Text Books:
1. Antenna Theory, Balanis C.A, John Wiley & sons 2nd
edition Reprint 2008
2. Electromagnetic and radiating systems, Jordan E.C,
PHI., 2nd edition, 2008
3. Antennas, John D Kraus & R J Marhefka 3rd Edition,
2002.
4. Antenna and Wave Propagation, K.D. Prasad, Satya
Prakashan, 3rd edition 2006
CONTENTS
Antennas
Fundamental Parameters of Antennas
Arrays
Aperture Antennas and Reflector antenna
Radio Wave propagation
CONTENTS
Antennas
Fundamental Parameters of Antennas
Arrays
Aperture, Horn and Reflector antennas
Radio Wave propagation
ANTENNAS
Introduction
Types of Antenna
Radiation Mechanism
Physical concept of Radiation in single wire, two wire
and dipole
Current Distribution on a Thin Wire Antenna
INTRODUCTION
Antenna or Aerial :
 is a transducer that transmits or receives
electromagnetic waves
 converts the voltage and current into the
electromagnetic radiation and viceversa
 is a transitional structure between freespace and a
guiding structure
 The American Heritage Dictionary: A metallic
apparatus for sending and receiving electromagnetic
waves.
 Websters Dictionary: A usually metallic device (as a
rod or wire) for radiating or receiving radio waves
INTRODUCTION
What is an Antenna?
An antenna is a device for radiating and receiving radio
waves. The antenna is the transitional structure between
freespace and a guiding device.
INTRODUCTION
A transmissionline Thevenin equivalent of the antenna
system
INTRODUCTION
A transmissionline Thevenin equivalent of the antenna
system
INTRODUCTION
.
INTRODUCTION
Antennas
Introduction
Types of Antenna
Radiation Mechanism
Physical concept of Radiation in single wire, two wire
Current Distribution on a Thin Wire Antenna
TYPES OF ANTENNAS
Wire antennas
Aperture antennas
Microstrip antennas
Array antennas
Reflector antennas
Lens antennas
Wireeverywhereantennas
seen virtually
on automobile,
building, ships, aircraft, and so on.
Shapes of wire antennas:
straight wire (dipole), loop (circular), and helix,
Loop antenna may take the shape of a rectangle ,
ellipse or any other shape configuration
Aperture Aperture antennas derived
antenna
from waveguide technology
(circular, rectangular)
Can transfer high power
(magnetrons, klystrons)
Utilization of higher
frequencies
Applications: aircraft, and spacecraft
EM wave
Power
absorbed: P [watt]
Effective
aperture: A[m2]
Note: The aperture concept is applicable also to wired antennas.
For instance, the max effective aperture of linear /2
wavelength dipole antenna is 2/8
15
Microstrip
consist of
metallic patch antenna
on a grounded substrate
Examples: rectangular and circular shape
Applications: aircraft, spacecraft, satellite, missiles,
cars etc
RECTANGLE
CIRCLE
Patch
Antennas
Radiation is from two slots on left and right edges of patch where slot is
region between patch and ground plane
Length d = /r1/2
Thickness typically 0.01
The big advantage is conformal, i.e. flat, shape and low weight
Disadvantages: Low gain, Narrow bandwidth (overcome by fancy shapes and
other heroic efforts), Becomes hard to feed when complex, e.g. for wide
band operation
Patch Antenna Pattern
a collection of simple antennas
Array antennas
 gives desire d radiation characteristics
 The arrangement of the array may be such that the radiation from
the elements adds up to give a radiation maximum in a particular
direction or directions, minimum in others, or otherwise as desired
 Examples: yagiuda array, aperture array, microstrip patch array,
slotted waveguide array
Array of patch
Antennas
Reflector
millions of miles
antennas
A very common reflector antenna parabolic reflector
 used in order to transmit and receive signals that had to travel

Parabolic
Reflectors
A parabolic reflector operates
much the same way a reflecting
telescope does
Reflections of rays from the
feed point all contribute in
phase to a plane wave leaving
the antenna along the antenna
bore sight (axis)
Typically used at UHF and
higher frequencies
lenses are primarily used to collimate incident divergent energy to
Lens antennas
prevent it from spreading in undesired directions
Transform various forms of divergent energy into plane waves
Used in most of applications as are the parabolic reflectors,
especially at higher frequencies. Their dimensions and weight
bec0me exceedingly large at lower frequencies.
Lenses play a similar role to that of reflectors in reflector antennas:
they collimate divergent energy
Often preferred to reflectors at frequencies > 100 GHz.
24
Antennas
Introduction
Types of Antenna
Radiation Mechanism
Physical concept of Radiation in single wire, two wire and dipole
Current Distribution on a Thin Wire Antenna
PHYSICAL CONCEPT OF
How is Radiation
Accomplished?
RADIATION
Principle of radiation
or RADIATION
When electric charges undergo acceleration or deceleration,
MECHANISM
electromagnetic radiation will be produced. Hence it is the
motion of charges (i.e., currents) that is the source of radiation
basic equation of radiation
IL = Qv
Where
Itime varying current
Qcharge
Llength of current element
vtime change of velocity
Radiation Mechanism in a) Single wire, b) Two wire and c) Dipole
Radiation Mechanism
Single wire:
Conducting wires are characterized by the motion of electric charges and the
creation of current ow.
Assume that an electric volume charge density, qv (coulombs/m3), is
distributed uniformly in a circular wire of crosssectional area A and volume V
qv  volume charge density
A crosssectional area
VVolume
Radiation Mechanism
Single wire:
Instead of examining all three current densities, we will primarily
concentrate on the very thin wire.
The conclusions apply to all three. If the current is time varying.
Radiation Mechanism
Radiation Mechanism
Thin wire
Radiation Mechanism
Single wire:
Radiation Mechanism
TwoWires:
Applying a voltage across the twoconductor transmission line
creates an electric eld between the conductors.
The movement of the charges creates a current that in turn
creates a magnetic eld intensity.
The creation of timevarying electric and magnetic elds between
the conductors forms electromagnetic waves which travel along
the transmission line.
Radiation Mechanism
TwoWires:
The electromagnetic waves enter the antenna and have
associated with them electric charges and corresponding
currents.
If we remove part of the antenna structure, freespace waves can
be formed by connecting the open ends of the electric lines
Radiation Mechanism
TwoWires:
If the initial electric disturbance by the source is of a short duration, the created
electromagnetic waves travel inside the transmission line, then into the antenna,
and nally are radiated as freespace waves, even if the electric source has
ceased to exist.
If the electric disturbance is of a continuous nature, electromagnetic waves
exist continuously and follow in their travel behind the others.
However, when the waves are radiated, they form closed loops and there are no
charges to sustain their existence.
Electric charges are required to excite the elds but are not needed to sustain
them and may exist in their absence.
Radiation Mechanism
Dipole Antenna:
A radio antenna that can be made of a simple wire, with a centrefed
driven element
Consist of two metal conductors of rod or wire, oriented parallel and
collinear with each other (in line with each other), with a small space
between them.
Consider the example of a small dipole antenna where the
time of travel is negligible
Radiation Mechanism
Formation and detachment of electric field line for short Dipole Antenna
Dipole
Current Distribution on a thin wire
antenna
Let us consider the geometry of a lossless twowire
transmission line
The movement of the charges creates a traveling wave
current, of magnitude I0 /2, along each of the wires.
When the current arrives at the end of each of the wires,
it undergoes a complete reflection (equal magnitude and
180 phase reversal)
The reflected traveling wave, when combined with the
incident traveling wave, forms in a each wire a pure
standing wave pattern of sinusoidal form.
Current Distribution on a thin wire
antenna
Current Distribution on a thin wire
antenna
For the twowire balanced (symmetrical) transmission line, the
current in a halfcycle of one wire is of the same magnitude but 180
outofphase from that in the corresponding halfcycle of the
otherwire
Current Distribution on a thin wire
If s is also very small, the two fields are canceled
antenna
The net result is an almost ideal, nonradiating transmission line.
