) t23 = 0

3

t221 + t222 + t223 = 1

(4.98)

(4.99)

h(Yp X) = 90o , h(Yp Y ) = 67.52o h(Yp Z) = 157.45

(4.100)

(4.101)

The axis Z is located by the directional cosines linked with third raw of 4.93. They

are

5

( 0.459)t31 + (0)t32 + (0) t33 = 0

3

2

(0) t31 + ( 0.459)t32 (0.5) t33 = 0

3

t231 + t232 + t233 = 1

(4.102)

t31 = 0, t32 = 0.92360, t33 = 0.3823

(4.103)

h(Zp X) = 90o , h(Zp Y ) = 22.54o h(Zp Z) = 67.52o

(4.104)

(4.105)

126

Z

Yp(2)

67.52o

Zp(1)

X

Y

22.54o

Zp(2)

Yp(1)

Figure 22

To verify the result obtained let us transfer the inertia matrix from the system

(1)

(1)

(1)

of coordinates X, Y, Z into Xp , Yp , Zp .The matrix of directional cosines is

1

0

0

CXY ZXp(1) Yp(1) Zp(1) = t21 t22 t23 = 0 0.3823 0.9236

(4.106)

t31 t32 t33

0 0.92360 0.3823

Hence

I(1)

p

p5 p p

0

0

1

0

0

1

0

0

3

= 0 0.3823 0.9236 0 23 12 0 0.382 3 0.923 6

0 12 35

0 0.923 6 0.382 3

0 0.92360 0.3823

1.6667

0.0

0.0

0.0

1.8723

0.0

=

(4.107)

0.0

0.0

0.45919

As one can see this transformation results in the diagonal matrix having elements

equal to the principal moments of inertia

IXp = 1.666ml2 , IY p = 1.873ml2 and IZp = 0.459ml2

(4.108)

KINETIC ENERGY.

4.3

127

KINETIC ENERGY.

DEFINITION: It is said that a rigid body performs the rotational motion

if one point of the body considered, due to its constraints, is motionless

with respect to the inertial space.

The kinetic energy of a particle of mass dm (see Fig. 23) is

1

1

dT = r 2i dm = r i r i dm

(4.109)

2

2

where ri is the position vector of the particle. If the vector ri is given by its com-

dm

ri

O

X

x

Figure 23

ponents along the body system of coordinates rotating with angular velocity , the

above expression may be developed as follow

1

1

1

dT = r i (r0i + ri )dm = r i ( ri )dm = (ri r i )dm

2

2

2

But, according to consideration in the previous chapter

(4.110)

Hence

1

dT = dHO

2

Upon integrating of Eq. 4.111 over the entire body we are finally getting

x

T = 12 HO = 12 [x , y , z ][I] y

z

(4.111)

(4.112)

where

a body system of coordinates

[I] is the inertia matrix about that system of coordinates.

KINETIC ENERGY.

128

DEFINITION: It is said that a rigid body performs the general motion if its

motion can not be classified as the rotational one.

Kinetic energy of a particle dm of a rigid body (see Fig. 24) is

1

dT = r 2i dm

2

(4.113)

dm

ri

ri,G

G

rG

O

x

X

Figure 24

(4.114)

ri = rG +ri,G

Introducing Eq. 4.114 into Eq. 4.113 one can obtain that

1

1

dT = (rG + r i,G )2 dm = (r2G dm + r 2i,G dm + 2rG r i,G dm)

2

2

(4.115)

Integration over the entire body yields the total kinetic energy in the fallowing form

Z

Z

Z

1 2

2

T = (rG dm + r i,G dm + 2rG r i,G dm)

(4.116)

2

m

KINETIC ENERGY.

129

But

dm = m

r 2i,G dm

=

2rG

Z

r i,G dm = 2rG

ri,G r i,G dm = hG

Z

ri,G dm

= 2rG (

The last relation becomes obvious if we notice that for the chosen system of coordinates rG,G = 0.

Implementation of Eq. 4.117 into Eq. 4.116 gives the following formula for

kinetic energy.

x

T = 12 r 2G m + 12 hG = 12 r 2G m + 12 [ x , y , z ][I] y

z

(4.118)

where:

[I] - is inertia matrix about system of coordinates through centre of gravity of

the body.

x , y , z -are components of the angular velocity of the body along that system of coordinates.

The last formula permits to formulate the following statement.

STATEMENT: Kinetic energy of a rigid body is equal to the sum of its

energy in the translational motion with velocity of its centre of gravity

(energy of translation) and the energy in the rotational motion about its

centre of gravity (energy of rotation).

KINETIC ENERGY.

130

4.3.3 Problems

Problem 39

y1

Z, z1

x1

z2

Z, z1

A

y1

x1

z1

A

l

1

2

x2

Figure 25

Fig. 25 shows a mechanical system. Its link 1 is free to rotate about the

vertical axis Z of the inertial system of coordinates XY Z. Moment of inertia of the

link 1 about axis Z is I1Z . The link 2 of the system is hinged to the link 1 at the

point A as it is shown in Fig. 25. Distance between the point A and axis of rotation

Z is a. Distance between the centre of gravity G and the point A is equal to l.

Axes x2 , y2 , z2 are principal axis of inertia of the link 2 and the principal moments of

inertia about these axes are I2x2 , I2y2 , I2z2 respectively. Mass of the link 2 is equal to

m. Derive expression for the kinetic energy of the system as a function of angles

and .

KINETIC ENERGY.

131

Solution

y1

Z, z1

x1

z2

Z, z1

rA

y1

x1

z1

A

rGA

1

2

x2

Figure 26

The kinetic energy of the system T is sum of the kinetic energy possessed by

the link 1 T1 and kinetic energy possessed by the link 2 T2 .

T = T1 + T2

(4.119)

The link 1 performs the rotational motion about axis Z which is fixed in the inertial

space. Therefore its kinetic energy is

1

T1 = I1Z 21

2

(4.120)

The link 2 performs the general motion in the inertial space. Therefore its kinetic

energy is determined by the following equation.

0

2x2

I2x2 0

1

1

2

T2 = m2 vG

+ [ 2x2, 2y2, 2z2 ] 0 I2y2 0 2y2,

(4.121)

2

2

0

0 I2z2

2z2

In the above equation vG stands for the absolute velocity of the centre of gravity of

the link 2 and 2x2, 2y2, 2z2 are components of its absolute angular velocity. Angular

velocity of the link 1 is

1 = K

(4.122)

The absolute angular velocity of the link 2 is

2 = 1 + 21 = K + j1

(4.123)

KINETIC ENERGY.

132

i2 = k1 i2 + j2 i2 = sin

2x2 = 2 i2 = (K + j1 )

j2 = k1 j2 + j2 j2 =

2y2 = 2 j2 = (K + j1 )

k2 = k1 k2 + j2 k2 = cos

2z2 = 2 k2 = (K + j1 )

(4.124)

The absolute velocity of the centre of gravity of the link 2 may be obtained by

integration of its position vector.

rG = rA + rGA = j2 a k2 l

(4.125)

Hence,

r G

i2

j2

k2

0

a

l

= i2 (l a cos ) + j2 (l sin ) + k2 (a sin )

(4.126)

Taking into consideration Eqs.. 4.122, 4.124 and 4.126 the wanted expression for the

kinematic energy function is

T =

1

I1Z 2

2

a cos

l

l sin

2

a sin

sin

I

0

0

2x2

+

sin cos 0 I2y2 0

2

0

0 I2z2

cos

KINETIC ENERGY.

133

Problem 40

x1

y3

x3

O,G

z3

x3

y1

y3

Y

4

G

c

2

z3

Figure 27

The mixing tank 1 and rotor of the electric motor 2, combined, are considered

as rigid body (see Fig. 27). Its principal moments of inertia about axes through

its centre of gravity are Ix1 , Iy1 , Iz1 and its mass is m. The tank rotates with the

constant angular velocity about axis z3 relatively to the housing 3. At the same

time the housing 3 rotates about the axis X. Its motion is determined by the angular

displacement . Given are: a, b, c, , Ix1 , Iy1 , Iz1 , m, .

Produce expressions for kinetic energy function of the mixing tank 1.

Answer:

2

I

+

ma

0

0

cos

t

x1

0

Iy1 + ma2 0 sin t

T = 12 cos t sin t

0

0

Iz1

KINETIC ENERGY.

