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Text Books:

1. Antenna Theory, Balanis C.A, John Wiley & sons 2nd

edition Reprint 2008


2. Electromagnetic and radiating systems, Jordan E.C,

PHI., 2nd edition, 2008


3. Antennas, John D Kraus & R J Marhefka 3rd Edition,

2002.
4. Antenna and Wave Propagation, K.D. Prasad, Satya

Prakashan, 3rd edition 2006

CONTENTS
Antennas
Fundamental Parameters of Antennas
Arrays
Aperture Antennas and Reflector antenna
Radio Wave propagation

CONTENTS
Antennas
Fundamental Parameters of Antennas
Arrays
Aperture, Horn and Reflector antennas
Radio Wave propagation

ANTENNAS
Introduction
Types of Antenna
Radiation Mechanism

Physical concept of Radiation in single wire, two wire


and dipole

Current Distribution on a Thin Wire Antenna

INTRODUCTION
Antenna or Aerial :

- is a transducer that transmits or receives


electromagnetic waves
- converts the voltage and current into the
electromagnetic radiation and vice-versa
- is a transitional structure between free-space and a
guiding structure
- The American Heritage Dictionary: A metallic
apparatus for sending and receiving electromagnetic
waves.
- Websters Dictionary: A usually metallic device (as a
rod or wire) for radiating or receiving radio waves

INTRODUCTION
What is an Antenna?
An antenna is a device for radiating and receiving radio
waves. The antenna is the transitional structure between
free-space and a guiding device.

INTRODUCTION
A transmission-line Thevenin equivalent of the antenna

system

INTRODUCTION
A transmission-line Thevenin equivalent of the antenna

system

INTRODUCTION
.

INTRODUCTION

Antennas
Introduction
Types of Antenna
Radiation Mechanism

Physical concept of Radiation in single wire, two wire


Current Distribution on a Thin Wire Antenna

TYPES OF ANTENNAS
Wire antennas
Aperture antennas
Microstrip antennas
Array antennas
Reflector antennas
Lens antennas

Wireeverywhereantennas
seen virtually
on automobile,
building, ships, aircraft, and so on.
Shapes of wire antennas:
straight wire (dipole), loop (circular), and helix,
Loop antenna may take the shape of a rectangle ,
ellipse or any other shape configuration

Aperture Aperture antennas derived


antenna
from waveguide technology
(circular, rectangular)

Can transfer high power


(magnetrons, klystrons)
Utilization of higher
frequencies

Applications: aircraft, and spacecraft

EM wave
Power
absorbed: P [watt]

Effective
aperture: A[m2]

Note: The aperture concept is applicable also to wired antennas.


For instance, the max effective aperture of linear /2
wavelength dipole antenna is 2/8
15

Microstrip
consist of
metallic patch antenna
on a grounded substrate
Examples: rectangular and circular shape
Applications: aircraft, spacecraft, satellite, missiles,
cars etc
RECTANGLE

CIRCLE

Patch
Antennas

Radiation is from two slots on left and right edges of patch where slot is

region between patch and ground plane


Length d = /r1/2
Thickness typically 0.01
The big advantage is conformal, i.e. flat, shape and low weight
Disadvantages: Low gain, Narrow bandwidth (overcome by fancy shapes and
other heroic efforts), Becomes hard to feed when complex, e.g. for wide
band operation

Patch Antenna Pattern

a collection of simple antennas

Array antennas

- gives desire d radiation characteristics


- The arrangement of the array may be such that the radiation from

the elements adds up to give a radiation maximum in a particular


direction or directions, minimum in others, or otherwise as desired
- Examples: yagi-uda array, aperture array, microstrip patch array,
slotted waveguide array

Array of patch
Antennas

Reflector
millions of miles
antennas
A very common reflector antenna parabolic reflector

- used in order to transmit and receive signals that had to travel


-

Parabolic
Reflectors

A parabolic reflector operates

much the same way a reflecting


telescope does

Reflections of rays from the

feed point all contribute in


phase to a plane wave leaving
the antenna along the antenna
bore sight (axis)

Typically used at UHF and

higher frequencies

lenses are primarily used to collimate incident divergent energy to

Lens antennas

prevent it from spreading in undesired directions


Transform various forms of divergent energy into plane waves
Used in most of applications as are the parabolic reflectors,

especially at higher frequencies. Their dimensions and weight


bec0me exceedingly large at lower frequencies.

Lenses play a similar role to that of reflectors in reflector antennas:


they collimate divergent energy
Often preferred to reflectors at frequencies > 100 GHz.

24

Antennas
Introduction
Types of Antenna
Radiation Mechanism

Physical concept of Radiation in single wire, two wire and dipole


Current Distribution on a Thin Wire Antenna

PHYSICAL CONCEPT OF
How is Radiation
Accomplished?
RADIATION
Principle of radiation
or RADIATION
When electric charges undergo acceleration or deceleration,
MECHANISM
electromagnetic radiation will be produced. Hence it is the
motion of charges (i.e., currents) that is the source of radiation
basic equation of radiation
IL = Qv
Where
Itime varying current
Qcharge
Llength of current element
vtime change of velocity
Radiation Mechanism in a) Single wire, b) Two wire and c) Dipole

Radiation Mechanism
Single wire:
Conducting wires are characterized by the motion of electric charges and the
creation of current ow.
Assume that an electric volume charge density, qv (coulombs/m3), is
distributed uniformly in a circular wire of cross-sectional area A and volume V
qv - volume charge density
A- cross-sectional area
V-Volume

Radiation Mechanism
Single wire:

Instead of examining all three current densities, we will primarily

concentrate on the very thin wire.


The conclusions apply to all three. If the current is time varying.

Radiation Mechanism

Radiation Mechanism
Thin wire

Radiation Mechanism
Single wire:

Radiation Mechanism
Two-Wires:
Applying a voltage across the two-conductor transmission line
creates an electric eld between the conductors.
The movement of the charges creates a current that in turn
creates a magnetic eld intensity.
The creation of time-varying electric and magnetic elds between
the conductors forms electromagnetic waves which travel along
the transmission line.

Radiation Mechanism
Two-Wires:
The electromagnetic waves enter the antenna and have
associated with them electric charges and corresponding
currents.
If we remove part of the antenna structure, free-space waves can
be formed by connecting the open ends of the electric lines

Radiation Mechanism
Two-Wires:
If the initial electric disturbance by the source is of a short duration, the created
electromagnetic waves travel inside the transmission line, then into the antenna,
and nally are radiated as free-space waves, even if the electric source has
ceased to exist.
If the electric disturbance is of a continuous nature, electromagnetic waves
exist continuously and follow in their travel behind the others.
However, when the waves are radiated, they form closed loops and there are no
charges to sustain their existence.
Electric charges are required to excite the elds but are not needed to sustain
them and may exist in their absence.

Radiation Mechanism
Dipole Antenna:
A radio antenna that can be made of a simple wire, with a centre-fed
driven element
Consist of two metal conductors of rod or wire, oriented parallel and

collinear with each other (in line with each other), with a small space
between them.

Consider the example of a small dipole antenna where the

time of travel is negligible

Radiation Mechanism
Formation and detachment of electric field line for short Dipole Antenna

Dipole

Current Distribution on a thin wire


antenna
Let us consider the geometry of a lossless two-wire
transmission line
The movement of the charges creates a traveling wave

current, of magnitude I0 /2, along each of the wires.


When the current arrives at the end of each of the wires,

it undergoes a complete reflection (equal magnitude and


180 phase reversal)
The reflected traveling wave, when combined with the

incident traveling wave, forms in a each wire a pure


standing wave pattern of sinusoidal form.

Current Distribution on a thin wire


antenna

Current Distribution on a thin wire


antenna

For the two-wire balanced (symmetrical) transmission line, the

current in a half-cycle of one wire is of the same magnitude but 180


out-of-phase from that in the corresponding half-cycle of the
otherwire

Current Distribution on a thin wire


If s is also very small, the two fields are canceled
antenna

The net result is an almost ideal, non-radiating transmission line.

When the line is flared, because the two wires of the flared section

are not necessarily close to each other, the fields do not cancel each
other
Therefore ideally there is a net radiation by the transmission line
system

Current Distribution on a thin wire


When the line is flared into a dipole, if s not much less than , the
antenna
phase of the current standing wave pattern in each arm is the same
through out its length. In addition, spatially it is oriented in the same
direction as that of the other arm
Thus the field s radiated by the two arms of the dipole (vertical parts
of a flared transmission line) will primarily reinforce each other
toward most directions of observation

Current Distribution on a thin wire


The current distributions we have seen represent the maximum
antenna
current excitation for anytime. The current varies as a function of
time as well.