When the line is flared, because the two wires of the flared section
are not necessarily close to each other, the fields do not cancel each
other
Therefore ideally there is a net radiation by the transmission line
system
Current Distribution on a thin wire
When the line is flared into a dipole, if s not much less than , the
antenna
phase of the current standing wave pattern in each arm is the same
through out its length. In addition, spatially it is oriented in the same
direction as that of the other arm
Thus the field s radiated by the two arms of the dipole (vertical parts
of a flared transmission line) will primarily reinforce each other
toward most directions of observation
Current Distribution on a thin wire
The current distributions we have seen represent the maximum
antenna
current excitation for anytime. The current varies as a function of
time as well.
CONTENTS
Antennas
Fundamental Parameters of Antennas
Arrays
Aperture, Horn and Reflector antennas
Radio Wave propagation
Fundamental Parameters of Antennas
Introduction
Radiation Pattern
Radiation Power Density
Radiation intensity
Directivity, Gain, Antenna efficiency, Beamwidth
Bandwidth
Linear, circular, and elliptical polarization
Polarization loss factor and efficiency
Antenna Input Impedance
Elementary idea about self and mutual impedance
Radiation efficiency
Effective aperture, Antenna Temperature
TEST1, Syllabus upto here
Fundamental Parameters of Antennas
Introduction
Radiation Pattern
Radiation Power Density
Radiation intensity
Directivity, Gain, Antenna efficiency, Beamwidth
Bandwidth
Polarization, Linear, circular, and elliptical polarization
Polarization loss factor and efficiency
Antenna Input Impedance
Elementary idea about self and mutual impedance
Radiation efficiency
Effective aperture, Antenna Temperature
TEST1, Syllabus upto here
Introduction
To describe performance of an antenna
Definition of various parameters
Fundamental Parameters of Antennas
Introduction
Radiation Pattern
Radiation Power Density
Radiation intensity
Directivity, Gain, Antenna efficiency, Beamwidth
Bandwidth
Polarization, Linear, circular, and elliptical polarization
Polarization loss factor and efficiency
Antenna Input Impedance
Elementary idea about self and mutual impedance
Radiation efficiency
Effective aperture, Antenna Temperature
TEST1, Syllabus upto here
Radiation pattern
Mathematical function or Graphical representation of radiation properties
of an antenna as a function of space coordinates. Radiation properties
include power flux density, radiation intensity, field strength, directivity,
phase or polarization.
Radiation pattern usually indicate either electric field intensity or power
intensity. Magnetic field intensity has the same radiation pattern as the
electric field intensity
A directional antenna radiates and receives preferentially in some
direction
Depicted as two or threedimensional spatial distribution of radiated
energy as a function of the observers position along a path or surface of
constant radius
Lobes are classified as: major, minor, side lobes, back lobes
Radiation pattern
Coordinate system for antenna analysis
Radiation pattern
For an antenna
The Field pattern(in linear scale):
typically represents a plot of the magnitude of the electric or magnetic field as a function of the angular space.
The Power pattern(in linear scale):
typically represents a plot of the square of the magnitude of the electric or magnetic field as a function of the
angular space
The Power pattern(in dB):
represents the magnitude of the electric or magnetic field, in decibels, as a function of the angular space.
Radiation pattern
Radiation pattern
various parts of a radiation pattern are referred to as a lobes
Total electric field
is given as
Three dimensional polar pattern
Radiation pattern
various parts of a radiation pattern are referred to as a lobes
Two dimensional polar pattern
Radiation pattern lobes
Various parts of a radiation pattern are referred to as lobes
Major lobe (main lobe):
The radiation lobe containing the direction of maximum radiation
Major lobe is pointing at =0 direction in figure
In spiltbeam antennas, there may exist more than one major
lobes
Minor Lobe
is any lobe except a major lobe
all the lobes exception of the major lobe
Side lobe: a radiation lobe in any direction other than intended lobe
Usually it is adjacent to main lobe
Back lobe:
a radiation lobe whose axis makes an angle of approximately
1800 with respect to the beam of antenna
usually it refers to a minor lobe that occupies the hemisphere in
a direction opposite to that of major lobe
Fundamental Parameters of Antennas
Introduction
Radiation Pattern
Radiation Power Density
Radiation intensity
Directivity, Gain, Antenna efficiency, Beamwidth
Bandwidth
Polarization, Linear, circular, and elliptical polarization
Polarization loss factor and efficiency
Antenna Input Impedance
Elementary idea about self and mutual impedance
Radiation efficiency
Effective aperture, Antenna Temperature
TEST1, Syllabus upto here
Radiation Power Density
Poynting Vector or Power density(w)
The instantaneous poynting vector describe the power
associated with electromagnetic wave
Poynting vector defined as
W=ExH
W instantaneous poynting vector (W/m2)
E instantaneous electric field intensity (V/m)
H instantaneous magnetic field intensity (A/m)
Radiation Power Density
The total power crossing a closed surface can be obtained by
integrating the normal component of poynting vector over the entire
surface.
p= instantaneous total power (W)
n = unit vector normal to the surface
da = infinitesimal are a of the closed surface (m2 )
we define the complex fields E and H which are related to their
instantaneous counter parts E and H by
Radiation Power Density
identity
W=ExH=
The first term of is not a function of time, and the time variations of the
second are twice the given frequency.
Average Power Density:
The average power density is obtained by integrating the
instantaneous Poynting vector over one period and dividing
by the period.
Wav=
the real part of represents the average (real) power density the imaginary
part Must represent the reactive (stored) power density associated with the
electromagnetic fields
Radiation Power Density
The average power radiated by an antenna (radiated power)
can be written as
Radian and Steradian
A radian is defined with the using Figure ( a)
It is the angle subtended by an arc along the
perimeter of the circle with length equal to
the radius.
A steradian may be defined using Figure (b)
Here, one steradian (sr) is subtended by an
area r2 at the surface of a sphere of radius r.
The infinitesimal area dA on the surface of
radius r is defined as
dA =r2 sin d d (m2)
A differential solid angle, d, in sr, is given
by
d = dA/r2 = sin d d (sr)
= sin d d
Unit of plane Angle is a radian
Unit of Solid Angle is a steradian
Isotropic antenna
Isotropic antenna or isotropic radiator or
isotropic source or omnidirectional radiator
or simple unipole
is a hypothetical (not physically realizable)
lossless antenna having equal radiation in all
directions
used as a useful reference antenna to
describe real antennas.
Its radiation pattern is represented by a
sphere of radius (r) whose center coincides
with the location of the isotropic radiator.
All the energy(power) must pass over the
surface area of sphere=4r2
Isotropic antenna
Poynting vector or power density(w) at any point on the sphere
power radiated per unit area in any direction
The magnitude of the poynting vector is equal to the radial component
only(because p = p=0)
w=wr
The total radiated power
PTrad = w.ds
= wr.ds
= wrds
= wr4r2
or wr = PTrad /4r2 watt/m2
where
Wr radiated power of average power density
PTrad total power radiated
Isotropic antenna
The total power radiated by it is given by:
The power density is given by:
which is uniformly distributed over the surface of a sphere of radius r.
Isotropic antenna
Directional
is an antenna,
which radiates (or receives) much more
antenna
power in (or from) some directions than in (or from) others
Note:
Usually, this term is applied to antennas whose
directivity is much higher than that of a halfwave dipole
Principal
For linearly polarized antenna performance is often described
in terms
of its principal Eand HPlane patterns
Patterns
E Plane : the plane containing the electric field vector and the
maximum radiation
H Plane : the plane containing the magnetic field vector and the
xz elevation plane contain principal Emaximum radiation
plane
xy azimuthal plane contain principal Hplane
Principal E and H plane pattern for a pyramidal horn antenna
Field
The space surroundingRegions
an antenna is usually subdivided into three
regions:
Field
The space surrounding an antenna is usually subdivided into three
Regions
regions:
Reactive nearfield region:That portion of the nearfield region
immediately surrounding the antenna wherein the reactive field
predominates.
Radiating nearfield (Fresnel) region:That region of the field of an
antenna between the reactive nearfield region and the farfield
region wherein radiation fields predominate and wherein the angular
field distribution is dependent upon the distance from the antenna
Farfield (Fraunhofer) region:That region of the field of an antenna
where the angular field distribution is essentially independent of the
distance from the antenna.