134

Problem 41

R

L/2

(t)

X

L/2

x

Y

z Z

1

o

y

zG

b)

a)

G

H(t)

xG

R

yG

L

Figure 28

To displace the cylinder 4 of mass m, the arm of the robot shown in Fig. 28a

translates and rotates with respect to the inertial frame XY Z. The translation is

determined by function H(t) and the rotation is determined by the angular displacement (t). Upon assuming that the elements 2,3 and 4 forms one rigid body, derive

expression for the kinetic energy of the cylinder 4.

Given are: H(t), (t), a, b, R, L, m

The principal moments of inertia of a cylinder (see Fig. 28b) through centre

of gravity G are

IxG =

T =

mR2

;

2

IyG = IzG =

Answer:

1

+ b2 2 ) + 12 2 12

m(3R2 + L2 )

1

m(H

2

1

m(3R2 + L2 )

12

KINETIC ENERGY.

135

Problem 42

y1

x1 x2

Z z1

xG

l

Y

y2

a)

z2

y1

zG

yG

a

1

l

b)

Figure 29

The base 1 of the robot arm, shown in Fig. 29a), rotates about the vertical

axis Z of the inertial system of coordinates XY Z. The instantaneous position of this

base is determined by the angular displacement .The link 2 is hinged to the base 1

at the point A. The relative instantaneous position of the link 2 with respect to the

base 1 is determined by the angular displacement . The link 2 can be considered

as a rigid cylinder of length l, radius r and mass m attached rigidly to the massless

element AB. The system of coordinates x1 y1 z1 and x2 y2 z2 are rigidly attached to the

links 1 and 2 respectively. Produce kinetic energy function for the link 2 as a function

of (t) and (t).

The principal moments of inertia of the cylinder shown in Fig. 29b) about

axes through its centre of gravity G are as follows

1

1

IxG = IyG = mr2 + ml2

4

12

1

IzG = mr2

2

KINETIC ENERGY.

136

Problem 43

X

yG

m

r

xG

a)

yG

L/2

L/2

r

r

G

2r

1

zG

l

b)

2r

2,1

r r

Z

Figure 30

The exciter shown in Fig. 30a) is design to produce the oscillatory motion of

an object. Its rotor 2 can be treated as a rigid body assembled of two spheres each

of mass ms and a cylinder of mass mc . These elements are join together by means

of massless elements as it is shown in Fig. 30a). This rotor rotates with respect to

its housing 1 with the constant angular velocity 2,1 . The oscillatory motion of the

housing 1 is determined by the angular displacement . Produce expression for the

kinetic energy of the rotor of the exciter.

The principal moments of inertia for the sphere shown in Fig. 30b) are

2

IxG = IyG = IzG = mr2

5

The principal moments of inertia for the cylinder shown in Fig. 30b) are

1

1

IxG = IyG = mr2 + ml2

4

12

1

IzG = mr2

2

KINETIC ENERGY.

137

Problem 44

0

y2

X

1 2

x1

z3

x2 x 3

z1 z2

t

Y y1

o1

y3

y2

l

Figure 31

The turret 2 of the tank 1 shown in Fig. 31is rotating about the vertical

axis with the angular velocity t and the barrel 3 is being raised with the constant

angular velocity b . The tank has the constant forward linear velocity v. The system

of coordinates x3 , y3 , z3 is rigidly attached to the barrel 3 and coincides with its

principal axes. Moments of inertia about these axes are Ix3 , Iy3 and Iz3 respectively.

Mass of the barrel is m and its centre of gravity is by l apart from o1 .

Produce expression for the kinetic energy of the barrel when the barrel passes

the position defined by angles t and b .

Answer:

2

I

ml

0

0

x3

3x3

2

3y3

0

Iy3

0

+ 12 3x3 3y3 3z3

T = 12 mvG

2

3z3

0

0 Iz3 ml

where

3y3 = t sin b

3z3 = t cos b

3x3 = b

0

vG = rG + 3 rG

rG = i3 (vt sin t )+j3 (vt cos b cos t +l)+k3 (vt sin b cos t )

KINETIC ENERGY.

138

Problem 45

z2

Z z1

o2 y2

x2

l

o1

y1

x1

Figure 32

The base 1 of the crane shown in Fig. 32 rotates with the constant angular

velocity about the vertical axis Z of the inertial system of coordinates XY Z. The

system of coordinates x1 y1 z1 is attached to the base. At the same time its boom 2 of

mass m is being lowered. This relative motion about the axis is determined by the

angular displacement . The system of coordinates x2 y2 z2 is attached to the boom.

Its origin coincides with the booms centre of gravity G. The distance l determines

the position of the centre of gravity. The axes of the system of coordinates x2 y2 z2

coincide with principal axes of the boom. The principal moments of inertia about

these axes are Ix , Iy , Iz respectively.

Produce the expression for the kinetic energy of the boom.

Answer:

sin

I

+

ml

0

0

x

0

Iy + ml2 0

T = 12 sin cos

0

0

Iz

cos

KINETIC ENERGY.

139

Problem 46

y1

y2

x2

21 t

o2 o1

x1

2

l

z1

X

o2 o1

x1

Figure 33

The massless link 1 (see Fig. 33) is free to rotate about the horizontal axis

Y of the inertial system of coordinates XY Z. The system of coordinates x1 y1 z1 is

rigidly attached to the link 1. Its angular position is determined by the angle . The

link 2 that can be considered as a slender and uniform bar of mass m and length l

rotates with respect to the link 1 with the constant velocity 21 .

Produce the expression for the kinetic energy of the link 2.

Answer:

1 2

2

ml

+

ma

0

0

t

sin

21

3

0

ma2 12 mal cos 21 t

T = 12 [ sin 21 t, cos 21 t, 21 ]

0

12 mal 13 ml2

21

KINETIC ENERGY.

140

Problem 47

z1 Z

z2

y1 y2

Y

a

b

x1

x2

Figure 34

Figure 34 shows the physical model of a mechanism. The slide 0 is motionless

with respect to the inertial system of coordinates XYZ . It is parallel to the axis Y

and its position is determined by the dimensions a and b. The link 1 rotates about

the vertical axis Z and its instantaneous position is given by the angular displacement

. The system of coordinates x 1 y 1 z 1 is rigidly attached to the link 1. The link

2 is hinged to the link 1 at the point O and it is supported by the slide 0. The

system of coordinates x 2 y 2 z 2 is rigidly attached to the link 2 and coincides with

its principal axis. The angular displacement defines the relative position of the

link 2 with respect to the link 1. The principal moments of inertia of the link 2 are

I x2 , I y2 , I z2 and its mass is m. The distance l identifies the position of the center of

gravity G of the link 2.

Produce:

1. The expression for the components of the absolute angular velocity of the link 2

along the system of coordinates x 2 y 2 z 2 in terms of and .

Answer:

2 = i2 ( sin ) + j2 + k2 ( cos )

2. The expression for the components of the absolute angular acceleration of the link

2 along the system of coordinates x 2 y 2 z 2 in terms of and .

KINETIC ENERGY.

141

Answer:

2 = i2 (

sin cos ) + j2 + k2 (

cos sin )

3. The expression for the components of the absolute velocity of the point G along

the system of coordinates x 2 y 2 z 2 in terms of and .

Answer:

4. The kinetic energy of the link 2 as a function of and .

hAnswer:

i

2

1

T = 2 Ix2 2 sin2 + Iy2 + Iz2 2 cos2

5. The expression for the angular displacement as a function of .

Answer:

= arctan ab cos

KINETIC ENERGY.

142

Problem 48

y2

Z z1

z2

G

y1

a

O

x2

a

x1

X

Figure 35

Fig. 35 shows the physical model of a mechanical system. The link 1 of this

system rotates about the vertical axes Z of the inertial frame XYZ. Its instantaneous

position is given by the absolute angular displacement . The system of coordinates

x 1 y 1 z 1 is rigidly attached to the link 1. The link 2 is hinged to the link 1 at the

point A. The other end of this link P always stays in contact with the cylindrical

surface 3 of radius R (b>R). The system of coordinates x 2 y 2 z 2 is attached to

the body 2 and coincides with its principal axes. The link 2 possesses the mass m

and its principal moments of inertia about the system of coordinates x 2 y 2 z 2 are

I x2 , I y2 and I z2 . Its centre of gravity G is located by the distance c. The angular

displacement determines the relative position of the link 2 with respect to the

system of coordinates x 1 y 1 z 1 .

