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Electrochemistry Tables

Electrochemistry Tables
P1: Standard Reduction Potentials by Element
P2: Standard Reduction Potentials by Value
P3: Activity Series of Metals
P4: Polarographic Half-Wave Potentials

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Electrochemistry Tables

Electrochemistry Tables

P1: Standard Reduction Potentials by Element

P2: Standard Reduction Potentials by Value

P3: Activity Series of Metals

P4: Polarographic Half-Wave Potentials

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P1: Standard Reduction Potentials by Element

P1: Standard Reduction Potentials by Element


The following table provides Eo and Eo values for selected reduction reactions. Values are from the following sources: Bard,
A. J.; Parsons, B.; Jordon, J., eds. Standard Potentials in Aqueous Solutions, Dekker: New York, 1985; Milazzo, G.; Caroli,
S.; Sharma, V. K. Tables of Standard Electrode Potentials, Wiley: London, 1978; Swift, E. H.; Butler, E. A. Quantitative
Measurements and Chemical Equilibria, Freeman: New York, 1972.
Solids, gases, and liquids are identified; all other species are aqueous. Reduction reactions in acidic solution are written using
H+ in place of H3O+. You may rewrite a reaction by replacing H+ with H3O+ and adding to the opposite side of the reaction
one molecule of H2O per H+; thus
H3AsO4 + 2H+ + 2e \(\rightleftharpoons\) HAsO2 + 2H2O
becomes
H3AsO4 + 2H3O+ + 2e \(\rightleftharpoons\) HAsO2 + 4H2O
Conditions for formal potentials (Eo) are listed next to the potential.
Aluminum

E (V)

Al3+ + 3e \(\rightleftharpoons\) Al(s)

1.676

Al(OH)4 + 3e \(\rightleftharpoons\) Al(s) + 4OH

2.310

AlF63 + 3e \(\rightleftharpoons\) Al(s) + 6F

2.07

Antimony

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Aluminum

E (V)

Sb + 3H+ + 3e \(\rightleftharpoons\) SbH3(g)

0.510

Sb2O5(s) + 6H+ + 4e \(\rightleftharpoons\) 2SbO+ +

0.605

3H2O(l)

SbO+ + 2H+ + 3e \(\rightleftharpoons\) Sb(s) + H2O(l)

0.212

Arsenic
As + 3H+ + 3e \(\rightleftharpoons\) AsH3(g)

0.225

H3AsO4 + 2H+ + 2e \(\rightleftharpoons\) HAsO2 +

0.560

2H2O(l)

HAsO2 + 3H+ + 3e \(\rightleftharpoons\) As(s) +

0.240

2H2O(l)
Barium
Ba2+ + 2e \(\rightleftharpoons\) Ba(s)

2.91

BaO(s) + 2H+ + 2e\(\rightleftharpoons\) Ba(s) + H2O(l)

2.365

Beryllium
Be2+ + 2e \(\rightleftharpoons\) Be(s)

1.99

Bismuth
Bi3+ + 3e \(\rightleftharpoons\) Bi(s)

0.317

BiCl4 + 3e \(\rightleftharpoons\) Bi(s) + 4Cl

0.199

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Aluminum

E (V)

Boron
B(OH)3 + 3H+ + 3e \(\rightleftharpoons\) B(s) +
3H2O(l)

0.890

B(OH)4 + 3e \(\rightleftharpoons\) B(s) + 4OH

1.811

Bromine
Br2 + 2e \(\rightleftharpoons\) 2Br

1.087

HOBr + H+ + 2e \(\rightleftharpoons\) Br + H2O(l)

1.341

HOBr + H+ + e \(\rightleftharpoons\) Br + H2O(l)

1.604

BrO + H2O(l) +2e \(\rightleftharpoons\) Br + 2OH

0.76 in 1 M NaOH

BrO3 + 6H+ + 5e \(\rightleftharpoons\) Br2(l) + 3H2O

1.5

BrO3 + 6H+ + 6e \(\rightleftharpoons\)Br + 3H2O

1.478

Cadmium
Cd2+ + 2e \(\rightleftharpoons\) Cd(s)

0.4030

Cd(CN)42 + 2e \(\rightleftharpoons\) Cd(s) + 4CN

0.943

Cd(NH3)42+ + 2e \(\rightleftharpoons\) Cd(s) + 4NH3

0.622

Calcium

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Aluminum

E (V)

Ca2+ + 2e \(\rightleftharpoons\) Ca(s)

2.84

CO2(g) + 2H+ + 2e \(\rightleftharpoons\) CO(g) +


H2O(l)

0.106

CO2(g) + 2H+ + 2e \(\rightleftharpoons\) HCO2H

0.20

2CO2(g) + 2H+ +2e \(\rightleftharpoons\) H2C2O4

0.481

HCHO + 2H+ + 2e \(\rightleftharpoons\) CH3OH

0.2323

Carbon

Cerium
Ce3+ + 3e \(\rightleftharpoons\) Ce(s)

2.336

Ce4+ + e \(\rightleftharpoons\) Ce3+

1.44

Cesium
\[Cs^+(aq) + e^- \rightleftharpoons Cs (s) \]