Field
The space surrounding an antenna is usually subdivided into three
Regions
regions:
Fundamental Parameters of Antennas
Introduction
Radiation Pattern
Radiation Power Density
Radiation intensity
Directivity, Gain, Antenna efficiency, Beamwidth
Bandwidth
Polarization, Linear, circular, and elliptical polarization
Polarization loss factor and efficiency
Antenna Input Impedance
Elementary idea about self and mutual impedance
Radiation efficiency
Effective aperture, Antenna Temperature
TEST1, Syllabus upto here
Radiation Intensity
Radiation intensity in a given direction is defined as the power radiated
from an antenna per unit solid angle.
U = Prad/d
Where
Pradradiated power
=d solid angel
The radiation intensity is a farfield parameter, and it can be obtained by
simply multiplying the radiation density by the square of the distance.
U = r2Wrad
Wrad radiation density (W/m2)
r distance (m)
U  radiation intensity (W/ unit solid angle)
Radiation Intensity
The radiation intensity is also related to the farzone electric field of
an antenna, by
The total power is obtained by integrating the radiation intensity,
over the entire solid angle of 4. Thus
Radiation Intensity
Radiation patterns may be functions of both spherical coordinate
angles and
Let the radiation intensity of an antenna be of the form
The maximum value of radiation intensity
The total radiated power is found using
Fundamental Parameters of Antennas
Introduction
Radiation Pattern
Radiation Power Density
Radiation intensity
Directivity, Gain, Antenna efficiency, Beamwidth
Bandwidth
Polarization, Linear, circular, and elliptical polarization
Polarization loss factor and efficiency
Antenna Input Impedance
Elementary idea about self and mutual impedance
Radiation efficiency
Effective aperture, Antenna Temperature
TEST1, Syllabus upto here
Directivity (D):
Directivity
the ratio of the radiation intensity in a given direction from the antenna to the
radiation intensity averaged over all directions
the directivity of a nonisotropic source is equal to the ratio of its radiation intensity in
a given direction over that of isotropic source
The average radiation intensity (U0) is equal to the total power radiated by the
antenna divided by 4.
If the direction is not specified, it implies the direction of maximum radiation intensity
(maximum directivity) expressed as
U = radiation intensity (W/unit solid angle)
Umax = maximum radiation intensity (W/unit solid angle)
U0= radiation intensity of isotropic source (W/unit solid angle)
Prad = total radiated power (W)
D = directivity(dimensionless)
D0= maximumdirectivity(dimensionless)
Directivity
The general expression for the directivity and maximum
directivity (D0) using
Directivity
Directive gain
The directive gain,, of an antenna is the ratio of the
normalized power in a particular direction to the
average normalized power, or
D ,
Pn ,
Pn , avg
Where the normalized powers average value taken
over the entire spherical solid angle is
P , d
P ,
4
d
n
avg
The directivity, Dmax, is the maximum directive gain,
Dmax D , max
Dmax
4
p
Pn , max
Pn , avg
Using Pn , max 1
Directivity
Partial Directivity of antenna:
Partial directivity of an antenna for a given polarization in a given direction as
that part of the radiation intensity corresponding to a given polarization
divided by the total radiation intensity averaged over all directions.
With this definition for the partial directivity, then in a given direction
the total directivity is the sum of the partial directivities for any two
orthogonal polarizations
For a spherical coordinate system, the total maximum directivity D0 for the
orthogonal and components of an antenna can be written as
While the partial directivities D and D are expressed as
Directivity
Directional Patterns:
In Figure2.14(a). For a rotationally symmetric pattern, the halfpower beam widths in any
two perpendicular planes are the same, as illustrated in Figure2.14(b).
With this approximation, maximum directivity can be approximated by
Directivity
Directional Patterns:
With this approximation, maximum directivity can be approximated by
Fundamental Parameters of Antennas
Introduction
Radiation Pattern
Radiation Power Density
Radiation intensity
Directivity, Gain, Antenna efficiency, Beamwidth
Bandwidth
Polarization, Linear, circular, and elliptical polarization
Polarization loss factor and efficiency
Antenna Input Impedance
Elementary idea about self and mutual impedance
Radiation efficiency
Effective aperture, Antenna Temperature
TEST1, Syllabus upto here
Antenna Gain
The ratio of the intensity, in a given direction, to the radiation
intensity that would be obtained if the power accepted by the
antenna were radiated isotropically
The radiation intensity corresponding to the isotropically
radiated power is equal to the power accepted (input) by the
antenna divided by 4
In equation form this can be expressed as
Antenna Gain
the ratio of the Power gain in a given direction to the power
gain of a reference antenna in its referenced direction
The power input must be the same for both antennas
Mostly Reference antenna is a lossless isotropic source. Thus
When the direction is not stated, the power gain is usually taken in the
direction of maximum radiation.
We can write that the total radiated power related to the total input
power
Antenna Gain
Antenna Gain
Partial gain of an antenna
For a given polarization in a given direction
Total gain
Antenna Gain
Relationship between antenna gain and effective area
4Ae 4f Ae
G 2
c2
2
G = antenna gain
Ae = effective area
f = carrier frequency
c = speed of light (3x108 m/s)
= carrier wavelength
Fundamental Parameters of Antennas
Introduction
Radiation Pattern
Radiation Power Density
Radiation intensity
Directivity, Gain, Antenna efficiency, Beamwidth
Bandwidth
Polarization, Linear, circular, and elliptical polarization
Polarization loss factor and efficiency
Antenna Input Impedance
Elementary idea about self and mutual impedance
Radiation efficiency
Effective aperture, Antenna Temperature
TEST1, Syllabus upto here
Antenna
Efficiency
In general,
the over all
Efficiency can be written as
Radiation Resistance & Antenna
Efficiency
Radiation resistance (R ) is a fictitious resistance,
rad
such that the average power flow out of the antenna is
Pav = (1/2) I2 Rrad
Using the equations for our short (Hertzian) dipole we find that
Rrad = 80 2 (l/)2 ohms
Antenna Efficiency
o = Rrad/(Rrad+ Rloss)
where Rloss ohmic losses as heat
Gain = ox Directivity
G =o D
Fundamental Parameters of Antennas
Introduction
Radiation Pattern
Radiation Power Density
Radiation intensity
Directivity, Gain, Antenna efficiency, Beamwidth
Bandwidth
Polarization, Linear, circular, and elliptical polarization
Polarization loss factor and efficiency
Antenna Input Impedance
Elementary idea about self and mutual impedance
Radiation efficiency
Effective aperture, Antenna Temperature
TEST1, Syllabus upto here
Beamwidt
Halfpower beamwidth (HPBW) ( )
is the angle between twoh
vectors from the patterns origin to the
H
points of the major lobe where the radiation intensity is half its
maximum
Often used to describe the antenna resolution properties
Important in radar technology, radioastronomy, etc.
Power pattern of U()=
Firstnull beamwidth (FNBW) (N)
is the angle between two vectors, originating at the patterns origin
and tangent to the main beam at its base.
Often FNBW 2*HPBW
Beam efficiency
To judge the quality of transmitting and receiving antennas
If 1 is chosen as the angle where the first null or minimum
occurs, then the beam efficiency will indicate the amount of
power in the major lobe compared to the total power.
Fundamental Parameters of Antennas
Introduction
Radiation Pattern
Radiation Power Density
Radiation intensity
Directivity, Gain, Antenna efficiency, Beamwidth
Bandwidth
Polarization, Linear, circular, and elliptical polarization
Polarization loss factor and efficiency
Antenna Input Impedance
Elementary idea about self and mutual impedance
Radiation efficiency
Effective aperture, Antenna Temperature
TEST1, Syllabus upto here
Bandwid
Bandwidth: the range of frequencies within which the performance of
th
the antenna, with respect
to some characteristic, conforms to a
specified standard
For broadband antennas, the bandwidth is usually expressed as the
ratio of the uppertolower frequencies of acceptable operation
F.E. 10:1 bandwidth indicates that the upper frequency is 10 times
greater than the lower
For narrowband antennas, the bandwidth is expressed as a
percentage of the frequency difference (upper minus lower) over the
center frequency of the bandwidth
F.E. a 5% bandwidth indicates that the frequency difference of
acceptable operation is 5% of the center frequency of the
bandwidth
gain, side lobe level,
beamwidth,
polarization, and
beam direction
Pattern
bandwidth
input
impedance
and radiation
efficiency
Impedanc
e
bandwidth
Fundamental Parameters of Antennas
Introduction
Radiation Pattern
Radiation Power Density
Radiation intensity
Directivity, Gain, Antenna efficiency, Beamwidth
Bandwidth
Polarization, Linear, circular, and elliptical polarization
Polarization loss factor and efficiency
Antenna Input Impedance
Elementary idea about self and mutual impedance
Radiation efficiency
Effective aperture, Antenna Temperature
TEST1, Syllabus upto here
Polarizati
on
Polarization of an
antenna:
the polarization of the wave transmitted (radiated) by the antenna
When the direction is not stated, the polarization is taken to be
the polarization in the direction of maximum gain
Polarization of the radiated energy varies with the direction from
the center of the antenna, so that different parts of the pattern
may have different polarizations
Polarization may be classified as linear, circular, or elliptical
Polarizati
Polarization of a on
radiated wave
is defined as that property of an electro magnetic wave
describing the time varying direction and relative magnitude of
the electricfield vector; specifically, the figure traced as a
function of time by the extremity of the vector at a fixed location
in space, and the sense in which it is traced, as observed along
the direction of propagation.