Produce:

1. The expression for the components of the absolute angular velocity of the link 2

along the system of coordinates x 2 y 2 z 2 in terms of and

2. The expression for the components of the absolute angular acceleration of the link

2 along the system of coordinates x 2 y 2 z 2 in terms of and

3. The expression for the components of the absolute velocity of the point P along

the system of coordinates x 2 y 2 z 2 in terms of and

4. The kinetic energy of the link 2 as a function of and .

5. The expression for the angular displacement as a function of .

KINETIC ENERGY.

143

Solution

1. The absolute angular velocity of the link 2 is

2 = 1 + 21 = k1 + i2

Its components along the system coordinates x 2 y 2 z 2 are

2x2 = i2 k1 + i2 =

2y2 = j2 k1 + i2 = sin

2k2 = k2 k1 + i2 = cos

coordinates x 2 y 2 z 2 can be produced by dierentiation of the vector of the absolute

velocity

2 = 02 + 2 2 = 02 = i2 + j2

sin + cos + k2

cos sin

3.

y2

Z z1

z2

rP

y1

a

O

x2

a

x1

X

Figure 36

The absolute position vector of the point P (see Fig. 36) is

rP = j1 a + j2 b

(4.127)

KINETIC ENERGY.

144

rP x2 = i2 (j1 a + j2 b) = 0

rP y2 = j2 (j1 a + j2 b) = a cos + b

rP z2 = k2 (j1 a + j2 b) = a sin

(4.128)

The first time derivative of the position vector rP yields the absolute velocity of the

point P

0

r P = rP + 2 rP

j2

k2

i2

= j2 a sin + k2 a cos +

sin

cos =

0 a cos + b a sin

2

2

+ k2 a cos + a cos + b

= i2 (a b cos ) + k2 b

(4.129)

4.

z2

y2

Z z1

y1

D

b

x2

a

x1

X

Figure 37

KINETIC ENERGY.

145

The angular displacement is not an independent variable. There is a relationship between the variable and the independent coordinate imposed by the

kinematic constrains. To develop this relationship let us consider the vector equation

shown in Fig. 37.

CO + OD = CD

(4.130)

or

Ja+j1 (a + b cos ) = I (R sin ) + JR cos

(4.131)

Multiplication of the above equation by the unit vectors I and J results in the following

set of scalar algebraic equations

I Ja+I j1 (a + b cos ) = I I (R sin ) + I JR cos

J Ja+J j1 (a + b cos ) = J I (R sin ) + J JR cos

(4.132)

or

sin (a + b cos ) = R sin

a + cos (a + b cos ) = R cos

(4.133)

Hence

R2 = sin2 (a + b cos )2 + a2 + 2a cos (a + b cos ) + cos2 (a + b cos )2

R2 = (a + b cos )2 + a2 + 2a cos (a + b cos )

(4.134)

or

(a + b cos )2 + 2a cos (a + b cos ) (R2 a2 ) = 0

(4.135)

z = (a + b cos )

(4.136)

(4.137)

q

1

2

2

2

(2a cos ) (2a cos ) + 4(R a )

z=

2

(4.138)

Hence

q

1

1 1

2

2

2

cos =

(z a) =

(2a cos ) (2a cos ) + 4(R a ) a

b

b 2

q

1

2

2

2

(a cos ) (a cos ) + (R a ) a

b

s

2

R

a

1 1

cos cos2 +

(4.139)

b

a

EQUATIONS OF MOTION

4.4

146

EQUATIONS OF MOTION

General case

Each rigid body can be considered as a rigidly tied together system of particles.

Hence, its motion is governed by the same equations which govern any system of

particles.

X

= F=

P

Fi

(4.140)

X

ri,G Fi

(4.141)

h G = MG =

Under influence of a set of external forces Fi (see Fig. 38) the considered body moves

Fi

dm

ri

ri,G

G

rG

y

vG

O

x

Figure 38

in the inertial system of coordinates XY Z. Let vG be its absolute velocity of its

centre of gravity G and its absolute angular velocity. To derive the formula for

the linear momentum P let us introduce a body system of coordinates xyz. The

body system of coordinates has its origin at the body centre of gravity G and its axes

coincides principal axes of inertia. Such selection of the body system of coordinates,

according to considerations in the previous section, is always possible.

The linear momentum of the body considered is

P = mvG

(4.142)

vG = ivGx + jvGy + kvGz

(4.143)

0

= m(vG

P

+ vG )

(4.144)

EQUATIONS OF MOTION

147

where

0

vG

= iv Gx + jv Gy + kv Gz

and

(4.145)

= ix + jy + k z

i

j

k

P = m (iv Gx + jv Gy + kv Gz ) + x y z

vGx vGy vGz

= im(v Gx + vGz y vGy z )

+jm(v Gy + vGx z vGz x )

+km(v Gz + vGy x vGx y )

= iFx + jFy + kFz

(4.146)

m(v Gx + vGz y vGy z ) = Fx

m(v Gy + vGx z vGz x ) = Fy

m(v Gz + vGy x vGx y ) = Fz

(4.147)

Components of moment of the relative momentum, according to Eq. 4.15, in the case

considered may be adopted in the following form.

0

x

hGx

IGx 0

IGx x

hGy = 0 IGy 0 y = IGy y

(4.148)

0

0 IGz

hGz

z

IGz z

Taking into account the above relationship, the equation 4.141 may be transformed

to form 4.149.

h G = h0G + hG

i

j

k

y

z

= iIGx x + jIGy y + kIGz z + x

IGx x IGy y IGz z

=

i(IGx x + (IGz IGy ) z y )

+j(IGy y + (IGx IGz ) x z )

+k(IGz z + (IGy IGx )y x )

=

iMGx + jMGy + kMGz

(4.149)

IGx x + (IGz IGy )z y = MGz

IGy y + (IGx IGz ) x z = MGy

IGz z + (IGy IGx ) y x = MGz

(4.150)

Eventually, we obtained six independent equations which allow to obtain either kinematic parameters ( and vG ) in case all the external forces are known, or resultant

external force F and resultant moment MG one has to apply to the rigid body to

keep it going according to the assumed motion.

EQUATIONS OF MOTION

148

Rotational motion

In a case, when the rigid body performs the rotational motion about the point O

which is fixed in the inertial space (see Fig. 39) it can be considered as system with

three degree of freedom. Hence only three equations are necessary to describe its

motion. The wanted equations may be obtained from equation 4.18.

X

O = MO =

H

ri Fi

(4.151)

dm

Fi

G

rG

O

ri

R

y

X

x

Figure 39

Let us introduce through point of rotation O body system of coordinates which

axes coincide principal axis of the body. Components of the angular momentum along

these axes are

0

x

HOx

IOx 0

IOx x

HOy = 0 IOy 0 y = IOy y

(4.152)

0

0 IOz

HOz

z

IOz z

O = H0O + HO = MO

H

(4.153)

In a similar way to that shown in the previous paragraph, one may transform the

above equation into three equivalent equations known as Eulers equations.

IOx x + (IOz IOy )z y = MOz

IOy y + (IOx IOz ) x z = MOy

IOz z + (IOy IOx ) y x = MOz

(4.154)

The three unknown components of the reaction R in the pivot O are determined by

Eq. 4.147

m(v Gx + vGz y vGy z ) = Fx

m(v Gy + vGx z vGz x ) = Fy

m(v Gz + vGy x vGx y ) = Fz

(4.155)

EQUATIONS OF MOTION

149

where

vG = rG

(4.156)

The external force F comprises both, the known driving forces Fd and the unknown

reaction R.

F = R + Fd

(4.157)

4.4.2 Modified Eulers equations of motion

General case

The modified equations of motion corresponds to the particular case of motion of a

rigid body which fulfils the following requirements:

1. The body has an axis of symmetry (see Fig. 40).

2. The body rotates with a relative angular velocity about its axis of

symmetry z with respect to a translating and rotating system of coordinates xyz.

x

Figure 40

For further consideration we will assume that the translating and rotating

system of coordinates xyz has its origin at the centre of gravity of the symmetric

body.