-2.92

Chlorine
Cl2(g) + 2e \(\rightleftharpoons\) 2Cl

1.396

ClO + H2O(l) + e \(\rightleftharpoons\)Cl2(g) + 2OH

0.421 in 1 M NaOH

ClO + H2O(l) + 2e \(\rightleftharpoons\) Cl + 2OH

0.890 in 1 M NaOH

HClO2 + 2H+ + 2e \(\rightleftharpoons\) HOCl + H2O

1.64

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Aluminum

E (V)

ClO3 + 2H+ + e \(\rightleftharpoons\) ClO2(g) + H2O

1.175

ClO3 + 3H+ + 2e\(\rightleftharpoons\)HClO2 + H2O

1.181

ClO4 + 2H+ + 2e\(\rightleftharpoons\) ClO3 + H2O

1.201

ClO4-(aq) + H2O(l) + 2e- \(\rightleftharpoons\) ClO3-(aq)


+ 2OH-(aq)
ClO3-(aq) + H2O(l) + 2e- \(\rightleftharpoons\) ClO2-(aq)
+ 2OH-(aq)
ClO2-(aq) + H2O(l) + 2e- \(\rightleftharpoons\) ClO-(aq)
+ 2OH-(aq)

0.17

0.35

0.59

Chromium
Cr3+ + e \(\rightleftharpoons\) Cr2+

0.424

Cr2+ + 2e \(\rightleftharpoons\) Cr(s)

0.90

Cr2O72 + 14H+ + 6e\(\rightleftharpoons\) 2Cr3+ +

1.36

7H2O(l)

CrO42 + 4H2O(l) + 3e\(\rightleftharpoons\)2Cr(OH)4


+ 4OH

0.13 in 1 M NaOH

Cobalt
Co2+ + 2e \(\rightleftharpoons\) Co(s)

0.277

Co3+ + e \(\rightleftharpoons\) Co2+

1.92

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Aluminum

E (V)

Co(NH3)63+ +e \(\rightleftharpoons\) Co(NH3)62+

0.1

Co(OH)3(s) + e \(\rightleftharpoons\) Co(OH)2(s) + OH

0.17

Co(OH)2(s) + 2e \(\rightleftharpoons\) Co(s) + 2OH

0.746

Copper
Cu+ + e \(\rightleftharpoons\) Cu(s)

0.520

Cu2+ + e \(\rightleftharpoons\) Cu+

0.159

Cu2+ + 2e \(\rightleftharpoons\) Cu(s)

0.3419

Cu2+ + I +e \(\rightleftharpoons\) CuI(s)

0.86

Cu2+ + Cl + e \(\rightleftharpoons\) CuCl(s)

0.559

Fluorine

F2(g) + 2H+ + 2e \(\rightleftharpoons\) 2HF

3.053

F2(g) + 2e \(\rightleftharpoons\) 2F

2.87

\[Ga^{3+} + 3e^ \rightleftharpoons Ga(s)\]

-0.56

Au+ + e \(\rightleftharpoons\) Au(s)

1.83

Gallium

Gold

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Aluminum

E (V)

Au3+ + 2e \(\rightleftharpoons\) Au+

1.36

Au3+ + 3e \(\rightleftharpoons\) Au(s)

1.52

AuCl4 + 3e \(\rightleftharpoons\) Au(s) + 4Cl

1.002

Hydrogen

\[2H^+ + 2e^ \rightleftharpoons H_2(g) \]

0.00000

H2O + e \(\rightleftharpoons\) H2(g) + OH

0.828

Iodine

\[I_2(s) + 2e^ \rightleftharpoons 2I^\]

0.5355

I3 + 2e \(\rightleftharpoons\) 3I

0.536

HIO + H+ + 2e \(\rightleftharpoons\) I + H2O(l)

0.985

IO3 + 6H+ + 5e \(\rightleftharpoons\) I2(s) + 3H2O(l)

1.195

IO3+ 3H2O(l) + 6e \(\rightleftharpoons\) I + 6OH

0.257

Iron
Fe2+ + 2e \(\rightleftharpoons\) Fe(s)

0.44

Fe3+ + 3e \(\rightleftharpoons\) Fe(s)

0.037

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Aluminum

E (V)

Fe3+ + e \(\rightleftharpoons\) Fe2+

0.771

Fe(CN)63 + e\(\rightleftharpoons\) Fe(CN)64

0.356

Fe(phen)63+ +e\(\rightleftharpoons\)Fe(phen)62+

1.147

Lanthanum
La3+ + 3e \(\rightleftharpoons\) La(s)

2.38

Pb2+ + 2e \(\rightleftharpoons\) Pb(s)

0.126

PbO2(s) + 4H+ +2e- \(\rightleftharpoons\) Pb2+(aq) +


2H2O(l)

1.46

Lead

PbO2(s) + 4SO42 + 4H+ + 2e \(\rightleftharpoons\)

1.690

PbSO4(s) + 2H2O(l)

PbSO4(s) + 2e \(\rightleftharpoons\) Pb(s) + SO42

0.356

Lithium
Li+ + e \(\rightleftharpoons\) Li(s)