Polarization then is the curve traced by the end point of the
arrow (vector) representing the instantaneous electric field. The
field must be observed along the direction of propagation. A
typical trace as a function of time is shown in Figure
Polarization of EM Waves
Clockwise rotation of the E vector= righthand polarization
counterclockwise rotation of the E vector = lefthand
polarization
Polarization of EM Waves
Horizontal polarization
Vertical polarization
Circular polarization
(RCP)
Circular polarization
(LCP)
Waves
AR: The ratio of the major axis to the minor axis is referred to as the axial ratio (AR)
,and it is equal to
Fundamental Parameters of Antennas
Introduction
Radiation Pattern
Radiation Power Density
Radiation intensity
Directivity, Gain, Antenna efficiency, Beamwidth
Bandwidth
Polarization, Linear, circular, and elliptical polarization
Polarization loss factor and efficiency
Antenna Input Impedance
Elementary idea about self and mutual impedance
Radiation efficiency
Effective aperture, Antenna Temperature
TEST1, Syllabus upto here
Polarization of EM
Waves
The instantaneous field of a plane wave, traveling in the
negative z direction:
Instantaneous components are related to their complex
counterparts by
where Exo and Eyo are, respectively, the maximum magnitudes
of the x and y components.
Linear Polarization:
A timeharmonic wave is linearly polarized at a given point in
space if the electricfield (or magneticfield) vector at that point
is always oriented along the same straight line at every instant
of time.
This is accomplished if the field vector (electric or magnetic)
possesses:
Only one component, or
Two orthogonal linear components that are in time phase or 180
(or multiples of 180) outofphase.
the timephase difference between the two components must
be
linearly polarized plane
waves
Any two orthogonal plane waves
Can be combined into a linearly
Polarized wave.
Conversely, any arbitrary linearly
polarized wave can be resolved
into two independent Orthogonal
plane waves that are in phase.
E e x E0 x cos(t kz ) e y E0 y cos(t kz )
2
2
E E E0 x E0 y
tan (
1
E0 y
E0 x
[215]
Fundamental Parameters of Antennas
Introduction
Radiation Pattern
Radiation Power Density
Radiation intensity
Directivity, Gain, Antenna efficiency, Beamwidth
Bandwidth
Polarization, Linear, circular, and elliptical polarization
Polarization loss factor and efficiency
Antenna Input Impedance
Elementary idea about self and mutual impedance
Radiation efficiency
Effective aperture, Antenna Temperature
TEST1, Syllabus upto here
Circular Polarization:
A timeharmonic wave is circularly polarized at a given point in
space if the Electric (or magnetic) field vector at that point traces
a circle as a function of time
The necessary and sufficient conditions to accomplish this are if
the field vector (electric or magnetic) possesses all of the
following:
a. The field must have two orthogonal linear components,
and
b. The two components must have the same magnitude, and
c. The two components must have a timephase difference of
odd multiples of 90.
Circular
magnitudes of the two
Polarization:
components are same
Circular Polarization:
the timephase difference between
components is odd multiples of
/2
Circular Polarized wave:
Circular polarization : E 0 x E 0 y E 0 &
[217]
2
: right circularly polarized,  : left circularly polarized
Optical Fiber communications, 3rd ed.,G.Keiser,McGrawHill, 2000
Fundamental Parameters of Antennas
Introduction
Radiation Pattern
Radiation Power Density
Radiation intensity
Directivity, Gain, Antenna efficiency, Beamwidth
Bandwidth
Linear, circular, and elliptical polarization
Polarization loss factor and efficiency
Antenna Input Impedance
Elementary idea about self and mutual impedance
Radiation efficiency
Effective aperture, Antenna Temperature
TEST1, Syllabus upto here
Elliptical Polarization:
A timeharmonic wave is elliptically polarized if the tip
of the field vector (electric or magnetic) traces an
elliptical locus in space.
At various instants of time the field vector changes
continuously with time at such a manner as to
describe an elliptical locus.
It is righthand (clockwise) elliptically polarized if the
field vector rotates clockwise, and it is lefthand
(counterclockwise) elliptically polarized if the field
vector of the ellipse rotates counterclockwise
Elliptical Polarization:
magnitudes of the two components are NOT same the
timephase difference between components is odd
multiples of /2
Or when the time phase difference between the two
components is not equal to multiples of /2
(irrespective of their magnitudes)
Elliptical Polarization:
The necessary and sufficient conditions
The field must have two orthogonal linear components, and
The two components can be of the same or different
magnitude
(1) If the two components are not of the same magnitude, the
timephase difference between the two components must not
be 0 or multiples of 180 (because it will then be linear).
(2)If the two components are of the same magnitude, the time
phase difference between the two components must not be
odd multiples of 90 (because it will then be circular).
Elliptically Polarized plane waves
E e x Ex e y E y
e x E 0 x cos(t kz ) e y cos(t kz )
Ex
E0 x
Ey
Ex
2
E
E0 x
0y
2 E 0 x E 0 y cos
tan(2 )
E0 x E0 y
Ey
E
0y
cos sin 2
[216]
Polarization
Typical Applications
Vertical polarization is most commonly used when it is
desired to radiate a radio signal in all directions over a
short to medium range.
Horizontal polarization is used over longer distances to
reduce interference by vertically polarized equipment
radiating other radio noise, which is often predominantly
vertically polarized.
Circular polarization is most often used in satellite
communications.
Fundamental Parameters of Antennas
Introduction
Radiation Pattern
Radiation Power Density
Radiation intensity
Directivity, Gain, Antenna efficiency, Beamwidth
Bandwidth
Linear, circular, and elliptical polarization
Polarization loss factor and efficiency
Antenna Input Impedance
Elementary idea about self and mutual impedance
Radiation efficiency
Effective aperture, Antenna Temperature
TEST1, Syllabus upto here
Polarization Loss Factor &
Efficiency
Usually, polarization of the receiving antenna polarization of
the incoming (incident) wave
polarization mismatch.