As an example of possible application let us consider rotor of a turbo-compressor

of a jet shown in Fig. 41.

z

vG

Figure 41

The system of coordinates xyz is fixed to the jet and its origin is chosen at the

centre of gravity G of the rotor. This system of coordinates possesses its own angular

EQUATIONS OF MOTION

150

speed . The rotor of the turbo-compressor itself rotates with angular velocity

about axis of symmetry z. Hence, all the above requirements are fulfilled.

In such cases, equations of motion of a rigid body may be formulated in terms

of kinematic parameters of the system xyz (vG , ) and the relative angular velocity

of the body .

y

Fi

dm

yb

ri,G

xb

rG

vG

z zb

z

O

Y

X

b)

a)

Figure 42

X

= F=

P

Fi

X

ri,G Fi

h G = MG =

(4.158)

(4.159)

(see Fig. 42b), according to Eq. 4.15(see page 98), are

hGxb

Ax

b

hGyb = IG

Ayb

(4.160)

xb, yb ,zb

hGzb

Azb

where

[IG ]xb, yb ,zb is matrix of inertia of the body about the body system of coordinates.

Axb , Ayb , Azb are components of the absolute angular velocity of the body

along the body system of coordinates.

Taking into consideration that

hGxb

hGx

hGyb = [Cxyzxb yb zb ] hGy

(4.161)

hGzb

hGz

EQUATIONS OF MOTION

and

151

Axb

Ax

Ayb = [Cxyzxb yb zb ] Ay

Azb

Az

(4.162)

Ax

hGx

hGy = ([Cxyzxb yb zb ]T IG

[Cxyzxb yb zb ]) Ay

(4.163)

xb, yb ,zb

hGz

Az

b, b b

But, in the case considered

[Cxyzxb yb zb ] = sin (t) cos (t) 0

(4.164)

0

0

1

and because of symmetry of the body

Hence

IG

xb, yb ,zb

0

IG 0

= 0 IG 0

0 0 IGz

(4.165)

[Cxyzxb yb zb ]T IG x y ,z [Cxyzxb yb zb ]

b, b b

0

cos (t) sin (t) 0

cos (t) sin (t) 0

IG 0

= sin (t) cos (t) 0 0 IG 0 sin (t) cos (t) 0

0 0 IGz

0

0

1

0

0

1

0

IG 0

0 IG 0

=

(4.166)

0 0 IGz

0

Ax

hGx

IG 0

hGy = 0 IG 0 Ay

0 0 IGz

hGz

Az

(4.167)

A = + = i x + j y + k( z + )

(4.168)

It is easy to see from Fig. 42 a that the absolute angular velocity of the body A is

hGx

IG

hGy = 0

0

hGz

0

0

x

IGx x

IG 0 y =

IGy y

0 IGz

z +

IGz ( z + )

(4.169)

EQUATIONS OF MOTION

152

Since the vector of the angular relative momentum hG is resolved along non-inertial

system of coordinates its derivative takes form

h G = h0 + hG

i

j

k

y

z

= iIG x + jIG y + kIGz ( z + ) + x

IGx x IGy y IGz ( z + )

= i(IG x + (IGz IG ) z y + IGz y )

+j(IG y (IGz IG ) x z IGz x )

+k(IGz ( z + ))

= iMGx + jMGy + kMGz

(4.170)

IG x + (IGz IG ) z y + IGz y = MGx

IG y (IGz IG ) x z IGz x = MGy

= MGz

IGz ( z + )

(4.171)

The equation 4.158, treated in the same way as in the previous section, yields three

additional equations

m(v Gx + vGz y vGy z ) = Fx

m(v Gy + vGx z vGz x ) = Fy

m(v Gz + vGy x vGx y ) = Fz

(4.172)

Rotational motion.

In case of rotational motion (see Fig. 43) the origin of the rotating system of coordinates x, y, z is always chosen at a point of rotation O.

z

Z

R

G

rG

Fi

y

ri

Figure 43

EQUATIONS OF MOTION

153

Let be the angular velocity of the rotating system of coordinates xyz and the

body rotates about its axis of symmetry z with the angular velocity with respect

to the rotating system of coordinates xyz. Hence the absolute angular velocity of the

body considered is

A = + = i( x ) + j( y ) + k(z + )

(4.173)

Similar consideration to this in the previous section leads to conclusion that the

components of the angular momentum about the point O are

0

HOx

x

IO 0

IO x

HOy = 0 IO 0 y =

IO y

(4.174)

0 0 IOz

HOz

z +

IOz (z + )

O = H0O + HO

H

i

j

k

+ x

y

z

IO x IO y IOz ( z + )

O = MO

H

(4.175)

(4.176)

IO x + (IOz IO ) z y + IOz y = MOx

IO y (IOz IO ) x z IOz x = MOy

= MOz

IOz ( z + )

(4.177)

which permit the unknown vector to be obtained. The above equations are known

as modified Eulers equations.

The equation 4.158, if treated in the same way as it has been done in the

previous section, yields

m(v Gx + vGz y vGy z ) = Fx

m(v Gy + vGx z vGz x ) = Fy

m(v Gz + vGy x vGx y ) = Fz

(4.178)

Since velocity of the centre of gravity vG can be obtained from the formula below

j

k

(4.179)

vG = rG = x y z

0 0 rGz

the equations 4.178 allow to the unknown components of the reactions R at the

constrain O to be determined.

EQUATIONS OF MOTION

154

4.4.3 Problems.

Problem 49

y1

z 3 z1

O,G

O

A

o1,o3

z 3 z1

x1

a

b

O

x3

4

G

c

2

x3

y3

y3

Figure 44

The mixing tank 1 and rotor of the electric motor 2, combined, are considered

as rigid body. Its principal moments of inertia about axes through its centre of gravity

are Ix , Iy , Iz and its mass is m. The tank rotates with the constant angular velocity

about axis z3 relatively to the housing 3. At the same time it rotates with the

constant angular velocity about the axis X. Derive expressions for all components

of reactions at A and B when the mixing tank passes an angular position . The

senses of the angular velocities and necessary dimensions are shown in Fig. 44.

Given are: a, b, c, , , Ix = Iy , Iz , m, .

EQUATIONS OF MOTION

155

Solution.

z3

O

R A =0

z3

a

G

R Ax3 A

R Bz3

B

R Bx3

R Ay3 b

RB

y3

y3

Figure 45

In Fig. 45 the x3 y3 z3 system of coordinates is fixed to the housing 3. Its

absolute angular velocity is

3 = i3

(4.180)

The relative angular velocity of the mixing tank 1 with respect to the x3 y3 z3 system

of coordinates is

= k3

(4.181)

The absolute position vector of the centre of gravity G can be determine along the

system x3 y3 z3 as follows

rG = k3 a

(4.182)

Hence, the absolute velocity of G is

i3 j3 k3

vG = 3 rG = i3 (ak3 ) = 0 0

0 0 a

= j3 a

(4.183)

Since axis z3 is axis of symmetry for the tank, its motion is governed by the modified

Euler equations. The tank performs the rotational motion about point O. But in

the case considered it is more convenient to take advantage of the equations for the

general case.

m(v Gx3 + vGz3 y3 vGy3 z3 ) = RAx3 + RBx3

m(v Gy3 + vGx3 z3 vGz3 y3 ) = RAy3 + RBy3 + mgsin

m(v Gz3 + vGy3 x3 vGx3 y3 ) = RBz3 mgcos

I x3 + (Iz I) y3 z3 + Iz y3 = RAy3 b + RBy3 (b + c)

I y3 (Iz I) x3 z3 Iz x3 = RAx3 b RBx3 (b + c)

= Mz3

Iz3 ( z3 + )

(4.184)

(4.185)

EQUATIONS OF MOTION

156

where I and Iz are moments of inertia of the body about axes x1 y1 z1 through the

centre of gravity G.

According to Eqs. 4.180 and 4.183

vGx3 = 0

x3 =

vGy3 = a

y3 = 0

vGz3 = 0

z3 = 0

(4.186)

(4.187)

Introducing Eqs. 4.57 and 4.187 into Eqs. 4.184 and 4.185 one can obtain

0

0

2

m(a )

0

Iz

0

=

=

=

=

=

=

RAx3 + RBx3

RAy3 + RBy3 + mg sin

RBz3 mg cos

RAy3 b + RBy3 (b + c)

RAx3 b RBx3 (b + c)

Mz3

(4.188)

The first five equations allow for determination of the unknown reaction at A and B.