CONTENTS
Antennas
Fundamental Parameters of Antennas
Arrays
Aperture, Horn and Reflector antennas
Radio Wave propagation

Fundamental Parameters of Antennas


Introduction
Radiation Pattern
Radiation Power Density
Radiation intensity
Directivity, Gain, Antenna efficiency, Beamwidth
Bandwidth
Linear, circular, and elliptical polarization
Polarization loss factor and efficiency
Antenna Input Impedance
Elementary idea about self and mutual impedance
Radiation efficiency
Effective aperture, Antenna Temperature

TEST1, Syllabus upto here

Fundamental Parameters of Antennas


Introduction
Radiation Pattern
Radiation Power Density
Radiation intensity
Directivity, Gain, Antenna efficiency, Beamwidth
Bandwidth
Polarization, Linear, circular, and elliptical polarization
Polarization loss factor and efficiency
Antenna Input Impedance
Elementary idea about self and mutual impedance
Radiation efficiency
Effective aperture, Antenna Temperature

TEST1, Syllabus upto here

Introduction
To describe performance of an antenna
Definition of various parameters

Fundamental Parameters of Antennas


Introduction
Radiation Pattern
Radiation Power Density
Radiation intensity
Directivity, Gain, Antenna efficiency, Beamwidth
Bandwidth
Polarization, Linear, circular, and elliptical polarization
Polarization loss factor and efficiency
Antenna Input Impedance
Elementary idea about self and mutual impedance
Radiation efficiency
Effective aperture, Antenna Temperature

TEST1, Syllabus upto here

Radiation pattern
Mathematical function or Graphical representation of radiation properties

of an antenna as a function of space coordinates. Radiation properties


include power flux density, radiation intensity, field strength, directivity,
phase or polarization.
Radiation pattern usually indicate either electric field intensity or power

intensity. Magnetic field intensity has the same radiation pattern as the
electric field intensity
A directional antenna radiates and receives preferentially in some

direction
Depicted as two or three-dimensional spatial distribution of radiated

energy as a function of the observers position along a path or surface of


constant radius
Lobes are classified as: major, minor, side lobes, back lobes

Radiation pattern
Coordinate system for antenna analysis

Radiation pattern
For an antenna
The Field pattern(in linear scale):
typically represents a plot of the magnitude of the electric or magnetic field as a function of the angular space.
The Power pattern(in linear scale):
typically represents a plot of the square of the magnitude of the electric or magnetic field as a function of the
angular space
The Power pattern(in dB):
represents the magnitude of the electric or magnetic field, in decibels, as a function of the angular space.

Radiation pattern

Radiation pattern
various parts of a radiation pattern are referred to as a lobes

Total electric field


is given as

Three dimensional polar pattern

Radiation pattern
various parts of a radiation pattern are referred to as a lobes

Two dimensional polar pattern

Radiation pattern lobes


Various parts of a radiation pattern are referred to as lobes
Major lobe (main lobe):
The radiation lobe containing the direction of maximum radiation
Major lobe is pointing at =0 direction in figure
In spilt-beam antennas, there may exist more than one major
lobes
Minor Lobe
is any lobe except a major lobe
all the lobes exception of the major lobe
Side lobe: a radiation lobe in any direction other than intended lobe
Usually it is adjacent to main lobe
Back lobe:
a radiation lobe whose axis makes an angle of approximately
1800 with respect to the beam of antenna
usually it refers to a minor lobe that occupies the hemisphere in
a direction opposite to that of major lobe

Fundamental Parameters of Antennas


Introduction
Radiation Pattern
Radiation Power Density
Radiation intensity
Directivity, Gain, Antenna efficiency, Beamwidth
Bandwidth
Polarization, Linear, circular, and elliptical polarization
Polarization loss factor and efficiency
Antenna Input Impedance
Elementary idea about self and mutual impedance
Radiation efficiency
Effective aperture, Antenna Temperature

TEST1, Syllabus upto here

Radiation Power Density


Poynting Vector or Power density(w)
The instantaneous poynting vector describe the power
associated with electromagnetic wave
Poynting vector defined as
W=ExH
W- instantaneous poynting vector (W/m2)
E- instantaneous electric field intensity (V/m)
H- instantaneous magnetic field intensity (A/m)

Radiation Power Density


The total power crossing a closed surface can be obtained by

integrating the normal component of poynting vector over the entire


surface.

p= instantaneous total power (W)


n = unit vector normal to the surface

da = infinitesimal are a of the closed surface (m2 )


we define the complex fields E and H which are related to their
instantaneous counter parts E and H by

Radiation Power Density


identity

W=ExH=
The first term of is not a function of time, and the time variations of the
second are twice the given frequency.

Average Power Density:


The average power density is obtained by integrating the
instantaneous Poynting vector over one period and dividing
by the period.

Wav=
the real part of represents the average (real) power density the imaginary
part Must represent the reactive (stored) power density associated with the
electromagnetic fields

Radiation Power Density


The average power radiated by an antenna (radiated power)
can be written as

Radian and Steradian


A radian is defined with the using Figure ( a)
It is the angle subtended by an arc along the
perimeter of the circle with length equal to
the radius.
A steradian may be defined using Figure (b)
Here, one steradian (sr) is subtended by an
area r2 at the surface of a sphere of radius r.
The infinitesimal area dA on the surface of
radius r is defined as
dA =r2 sin d d (m2)
A differential solid angle, d, in sr, is given
by
d = dA/r2 = sin d d (sr)
= sin d d
Unit of plane Angle is a radian
Unit of Solid Angle is a steradian

Isotropic antenna
Isotropic antenna or isotropic radiator or

isotropic source or omnidirectional radiator


or simple unipole
is a hypothetical (not physically realizable)
lossless antenna having equal radiation in all
directions
used as a useful reference antenna to
describe real antennas.
Its radiation pattern is represented by a
sphere of radius (r) whose center coincides
with the location of the isotropic radiator.

All the energy(power) must pass over the


surface area of sphere=4r2

Isotropic antenna
Poynting vector or power density(w) at any point on the sphere

power radiated per unit area in any direction


The magnitude of the poynting vector is equal to the radial component

only(because p = p=0)
|w|=wr

The total radiated power


PTrad = w.ds
= wr.ds
= wrds
= wr4r2
or wr = PTrad /4r2 watt/m2
where
Wr radiated power of average power density
PTrad total power radiated

Isotropic antenna
The total power radiated by it is given by:

The power density is given by:

which is uniformly distributed over the surface of a sphere of radius r.

Isotropic antenna

Directional
is an antenna,
which radiates (or receives) much more
antenna

power in (or from) some directions than in (or from) others

Note:
Usually, this term is applied to antennas whose
directivity is much higher than that of a half-wave dipole

Principal
For linearly polarized antenna performance is often described
in terms
of its principal E-and H-Plane patterns
Patterns
E- Plane : the plane containing the electric field vector and the
maximum radiation
H- Plane : the plane containing the magnetic field vector and the
x-z elevation plane contain principal Emaximum radiation
plane
x-y azimuthal plane contain principal Hplane

Principal E and H plane pattern for a pyramidal horn antenna

Field
The space surroundingRegions
an antenna is usually subdivided into three
regions:

Field
The space surrounding an antenna is usually subdivided into three
Regions
regions:
Reactive near-field region:That portion of the near-field region

immediately surrounding the antenna wherein the reactive field


predominates.
Radiating near-field (Fresnel) region:That region of the field of an
antenna between the reactive near-field region and the far-field
region wherein radiation fields predominate and wherein the angular
field distribution is dependent upon the distance from the antenna
Far-field (Fraunhofer) region:That region of the field of an antenna
where the angular field distribution is essentially independent of the
distance from the antenna.

Field
The space surrounding an antenna is usually subdivided into three
Regions
regions:

Fundamental Parameters of Antennas


Introduction
Radiation Pattern
Radiation Power Density
Radiation intensity
Directivity, Gain, Antenna efficiency, Beamwidth
Bandwidth
Polarization, Linear, circular, and elliptical polarization
Polarization loss factor and efficiency
Antenna Input Impedance
Elementary idea about self and mutual impedance
Radiation efficiency
Effective aperture, Antenna Temperature

TEST1, Syllabus upto here

Radiation Intensity
Radiation intensity in a given direction is defined as the power radiated

from an antenna per unit solid angle.


