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Topic 7

Pavement Drainage

Instructor:

Shih-Hsien Yang

N674300 Pavement Analysis & Design

Objectives
vImpact of moisture on pavement distress
vDefine drainage factors
vList properties that influence drainability
vDescribe principle behind drainage time
v

DRIP

How Much Water Gets into Pavement


vRain: dry-wet; freeze-thaw
vPavement design, age, and condition
vSurface drainage: longitudinal and transverse
slopes, ditches, and storm drain.

Sources of Moisture

Through Permeable Surface

Capillary

Vapor

Water Table

Water Table

Seepage

Pavement Infiltration

Water in Pavements
vStripping in HMA
vLoss of subgrade support
vReduction of granular layer
stiffness
vErosion of cement-treated
base layers
vReduction in the pavement
service life if base is
saturated for sometime
vDebond between layers

How to Address the Problem?

Pavement geometry (slopes and ditches)


Crack sealing
Treated Layer
Thicker Layers
Full Width

Subsurface Drainage

v
v
v
v

0.02 m/m 0.04 m/m

HMA
Treated base
Aggregate base
Subgrade

Pavement Slopes

SR = (S + S
2

2
x

0.5

S
)
LR = W 1 + (
S
S
Tan ( A ) = ( )
S

0.5

Sx SR
S

LR

Pavement Slopes
vSurface and subsurface
slopes
vAlways positive SR
vRecommended slopes:
0.01 0.025 m/m (spec range)
v 0.02 m/m (normal conditions)
v 0.025 m/m (high rainfall)
v

Drain Requirements
vSufficient stiffness to support traffic
without significant permanent deformation
under dynamic loading
vSufficient transmissivity to rapidly drain the
pavement section and prevent saturation of
the base
vSufficient air void to provide a capillary
break

Permeable Base System


Pavement
Permeable base
Base layer

Longitudinal
pipe edgedrain

Pavement

10-year
flow

Shoulder

Shoulder

Permeable base

Rigid
outlet pipe

Ditch

Embankment
Fabric

Base layer
Subgrade
Ditch

Geocomposite Edgedrains

Pavement

Shoulder

Aggregate base
Subbase/Subgrade

Sand Backfill

Prefabricated
Geocomposite Edge
Drain (PGED)
25 mm
100 mm

Subsurface Drainage

EDGE DRAIN

OGDL

PGED

Pavement Design Equations (AASHTO


1993)

SN = a1D1 + a2D2m2 + a3D3m3


log10W18 = (ZR)(S0) + (9.36)(log10(SN+1) - 0.20 +
log10[PSI/(4.2-1.5)]/[0.40 + (1.094/(SN+1)5.19)] +
(2.32)(log10MR) - 8.07

Drainage - mi
Adjust layer coefficients to account for effects
of certain levels of drainage on untreated
materials
Quality of Drainage

Water Removed Within

Excellent

2 hours

Good

1 day

Fair

1 week

Poor

1 month

Very poor

Water will not drain

Quality of
Drainage

Percent of Time Pavement Structure is


Exposed to Moisture Levels Approaching
Saturation
Less Than
1%

1-5%

5-15%

Greater
Than 25%

Excellent

1.40-1.35

1.35-1.30

1.30-1.20

1.20

Good

1.35-1.25

1.25-1.15

1.15-1.00

1.00

Fair

1.25-1.15

1.15-1.05

1.00-0.80

0.80

Poor

1.15-1.05

1.05-0.80

0.80-0.60

0.60

Very Poor

1.05-0.95

0.95-0.75

0.75-0.40

0.40

* Quality of drainage is a function of permeable base


quality of drainage and effectiveness of drainage system

Permeability
v Ability of materials to
carry water
v Coefficient of permeability
(k)
v
v

Measure of permeability
Rate of flow through a unit area
with a unit hydraulic gradient

v Affected by
v
v
v

Porosity
Effective grain size, D10
Percent passing #200 sieve

v Measured in the lab:


v
v

Falling head test


Constant head test

v Field testing:
v
v

Field permeability testing device


Tipping buckets

WeightVolume Relationship

VA= Air vol.

Air

VV= Voids vol.


VW= Water vol.

Water

Ww= Wt of water
WT= Total wt

VT Total vol.

VS= Solid vol.