RAx3 =

RAy3 =

RBx3 =

RBy3 =

RBz3 =

1

Iz

c

b+c

mg sin

c

1

Iz

c

b

mg sin

c

ma2 2 + mg cos

(4.189)

The last equation oers the driving moment of the tank. In the case considered it is

equal to zero.

EQUATIONS OF MOTION

157

Problem 50

C

G

l1

l2

Figure 46

Figure 46 shows a mobile concrete mixer. The line AC is the axis of symmetry

of the mixing tank which is supported by a bearing at A and rollers at B. The bearing

at A may react load in any direction but the rollers at B may only provide a reaction

through C in a plane normal to AC. The mixing tank, which rotates about AC at

10RP M, clockwise when viewed from the rear, has a mass of 730kg; its centre of mass

is at G. Its moment of inertia about AC is 9000kgm2 , and about any axis through

G normal to AC is 11000kgm2 . The dimensions shown in the Fig. 46 are as follows:

l1 = 1.2m, l2 = 1.8m = 20o .

The concrete mixer is driven on horizontal ground round a bend to the left

of 30m radius at a steady speed 40km/h. Find the bearing reactions at A and C

induced by motion of the vehicle.

EQUATIONS OF MOTION

158

Solution.

According to the given data

= 10 RP M = 10 /30 rad/s = 1.05 rad/s

v = 40 km/h = 40 1000/3600 m/s = 11.1 m/s

= v/R = 11.1/30 = 0.37 rad/s

l2 = 1.8 m

l1 = 1.2 m

Iz = 9000 kgm2

I = 11000 kgm2

G = 730 kg 9.81 m/s = 7161 N

= 20o

vx2 = v sin = 11.1 sin 20o = 3.8 m/s

vy2 = 0

vz2 = v cos = 11.1 cos 20o = 10.4 m/s

x2 = cos = 0.37 cos 20o = 0.348 rad/s

y2 = 0

z2 = sin = 0.37 sin 20o = 0.126 rad/s

G

z1

y1

x1

x2

R Cy2

RA

R Cz2= 0

y2

RA z2

z2

C

G

v

A

z1

R Cx2

M A z2 G

RA x2

l1

Figure 47

l2

EQUATIONS OF MOTION

159

m(v x2 + vz2 y2 vy2 z2 ) = RCx2 + RAx2 G cos

m(v y2 + vx2 z2 vz2 x2 ) = RCy2 + RAy2

m(v z2 + vy2 x2 vx2 y2 ) = RAz2 G sin

I x2 + (Iz I) y2 z2 + Iz y2 = RCy2 (l2 l1 ) + RAy2 l1

I y2 (Iz I)x2 z2 + Iz x2 = +RCx2 (l2 l1 ) RAx2 l1

= MAz2

Iz ( z2 + )

(4.190)

(4.191)

Introducing the given data into the above equations one may obtain

RCx2 + RAx2 7161 cos 20o

RCy2 + RAy2

RAz2 7161 sin 20o

RCy2 (1.8 1.2) + RAy2 1.2

+RCx2 (1.8 1.2) RAx2 1.2

MAz2

=

=

=

=

=

=

0

730(3.8 0.126 (10.4)0.348)

0

0

(9000 11000)0.348 0.126 9000 0.348 (1.05)

0

(4.192)

Hence

RCx2 + RAx2

RCy2 + RAy2

RAz2

RCy2 + 2RAy2

+RCx2 2RAx2

MAz2

=

=

=

=

=

=

6729

2990

2450

0

5627

0

Eventually

RAx2 = 367 N

RAy2 = 996 N

RAz2 = 2450 N

RCx2 = 6362 N

RCy2 = 1994 N

Mz2 = 0

EQUATIONS OF MOTION

160

Problem 51

A

l

Figure 48

Derive dierential equations of motion of the system shown in Fig. 48. The

link CA rotates with a constant angular speed about its vertical axis. The uniform

rod AB of mass m and length l is hinged at A to the link CA.

EQUATIONS OF MOTION

161

Solution.

y1

x1

z1

z2

x1

A

l/2

2

mg

x2

Figure 49

Let us introduce the following systems of coordinates (see Fig. 49):

XY Z inertial system of coordinates.

x1 y1 z1 body 1 system of coordinates

x2 y2 z2 body 2 system of coordinates

The absolute angular speed of the link 1 is

1 = K = k1

(4.193)

The relative angular speed of the link 2 with respect to the link 1 can be obtain by

dierentiation of the generalized coordinate

= j1 = j2

21 =

(4.194)

2 = 1 + 21 = j2 + k1

= i2 sin + j2 + k2 cos

(4.195)

Since the link 2 performs rotational motion about the point A, its motion is governed

by Eulers equations

Ix 2x2 + (Iz Iy ) 2y2 2z2 = Mx2

Iy 2y2 + (Ix Iz ) 2x2 2z2 = My2

Iz 2z2 + (Iy Ix )2x2 2y2 = Mz2

(4.196)

EQUATIONS OF MOTION

162

z1

y2

R 2,1y2

1

M2,1y2 =0

R 2,1y2

z2

R 2,1z2

A

R 2,1x2

l/2

A

R 2,1x2

M2,1z2

x1

M2,1x2

M2,1x2

G

x2

mg

x2

Figure 50

Ix = 0

Iy = Iz = I =

ml2

3

Mx2 = M2,1x2

1

My2 =

mgl cos

2

Mz2 = M21z2

(4.197)

Upon introducing Eqs. 4.195 and 4.197 into Eq. 4.196 one may obtain

0 = M2,1x2

1

I

+ I 2 sin cos =

mgl cos

2

I sin I

sin = M21z2

(4.198)

(4.199)

(4.200)

1

I

+ I2 sin cos mgl cos = 0

2

(4.201)

After solving it with respect to the unknown function , the equation 4.200 allows

the interaction moment M21z2 to be obtained.

EQUATIONS OF MOTION

163

Problem 52

1

y2 Y y1

3

O

Z

z1

z2

x1 x2

X

Figure 51

To record the angular velocity of the floating platform 1 about the vertical

axis Y a gyroscope was installed as presented in Fig. 51. The shown spring, of a

stiness k, keeps the ring 2 in the horizontal position ( = 0) if the platform does

not rotate ( = 0). The damper c produces a moment which can be approximated

by a linear function

Mc = c

(4.202)

The ring 2 may be considered as massless. The gyroscope 3 is symmetrical with

respect to its axis of relative rotation z2 and its moments of inertia are Ix2 = Iy2 = I,

and Iz2 . The gyroscope rotates, relative to the ring 2, with the constant angular

velocity .

Upon assuming that the platform can rotate about a vertical axis only, derive

the relationship between its constant angular velocity = p and angular position of

the gyroscope .

EQUATIONS OF MOTION

164

Solution.

The system of coordinates x1 y1 z1 ,which is attached to the platform, rotates

with respect to the inertial frame XY Z with angular velocity 1 .

1 = j1 = j2 cos k2 sin

(4.203)

The relative angular velocity of the ring 2 with respect to the system of coordinate

x1 y1 z1 is

21 = i2

(4.204)

2 = 1 + 21 = i2 + j2 cos + k2 ( sin )

(4.205)

Since the gyroscope 3 rotates about its axis of symmetry z2 with relative velocity ,

the modified Eulers equations may be used to derive its equations of motion.

I x2 + (Iz2 I) y2 z2 + Iz2 y2 = Mx2

I y2 (Iz2 I)x2 z2 Iz2 x2 = My2

= Mz2

Iz2 ( z2 + )

(4.206)

Mx2 = k c

(4.207)

Introduction of Eqs. 4.205) and (4.207) into the first equation of the set 4.206

produces equation of motion of the gyroscope.

I + (Iz2 I)( 2 sin cos ) + Iz2 cos = k c

(4.208)

the above equation yields

(Iz2 I)( 2o sin o cos o ) + Iz2 o cos o = ko

(4.209)

If angular velocity o << , the first term of Eq. 4.209 can be omitted and the

required relationship has the following explicit form

o =

ko

Iz2 cos o

(4.210)

EQUATIONS OF MOTION

165

Problem 53

1

2

Z

l

Figure 52

Link 1 of the mechanical system shown in Fig. 52 performs rotational motion

about the horizontal and motionless axis Z. Its motion is determined by angle

which is a known function of time. Link 2, which can be considered as a uniform and

rigid rod of mass m and length l, is hinged to the link 1 at point A.