The amount of power extracted by the antenna from the
incoming signal will not be maximum because of the
polarization loss
Assuming that the electric field of the incoming wave can be
written as
unit vector of
the wave
Polarization Loss Factor &
Efficiency
Polarization of the electric field of the receiving
antenna
Polarization loss factor (PLF)
angle between the
two unit vectors
Polarization Loss Factor &
Efficiency
Polarization efficiency
= Polarization mismatch = loss factor :
the ratio of the power received by an antenna from a given
plane wave of arbitrary polarization to the power that would be
received by the same antenna from a plane wave of the same
power flux density and direction of propagation, whose state of
polarization has been adjusted for a maximum received power
Polarization Loss Factor &
Efficiency (Cont)
PLF for transmitting and receiving aperture antennas
Polarization Loss Factor &
Efficiency
PLF for transmitting and receiving linear wire antennas
Fundamental Parameters of Antennas
Introduction
Radiation Pattern
Radiation Power Density
Radiation intensity
Directivity, Gain, Antenna efficiency, Beamwidth
Bandwidth
Polarization, Linear, circular, and elliptical polarization
Polarization loss factor and efficiency
Antenna Input Impedance
Elementary idea about self and mutual impedance
Radiation efficiency
Effective aperture, Antenna Temperature
TEST1, Syllabus upto here
Input Impedance (Transmitting
mode)
Input impedance:
the impedance presented by an antenna at its terminals or
the ratio of the voltage to current at a pair of terminals or
the ratio of the appropriate components of the electric to
magnetic fields at a point
We are primarily interested in the input impedance at the input terminals
of the antenna
Input Impedance
Ratio of the voltage to current at these terminals, with no load
attached, defines the impedance of the antenna as
Input Impedance
Assume that the antenna is attached to a generator with
internal impedance
We can find
the amount of power delivered to Rr for radiation by
the amount of power dissipated in RL as heat by
Input Impedance
Current developed within the loop is
Input Impedance
Magnitude of current developed within the loop is
The power delivered to the antenna for radiation is given by
and that dissipated as heat by
Input Impedance
The remaining power (Pg) is dissipated as heat on the
internal resistance Rg and it is given by
The maximum power delivered to the antenna occurs when
we have conjugate matching
For this case
Input Impedance
From equations (281)(283), It is clear that
The power supplied by the generator during conjugate
matching is
Antenna in the Receiving
Mode
The incident wave impinges upon the antenna, and it
induces a voltage VT
All the formulation is same as the transmitting mode (just
replace subscript g with T)
Antenna in the Receiving
Mode
Under conjugate matching
Powers delivered to Rr ,RL ,and RT are given, respectively,
by
While the induced (collected or captured) is
Under conjugate matching of the total power collected or captured (Pc) half is
delivered to the load RT and the other half is scattered or reradiated through Rr
and dissipated as heat through RL
Fundamental Parameters of Antennas
Introduction
Radiation Pattern
Radiation Power Density
Radiation intensity
Directivity, Gain, Antenna efficiency, Beamwidth
Bandwidth
Polarization, Linear, circular, and elliptical polarization
Polarization loss factor and efficiency
Antenna Input Impedance
Elementary idea about self and mutual impedance
Radiation efficiency
Effective aperture, Antenna Temperature
TEST1, Syllabus upto here
Fundamental Parameters of Antennas
Introduction
Radiation Pattern
Radiation Power Density
Radiation intensity
Directivity, Gain, Antenna efficiency, Beamwidth
Bandwidth
Polarization, Linear, circular, and elliptical polarization
Polarization loss factor and efficiency
Antenna Input Impedance
Elementary idea about self and mutual impedance
Radiation efficiency
Effective aperture, Antenna Temperature
TEST1, Syllabus upto here
Antenna Radiation Efficiency
Remember that antenna efficiency that takes into account the
reflection, conduction, and dielectric losses
The conduction and dielectric losses of an antenna are very
difficult to compute
Even with measurements, they are difficult to separate and they
are usually lumped together to form the ecd efficiency.
The resistance RL is used to represent the conductiondielectric
losses
Antenna Radiation Efficiency
Conductiondielectric efficiency
power delivered to the radiation resistance
the power delivered to Rr and RL
where
Rr Radiation Resistance
RL Loss Resistance
Fundamental Parameters of Antennas
Introduction
Radiation Pattern
Radiation Power Density
Radiation intensity
Directivity, Gain, Antenna efficiency, Beamwidth
Bandwidth
Polarization, Linear, circular, and elliptical polarization
Polarization loss factor and efficiency
Antenna Input Impedance
Elementary idea about self and mutual impedance
Radiation efficiency
Effective aperture, Antenna Temperature
TEST1, Syllabus upto here
Equivalent areas
With each antenna, we can associate an umber of equivalent areas.
These are used to describe the power capturing characteristics of the
antenna when a wave impinges on it
Effective area (aperture) Ae
Scattering area (aperture) As
loss area (aperture) AL
Capture area (aperture) Ac
Effective area (Aperture) Ae
the ratio of the available power at the terminals of a receiving antenna
to the power flux density of a plane wave incident on the antenna from
that direction, the wave being polarization matched to the antenna. If
the direction is not specified, the direction of maximum radiation
intensity is implied.
Equivalent areas
Effective area Ae
The effective aperture is the area which when multiplied by
the incident power density gives the power delivered to the
load
Equivalent areas
Effective area Ae
Under conjugate matching
The maximum effective area Aem
Equivalent areas
The scattering area As
is defined as the equivalent area when multiplied by the
incident power density is equal to the scattered or
reradiated power.
Under conjugate matching
As
Equivalent areas
The loss area AL
is defined as the equivalent area, which when multiplied by
the incident power density leads to the power dissipated as
heat through RL
Under conjugate matching
Equivalent areas
Capture area Ac
is defined as the equivalent area, which when multiplied by
the incident power density leads to the total power
captured, collected, or intercepted by the antenna
Under conjugate matching
In general, the total capture area is equal to the sum of the
other three
Capture Area = Effective Area+Scattering Area+Loss Area
Ac = Ae + AS+ AL
Equivalent areas
Aperture Efficiency: ap
is defined as the ratio of the maximum effective area Aem
and of the antenna to its physical area Ap
the maximum effective aperture of any antenna is related to its
maximum directivity D0 by
Fundamental Parameters of Antennas
Introduction
Radiation Pattern
Radiation Power Density
Radiation intensity
Directivity, Gain, Antenna efficiency, Beamwidth
Bandwidth
Polarization, Linear, circular, and elliptical polarization
Polarization loss factor and efficiency
Antenna Input Impedance
Elementary idea about self and mutual impedance
Radiation efficiency
Effective aperture, Antenna Temperature
TEST1, Syllabus upto here
Antenna Temperature
The brightness temperature emitted by the different sources is
intercepted by antennas, and it appears at their terminals as an
antenna temperature
The temperature appearing at the terminals of an antenna is that
given by
Antenna Temperature
Antenna temperature (effective noise temperature of the antenna radiation
resistance; K) TA
Assuming no losses or other contributions between the antenna and the
receiver, the noise power transferred to the receiver is given by
Antenna Temperature
Antenna Noise Power (Pr)
Antenna Temperature
Antenna temperature at the receiver terminals
Antenna Temperature
The effective antenna Temperature (Ta) at the receiver
terminals is given by
Antenna Temperature
The antenna noise power
The system noise power
If the receiver itself has a certain noise temperature Tr (due to
thermal noise in the Receiver components), the system noise
power at the receiver terminals is given by
Antenna Temperature
Antenna Temperature
CONTENTS
Antennas
Fundamental Parameters of Antennas
Arrays
Aperture, Horn and Reflector antennas
Radio Wave propagation
Arrays
Introduction
TwoElement Array
NElement Linear Array: Uniform Amplitude and Spacing
>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>MTE<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<
Broadside Array
Ordinary EndFire Array
HansenWoodyard EndFire Array
NElement Linear Array : Uniform Spacing, Non Uniform
Amplitude
Analysis of Binomial and DolphTschebyscheff Array
Scanning Array, Superdirective array
Arrays
Introduction
TwoElement Array
NElement Linear Array: Uniform Amplitude and Spacing
Broadside Array
Ordinary EndFire Array
HansenWoodyard EndFire Array
NElement Linear Array : Uniform Spacing, Non Uniform
Amplitude
Analysis of Binomial and DolphTschebyscheff Array
Scanning Array, Superdirective array
Arrays
INTRODUCTION
Enlarging the dimensions of single elements often leads to
more directive characteristics (very high gains) to meet the
demands of long distance communication
An other way to enlarge the dimensions of the antenna,
without necessarily increasing the size of the individual
elements, is to form an assembly of radiating elements in
an electrical and geometrical configuration. This new
antenna, formed by multi elements, is referred to as an
array
INTRODUCTION
Arrays
The total field of the array is determined by the vector addition of
the fields radiated by the individual elements
To provide very directive patterns, it is necessary that the fields
from the elements of the array interfere constructively (add) in
the desired directions and interfere destructively (cancel each
other) in the remaining space
There are at least five controls that can be used to shape the
overall pattern of the antenna
1. The geometrical configuration of the overall array (linear,
circular, rectangular, spherical, etc.)
2. The relative displacement between the elements
3. The excitation amplitude of the individual elements
4. The excitation phase of the individual elements
5. The relative pattern of the individual elements
Arrays
Applications
An array that is widely used
as a basestation antenna for
mobile communication.
It is a triangular array consisting
of twelve dipoles, with four
dipoles on each side of the
triangle.
Each four element array, on
each side of the triangle, is
basically used to cover an
angular sector of 120 forming
what is usually referred to as a
sectoral array.