U = Prad/d
Where
Pradradiated power
=d solid angel
The radiation intensity is a far-field parameter, and it can be obtained by
simply multiplying the radiation density by the square of the distance.
U = r2Wrad
Wrad radiation density (W/m2)
r distance (m)
U - radiation intensity (W/ unit solid angle)

Radiation Intensity
The radiation intensity is also related to the far-zone electric field of

an antenna, by

The total power is obtained by integrating the radiation intensity,

over the entire solid angle of 4. Thus

Radiation Intensity
Radiation patterns may be functions of both spherical coordinate

angles and
Let the radiation intensity of an antenna be of the form

The maximum value of radiation intensity

The total radiated power is found using

Fundamental Parameters of Antennas


Introduction
Radiation Pattern
Radiation Power Density
Radiation intensity
Directivity, Gain, Antenna efficiency, Beamwidth
Bandwidth
Polarization, Linear, circular, and elliptical polarization
Polarization loss factor and efficiency
Antenna Input Impedance
Elementary idea about self and mutual impedance
Radiation efficiency
Effective aperture, Antenna Temperature

TEST1, Syllabus upto here

Directivity (D):

Directivity

the ratio of the radiation intensity in a given direction from the antenna to the
radiation intensity averaged over all directions
the directivity of a nonisotropic source is equal to the ratio of its radiation intensity in
a given direction over that of isotropic source

The average radiation intensity (U0) is equal to the total power radiated by the
antenna divided by 4.

If the direction is not specified, it implies the direction of maximum radiation intensity
(maximum directivity) expressed as

U = radiation intensity (W/unit solid angle)


Umax = maximum radiation intensity (W/unit solid angle)
U0= radiation intensity of isotropic source (W/unit solid angle)
Prad = total radiated power (W)
D = directivity(dimensionless)
D0= maximumdirectivity(dimensionless)

Directivity

The general expression for the directivity and maximum


directivity (D0) using

Directivity
Directive gain
The directive gain,, of an antenna is the ratio of the
normalized power in a particular direction to the
average normalized power, or

D ,

Pn ,

Pn , avg

Where the normalized powers average value taken


over the entire spherical solid angle is
P , d

P ,

4
d
n

avg

The directivity, Dmax, is the maximum directive gain,


Dmax D , max

Dmax

4
p

Pn , max
Pn , avg

Using Pn , max 1

Directivity

Partial Directivity of antenna:

Partial directivity of an antenna for a given polarization in a given direction as


that part of the radiation intensity corresponding to a given polarization
divided by the total radiation intensity averaged over all directions.
With this definition for the partial directivity, then in a given direction
the total directivity is the sum of the partial directivities for any two
orthogonal polarizations
For a spherical coordinate system, the total maximum directivity D0 for the
orthogonal and components of an antenna can be written as
While the partial directivities D and D are expressed as

Directivity

Directional Patterns:

In Figure2.14(a). For a rotationally symmetric pattern, the half-power beam widths in any
two perpendicular planes are the same, as illustrated in Figure2.14(b).

With this approximation, maximum directivity can be approximated by

Directivity

Directional Patterns:

With this approximation, maximum directivity can be approximated by

Fundamental Parameters of Antennas


Introduction
Radiation Pattern
Radiation Power Density
Radiation intensity
Directivity, Gain, Antenna efficiency, Beamwidth
Bandwidth
Polarization, Linear, circular, and elliptical polarization
Polarization loss factor and efficiency
Antenna Input Impedance
Elementary idea about self and mutual impedance
Radiation efficiency
Effective aperture, Antenna Temperature

TEST1, Syllabus upto here

Antenna Gain
The ratio of the intensity, in a given direction, to the radiation

intensity that would be obtained if the power accepted by the


antenna were radiated isotropically
The radiation intensity corresponding to the isotropically

radiated power is equal to the power accepted (input) by the


antenna divided by 4
In equation form this can be expressed as

Antenna Gain
the ratio of the Power gain in a given direction to the power
gain of a reference antenna in its referenced direction
The power input must be the same for both antennas
Mostly Reference antenna is a lossless isotropic source. Thus

When the direction is not stated, the power gain is usually taken in the
direction of maximum radiation.
We can write that the total radiated power related to the total input
power

Antenna Gain

Antenna Gain
Partial gain of an antenna
For a given polarization in a given direction
Total gain

Antenna Gain
Relationship between antenna gain and effective area

4Ae 4f Ae
G 2

c2
2

G = antenna gain
Ae = effective area

f = carrier frequency
c = speed of light (3x108 m/s)
= carrier wavelength

Fundamental Parameters of Antennas


Introduction
Radiation Pattern
Radiation Power Density
Radiation intensity
Directivity, Gain, Antenna efficiency, Beamwidth
Bandwidth
Polarization, Linear, circular, and elliptical polarization
Polarization loss factor and efficiency
Antenna Input Impedance
Elementary idea about self and mutual impedance
Radiation efficiency
Effective aperture, Antenna Temperature

TEST1, Syllabus upto here

Antenna
Efficiency
In general,
the over all
Efficiency can be written as

Radiation Resistance & Antenna


Efficiency
Radiation resistance (R ) is a fictitious resistance,
rad

such that the average power flow out of the antenna is


Pav = (1/2) I2 Rrad
Using the equations for our short (Hertzian) dipole we find that

Rrad = 80 2 (l/)2 ohms

Antenna Efficiency

o = Rrad/(Rrad+ Rloss)
where Rloss ohmic losses as heat
Gain = ox Directivity
G =o D

Fundamental Parameters of Antennas


Introduction
Radiation Pattern
Radiation Power Density
Radiation intensity
Directivity, Gain, Antenna efficiency, Beamwidth
Bandwidth
Polarization, Linear, circular, and elliptical polarization
Polarization loss factor and efficiency
Antenna Input Impedance
Elementary idea about self and mutual impedance
Radiation efficiency
Effective aperture, Antenna Temperature

TEST1, Syllabus upto here

Beamwidt
Half-power beamwidth (HPBW) ( )
is the angle between twoh
vectors from the patterns origin to the
H

points of the major lobe where the radiation intensity is half its
maximum
Often used to describe the antenna resolution properties
Important in radar technology, radioastronomy, etc.
Power pattern of U()=
First-null beamwidth (FNBW) (N)
is the angle between two vectors, originating at the patterns origin
and tangent to the main beam at its base.
Often FNBW 2*HPBW

Beam efficiency
To judge the quality of transmitting and receiving antennas

If 1 is chosen as the angle where the first null or minimum

occurs, then the beam efficiency will indicate the amount of


power in the major lobe compared to the total power.

Fundamental Parameters of Antennas


Introduction
Radiation Pattern
Radiation Power Density
Radiation intensity
Directivity, Gain, Antenna efficiency, Beamwidth
Bandwidth
Polarization, Linear, circular, and elliptical polarization
Polarization loss factor and efficiency
Antenna Input Impedance
Elementary idea about self and mutual impedance
Radiation efficiency
Effective aperture, Antenna Temperature

TEST1, Syllabus upto here

Bandwid
Bandwidth: the range of frequencies within which the performance of
th
the antenna, with respect
to some characteristic, conforms to a
specified standard
For broadband antennas, the bandwidth is usually expressed as the
ratio of the upper-to-lower frequencies of acceptable operation
F.E. 10:1 bandwidth indicates that the upper frequency is 10 times
greater than the lower
For narrowband antennas, the bandwidth is expressed as a
percentage of the frequency difference (upper minus lower) over the
center frequency of the bandwidth
F.E. a 5% bandwidth indicates that the frequency difference of
acceptable operation is 5% of the center frequency of the
bandwidth
gain, side lobe level,
beamwidth,
polarization, and
beam direction

Pattern
bandwidth

input
impedance
and radiation
efficiency

Impedanc
e
bandwidth

Fundamental Parameters of Antennas


Introduction
Radiation Pattern
Radiation Power Density
Radiation intensity
Directivity, Gain, Antenna efficiency, Beamwidth
Bandwidth
Polarization, Linear, circular, and elliptical polarization
Polarization loss factor and efficiency
Antenna Input Impedance
Elementary idea about self and mutual impedance
Radiation efficiency
Effective aperture, Antenna Temperature