Derive the equation of motion of the link 2. Given are:

(t) equation of motion of the link 1

m mass of the link 2

l length of the link 2

EQUATIONS OF MOTION

166

Solution.

z2

X

A

21

x1 x2

Z z1

x1 x2

1

y1

rG

Z z1

l

y1

y2

Figure 53

In Fig. 53 system of coordinates x1 y1 z1 is rigidly attached to the link 1 and

rotates with respect to the inertial system of coordinates XY Z about the horizontal

axis Z. Its instantaneous position is determined by the angle . System of coordinates

x2 y2 z2 is fixed to the link 2 and rotates about axis x1 of the system of coordinates

x1 y1 z1 . Angle determines its instantaneous position with respect to the system of

coordinates x1 y1 z1 . Since the link 2 performs rotational motion about the point A,

the following Euler equations of motion can be utilized.

Ix 2x2 + (Iz Iy )2y2 2z2 = M2x2

Iy 2y2 + (Ix Iz )2x2 2z2 = M2y2

Iz 2z2 + (Iy Ix )2x2 2y2 = M2z2

(4.211)

where

Ix = 13 (ml2 ) moment of inertia of the body 2 about axis x2

Iy = 0 moment of inertia of the body 2 about axis y2

Iz = 13 (ml2 ) moment of inertia of the body 2 about axis z2 .

Components of the absolute angular velocity of the link 2 along its body

system of coordinates x2 y2 z2 may be determined as follows

2 = 1 + 21 = k1 + i2

(4.212)

Hence,

2x2 = i2 2 =

2y2 = j2 2 = sin

2z2 = k2 2 = cos

(4.213)

Moment M2 is due to the interaction force R21 and interaction moment M21 (see

Fig. 54) in the constrain A and the gravity force G.

M2 = M21 +M2G

(4.214)

EQUATIONS OF MOTION

167

M 2,1y2

R2,1y2

M 2,1y2

R2,1x2

x2

M 2,1x2 =0

z2

A

M 2,1z2

R2,1z2

1 Z z1

A

x1 x2

rG

l

1

G

2

R2,1y2

y2

y2

y1

Figure 54

Since the link 1 is free to rotate about axis x2 , component of the interaction moment

along axis x is

M21x2 = 0

(4.215)

Moment produced by the gravity force G is a vector product of position vector rG

and the gravity force G.Hence

rG G = j2 (l/2) Jmg = (mlg/2)j2 J

(mlg/2)j2 (j1 cos + i2 sin )

(mlg/2)j2 ((j2 cos k2 sin ) cos + i2 sin )

(mlg/2)j2 (i2 sin + j2 cos cos k2 cos sin )

i2

j

k

2

2

1

0

= (mlg/2) 0

= (mlg/2)(i2 (cossin) + k2 (sin))

M2G =

=

=

=

(4.216)

Upon introducing Eqs. 4.213 and 4.214 into first equation of the set 4.211 one can

obtain equation of motion in the following form

(4.217)

+ 2 sin cos + (3g/2l) cos sin = 0

The second and third equation allow the unknown components of interaction moment

M21 to be obtained.

Ix 2x2 + (Iz Iy )2y2 2z2 = M2x2

Iy 2y2 + (Ix Iz )2x2 2z2 = M2y2

Iz 2z2 + (Iy Ix )2x2 2y2 = M2z2

(4.218)

EQUATIONS OF MOTION

M21y2 = 0

M21z2 = (1/3)ml2 (

+(1/2)mglsin

168

(4.219)

EQUATIONS OF MOTION

169

Problem 54

1

x1

R

m

C

D

z1

r

Figure 55

Wheel of radius r and mass m is free to rotate about axle CD which turns

about the vertical axis with a constant angular speed . The wheel rolls without

slipping on the horizontal plane. Determine the reaction between the wheel and the

horizontal plane. Given are:

r =0.5m

R =2m

m =100kg

=1rad/s

Iz1 =12.5kgm2 , Iy1 = Ix1 =10kgm2 principal moments of inertia of the

wheel

EQUATIONS OF MOTION

170

Solution

z1

O,o

z2

Y

y2

x2

1

x1 12 t x2

R

m

C

D

z1

O,o

y2

12

z2

r

y1

Figure 56

m(v Gy2 + vGx2 2z2 vGz2 2x2 ) = F1y2

m(v Gz2 + vGy2 2x2 vGx2 2y2 ) = F1z2

Io 2x2 + (Ioz Io ) 2y2 2z2 + Ioz 12 2y2 = M1x2

Io 2y2 (Ioz Io ) 2x2 2z2 Ioz 12 2x2 = M1y2

Ioz ( 2z2 + 12 ) = M1z2

Io = Ix1 + mR2 ;

Ioz = Iz1

2 = i2

2x2 =

2y2 = 0

2z2 = 0

R

r

rG = k2 R

i2 j2 k2

vG = r G = r0G + 2 rG = 0 + 0 0 = j2 (R)

0 0 R

12 =

vGx2 = 0

vGy2 = R

vGz2 = 0

EQUATIONS OF MOTION

171

0 = F1x2

0 = F1y2

Rm 2 = F1z2

0 = M1x2

R

= M1y2

Ioz 2

r

0 = M1z2

0 = F1x2 = R12x2 mg + N

0 = F1y2 = R12y2 + T

Rm 2 = F1z2 = R12z2

0 = M1x2 = M12x2 RT

R

= M1y2 = Rmg + RN

Ioz 2

r

0 = M1z2 = rT

T =0

N = mg + Ioz 2

R

r

R12x2 = mg N = Ioz 2

R12y2 = 0

R12z2 = Rm 2

M12x2 = RT = 0

R

r

EQUATIONS OF MOTION

172

2

R12

M12

C

D

Figure 57

x2

x2

2

R 12x2

1

x1

M12y2=0

M12x2

C

O,o M =0

12z2

M12x2

z1

y 2 R 12y2

z2

R 12z2

r

12 t R 12x2

G

y1

T

Figure 58

EQUATIONS OF MOTION

173

Problem 55

X

x1

z1

1

Figure 59

On the rotating about the vertical axis X platform 1 (see Fig. 59) a turbine is

installed. Rotor of the turbine has mass m and its centre of gravity G is at a distance

a from the axis X. Axis z1 is axis of symmetry of the rotor and its principal moments

of inertia I2x1 = I2y1 = I2 and I2z1 are known.

If the platform rotates with the constant angular velocity and the rotor has

the relative angular velocity , determine components of reactions at the bearings A

and B along system of coordinates x1 y1 z1 fixed to the platform 1.

Given are: I2 , I2z1 , m, , , a, b.

EQUATIONS OF MOTION

174

Problem 56

1

a

v

Figure 60

The thin and uniform bar 1 has mass m and length l. Its end A is moving with

constant velocity v along the horizontal axis Y of the inertial system of coordinates

XY Z. Upon assuming that there is no friction in the constraints A and B and all the

motion is in the vertical plane Y Z, produce the expression for the dynamic reactions

in these constraints as a function of the bar angular position .

Answer:

Solution of the folowing set of equations yields the wanted reactions.

l

l 2

cos + sin m = RAX + RB cos

2

2

l

l 2

sin cos m = mg + RB sin + RAY

2

2

a

ml2

l

l

l

= RAY sin + RAX cos + RB

12

2

2

2 cos

EQUATIONS OF MOTION

175

Problem 57

B

X,x1

O

y1 y2

X,x1

x2

2

l

y1 y2 O

z1

z2

z1

r

z2 z 3

x3

X

2

3

G

y3

Figure 61

Body 3 (see Fig. 61) is driven by means of the massless links 1 and 2 that are

hinged to each other at the point O. Link 1 rotates about the vertical axis X with

the constant angular velocity and the body 3 rolls over the horizontal motionless

ring 4 without slipping. Axis z2 is the axis of symmetry of body 3 and its moments

of inertia about the body system of coordinates x3 y3 z3 are Ix3 = Iy3 = I and Iz

respectively.

Derive the expression for the components of the reaction N and T between

the body 3 and the ring 4.

Given are:

m - mass of the body 3

I, Iz - moments of inertia of the body 3

l - distance between the point of rotation O and centre of gravity G of the

body 3

r - radius of the ring 4

- angular velocity of the link 1

- angle between axis z2 and the horizontal plane

Hint: The body 3 performs rotational motion about the point O.