Arrays
Introduction
TwoElement Array
NElement Linear Array: Uniform Amplitude and Spacing
Broadside Array
Ordinary EndFire Array
HansenWoodyard EndFire Array
NElement Linear Array : Uniform Spacing, Non Uniform
Amplitude
Analysis of Binomial and DolphTschebyscheff Array
Scanning Array, Superdirective array
Arrays
TWOELEMENT ARRAY:
Two infinitesimal horizontal dipoles positioned along the zaxis, as shown in figure 6.1(a)
Figure 6.1 Geometry of a two element array positioned along
the zaxis.
Arrays
TWOELEMENT ARRAY:
The total field radiated by the two elements, assuming no
coupling between the elements, is equal to the sum of the
two and in the yz plane it is given by
Phase difference between the elements adjacent
element
k=2/
The magnitude excitation of the radiators is identical (I0)
Phase difference=(2/)x Path difference
Arrays
TWOELEMENT ARRAY:
Assuming farfield observations and
referring to Figure 6.1(b)
Equation 61reduces to
Arrays
TWOELEMENT ARRAY:
The total field of the array is equal to the field of a single
element positioned at the origin multiplied by a factor
which is widely referred to as the array factor.
Thus for the twoelement array of constant amplitude, the
Array Factor is given by
which in normalized form can be written as
Arrays
TWOELEMENT ARRAY:
The array factor is a function of the geometry of the array
and the excitation phase.
By varying the separation d and /or the phase between
the elements, the characteristics of the array factor and of
the total field of the array can be controlled.
Arrays
TWOELEMENT ARRAY:
Pattern Multiplication:
The farzone field of a uniform two element array of
identical elements is equal to the product of the field of a
single element, at a selected reference point (usually the
origin), and the array factor of that array. That is,
Arrays
Introduction
TwoElement Array
NElement Linear Array: Uniform Amplitude and Spacing
Broadside Array
Ordinary EndFire Array
HansenWoodyard EndFire Array
NElement Linear Array : Uniform Spacing, Non Uniform
Amplitude
Analysis of Binomial and DolphTschebyscheff Array
Scanning Array, Superdirective array
Arrays
NELEMENT LINEAR ARRAY: Uniform Amplitude and
Spacing
Let us generalize the method to include N elements. Referring to
the geometry of Figure 6.5(a),
Let us assume that all the elements have identical amplitudes
but each succeeding element has a progressive phase lead
current excitation relative to the preceding one.
An array of identical elements all of identical magnitude
and each with a progressive phase is referred to as a
uniform array
Arrays
NELEMENT LINEAR ARRAY: Uniform Amplitude and
Spacing
Arrays
NELEMENT LINEAR ARRAY: Uniform Amplitude and
Spacing
The Array factor (AF)
By applying pattern multiplication rule on arrays of identical
element . The array factor is given by
Total phase difference = Phase difference due to path difference + =kdcos+
Phase difference=(2/)x Path difference=kdcos
Phase difference between the elements adjacent element
Arrays
NELEMENT LINEAR ARRAY: Uniform Amplitude and
Spacing
6.6
Multiplying both sides by ej
subtracting Eq 6.6 from Eq 6.8
Which can also be written as
Arrays
NELEMENT LINEAR ARRAY: Uniform Amplitude and
Spacing
AF
If the reference point is the physical center of the array, the array
factor of (610) reduces to
if is small
Arrays
NELEMENT LINEAR ARRAY: Uniform Amplitude and
Spacing
maximum value of array factor is equal to N
Normalized Array Factor
Arrays
NELEMENT LINEAR ARRAY: Uniform Amplitude and Spacing
Nulls of the Array:
To find the nulls of the array,
Eq (610c) or (610d) is set equal
to zero
(AF)n=0 = n
= 2n/N
(kdcosn+) = 2n/N
For n = N,2N,3N,..., (610c) attains its
maximum values because it reduces to a
sin(0)/0 form.
cosn= (/2d)( 2n/N)
The values of n determine the order of the
nulls (first, second, , etc.)
Arrays
NELEMENT LINEAR ARRAY: Uniform Amplitude and Spacing
Maximum
The maximum values of normalized array factor occur when
sin(/2) =0 = m
First Maximum or Principal Maximum
The first maximum of the array factor occurs when m = 0
/2 = 0
or = 0
Arrays
Introduction
TwoElement Array
NElement Linear Array: Uniform Amplitude and Spacing
Broadside Array
Ordinary EndFire Array
HansenWoodyard EndFire Array
NElement Linear Array : Uniform Spacing, Non Uniform
Amplitude
Analysis of Binomial and DolphTschebyscheff Array
Scanning Array, Superdirective array
Arrays
On the basis of the main lobe array
Broadside Array
Ordinary Endfire Array
Broadside Array:
The maximum radiation of an array directed normal to the axis
of the array (broadside; =900)
The first maximum of the array factor occurs when
= 0 or
kdcos+ = 0
Since it is desired to have the first maximum directed toward =900
kdcos900+ = 0
or
=0
Thus to have the maximum of the array factor of a uniform linear array
directed broadside to the axis of the array, it is necessary that all the
elements have the same phase excitation (in addition to the same
amplitude excitation). The separation between the elements can be of
any value.
Arrays
Broadside Array:
To ensure that there are no principal maxima in other
directions, which are referred to as grating lobes, the
separation between the elements should not be equal to
multiples of a wavelength (dn, n=1,2,3,.) and =0.
If d=n, n=1,2,3,. And =0, then
Thus for a uniform array with = 0 and d = n , in addition to having the
maxima of the array factor directed broadside ( = 90 ) to the axis of the
array, there are additional maxima directed along the axis ( = 0 ,180 ) of
the array (endfire radiation).
Arrays
Broadside Array:
Grating Lobes: multiple maxima, in addition to the main maximum
To avoid any grating lobe, the largest spacing between the elements
Should be less than one wavelength(dmax< )
Arrays
Introduction
TwoElement Array
NElement Linear Array: Uniform Amplitude and Spacing
Broadside Array
Ordinary EndFire Array
HansenWoodyard EndFire Array
NElement Linear Array : Uniform Spacing, Non Uniform
Amplitude
Analysis of Binomial and DolphTschebyscheff Array
Scanning Array, Superdirective array
Ordinary End Fire:
Arrays
The maximum radiation of an array directed to along the axis of
the array (endfire). As a matter of fact, it may be necessary
that it radiates toward only one direction (either 0=00 or 1800)
To direct the first maximum toward 0=00
To direct the first maximum toward 0=1800 , then
If d=n, n=1,2,3than in addition to having endfire
radiation, there also exist maxima in the broadside direction.
To avoid any grating lobe, the largest spacing between the elements
Should be less than one wavelength(dmax< )
Ordinary End  Fire
Arrays
Arrays
Introduction
TwoElement Array
NElement Linear Array: Uniform Amplitude and Spacing
Broadside Array
Ordinary EndFire Array
HansenWoodyard EndFire Array
NElement Linear Array : Uniform Spacing, Non Uniform
Amplitude
Analysis of Binomial and DolphTschebyscheff Array
Scanning Array, Superdirective array
Arrays
HansenWoodyard EndFire Array:
To enhance the directivity of an endfire array without
destroying any of the other characteristics.
Hansen and Woodyard proposed that the required phase shift
between closely spaced elements of a very long array should
be
Arrays
HansenWoodyard EndFire Array:
To realize the increase in directivity as a result of the HansenWoodyard conditions, it is necessary that, in addition to the
conditions of (623a) and (623b). assumes values of
For maximum radiation along 0=00
For maximum radiation along 0=1800
Arrays
HansenWoodyard EndFire Array:
For an array of N elements, the condition of = is satisfied
by using eqn (623a) for =0 and eqn (623b) for =180 and
choosing for each a spacing of d
If the number of elements is large,(625) can be approximated by
Thus for a large uniform array, the HansenWoodyard condition can only yield an
Improved directivity provided the spacing between the elements is approximately
/4.