TEST1, Syllabus upto here

Polarizati
on
Polarization of an
antenna:
the polarization of the wave transmitted (radiated) by the antenna

When the direction is not stated, the polarization is taken to be

the polarization in the direction of maximum gain


Polarization of the radiated energy varies with the direction from

the center of the antenna, so that different parts of the pattern


may have different polarizations
Polarization may be classified as linear, circular, or elliptical

Polarizati
Polarization of a on
radiated wave
is defined as that property of an electro magnetic wave

describing the time varying direction and relative magnitude of


the electric-field vector; specifically, the figure traced as a
function of time by the extremity of the vector at a fixed location
in space, and the sense in which it is traced, as observed along
the direction of propagation.
Polarization then is the curve traced by the end point of the

arrow (vector) representing the instantaneous electric field. The


field must be observed along the direction of propagation. A
typical trace as a function of time is shown in Figure

Polarization of EM Waves

Clockwise rotation of the E vector= right-hand polarization


counterclockwise rotation of the E vector = left-hand
polarization

Polarization of EM Waves

Horizontal polarization

Vertical polarization

Circular polarization
(RCP)

Circular polarization
(LCP)

Waves

AR: The ratio of the major axis to the minor axis is referred to as the axial ratio (AR)
,and it is equal to

Fundamental Parameters of Antennas


Introduction
Radiation Pattern
Radiation Power Density
Radiation intensity
Directivity, Gain, Antenna efficiency, Beamwidth
Bandwidth
Polarization, Linear, circular, and elliptical polarization
Polarization loss factor and efficiency
Antenna Input Impedance
Elementary idea about self and mutual impedance
Radiation efficiency
Effective aperture, Antenna Temperature

TEST1, Syllabus upto here

Polarization of EM
Waves
The instantaneous field of a plane wave, traveling in the

negative z direction:

Instantaneous components are related to their complex

counterparts by

where Exo and Eyo are, respectively, the maximum magnitudes


of the x and y components.

Linear Polarization:
A time-harmonic wave is linearly polarized at a given point in

space if the electric-field (or magnetic-field) vector at that point


is always oriented along the same straight line at every instant
of time.
This is accomplished if the field vector (electric or magnetic)

possesses:
Only one component, or
Two orthogonal linear components that are in time phase or 180

(or multiples of 180) out-of-phase.

the time-phase difference between the two components must

be

linearly polarized plane


waves
Any two orthogonal plane waves
Can be combined into a linearly
Polarized wave.
Conversely, any arbitrary linearly
polarized wave can be resolved
into two independent Orthogonal
plane waves that are in phase.

E e x E0 x cos(t kz ) e y E0 y cos(t kz )

2
2
E E E0 x E0 y

tan (
1

E0 y
E0 x

[2-15]

Fundamental Parameters of Antennas


Introduction
Radiation Pattern
Radiation Power Density
Radiation intensity
Directivity, Gain, Antenna efficiency, Beamwidth
Bandwidth
Polarization, Linear, circular, and elliptical polarization
Polarization loss factor and efficiency
Antenna Input Impedance
Elementary idea about self and mutual impedance
Radiation efficiency
Effective aperture, Antenna Temperature

TEST1, Syllabus upto here

Circular Polarization:
A time-harmonic wave is circularly polarized at a given point in

space if the Electric (or magnetic) field vector at that point traces
a circle as a function of time

The necessary and sufficient conditions to accomplish this are if

the field vector (electric or magnetic) possesses all of the


following:

a. The field must have two orthogonal linear components,

and
b. The two components must have the same magnitude, and
c. The two components must have a time-phase difference of
odd multiples of 90.

Circular
magnitudes of the two
Polarization:
components are same

Circular Polarization:

the time-phase difference between

components is odd multiples of


/2

Circular Polarized wave:

Circular polarization : E 0 x E 0 y E 0 &


[2-17]
2
: right circularly polarized, - : left circularly polarized

Optical Fiber communications, 3rd ed.,G.Keiser,McGrawHill, 2000

Fundamental Parameters of Antennas


Introduction
Radiation Pattern
Radiation Power Density
Radiation intensity
Directivity, Gain, Antenna efficiency, Beamwidth
Bandwidth
Linear, circular, and elliptical polarization
Polarization loss factor and efficiency
Antenna Input Impedance
Elementary idea about self and mutual impedance
Radiation efficiency
Effective aperture, Antenna Temperature

TEST1, Syllabus upto here

Elliptical Polarization:
A time-harmonic wave is elliptically polarized if the tip

of the field vector (electric or magnetic) traces an


elliptical locus in space.
At various instants of time the field vector changes

continuously with time at such a manner as to


describe an elliptical locus.
It is right-hand (clockwise) elliptically polarized if the

field vector rotates clockwise, and it is left-hand


(counterclockwise) elliptically polarized if the field
vector of the ellipse rotates counterclockwise

Elliptical Polarization:
magnitudes of the two components are NOT same the

time-phase difference between components is odd


multiples of /2
Or when the time phase difference between the two

components is not equal to multiples of /2


(irrespective of their magnitudes)

Elliptical Polarization:
The necessary and sufficient conditions
The field must have two orthogonal linear components, and
The two components can be of the same or different

magnitude
(1) If the two components are not of the same magnitude, the

time-phase difference between the two components must not


be 0 or multiples of 180 (because it will then be linear).
(2)If the two components are of the same magnitude, the time-

phase difference between the two components must not be


odd multiples of 90 (because it will then be circular).

Elliptically Polarized plane waves

E e x Ex e y E y
e x E 0 x cos(t kz ) e y cos(t kz )
Ex

E0 x

Ey

Ex

2
E
E0 x
0y
2 E 0 x E 0 y cos

tan(2 )

E0 x E0 y

Ey
E
0y

cos sin 2

[2-16]

Polarization
Typical Applications
Vertical polarization is most commonly used when it is

desired to radiate a radio signal in all directions over a


short to medium range.
Horizontal polarization is used over longer distances to

reduce interference by vertically polarized equipment


radiating other radio noise, which is often predominantly
vertically polarized.
Circular polarization is most often used in satellite

communications.

Fundamental Parameters of Antennas


Introduction
Radiation Pattern
Radiation Power Density
Radiation intensity
Directivity, Gain, Antenna efficiency, Beamwidth
Bandwidth
Linear, circular, and elliptical polarization
Polarization loss factor and efficiency
Antenna Input Impedance
Elementary idea about self and mutual impedance
Radiation efficiency
Effective aperture, Antenna Temperature

TEST1, Syllabus upto here

Polarization Loss Factor &


Efficiency
Usually, polarization of the receiving antenna polarization of

the incoming (incident) wave


polarization mismatch.
The amount of power extracted by the antenna from the

incoming signal will not be maximum because of the


polarization loss
Assuming that the electric field of the incoming wave can be

written as
unit vector of
the wave

Polarization Loss Factor &


Efficiency
Polarization of the electric field of the receiving

antenna
Polarization loss factor (PLF)

angle between the


two unit vectors

Polarization Loss Factor &


Efficiency
Polarization efficiency
= Polarization mismatch = loss factor :
the ratio of the power received by an antenna from a given
plane wave of arbitrary polarization to the power that would be
received by the same antenna from a plane wave of the same
power flux density and direction of propagation, whose state of
polarization has been adjusted for a maximum received power

Polarization Loss Factor &


Efficiency (Cont)
PLF for transmitting and receiving aperture antennas

Polarization Loss Factor &


Efficiency
PLF for transmitting and receiving linear wire antennas

Fundamental Parameters of Antennas


Introduction
Radiation Pattern
Radiation Power Density
Radiation intensity
Directivity, Gain, Antenna efficiency, Beamwidth
Bandwidth
Polarization, Linear, circular, and elliptical polarization
Polarization loss factor and efficiency
Antenna Input Impedance
Elementary idea about self and mutual impedance
Radiation efficiency
Effective aperture, Antenna Temperature