Solid

Ws= Wt of solids

Porosity
v Porosity: indicates aggregates ability to store or give
up water

$
)
=
=1
%
9.81./
Vv = Volume of voids
VT = Total volume

= Unit dry weight, kN/m3

Gsb = Bulk specific gravity

Effective Porosity
v Effective porosity indicates the amount of drainable
water (how strong the soil will hold water)


0 =
=

where,
N = Porosity
WL = Water loss, %

Saturation
v Saturation: Measure of the amount of water in the soil;
Vw = Vv%
Saturation

D
=
100
$
where,
Drained water = Ne x U = Vv - Vw
Ne = Effective porosity
U = Percentage drained

MOVEMENT OF WATER
vGravity, capillary action, vapor pressures
vFine-grained soil

capillary
vGranular materials gravity
v = ki

(Darcys law)

v = discharge velocity (not actual seepage velocity)


k = coefficient of permeability
i = hydraulic gradient

Q = vA

(Discharge = volume of flow per unit time):

A = cross-sectional area normal to the direction of flow

Darcys Law Assumptions

vSteady-state flow
vSoil is porous and homogenous
vLaminar flow

Surface Inflow

vTwo Approaches
v Steady-State Flow
Rainfall
v Percentage of rainfall that enters the
pavement
v

vTime-to-Drain

Time-to-Drain Design Assumptions


vDuring a rainfall event water infiltrates into the
permeable base until it is saturated
vExcess rainwater runs off to a side ditch
vTime required to drain certain amount of water
from the drainage layer after a rain event

Time-to-Drain

qi
qd
Pavement
Permeable base
Base layer

Shoulder

Pavement Discharge Rate, qd


vqd is based on time-to-drain analysis

1
) = 240 = K
)
where:
qd
W
H
Ne
U
td
qi

=
=
=
=
=
=
=

pavement discharge, m3/day/m


width of the permeable base, m
base thickness, m
effective porosity of base material
percent drained in decimal
time to drain, hr
pavement infiltration, m3/day/m2

HMA pavements: 0.10 to 0.15 m3/day/m2


PCC pavements: 0.15 to 0.20 m3/day/m2

Design Standards
For Pavement: Time required to drain 50% of
the drainable water
Excellent
Good
Fair
Poor
Very Poor

2 hours
1 day
7 days
1 month
Does not drain

For Freeways: 50% drained in 2 hrs


If heavy traffic, in 1 hr

Design Standards
For pavement rehabilitation, 85% saturation
Excellent
Good
Fair
Poor
Very Poor

< 2 hours
2 to 5 hours
5 to 10 hours
> 10 hours
>>> 10 hours

Effect of Degree Saturation on Deformation for


Granular Material

Time-to-Drain Calculation

Time factor
Time to
drain (hrs)

t = T x m x 24

m-factor
(days)

How to Estimate Time to Drain (t)


vInput:
S and Sx
v W, H, k, d, Gsb, WL (for permeable base)
v

vInterim Output:
SR, LR, S1 {S1 = (LR x SR)/H}
v T for a desirable degree of drainage (U)
v N and Ne
v

N = [1- {d / (9.81 x Gsb)}]


Ne = N x WL

m factor: m = (Ne x LR2) / (k x H)

vOutput: t = T x m x 24

Transmissivity

Degree of Drainage - U

U-T Relationship

0
.3

.7
1
.01

S1 = 10 8 6
.05

4 2

1 .8
.6 .4 0

.2
1
Time Factor - T

20

T for U = 50% Drained

Slope Factor (S1)

7
5
3
2
1
0
.01

.03 .10 .30 .60


Time Factor (T50)

Time-to-Drain and Permeability


Relationship

Percent Drained

0
k = 153 m/day

20
40

H = 0.15 m
Ne = 0.25
LR = 7.6 m
SR = 0.02 m/m

60
k = 305 m/day

80
100

k = 915 m/day

k = 610 m/day

Time to Drain, hrs

Combining Base and Subgrade Drainage

Subgrade Soil
Durability

PERFORMANCE
EXC - Excellent
G - Good
Base Drainabilities
F - Fair
A
M
U
P - Poor
VP - Very Poor Acceptable Marginal Unacceptable

Good

EXC

F to P

Fair

P to VP

Poor

F to P

P to VP

VP

Time to drain

For two lane road - Lane width = 24 ft, Slope = 0.01


Base

k (ft/day)

time to drain

OGB

1000

2 hrs to drain Excellent

DGAB

1 week

Fair

0.1

1 month

Poor

no drains

does not drain

Very Poor

DGAB w/ fines
Reality

Quality

Aggregate Gradations
Percent Passing
100
80

Sand
Dense Agg. base

60

Pea gravel

40

AASHTO No. 67
AASHTO No. 57

20
0 .075

1 0

4.75 9.5 12.5


Sieve Sizes, mm

25.4

37.5

Percent Passing

Internal Drainage Factors - Permeability

100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0

Fine Sand

Medium Coarse
Sand Sand

Gravel

K (ft. / day)

.075 .180 .300 .600

1.18 2.36
.850 2.00

Sieve Sizes

4.75 9.5 19.0 37.5 63.0


12.5 25.0

Aggregate Gradation Importance


vEffective grain size, D10
v
v

Sieve size corresponding to 10% passing (by wt)


Affects permeability

vCoefficient of uniformity (indicates stability),


Cu =

D60
D10

* <4 may be unstable

D60 = Sieve size corresponding to 60% passing (by wt)