Directivity:
Arrays
where L is the overall length of the array
Broadside Array:
Directivity:
Arrays
where L is the overall length of the array
Arrays
Arrays
Introduction
TwoElement Array
NElement Linear Array: Uniform Amplitude and Spacing
Broadside Array
Ordinary EndFire Array
HansenWoodyard EndFire Array
NElement Linear Array : Uniform Spacing, Non Uniform
Amplitude
Analysis of Binomial and DolphTschebyscheff Array
Scanning Array, Superdirective array
Arrays
NElement Linear Array : Uniform Spacing, Non Uniform
Amplitude
Introduction
In this section, broadside arrays with uniform spacing but non
uniform amplitude distribution will be considered.
Most of the discussion will be directed toward binomial and
Dolph Tschebyscheff broadside arrays
a uniform amplitude array yields the smallest halfpower
beamwidth. It is followed, in order, by the DolphTschebyscheff
and binomial arrays.
In contrast, binomial arrays usually possess the smallest side
lobes followed, in order, by the DolphTschebyscheff and
uniform arrays.
Arrays
NElement Linear Array : Uniform Spacing, Non Uniform
Amplitude
Introduction
As a matter of fact, binomial arrays with element spacing equal
or less than /2 have no side lobes.
It has been shown analytically that for a given side lobe level
the DolphTschebyscheff array produces the smallest
beamwidth between the first nulls.
Conversely, for a given beamwidth between the first nulls, the
DolphTschebyscheff design leads to the smallest possible side
lobe level.
Arrays
NElement Linear Array : Uniform Spacing, Non Uniform
Amplitude
Introduction
Uniform arrays usually possess the largest directivity.
However, superdirective (or super gain as most people refer to
them) antennas possess directivities higher than those of a
uniform array.
Although a certain amount of superdirectivity is practically
possible, superdirective arrays usually require very large
currents with opposite phases between adjacent elements.
Arrays
NElement Linear Array : Uniform Spacing, Non Uniform Amplitude
(1) For even
number of
elements (2M)
(2) For odd
number of
elements
(2M+1)
Arrays
NElement Linear Array : Uniform Spacing, Non Uniform Amplitude
(1) For even number of elements (2M)
An array of an even number of isotropic
elements 2M (where M is an integer) is
positioned symmetrically along the zaxis, as
shown in Figure 6.19(a).
The separation between the elements is d,
and M elements are placed on each side of
the origin.
Assuming that the amplitude excitation is
symmetrical about the origin
Figure 6.19 Non uniform amplitude arrays of even number of elements.
Arrays
NElement Linear Array : Uniform Spacing, Non Uniform Amplitude
(1) For even number of elements (2M)
Array Factor : The array factor for a non uniform
amplitude broad side array can be written as
Which in normalized form reduces to
Where ans are the excitation coefficients of the array elements.
Figure 6.19 Non uniform amplitude arrays of even number of elements.
Arrays
NElement Linear Array : Uniform Spacing, Non Uniform Amplitude
(2) For odd number of elements (2M+1)
An array of odd number of isotropic elements 2M+1
(where M is an integer) as shown in Figure 6.19(a).
Array Factor
Which in normalized form reduces to
The amplitude excitation of the center element is 2a1
Figure 6.19 Non uniform amplitude arrays of odd number of elements.
Arrays
NElement Linear Array : Uniform Spacing, Non Uniform Amplitude
The excitation coefficients may be determine through
Binomial expansion Binomial Array
Tschebyscheff ploynomial DolphTschebyscheff Array
Arrays
Introduction
TwoElement Array
NElement Linear Array: Uniform Amplitude and Spacing
Broadside Array
Ordinary EndFire Array
HansenWoodyard EndFire Array
NElement Linear Array : Uniform Spacing, Non Uniform
Amplitude
Analysis of Binomial and DolphTschebyscheff Array
Scanning Array, Superdirective array
Arrays
NElement Linear Array : Uniform Spacing, Non Uniform Amplitude
Binomial Array:
The array factor for the binomial array is represented by (661a)(661c)
where the ans are the excitation coefficients which will now be derived
(A) Excitation Coefficients :
the function (1+x)m1 be written in a series, using the binomial
expansion, as
Arrays
Binomial Array:
(A) Excitation Coefficients :
The positive coefficients of the series expansion for different values of m are
M number of elements of the array,
The coefficients of the expansion amplitudes of the elements.
Pascals
triangle
Since the coefficients are determined from
a binomial
series expansion, the array is known as a
binomial array.
Arrays
Binomial Array:
(A) Excitation Coefficients :
Referring to (661a), (661b), and (663), the amplitude coefficients
for the following arrays are:
The coefficients for other arrays can be determined in a similar manner
Arrays
Binomial Array:
(B) Design Procedure :
These expressions can be used effectively to design binomial
arrays with a desired halfpower beamwidth or directivity.
Arrays
Arrays
NElement Linear Array : Uniform Spacing, Non Uniform Amplitude
DolphTschebyscheff Array:
(A) Array Factor:
Referring to (661a) and (661b), the array factor of an array of even or
odd number of elements with symmetric amplitude excitation is nothing
more than a summation of M or M +1 cosine terms.
The largest harmonic of the cosine terms is one less than the total
number of elements of the array. Each cosine term, whose argument is
an integer times a fundamental frequency, can be rewritten as a series
of cosine functions with the fundamental frequency as the argument.
That is,
Arrays
NElement Linear Array : Uniform Spacing, Non Uniform Amplitude
DolphTschebyscheff Array:
(A) Array Factor:
Arrays
NElement Linear Array : Uniform Spacing, Non Uniform Amplitude
DolphTschebyscheff Array:
(A) Array Factor:
Arrays
NElement Linear Array : Uniform Spacing, Non Uniform Amplitude
DolphTschebyscheff Array:
(A) Array Factor:
The recursion formula for Tschebyscheff polynomials is
It can be used to find one Tschebyscheff polynomial if the polynomials
of the previous two orders are known. Each polynomial can also be
computed using
Arrays
NElement Linear Array : Uniform Spacing, Non Uniform Amplitude
DolphTschebyscheff Array:
(A) Array Factor:
properties of the Tschebyscheff polynomials are
Arrays
NElement Linear Array : Uniform Spacing, Non Uniform Amplitude
DolphTschebyscheff Array:
(B) Array Design:Statement:
Design a broadside DolphTschebyscheff array of 2M or 2M +1
elements with spacing d between the elements. The side lobes are R
dB below the maximum of the major lobe. Find the excitation
coefficients and form the array factor.
Procedure
Arrays
NElement Linear Array : Uniform Spacing, Non Uniform Amplitude
DolphTschebyscheff Array:
(B)Array Design:
Arrays
Introduction
TwoElement Array
NElement Linear Array: Uniform Amplitude and Spacing
Broadside Array
Ordinary EndFire Array
HansenWoodyard EndFire Array
NElement Linear Array : Uniform Spacing, Non Uniform
Amplitude
Analysis of Binomial and DolphTschebyscheff Array
Scanning Array, Superdirective array
Arrays
SUPER DIRECTIVITY
Antennas whose directivities are much larger than the directivity of a reference
antenna of the same size are known as super directive antennas.
In an array, super directivity is accomplished by inserting more elements with in a
fixed length(decreasing the spacing).
Doing this leads eventually to very large magnitudes and rapid changes of phase in
the excitation coefficients of the elements of the array.
This necessitates a very precise adjustment of their values. Associated with this are
increases in reactive power (relative to the radiated power) and the Q of the array.
Arrays
Super directive array
Thus a super directive array is one whose directivity is larger than that of a
reference array (usually a uniform array of the same length).
Efficiency and Directivity:
Because of the very large currents in the elements of superdirective arrays, the
ohmic losses increases and the antenna efficiency decreases very sharply.
Although practically the ohmic losses can be reduced by the use of super
conductive materials, there is no easy solution for the precise adjustment of the
amplitudes and phases of the array elements.
High radiation efficiency superdirective arrays can be designed utilizing array
functions that are insensitive to changes in element values.
Arrays
Designs With Constraints:
To make the designs more practical, applications that warrant some super
directivity should in corporate constraints.
One constraint is based on the sensitivity factor (K) , and it was utilized for
the design of super directive arrays .
The sensitivity factor (designated as K) is an important parameter which is
related to the electrical and mechanical tolerances of an antenna, and it can
be used to describe its performance (especially its practical implementation).