TEST1, Syllabus upto here

Input Impedance (Transmitting


mode)
Input impedance:
the impedance presented by an antenna at its terminals or
the ratio of the voltage to current at a pair of terminals or
the ratio of the appropriate components of the electric to
magnetic fields at a point
We are primarily interested in the input impedance at the input terminals

of the antenna

Input Impedance
Ratio of the voltage to current at these terminals, with no load

attached, defines the impedance of the antenna as

Input Impedance
Assume that the antenna is attached to a generator with

internal impedance

We can find
the amount of power delivered to Rr for radiation by

the amount of power dissipated in RL as heat by

Input Impedance
Current developed within the loop is

Input Impedance
Magnitude of current developed within the loop is

The power delivered to the antenna for radiation is given by

and that dissipated as heat by

Input Impedance
The remaining power (Pg) is dissipated as heat on the

internal resistance Rg and it is given by

The maximum power delivered to the antenna occurs when

we have conjugate matching


For this case

Input Impedance
From equations (2-81)(2-83), It is clear that

The power supplied by the generator during conjugate

matching is

Antenna in the Receiving


Mode
The incident wave impinges upon the antenna, and it

induces a voltage VT
All the formulation is same as the transmitting mode (just

replace subscript g with T)

Antenna in the Receiving


Mode

Under conjugate matching

Powers delivered to Rr ,RL ,and RT are given, respectively,

by

While the induced (collected or captured) is

Under conjugate matching of the total power collected or captured (Pc) half is
delivered to the load RT and the other half is scattered or reradiated through Rr
and dissipated as heat through RL

Fundamental Parameters of Antennas


Introduction
Radiation Pattern
Radiation Power Density
Radiation intensity
Directivity, Gain, Antenna efficiency, Beamwidth
Bandwidth
Polarization, Linear, circular, and elliptical polarization
Polarization loss factor and efficiency
Antenna Input Impedance
Elementary idea about self and mutual impedance
Radiation efficiency
Effective aperture, Antenna Temperature

TEST1, Syllabus upto here

Fundamental Parameters of Antennas


Introduction
Radiation Pattern
Radiation Power Density
Radiation intensity
Directivity, Gain, Antenna efficiency, Beamwidth
Bandwidth
Polarization, Linear, circular, and elliptical polarization
Polarization loss factor and efficiency
Antenna Input Impedance
Elementary idea about self and mutual impedance
Radiation efficiency
Effective aperture, Antenna Temperature

TEST1, Syllabus upto here

Antenna Radiation Efficiency


Remember that antenna efficiency that takes into account the

reflection, conduction, and dielectric losses


The conduction and dielectric losses of an antenna are very

difficult to compute
Even with measurements, they are difficult to separate and they

are usually lumped together to form the ecd efficiency.


The resistance RL is used to represent the conduction-dielectric

losses

Antenna Radiation Efficiency


Conduction-dielectric efficiency
power delivered to the radiation resistance
the power delivered to Rr and RL

where
Rr Radiation Resistance
RL Loss Resistance

Fundamental Parameters of Antennas


Introduction
Radiation Pattern
Radiation Power Density
Radiation intensity
Directivity, Gain, Antenna efficiency, Beamwidth
Bandwidth
Polarization, Linear, circular, and elliptical polarization
Polarization loss factor and efficiency
Antenna Input Impedance
Elementary idea about self and mutual impedance
Radiation efficiency
Effective aperture, Antenna Temperature

TEST1, Syllabus upto here

Equivalent areas
With each antenna, we can associate an umber of equivalent areas.
These are used to describe the power capturing characteristics of the

antenna when a wave impinges on it


Effective area (aperture) Ae
Scattering area (aperture) As
loss area (aperture) AL
Capture area (aperture) Ac

Effective area (Aperture) Ae


the ratio of the available power at the terminals of a receiving antenna
to the power flux density of a plane wave incident on the antenna from
that direction, the wave being polarization matched to the antenna. If
the direction is not specified, the direction of maximum radiation
intensity is implied.

Equivalent areas
Effective area Ae

The effective aperture is the area which when multiplied by

the incident power density gives the power delivered to the


load

Equivalent areas
Effective area Ae

Under conjugate matching

The maximum effective area Aem

Equivalent areas
The scattering area As

is defined as the equivalent area when multiplied by the


incident power density is equal to the scattered or
reradiated power.
Under conjugate matching
As

Equivalent areas
The loss area AL
is defined as the equivalent area, which when multiplied by
the incident power density leads to the power dissipated as
heat through RL
Under conjugate matching

Equivalent areas
Capture area Ac
is defined as the equivalent area, which when multiplied by
the incident power density leads to the total power
captured, collected, or intercepted by the antenna
Under conjugate matching

In general, the total capture area is equal to the sum of the

other three
Capture Area = Effective Area+Scattering Area+Loss Area

Ac = Ae + AS+ AL

Equivalent areas
Aperture Efficiency: ap
is defined as the ratio of the maximum effective area Aem
and of the antenna to its physical area Ap

the maximum effective aperture of any antenna is related to its

maximum directivity D0 by

Fundamental Parameters of Antennas


Introduction
Radiation Pattern
Radiation Power Density
Radiation intensity
Directivity, Gain, Antenna efficiency, Beamwidth
Bandwidth
Polarization, Linear, circular, and elliptical polarization
Polarization loss factor and efficiency
Antenna Input Impedance
Elementary idea about self and mutual impedance
Radiation efficiency
Effective aperture, Antenna Temperature

TEST1, Syllabus upto here

Antenna Temperature
The brightness temperature emitted by the different sources is

intercepted by antennas, and it appears at their terminals as an


antenna temperature
The temperature appearing at the terminals of an antenna is that
given by

Antenna Temperature
Antenna temperature (effective noise temperature of the antenna radiation

resistance; K) TA

Assuming no losses or other contributions between the antenna and the

receiver, the noise power transferred to the receiver is given by

Antenna Temperature
Antenna Noise Power (Pr)

Antenna Temperature
Antenna temperature at the receiver terminals

Antenna Temperature
The effective antenna Temperature (Ta) at the receiver
terminals is given by

Antenna Temperature
The antenna noise power
The system noise power

If the receiver itself has a certain noise temperature Tr (due to


thermal noise in the Receiver components), the system noise
power at the receiver terminals is given by

Antenna Temperature

Antenna Temperature

CONTENTS
Antennas
Fundamental Parameters of Antennas
Arrays
Aperture, Horn and Reflector antennas
Radio Wave propagation

Arrays
Introduction
Two-Element Array
N-Element Linear Array: Uniform Amplitude and Spacing

>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>MTE<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<
Broadside Array
Ordinary End-Fire Array
Hansen-Woodyard End-Fire Array
N-Element Linear Array : Uniform Spacing, Non Uniform
Amplitude
Analysis of Binomial and Dolph-Tschebyscheff Array
Scanning Array, Superdirective array

Arrays
Introduction
Two-Element Array
N-Element Linear Array: Uniform Amplitude and Spacing
Broadside Array
Ordinary End-Fire Array
Hansen-Woodyard End-Fire Array
N-Element Linear Array : Uniform Spacing, Non Uniform

Amplitude
Analysis of Binomial and Dolph-Tschebyscheff Array
Scanning Array, Superdirective array

Arrays
INTRODUCTION
Enlarging the dimensions of single elements often leads to
more directive characteristics (very high gains) to meet the
demands of long distance communication
An other way to enlarge the dimensions of the antenna,

without necessarily increasing the size of the individual


elements, is to form an assembly of radiating elements in
an electrical and geometrical configuration. This new
antenna, formed by multi elements, is referred to as an
array

INTRODUCTION

Arrays

The total field of the array is determined by the vector addition of

the fields radiated by the individual elements


To provide very directive patterns, it is necessary that the fields

from the elements of the array interfere constructively (add) in


the desired directions and interfere destructively (cancel each
other) in the remaining space
There are at least five controls that can be used to shape the
overall pattern of the antenna
1. The geometrical configuration of the overall array (linear,
circular, rectangular, spherical, etc.)
2. The relative displacement between the elements
3. The excitation amplitude of the individual elements
4. The excitation phase of the individual elements
5. The relative pattern of the individual elements

Arrays

Applications

An array that is widely used


as a base-station antenna for
mobile communication.
It is a triangular array consisting

of twelve dipoles, with four


dipoles on each side of the
triangle.
Each four element array, on

each side of the triangle, is


basically used to cover an
angular sector of 120 forming
what is usually referred to as a
sectoral array.