D10 = Sieve size corresponding to 10% passing (by wt)

vCoefficient of gradation/curvature,
2
D
30
Cz =
D10 * D60

D30 = Sieve size corresponding to 30% passing (by wt)

Types of Current Permeable Bases


v

Unstabilized permeable base


vDevelops stability through aggregate interlock and
internal friction
vFiner gradation than stabilized bases

Stabilized permeable base


vStability is achieved by interlock and
cementation/binder (AC or PC)
vMore open-graded than unstabilized layers

Construction of Permeable Bases


v
v
v
v
v
v
v

Good and stable supporting layer


Stable
Avoid contamination
No discontinuities in the flow path
Placement is very important (consider a control
strip)
Over compaction can be a problem
Resultant permeability should meet or exceed the
design one

Factors Affecting The Design of Drainage


Layer
vPavement slopes
vAggregate gradation
vPorosity and effective porosity
vLayer saturation
vPermeability

The Need for a Separator Layers


vDense-graded aggregate
vDense-graded HMA
vCement-treated base
vGeotextiles
vAsphalt chip seals
vTreated subgrade

Design of Aggregate Separator Layer:


Gradation
vSatisfy filtration and uniformity requirements:
v

Subgrade/separator layer interface


v
v
v

v
v
v
v

D15(separator layer) < 5*D85(subgrade)


D50(separator layer) < 25*D50(subgrade)
Practice:
v D 15(separator layer) < 3.50 mm (filtration)
v D 50(separator layer) < 3.25 mm (uniformity)
Permeable base/separator layer interface
D15(permeable base) < 5*D85(separator layer)
D50(permeable base) < 25*D50(separator layer)
Practice:
v D 85(separator layer) > 0.44mm (filtration)
v D 50(separator layer) > 0.24mm (uniformity)

Percent passing #200 sieve should be <12%


v CU > 20, preferably in the vicinity of 40
v

Physical Properties of the Aggregate Separator


Layer

vMinimum CBR of 50%


vLow permeability (< 5 m/day)
vGood interlock through durable and angular crushed
stone
vMinimum thickness of 100mm

Gradation of a Separator Layer (DGAB)

Percent Passing

100
80

D60

60

Dense-graded
aggregate base

40

D10= 0.98 mm

20

Cu= 45.97

D10
0 .075
Max. 12% fines

4.75 9.5 12.5


Sieve Sizes, mm

25.4

37.5

Example of Separator Layer Gradation

Percent Passing

100
80
60
40
20
0
0.01

Design Envelope

0.05 0.1

Separator
layer
gradation

0.5 1
5 10
Grain Size - mm

50 100

Geotextile
Separator Layer Design
vCheck for
Separation criteria (soil retention)
v Survivability and endurance criteria
v Clogging potential criteria*
v Permeability criteria*
v

Time Domain Reflectometry


45

Moisture Content

40

15

35
30

10

25
20
15

Precipitation (mm)

50

Precipitation

SECTION B

10
5

3/17/00

3/31/00

4/14/00

4/28/00

5/12/00

5/26/00

Date
20

SECTION J

50

Precipitation

45

Moisture Content

40

15

35
30

10

25
20
15

10
5

0
3/14/00

0
3/28/00

4/11/00

4/25/00
Date

5/9/00

5/23/00

Precipitation (mm)

3/3/00

Moisture Content (%)

Moisture Content (%)

20

Deflection vs. Saturation of Base


15.1

Deflection (mm)

12.6
10.1
7.5

6.2 % Fines
9.1 % Fines
11.5 % Fines
Crushed stone
Gravel

5.0
2.5
60

70
80
Degree of Saturation (%)

90

100

Monitoring Techniques
vPerformance monitoring can identify potential
problems sooner and save money
Visual condition surveys
v FWD testing (structural integrity)
v Profile (ride quality)
v

Visual Evaluation
vIf sub-drainage is present, can the outlets be
found and are they clear of debris?
vAre inlets clear and functioning?
vAfter a rain, is water flowing
vAre the joints or cracks properly sealed?
vAre ditches clear of standing water and/or
grass/weeds?
vAre typical signs of pumping evident?

Moisture Related Distresses-HMA

Moisture Related Distresses-PCC

Click to edit Master title style

PAVEMENT PERFORMANCE IS A TRUE


REFLECTION OF DRAINAGE SYSTEM

OGDL
Problems

OGDL Failure

Guide for Selecting m2

Recommended drainage coefficient, m2


Quality of
Drainage*

Climate
Condition A ...

Climate
Condition F

Excellent

1.25 - 1.20

...

1.25 - 1.15

Good

1.25 - 1.20

...

1.25 - 1.15

Fair

1.25 - 1.20

...

1.15 - 1.05

* Quality of drainage is a function of permeable base


quality of drainage and effectiveness of drainage system