EQUATIONS OF MOTION

176

Problem 58

z2

3

Y

G3

y2

2

1

X

x2

Figure 62

Fig. 62 shows the physical model of a shaker frequently used to excite the

rolling motion of a ship. The housing 2 of the gyroscope 3 performs oscillatory

motion about axis Y of the inertial system of coordinates XY Z. This motion is

determined by the following equation

= 0 sin t

The system of coordinates x2 y2 z2 is rigidly attached to the housing. The gyroscope

3 of mass m and moments of inertia I3x2 = I3y2 = I3 and I3z about axes x2 y2 z2

respectively, rotates with the constant angular velocity . Upon assuming that the

mass of the housing is negligible, derive an expression for the components of the

moment transmitted to the board 1 of the ship.

EQUATIONS OF MOTION

177

Problem 59

Y

a)

G3

G1

G3

G1

a

O

x2

b)

G3

y2

x1

z2

t

z1

y1

G3

G1

Z

z1

Figure 63

Fig. 63a) shows a gyrostabilizer for stabilization of the monorail car 1. To

test this gyrostabilizer, the car 1 was forced to move along the coordinate (see Fig.

63b)) according to the following equation

= A sin ft

Simultaneously the housing 2 was rotated with respect to the car 1 with constant

angular velocity . The relative angular velocity of the gyroscope 3 with respect to

EQUATIONS OF MOTION

178

1 system of coordinates. x2 y2 z2 is the body 2 system of coordinates.

Given are:

A, f - amplitude and frequency of the oscillatory motion of the car 1

- angular velocity of the housing 2 with respect to the car 1

- angular velocity of the gyroscope 3 with respect to the housing 2

a, b, c, dimensions shown in Fig.63a)

m- mass of the gyroscope 3

Ix = Iy = I, Iz - principal moments of inertia of the gyroscope 3 about axes through

its centre of gravity.

Produce expressions for interaction forces between the gyroscope 3 and its

housing 2.

Answer:

m((a + b)

sin t) mg sin sin t = R32x2

m((a + b) 2 ) + mg cos = R32y2

m((a + b)

cos t) mg sin cos t = R32z2

I(

cos t

sin t) + (Iz I)

sin t + Iz = M32x2

2

(Iz I) sin t cos t Iz cos t = M32y2

Iz (

sin t +

cos t) = Md

EQUATIONS OF MOTION

179

Problem 60

0

x1

A

z1

a

1

G

2

l

l

b

Figure 64

The aircraft landing gear shown in Fig. 64 is being retracted while the aircraft

0 moves with constant velocity along a horizontal straight line. The instantaneous

position of the arm 1 is determined by the angular displacement . The wheel 2

rotates with the constant relative angular velocity with respect to the arm 1.

Given are:

a, b, l, - dimensions shown

m - mass of the wheel 2

Iz - moment of inertia of the wheel 2 about its axis of relative rotation

I = Ix = Iy - moments of inertia of the wheel 2 about axes perpendicular to the axis

of relative rotation

(t) - the angular displacement of the arm 1 with respect to the plane.

- the angular velocity of the wheel 2 with respect to the arm

Produce the expression for the components of the interaction forces between

the wheel 2 and the arm 1 along the body 1 system of coordinates x1 y1 z1 .

EQUATIONS OF MOTION

180

Problem 61

a

O

t

o1

x1

z1 , z2

2

2

y1

y2

x2

21 t

O

o1

x1

Figure 65

Fig. 65 presents the physical model of a ventilator. Its base 1 rotates with

the constant angular velocity about the vertical axis Y of the inertial system of

coordinates XY Z. The system of coordinates x1 y1 z1 is attached to this base. The

rotor 2 is free to rotate about the axis z1 . The relative angular velocity of the rotor

2 with respect to the base 1 is constant and its magnitude is 21 . The system of

coordinates x2 y2 z2 is attached to the rotor 2. The axis z2 is the axis of symmetry

of the rotor and its moments of inertia about the system of coordinates x2 y2 z2 are

Ix2 = Iy2 = I2 , Iz2 respectively. The mass of the rotor is m.

Produce the expression for the components of the interaction force between

the rotor 2 and its base 1.

Answer:

Rx1 = ma 2

Ry1 = mg

Rz1 = bm 2

Mx1 = Iz2 21 My1 = 0

Mz1 = Md = 0

EQUATIONS OF MOTION

181

Problem 62

Z z1

z2

a/2

A

a/2

y1 y2

O

1

a

x1

x2

X

b

b

Figure 66

The link 1 of the mechanical system shown in Fig.66 rotates about the vertical

axis Z of the inertial system of coordinates XYZ with a constant angular velocity .

The system of coordinates x 1 y 1 z 1 is rigidly attached to this link. Two uniform bars,

each of length a and mass m, were joined together to form the link 2 of this system.

The system of coordinates x 2 y 2 z 2 is rigidly attached to the link 2. Its instantaneous

relative position with respect to the system of coordinates x 1 y 1 z 1 is determined by

the angular displacement . Produce:

1.

The free body diagram for the link 2.

2.

The dierential equation of motion of the link 2 in terms of the variable .

3.

The equations for the determination of the interaction forces between the link

2 and 1 in the kinematic constraints A and B.

The moment of inertia of a uniform bar of mass m and length l about the axis

through its centre of gravity is

1

ml2

12

IG =

4.5

182

FREEDOM.

4.5.1 Modelling.

Physical model.

Let us consider motion of a rigid body about a fixed in an inertial space point O (Fig.

67).

z

Z z1

G

.

y1

Y

1

x1 x

Figure 67

Axis x of the rotating system of coordinates xyz stays always in plane XY of

the absolute system of coordinates XY Z. The angle , between those two axes is

called angle of precession and together with angle of mutation determines uniquely

position of axes the rotating system of coordinates xyz. For further consideration,

we shell assume that axis z is axis of symmetry of the body. Since the body is free to

rotate about axis z it has three degree of freedom. Let be the angular velocity of

the body with respect to xyz. The body has mass m. Its centre of gravity is located

on axis z at the point G. Its position is given by a distance r. IOx = IOy = IO and

IOz represent principal moment of inertia of the body about axis xyz.

Kinematic analysis

Angular velocity of the system of coordinates xyz is

+

= K + i

=

(4.220)

183

yields its components along the rotating system of coordinates xyz.

)

=

x = i (K+i

)

= sin

y = j (K+i

)

= cos

z = k (K+i

(4.221)

Equations of motion.

The introduced assumptions allow to take advantage from the modified Eulers equations.

IO x + (IOz IO ) z y + IOz y = MOx

IO y (IOz IO )x z IOz x = MOy

= MOz

IOz ( z + )

(4.222)

Components of moment

MO = kr K(mg)

(4.223)

are

Mx

My

Mz

1

0

0

0

1 = rmgsin

= (i (k K))rmg = rmg 0

0 sin cos

0

1

0

0

1 = 0

= (j (k K))rmg = rmg 0

0 sin cos

0

0

1

0

1 = 0

(4.224)

= (k (k K))rmg = rmg 0

0 sin cos

Upon introducing Eq. 4.224 and 4.221 into Eq. 4.222 one can obtain equations of

motion in the following form.

+ (IOz IO ) 2 sin cos + IOz sin rmg sin = 0

IO

sin + IO

cos (IOz IO )

cos IOz

= 0

IO

sin + )

= 0

IOz (cos

(4.225)

4.5.2 Analysis.

General solutions of the mathematical model 4.225 can not be obtain by means of any

analytical methods. But, very often, we can procure a number of particular solutions

by guessing their form.

184

Particular solutions.

Let us predict the particular solution of the set of equations 4.225 in the following

form

= pt

= o

= o

(4.226)

where

p, o , o are constant values. Hence

= p

=0

=0

=0

= 0

(4.227)

Upon introducing Eq. 4.226 into Eq. 4.225 one can see that second and third equation

is fulfilled for any instant of time. The first equation yields

(IOz IO )p2 sin o cos o + IOz o p sin o rmg sin o = 0

(4.228)

The predicted solution 4.226 may be considered as an solution, if the equation 4.228

is fulfilled. It is fulfilled for

o = 0

o =

(4.229)

following relationship

p

IOz o (IOz o )2 + 4(IOz IO )rmg cos o

(4.230)

p1,2 =

2(IOz IO ) cos o

The precession p1 , which corresponds to sign + is called slow precession to distinguish

it from fast precession p2 corresponding to sign . The relationship 4.230 permits to

compute so called static characteristic of a gyroscope.