Arrays
Introduction
Two-Element Array
N-Element Linear Array: Uniform Amplitude and Spacing
Broadside Array
Ordinary End-Fire Array
Hansen-Woodyard End-Fire Array
N-Element Linear Array : Uniform Spacing, Non Uniform

Amplitude
Analysis of Binomial and Dolph-Tschebyscheff Array
Scanning Array, Superdirective array

Arrays

TWO-ELEMENT ARRAY:
Two infinitesimal horizontal dipoles positioned along the zaxis, as shown in figure 6.1(a)

Figure 6.1 Geometry of a two element array positioned along


the z-axis.

Arrays

TWO-ELEMENT ARRAY:
The total field radiated by the two elements, assuming no
coupling between the elements, is equal to the sum of the
two and in the y-z plane it is given by

Phase difference between the elements adjacent


element
k=2/
The magnitude excitation of the radiators is identical (I0)
Phase difference=(2/)x Path difference

Arrays

TWO-ELEMENT ARRAY:

Assuming far-field observations and

referring to Figure 6.1(b)

Equation 6-1reduces to

Arrays

TWO-ELEMENT ARRAY:

The total field of the array is equal to the field of a single

element positioned at the origin multiplied by a factor


which is widely referred to as the array factor.
Thus for the two-element array of constant amplitude, the

Array Factor is given by

which in normalized form can be written as

Arrays

TWO-ELEMENT ARRAY:

The array factor is a function of the geometry of the array

and the excitation phase.


By varying the separation d and /or the phase between

the elements, the characteristics of the array factor and of


the total field of the array can be controlled.

Arrays

TWO-ELEMENT ARRAY:
Pattern Multiplication:
The far-zone field of a uniform two element array of
identical elements is equal to the product of the field of a
single element, at a selected reference point (usually the
origin), and the array factor of that array. That is,

Arrays
Introduction
Two-Element Array
N-Element Linear Array: Uniform Amplitude and Spacing
Broadside Array
Ordinary End-Fire Array
Hansen-Woodyard End-Fire Array
N-Element Linear Array : Uniform Spacing, Non Uniform

Amplitude
Analysis of Binomial and Dolph-Tschebyscheff Array
Scanning Array, Superdirective array

Arrays

N-ELEMENT LINEAR ARRAY: Uniform Amplitude and


Spacing
Let us generalize the method to include N elements. Referring to

the geometry of Figure 6.5(a),


Let us assume that all the elements have identical amplitudes

but each succeeding element has a progressive phase lead


current excitation relative to the preceding one.

An array of identical elements all of identical magnitude

and each with a progressive phase is referred to as a


uniform array

Arrays

N-ELEMENT LINEAR ARRAY: Uniform Amplitude and


Spacing

Arrays

N-ELEMENT LINEAR ARRAY: Uniform Amplitude and


Spacing
The Array factor (AF)

By applying pattern multiplication rule on arrays of identical


element . The array factor is given by

Total phase difference = Phase difference due to path difference + =kdcos+


Phase difference=(2/)x Path difference=kdcos
Phase difference between the elements adjacent element

Arrays

N-ELEMENT LINEAR ARRAY: Uniform Amplitude and


Spacing
6.6

Multiplying both sides by ej


subtracting Eq 6.6 from Eq 6.8

Which can also be written as

Arrays

N-ELEMENT LINEAR ARRAY: Uniform Amplitude and


Spacing
AF
If the reference point is the physical center of the array, the array

factor of (6-10) reduces to

if is small

Arrays

N-ELEMENT LINEAR ARRAY: Uniform Amplitude and


Spacing
maximum value of array factor is equal to N
Normalized Array Factor

Arrays

N-ELEMENT LINEAR ARRAY: Uniform Amplitude and Spacing

Nulls of the Array:


To find the nulls of the array,
Eq (6-10c) or (6-10d) is set equal
to zero

(AF)n=0| = n

= 2n/N
(kdcosn+) = 2n/N

For n = N,2N,3N,..., (6-10c) attains its


maximum values because it reduces to a
sin(0)/0 form.

cosn= (/2d)(- 2n/N)


The values of n determine the order of the
nulls (first, second, , etc.)

Arrays

N-ELEMENT LINEAR ARRAY: Uniform Amplitude and Spacing

Maximum
The maximum values of normalized array factor occur when
sin(/2) =0| = m

First Maximum or Principal Maximum


The first maximum of the array factor occurs when m = 0
/2 = 0
or = 0

Arrays
Introduction
Two-Element Array
N-Element Linear Array: Uniform Amplitude and Spacing
Broadside Array
Ordinary End-Fire Array
Hansen-Woodyard End-Fire Array
N-Element Linear Array : Uniform Spacing, Non Uniform

Amplitude
Analysis of Binomial and Dolph-Tschebyscheff Array
Scanning Array, Superdirective array

Arrays

On the basis of the main lobe array


Broadside Array
Ordinary End-fire Array
Broadside Array:
The maximum radiation of an array directed normal to the axis
of the array (broadside; =900)
The first maximum of the array factor occurs when
= 0 or
kdcos+ = 0
Since it is desired to have the first maximum directed toward =900

kdcos900+ = 0

or

=0

Thus to have the maximum of the array factor of a uniform linear array
directed broadside to the axis of the array, it is necessary that all the
elements have the same phase excitation (in addition to the same
amplitude excitation). The separation between the elements can be of
any value.

Arrays

Broadside Array:
To ensure that there are no principal maxima in other
directions, which are referred to as grating lobes, the
separation between the elements should not be equal to
multiples of a wavelength (dn, n=1,2,3,.) and =0.
If d=n, n=1,2,3,. And =0, then

Thus for a uniform array with = 0 and d = n , in addition to having the


maxima of the array factor directed broadside ( = 90 ) to the axis of the
array, there are additional maxima directed along the axis ( = 0 ,180 ) of
the array (end-fire radiation).

Arrays

Broadside Array:
Grating Lobes: multiple maxima, in addition to the main maximum
To avoid any grating lobe, the largest spacing between the elements
Should be less than one wavelength(dmax< )

Arrays
Introduction
Two-Element Array
N-Element Linear Array: Uniform Amplitude and Spacing
Broadside Array
Ordinary End-Fire Array
Hansen-Woodyard End-Fire Array
N-Element Linear Array : Uniform Spacing, Non Uniform

Amplitude
Analysis of Binomial and Dolph-Tschebyscheff Array
Scanning Array, Superdirective array

Ordinary End Fire:

Arrays

The maximum radiation of an array directed to along the axis of


the array (end-fire). As a matter of fact, it may be necessary
that it radiates toward only one direction (either 0=00 or 1800)
To direct the first maximum toward 0=00

To direct the first maximum toward 0=1800 , then

If d=n, n=1,2,3than in addition to having endfire


radiation, there also exist maxima in the broadside direction.
To avoid any grating lobe, the largest spacing between the elements
Should be less than one wavelength(dmax< )

Ordinary End - Fire

Arrays

Arrays
Introduction
Two-Element Array
N-Element Linear Array: Uniform Amplitude and Spacing
Broadside Array
Ordinary End-Fire Array
Hansen-Woodyard End-Fire Array
N-Element Linear Array : Uniform Spacing, Non Uniform

Amplitude
Analysis of Binomial and Dolph-Tschebyscheff Array
Scanning Array, Superdirective array

Arrays

Hansen-Woodyard End-Fire Array:


To enhance the directivity of an end-fire array without
destroying any of the other characteristics.
Hansen and Woodyard proposed that the required phase shift
between closely spaced elements of a very long array should
be

Arrays

Hansen-Woodyard End-Fire Array:


To realize the increase in directivity as a result of the HansenWoodyard conditions, it is necessary that, in addition to the
conditions of (6-23a) and (6-23b). assumes values of
For maximum radiation along 0=00

For maximum radiation along 0=1800

Arrays

Hansen-Woodyard End-Fire Array:


For an array of N elements, the condition of ||= is satisfied
by using eqn (6-23a) for =0 and eqn (6-23b) for =180 and
choosing for each a spacing of d

If the number of elements is large,(6-25) can be approximated by

Thus for a large uniform array, the Hansen-Woodyard condition can only yield an
Improved directivity provided the spacing between the elements is approximately
/4.