For an Nelement array, it can be written as
an the current excitation of the nth element,
rn the distance from the nth element to the
farfield observation point
Arrays
Designs With Constraints:
To derive design constraints, the realized current excitation coefficients c ns
are related to the desired ones ans by
Where nan represents the error in the nth excitation coefficient. The mean
square value of n is denoted by
To take into account the error associated with the positioning of the
elements, we introduce
Where is the rootmeansquare value of the element position error.
Arrays
Designs With Constraints:
Combining (683b) and (683c) reduces to
Where is a measure of the combined electrical and mechanical errors
If the realized pattern is to be very close to the desired one, then
Equation(683e) can be rewritten, by introducing a safety factor S, as
S is chosen large enough so that(683e) is satisfied.
CONTENTS
Antennas
Fundamental Parameters of Antennas
Arrays
Aperture, Horn and Reflector antennas
Radio Wave propagation
Aperture Antennas
Aperture antennas are most common at microwave frequencies.
There are many different geometrical configurations of an aperture
antenna with some of the most popular shown in below Figure
They may take the form of a waveguide or a horn whose aperture
may be square, rectangular, circular, elliptical, or any other
configuration.
Aperture Antennas
Aperture antennas are very practical for space applications, because
they can be flush mounted on the surface of the space craft or
aircraft.
Their opening can be covered with a dielectric material to protect
them from environmental conditions. This type of mounting does not
disturb the aero dynamic profile of the craft, which in high speed
applications is critical.
Aperture Antennas
HUYGENS PRINCIPLE
states that each Point on a primary wave front can be considered to
be a new source of a secondary Spherical wave and that a
secondary wave front can be constructed as the envelope of these
secondary spherical waves
FIELD EQUIVALENCE PRINCIPLE
a field in a lossy region is uniquely specified by The sources within
the region plus the tangential components of the electric field over
the boundary, or the tangential components of the magnetic field
over the boundary, or the former over part of the boundary and the
latter over the rest of the boundary
Aperture Antennas
FIELD EQUIVALENCE PRINCIPLE
The equivalence principle is developed by considering an actual
radiating source, which electrically is represented by current densities
J1 and M1 as shown in Figure12.1(a).
The source radiates fields E1 and H1 everywhere. To accomplish this,
a closed surface S is chosen, shown dashed in Figure12.1(a), which
encloses the current densities J1 and M1 .
Aperture Antennas
FIELD EQUIVALENCE PRINCIPLE
The volume within S is denoted by V1 and outside S by V2.
Produce the original fields (E1, H1) only outside S.
Aperture Antennas
RECTANGULAR APERTURES
In practice, the rectangular aperture is probably the most common
microwave antenna. Because of its configuration, the rectangular
coordinate system is the most convenient system to express the
fields at the aperture and to perform the integration.
Shown in Figure12.6 are the three most common and convenient
coordinate positions used for the solution of an aperture antenna.
Figure12.6
Aperture Antennas
RECTANGULAR APERTURES
In Figure12.6(a) the aperture lies on the yz plane, in Figure12.6(b)
on the xz plane, and in Figure12.6(c) on the xy plane.
Figure12.6
Aperture Antennas
RECTANGULAR APERTURES
For a given field distribution, the analytical forms for the fields for
each of the arrangements are not the same. However the computed
values will be the same, since the physical problem is identical in all
cases. For each of the geometries shown in Figure12.6, the only
difference in the analysis is in the formulation of
1. the components of the equivalent current densities ( J x, Jy, Jz,
Mx, My, Mz)
2. the difference in paths from the source to the observation point
(rcos)
3. the differential area ds
Aperture Antennas
RECTANGULAR APERTURES
In general, the non zero components of Js and Ms are
The differential paths take the form of
Aperture Antennas
RECTANGULAR APERTURES
and the differential areas are represented by
Aperture Antennas
RECTANGULAR APERTURES
(1)Uniform Distribution on an Infinite Ground Plane
Aperture Antennas
RECTANGULAR APERTURES
(1)Uniform Distribution on an Infinite Ground Plane
Aperture Antennas
RECTANGULAR APERTURES
(1)Uniform Distribution on an Infinite Ground Plane
Aperture Antennas
RECTANGULAR APERTURES
(1)Uniform Distribution on an Infinite Ground Plane
Aperture Antennas
RECTANGULAR APERTURES
(1)Uniform Distribution on an Infinite Ground Plane
Aperture Antennas
RECTANGULAR APERTURES
(1)Uniform Distribution on an Infinite Ground Plane
Aperture Antennas
RECTANGULAR APERTURES
(1)Uniform Distribution on an Infinite Ground Plane
Aperture Antennas
RECTANGULAR APERTURES
(1)Uniform Distribution on an Infinite Ground Plane
Aperture Antennas
RECTANGULAR APERTURES
(1)Uniform Distribution on an Infinite Ground Plane
Aperture Antennas
RECTANGULAR APERTURES
(1)Uniform Distribution on an Infinite Ground Plane
Aperture Antennas
RECTANGULAR APERTURES
(1)Uniform Distribution on an Infinite Ground Plane
Aperture Antennas
RECTANGULAR APERTURES
(1)Uniform Distribution on an Infinite Ground Plane
Aperture Antennas
RECTANGULAR APERTURES
(1)Uniform Distribution on an Infinite Ground Plane
Aperture Antennas
RECTANGULAR APERTURES
(1)Uniform Distribution on an Infinite Ground Plane
Aperture Antennas
Aperture Antennas
Aperture Antennas
CIRCULAR APERTURES
A widely used microwave antenna is the circular aperture.
One of the attractive features of this configuration is its simplicity in
construction.
In addition, closed form expressions for the fields of all the modes
that can exist over the aperture can be obtained.
The procedure followed to determine the fields radiated by a circular
aperture is identical to that of the rectangular, as summarized in
Section12.3. The primary differences lie in the formulation of the
equivalent current densities ( Jx, Jy, Jz, Mx, My, Mz) the differential
paths from the source to the observation point
Aperture Antennas
CIRCULAR APERTURES
..do ownself
Aperture Antennas
BABINETS PRINCIPLE
Now that wire and aperture antennas have been analyzed, one may
inquire as to whether there is any relationship between them.
This can be answered better by first introducing Babinetsprinciple
which in optics states that when the field behind a screen with an
opening is added to the field of a complementary structure, the sum
is equal to the field when there is no screen.
Babinets principle in optics does not consider polarization, which is
sovitalin antenna theory; it deals primarily with absorbing screens.
An extension of Babinets principle, which includes polarization and
the more practical conducting screens, was introduced by Booker
[13], [14]. Referring to Figure12.22(a),
do ownself
CONTENTS
Antennas
Fundamental Parameters of Antennas
Arrays
Aperture, Horn and Reflector antennas
Radio Wave propagation
Horn Antennas
One of the simplest and probably the most widely used microwave
antenna is the horn.
The horn is nothing more than a hollow pipe of different cross
sections, which has been tapered (flared) to a larger opening.
The horn is widely used as a feed element for large radio astronomy,
satellite tracking, and communication dishes found installed
throughout the world.
In addition to its utility as a feed for reflectors and lenses, it is a
common element of phased arrays and serves as a universal
standard for calibration and gain measurements of other highgain
antennas.
Horn Antennas
Horn Antennas
E  PLANE SECTORAL HORN
The Eplane sectoral horn is one whose opening is flared in the
direction of the Efield, and it is shown in Figure13.2(a).
HPLANE SECTORAL HORN
Flaring the dimensions of a rectangular waveguide in the direction of
the Hfield, while keeping the other constant, forms an Hplane
sectoral horns hown in Figure13.1(b)
CONTENTS
Antennas
Fundamental Parameters of Antennas
Arrays
Aperture, Horn and Reflector antennas
Radio Wave propagation
Reflector antennas
INTRODUCTION
The use of reflector antennas for deep space communication, such
as in the space program and especially their deployment on the
surface of the moon, resulted in establishing the reflector antenna
almost as a household word during the 1960s.
Although reflector antennas take many geometrical configurations,
some of the most popular shapes are the plane, corner, and curved
reflectors (especially the paraboloid), as shown in Figure15.1, each
of which will be discussed in this chapter.
Reflector antennas
INTRODUCTION
Reflector antennas
PLANE REFLECTOR:
The simplest type of reflector is a plane reflector introduced to direct
energy in a desired direction.
Reflector antennas
PARABOLIC REFLECTOR
All the Best
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