Let us adopt, for further analysis, dimensions of the gyroscope shown in Fig.

68

R

b

R=0.04m

b=0.015m

m=0.6kg

0.025m

r=

0.015m

Figure 68

185

For r = 0.025m, IO = 0.000629kgm2 > IOz = 0.000482kgm2 the static characteristic of the gyroscope for a few values of angular velocity (o = 0, 5, 10, 15, 20

and 25s1 ) is shown in Fig. 69.For high angular velocity o = 25s1 (see Fig. 70)

the gyroscope can perform the fast and slow regular precession p for any mutation

angle o . If angular velocity o is slower e.g. o = 15s1 , the gyroscope can perform

regular precession only for certain range of angle of mutation o .

Fig. 71 present static characteristics for r = 0.015m. In this case IO =

0.000388kgm2 < IOz = 0.000482kgm2 .

The presented characteristics determine regular precession which may be obtained only for certain set of initial conditions which strictly correspond to the assumed form of particular solution 4.226. More particular solution can be obtained

by numerical integration of the mathematical model 4.225.

Numerical solution of equations of motion.

Fig. 73. presents a few numerical solutions carried out for r = .025m. The diagrams

in this figure show instantaneous positions yG of the point G of the gyroscope versus

its angle of precession . For all cases the initial speed of the gyroscope was assumed

to be i = 15s1 .

Fig 73A presents solution for initial conditions chosen in vicinity of upper

i = 0, i = 0, i = 0, i = 15s1 ).

equilibrium position o = 0(i = 0.01s1 ,

Since the gyroscope can not perform regular precession (see Fig. 70), it execute large

oscillations.

Fig. 73B corresponds to situation when the gyroscope, performing regular

o = 0, o = p1 = 25s1 , o = 15s1 see Fig. 70) was pushed

precession (o = 1.26,

i = 8s1 . Due to the following initial

out of its motion at t = 0 with initial velocity

i = 8s1 , i = 0, i = 0, i = 15s1 the gyroscope

conditions i = 1.26rad,

performs small oscillation around regular precession.

Similar behavior can be observed if it is pushed out of its regular fast precession

o = 0, o = p2 = 136, o = 15 see Fig. 70). This situation is

(o = 1.26rad,

presented in Fig. 73C.

Figures 73D and 73E show solution of disturbed motion of the gyroscope about

of mutation o = 2.51rad (see Fig. 70). Those solution were obtained for initial

i = 8s1 , i = 0, i = 16.170s1 , i = 15s1 and

conditions i = 2.51rad,

1

i = 8s , i = 0, i = 77.1s1 , i = 15s1 respectively.

i = 2.51rad,

Fig. 73F presents motion of the gyroscope in vicinity of the lower equilibrium

i = 20s1 ,

position (o = ) caused by the following initial conditions i = 2.51,

1

i = 0, i = 0, i = 15s .

186

r=0.025 [m]

60

50

40

30

[rad/s]

20

10

0

0

0.63

= 0

= 5

1.26

= 10

o [rad]

1.88

= 15

2.51

= 20

3.14

= 25 [rad]

2

r=0.025 [m]

400

300

200

p

100

[rad/s]

0

-100

-200

-300

-400

0

0.63

1.26

1.88

2.51

3.14

o [rad]

= 0

= 5

= 10

= 15

Figure 69

= 20

= 25 [rad]

= 25 [rad/s]

187

r=0.025 [m]

200

150

100

50

p

[rad/s]

0

-50

-100

-150

-200

0

0.63

1.26

1.88

slow precession

2.51

fast precession

p

2

3.14

[rad]

r=0.025 [m]

200

150

100

50

p

[rad/s]

0

-50

-100

-150

-200

0

0.63

1.26

slow precession

1.88

o

Figure 70

2.51

3.14

[rad]

fast precession

p

2

188

r = 0.015 [m]

60

50

40

p

30

[rad/s]

20

10

0

0

0.63

= 0

= 5

1.26

= 10

o [rad]

1.88

= 15

2.51

= 20

3.14

= 25 [rad]

r = 0.015 [m]

400

300

200

100

p

2

[rad/s]

0

-100

-200

-300

-400

0

0.63

1.26

1.88

2.51

3.14

o [rad]

= 0

= 5

= 10

= 15

Figure 71

= 20

= 25 [rad]

= 20 [rad/s]

189

r = 0.015 [m]

200

150

100

50

p

[rad/s]

0

-50

-100

-150

-200

0

0.63

1.26

1.88

slow precession

2.51

fast precession

p

2

3.14

[rad]

r = 0.015 [m]

200

150

100

50

p

[rad/s]

0

-50

-100

-150

-200

0

0.63

1.26

slow precession

1.88

o

Figure 72

2.51

3.14

[rad]

fast precession

p

2

[rad]

0

0

[rad]

-20

20

[rad]

0

20

[rad]

0

20

[rad]

0

20

[rad]

yG [m]

0

G

yG

O

Figure 73

0

-0.04

190

Chapter 5

APPENDIXES

5.1

NOTATION.

z

V

k

i

Vz

y

Vx

Vy

The vector quantities are printed in boldface type V or, in handwriting, should

always be indicated by symbol V to distinguish them from the scalar quantities V.

Vector quantities are usually defined in the right-handed system of coordinates by

its scalar components Vx , Vy , Vz .

(5.1)

were i, j, k are unit vectors of the system of coordinates xyz.

V =

q

Vx2 + Vy2 + Vz2

(5.2)

axes xyz.. Thus

l = cos ]Vi =

Vx

V

n = cos ]Vj =

Vy

V

m = cos ]Vk =

Vz

V

(5.3)

Useful relations

l2 + n2 + m2 = 1

(5.4)

192

magnitude

P Q =P Q cos

(5.5)

Useful relations

PQ=

Px

PQ=QP

(5.6)

ii=jj=kk=1

(5.7)

ij=jk=ij=0

Q

x

Py Pz Qy = Px Qx + Py Qy + Pz Qz

Qz

Px = i P

Py = j P

Pz = k P

(5.8)

(5.9)

(5.10)

vector with the magnitude P Q sin and direction specified by the right-hand rule as

shown.

Px Q

Useful relations

P (Q + R) = P Q + P R

(5.11)

Q P = P Q

(5.12)

ij=k

jk=i

ki=j

(5.13)

ii=jj=kk=0

i

j

k

P Q = Px Py Pz

Qx Qy Qz

(5.14)

(P Q) R

(5.16)

(5.15)

193

Useful relations

(P Q) R = (R P) Q = (Q R) P

Px Py Pz

(P Q) R = Qx Qy Qz

Rx Ry Rz

(5.17)

P (Q R)

(5.19)

P (Q R) = Q (R P) R (P Q)

(5.20)

dP

P

= lim

=P

t0

dt

t

(5.21)

(5.18)

Useful relations

DERIVATIVE OF A VECTOR

Useful relations

d(Pf )

+ Pf

= Pf

dt

d(P Q)

Q+PQ

= P

dt

d(P Q)

Q+PQ

= P

dt

(5.22)

(5.23)

(5.24)

OF RIGID BODIES.

194

5.2

Sphere

z

R

G

4

V = R3

3

2

Ixx = Iyy = Izz = mR2

5

Hemisphere

z

3R

8

y

G

R

x

2

V = R3

3

2

Izz = mR2

5

Cone

z

1h

4

y

h

G

R

1

V = R2 h

3

Ixx = Iyy =

3

m(4R2 + h2 )

80

Cylinder

z

1h

2

1h

2

x

y

G

R

Izz =

3

mR2

10

OF RIGID BODIES.

195

V = R2 h

Ixx = Iyy =

1

m(3R2 + h2 )

12

1

Izz = mR2

2

Rectangular block

z

y

c

a

b

V = abc

Ixx =

1

m(b2 + c2 )

12

Iyy =

1

m(a2 + c2 )

12

Slender rod

z

R

l

G

V =0

Ixx = Iyy =

1 2

ml

12

Izz = 0

Izz =

1

m(a2 + b2 )

12

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