Directivity:

Arrays

where L is the overall length of the array

Broadside Array:
Directivity:

Arrays

where L is the overall length of the array

Arrays

Arrays
Introduction
Two-Element Array
N-Element Linear Array: Uniform Amplitude and Spacing
Broadside Array
Ordinary End-Fire Array
Hansen-Woodyard End-Fire Array
N-Element Linear Array : Uniform Spacing, Non Uniform

Amplitude
Analysis of Binomial and Dolph-Tschebyscheff Array
Scanning Array, Superdirective array

Arrays

N-Element Linear Array : Uniform Spacing, Non Uniform


Amplitude
Introduction
In this section, broadside arrays with uniform spacing but non
uniform amplitude distribution will be considered.
Most of the discussion will be directed toward binomial and

Dolph- Tschebyscheff broadside arrays


a uniform amplitude array yields the smallest half-power

beamwidth. It is followed, in order, by the Dolph-Tschebyscheff


and binomial arrays.
In contrast, binomial arrays usually possess the smallest side

lobes followed, in order, by the Dolph-Tschebyscheff and


uniform arrays.

Arrays

N-Element Linear Array : Uniform Spacing, Non Uniform


Amplitude
Introduction
As a matter of fact, binomial arrays with element spacing equal
or less than /2 have no side lobes.
It has been shown analytically that for a given side lobe level

the Dolph-Tschebyscheff array produces the smallest


beamwidth between the first nulls.
Conversely, for a given beamwidth between the first nulls, the

Dolph-Tschebyscheff design leads to the smallest possible side


lobe level.

Arrays

N-Element Linear Array : Uniform Spacing, Non Uniform


Amplitude
Introduction
Uniform arrays usually possess the largest directivity.
However, superdirective (or super gain as most people refer to

them) antennas possess directivities higher than those of a


uniform array.

Although a certain amount of superdirectivity is practically


possible, superdirective arrays usually require very large
currents with opposite phases between adjacent elements.

Arrays
N-Element Linear Array : Uniform Spacing, Non Uniform Amplitude

(1) For even

number of
elements (2M)

(2) For odd

number of
elements
(2M+1)

Arrays
N-Element Linear Array : Uniform Spacing, Non Uniform Amplitude

(1) For even number of elements (2M)


An array of an even number of isotropic

elements 2M (where M is an integer) is


positioned symmetrically along the z-axis, as
shown in Figure 6.19(a).

The separation between the elements is d,


and M elements are placed on each side of
the origin.

Assuming that the amplitude excitation is

symmetrical about the origin

Figure 6.19 Non uniform amplitude arrays of even number of elements.

Arrays
N-Element Linear Array : Uniform Spacing, Non Uniform Amplitude

(1) For even number of elements (2M)


Array Factor : The array factor for a non uniform
amplitude broad side array can be written as

Which in normalized form reduces to

Where ans are the excitation coefficients of the array elements.


Figure 6.19 Non uniform amplitude arrays of even number of elements.

Arrays
N-Element Linear Array : Uniform Spacing, Non Uniform Amplitude

(2) For odd number of elements (2M+1)


An array of odd number of isotropic elements 2M+1
(where M is an integer) as shown in Figure 6.19(a).
Array Factor

Which in normalized form reduces to

The amplitude excitation of the center element is 2a1


Figure 6.19 Non uniform amplitude arrays of odd number of elements.

Arrays
N-Element Linear Array : Uniform Spacing, Non Uniform Amplitude

The excitation coefficients may be determine through


Binomial expansion Binomial Array
Tschebyscheff ploynomial Dolph-Tschebyscheff Array

Arrays
Introduction
Two-Element Array
N-Element Linear Array: Uniform Amplitude and Spacing
Broadside Array
Ordinary End-Fire Array
Hansen-Woodyard End-Fire Array
N-Element Linear Array : Uniform Spacing, Non Uniform

Amplitude
Analysis of Binomial and Dolph-Tschebyscheff Array
Scanning Array, Superdirective array

Arrays
N-Element Linear Array : Uniform Spacing, Non Uniform Amplitude

Binomial Array:
The array factor for the binomial array is represented by (6-61a)(6-61c)
where the ans are the excitation coefficients which will now be derived
(A) Excitation Coefficients :

the function (1+x)m-1 be written in a series, using the binomial


expansion, as

Arrays
Binomial Array:
(A) Excitation Coefficients :

The positive coefficients of the series expansion for different values of m are

M number of elements of the array,


The coefficients of the expansion amplitudes of the elements.

Pascals
triangle
Since the coefficients are determined from
a binomial
series expansion, the array is known as a
binomial array.

Arrays
Binomial Array:
(A) Excitation Coefficients :

Referring to (6-61a), (6-61b), and (6-63), the amplitude coefficients


for the following arrays are:

The coefficients for other arrays can be determined in a similar manner

Arrays
Binomial Array:
(B) Design Procedure :

These expressions can be used effectively to design binomial


arrays with a desired half-power beamwidth or directivity.

Arrays

Arrays
N-Element Linear Array : Uniform Spacing, Non Uniform Amplitude

Dolph-Tschebyscheff Array:
(A) Array Factor:
Referring to (6-61a) and (6-61b), the array factor of an array of even or
odd number of elements with symmetric amplitude excitation is nothing
more than a summation of M or M +1 cosine terms.
The largest harmonic of the cosine terms is one less than the total
number of elements of the array. Each cosine term, whose argument is
an integer times a fundamental frequency, can be rewritten as a series
of cosine functions with the fundamental frequency as the argument.
That is,

Arrays
N-Element Linear Array : Uniform Spacing, Non Uniform Amplitude

Dolph-Tschebyscheff Array:
(A) Array Factor:

Arrays
N-Element Linear Array : Uniform Spacing, Non Uniform Amplitude

Dolph-Tschebyscheff Array:
(A) Array Factor:

Arrays
N-Element Linear Array : Uniform Spacing, Non Uniform Amplitude

Dolph-Tschebyscheff Array:
(A) Array Factor:
The recursion formula for Tschebyscheff polynomials is

It can be used to find one Tschebyscheff polynomial if the polynomials


of the previous two orders are known. Each polynomial can also be
computed using

Arrays
N-Element Linear Array : Uniform Spacing, Non Uniform Amplitude

Dolph-Tschebyscheff Array:
(A) Array Factor:
properties of the Tschebyscheff polynomials are

Arrays
N-Element Linear Array : Uniform Spacing, Non Uniform Amplitude

Dolph-Tschebyscheff Array:
(B) Array Design:Statement:
Design a broadside Dolph-Tschebyscheff array of 2M or 2M +1
elements with spacing d between the elements. The side lobes are R
dB below the maximum of the major lobe. Find the excitation
coefficients and form the array factor.
Procedure

Arrays
N-Element Linear Array : Uniform Spacing, Non Uniform Amplitude

Dolph-Tschebyscheff Array:
(B)Array Design:

Arrays
Introduction
Two-Element Array
N-Element Linear Array: Uniform Amplitude and Spacing
Broadside Array
Ordinary End-Fire Array
Hansen-Woodyard End-Fire Array
N-Element Linear Array : Uniform Spacing, Non Uniform

Amplitude
Analysis of Binomial and Dolph-Tschebyscheff Array
Scanning Array, Superdirective array

Arrays
SUPER DIRECTIVITY
Antennas whose directivities are much larger than the directivity of a reference
antenna of the same size are known as super directive antennas.
In an array, super directivity is accomplished by inserting more elements with in a

fixed length(decreasing the spacing).


Doing this leads eventually to very large magnitudes and rapid changes of phase in

the excitation coefficients of the elements of the array.


This necessitates a very precise adjustment of their values. Associated with this are
increases in reactive power (relative to the radiated power) and the Q of the array.

Arrays
Super directive array
Thus a super directive array is one whose directivity is larger than that of a
reference array (usually a uniform array of the same length).
Efficiency and Directivity:
Because of the very large currents in the elements of superdirective arrays, the
ohmic losses increases and the antenna efficiency decreases very sharply.

Although practically the ohmic losses can be reduced by the use of super
conductive materials, there is no easy solution for the precise adjustment of the
amplitudes and phases of the array elements.

High radiation efficiency superdirective arrays can be designed utilizing array

functions that are insensitive to changes in element values.

Arrays
Designs With Constraints:
To make the designs more practical, applications that warrant some super
directivity should in corporate constraints.
One constraint is based on the sensitivity factor (K) , and it was utilized for

the design of super directive arrays .


The sensitivity factor (designated as K) is an important parameter which is

related to the electrical and mechanical tolerances of an antenna, and it can


be used to describe its performance (especially its practical implementation).
For an N-element array, it can be written as

an the current excitation of the nth element,


rn the distance from the nth element to the
far-field observation point

Arrays

Designs With Constraints:


To derive design constraints, the realized current excitation coefficients c ns
are related to the desired ones ans by
Where nan represents the error in the nth excitation coefficient. The mean
square value of n is denoted by

To take into account the error associated with the positioning of the
elements, we introduce

Where is the root-mean-square value of the element position error.

Arrays

Designs With Constraints:


Combining (6-83b) and (6-83c) reduces to

Where is a measure of the combined electrical and mechanical errors

If the realized pattern is to be very close to the desired one, then

Equation(6-83e) can be rewritten, by introducing a safety factor S, as

S is chosen large enough so that(6-83e) is satisfied.

CONTENTS
Antennas
Fundamental Parameters of Antennas
Arrays
Aperture, Horn and Reflector antennas
Radio Wave propagation

Aperture Antennas
Aperture antennas are most common at microwave frequencies.
There are many different geometrical configurations of an aperture

antenna with some of the most popular shown in below Figure


They may take the form of a waveguide or a horn whose aperture

may be square, rectangular, circular, elliptical, or any other


configuration.

Aperture Antennas
Aperture antennas are very practical for space applications, because

they can be flush mounted on the surface of the space craft or


aircraft.
Their opening can be covered with a dielectric material to protect

them from environmental conditions. This type of mounting does not


disturb the aero dynamic profile of the craft, which in high speed
applications is critical.

Aperture Antennas
HUYGENS PRINCIPLE
states that each Point on a primary wave front can be considered to
be a new source of a secondary Spherical wave and that a
secondary wave front can be constructed as the envelope of these
secondary spherical waves
FIELD EQUIVALENCE PRINCIPLE
a field in a lossy region is uniquely specified by The sources within
the region plus the tangential components of the electric field over
the boundary, or the tangential components of the magnetic field
over the boundary, or the former over part of the boundary and the
latter over the rest of the boundary

Aperture Antennas
FIELD EQUIVALENCE PRINCIPLE
The equivalence principle is developed by considering an actual
radiating source, which electrically is represented by current densities
J1 and M1 as shown in Figure12.1(a).
The source radiates fields E1 and H1 everywhere. To accomplish this,

a closed surface S is chosen, shown dashed in Figure12.1(a), which


encloses the current densities J1 and M1 .

Aperture Antennas
FIELD EQUIVALENCE PRINCIPLE
The volume within S is denoted by V1 and outside S by V2.

Produce the original fields (E1, H1) only outside S.

Aperture Antennas

RECTANGULAR APERTURES
In practice, the rectangular aperture is probably the most common
microwave antenna. Because of its configuration, the rectangular
coordinate system is the most convenient system to express the
fields at the aperture and to perform the integration.
Shown in Figure12.6 are the three most common and convenient

coordinate positions used for the solution of an aperture antenna.

Figure12.6

Aperture Antennas
RECTANGULAR APERTURES
In Figure12.6(a) the aperture lies on the y-z plane, in Figure12.6(b)
on the x-z plane, and in Figure12.6(c) on the x-y plane.

Figure12.6

Aperture Antennas
RECTANGULAR APERTURES
For a given field distribution, the analytical forms for the fields for
each of the arrangements are not the same. However the computed
values will be the same, since the physical problem is identical in all
cases. For each of the geometries shown in Figure12.6, the only
difference in the analysis is in the formulation of
1. the components of the equivalent current densities ( J x, Jy, Jz,
Mx, My, Mz)
2. the difference in paths from the source to the observation point
(rcos)
3. the differential area ds

Aperture Antennas
RECTANGULAR APERTURES
In general, the non zero components of Js and Ms are

The differential paths take the form of

Aperture Antennas
RECTANGULAR APERTURES
and the differential areas are represented by

Aperture Antennas
RECTANGULAR APERTURES
(1)Uniform Distribution on an Infinite Ground Plane

Aperture Antennas
RECTANGULAR APERTURES
(1)Uniform Distribution on an Infinite Ground Plane

Aperture Antennas
RECTANGULAR APERTURES
(1)Uniform Distribution on an Infinite Ground Plane

Aperture Antennas
RECTANGULAR APERTURES
(1)Uniform Distribution on an Infinite Ground Plane

Aperture Antennas
RECTANGULAR APERTURES
(1)Uniform Distribution on an Infinite Ground Plane

Aperture Antennas
RECTANGULAR APERTURES
(1)Uniform Distribution on an Infinite Ground Plane

Aperture Antennas
RECTANGULAR APERTURES
(1)Uniform Distribution on an Infinite Ground Plane

Aperture Antennas
RECTANGULAR APERTURES
(1)Uniform Distribution on an Infinite Ground Plane

Aperture Antennas
RECTANGULAR APERTURES
(1)Uniform Distribution on an Infinite Ground Plane

Aperture Antennas
RECTANGULAR APERTURES
(1)Uniform Distribution on an Infinite Ground Plane

Aperture Antennas
RECTANGULAR APERTURES
(1)Uniform Distribution on an Infinite Ground Plane

Aperture Antennas
RECTANGULAR APERTURES
(1)Uniform Distribution on an Infinite Ground Plane

Aperture Antennas
RECTANGULAR APERTURES
(1)Uniform Distribution on an Infinite Ground Plane

Aperture Antennas
RECTANGULAR APERTURES
(1)Uniform Distribution on an Infinite Ground Plane

Aperture Antennas

Aperture Antennas

Aperture Antennas
CIRCULAR APERTURES
A widely used microwave antenna is the circular aperture.
One of the attractive features of this configuration is its simplicity in

construction.
In addition, closed form expressions for the fields of all the modes

that can exist over the aperture can be obtained.


The procedure followed to determine the fields radiated by a circular
aperture is identical to that of the rectangular, as summarized in
Section12.3. The primary differences lie in the formulation of the
equivalent current densities ( Jx, Jy, Jz, Mx, My, Mz) the differential
paths from the source to the observation point

Aperture Antennas
CIRCULAR APERTURES
..do ownself

Aperture Antennas
BABINETS PRINCIPLE
Now that wire and aperture antennas have been analyzed, one may
inquire as to whether there is any relationship between them.
This can be answered better by first introducing Babinetsprinciple

which in optics states that when the field behind a screen with an
opening is added to the field of a complementary structure, the sum
is equal to the field when there is no screen.
Babinets principle in optics does not consider polarization, which is

sovitalin antenna theory; it deals primarily with absorbing screens.


An extension of Babinets principle, which includes polarization and
the more practical conducting screens, was introduced by Booker
[13], [14]. Referring to Figure12.22(a),
do ownself

CONTENTS
Antennas
Fundamental Parameters of Antennas
Arrays
Aperture, Horn and Reflector antennas
Radio Wave propagation

Horn Antennas
One of the simplest and probably the most widely used microwave

antenna is the horn.


The horn is nothing more than a hollow pipe of different cross

sections, which has been tapered (flared) to a larger opening.


The horn is widely used as a feed element for large radio astronomy,

satellite tracking, and communication dishes found installed


throughout the world.
In addition to its utility as a feed for reflectors and lenses, it is a

common element of phased arrays and serves as a universal


standard for calibration and gain measurements of other high-gain
antennas.

Horn Antennas

Horn Antennas
E - PLANE SECTORAL HORN
The E-plane sectoral horn is one whose opening is flared in the
direction of the E-field, and it is shown in Figure13.2(a).

H-PLANE SECTORAL HORN


Flaring the dimensions of a rectangular waveguide in the direction of
the H-field, while keeping the other constant, forms an H-plane
sectoral horns hown in Figure13.1(b)

CONTENTS
Antennas
Fundamental Parameters of Antennas
Arrays
Aperture, Horn and Reflector antennas
Radio Wave propagation

Reflector antennas
INTRODUCTION
The use of reflector antennas for deep space communication, such
as in the space program and especially their deployment on the
surface of the moon, resulted in establishing the reflector antenna
almost as a household word during the 1960s.
Although reflector antennas take many geometrical configurations,

some of the most popular shapes are the plane, corner, and curved
reflectors (especially the paraboloid), as shown in Figure15.1, each
of which will be discussed in this chapter.

Reflector antennas
INTRODUCTION

Reflector antennas
PLANE REFLECTOR:
The simplest type of reflector is a plane reflector introduced to direct
energy in a desired direction.

Reflector antennas
PARABOLIC REFLECTOR

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