3.040

Magnesium
Mg2+ + 2e \(\rightleftharpoons\) Mg(s)

2.356

Mg(OH)2(s) + 2e \(\rightleftharpoons\) Mg(s) + 2OH

2.687

Manganese

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Aluminum

E (V)

Mn2+ + 2e \(\rightleftharpoons\) Mn(s)

1.17

Mn3+ + e \(\rightleftharpoons\) Mn2+

1.5

MnO2(s) + 4H+ + 2e \(\rightleftharpoons\) Mn2+ +

1.23

2H2O(l)
MnO2(s) + 4H+ + e- \(\rightleftharpoons\) Mn3+ (aq) +
H2O(I)

MnO4 + 4H+ +3e \(\rightleftharpoons\) MnO2(s) +

0.95

1.70

2H2O(l)

MnO4+ 8H+ + 5e \(\rightleftharpoons\) Mn2+ + 4H2O(l)


MnO4 + 2H2O(l) + 3e \(\rightleftharpoons\) MnO2(s) +
4OH

1.51

0.60

Mercury
Hg2+ + 2e \(\rightleftharpoons\) Hg(l)

0.8535

2Hg2+ + 2e \(\rightleftharpoons\) Hg22+

0.911

Hg22+ + 2e \(\rightleftharpoons\) 2Hg(l)

0.7960

Hg2Cl2(s) + 2e \(\rightleftharpoons\) 2Hg(l) + 2Cl

0.2682

HgO(s) + 2H+ + 2e \(\rightleftharpoons\) Hg(l) + H2O(l)

0.926

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Aluminum

E (V)

Hg2Br2(s) + 2e \(\rightleftharpoons\) 2Hg(l) + 2Br

1.392

Hg2I2(s) + 2e \(\rightleftharpoons\) 2Hg(l) + 2I

0.0405

Molybdenum
Mo3+ + 3e \(\rightleftharpoons\) Mo(s)

0.2

MoO2(s) + 4H+ + 4e \(\rightleftharpoons\) Mo(s) +

0.152

2H2O(l)

MoO42 + 4H2O(l) + 6e \(\rightleftharpoons\)Mo(s) +


8OH

0.913

Nickel
Ni2+ + 2e \(\rightleftharpoons\) Ni(s)

0.257

Ni(OH)2 + 2e \(\rightleftharpoons\) Ni(s) + 2OH

0.72

Ni(NH3)62+ + 2e \(\rightleftharpoons\) Ni(s) + 6NH3

0.49

Nitrogen
\[N_2(g) + 5H^+ + 4e^ \rightleftharpoons N_2H_5^+\]

0.23

N2O(g) + 2H+ + 2e \(\rightleftharpoons\) N2(g) + H2O(l)

1.77

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Aluminum

E (V)

2NO(g) + 2H+ + 2e \(\rightleftharpoons\) N2O(g) +

1.59

H2O(l)

HNO2 + H+ +e \(\rightleftharpoons\) NO(g) + H2O(l)

2HNO2 + 4H+ + 4e \(\rightleftharpoons\) N2O(g) +

0.996

1.297

3H2O(l)

NO3 + 3H+ + 2e \(\rightleftharpoons\) HNO2 + H2O(l)

0.94

\[\ce{ NO2(g) + H+ (aq) + e- \rightleftharpoons


HNO2(aq) } \]

1.07

NO3-(aq) + 4H+(aq) + 3e- \(\rightleftharpoons\) NO(g) +


2H2O(l)

0.96

Oxygen
\[ O_2(g) + 2H^+ + 2e^ \rightleftharpoons H_2O_2\]

0.695

O2(g) + 4H+ + 4e \(\rightleftharpoons\) 2H2O(l)

1.229

H2O2 + 2H+ + 2e \(\rightleftharpoons\) 2H2O(l)

1.763

O2(g) + 2H2O(l) + 4e \(\rightleftharpoons\) 4OH

0.401

O3(g) + 2H+ + 2e \(\rightleftharpoons\) O2(g) + H2O(l)

2.07

O2 (g) + e- \(\rightleftharpoons\) O2-(aq)

-0.33

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Aluminum

E (V)

O2 (aq) + e- \(\rightleftharpoons\) O2-(aq)

-0.16

Phosphorous
\[P(s,white) + 3H^+ + 3e^ \rightleftharpoons PH_3(g)\]

0.06

H3PO3+ 2H+ + 2e \(\rightleftharpoons\) H3PO2 + H2O(l)

-0.50

H3PO4 + 2H+ + 2e \(\rightleftharpoons\) H3PO3 +


H2O(l)

-0.28

Platinum
Pt2+ + 2e \(\rightleftharpoons\) Pt(s)

1.2

PtCl42 + 2e \(\rightleftharpoons\) Pt(s) + 4Cl

0.73

PtCl62 + 2e \(\rightleftharpoons\) PtCl42- + 2Cl

0.68

Potassium
K+ + e \(\rightleftharpoons\) K(s)

-2.93

Rb+ + e- \(\rightleftharpoons\) Rb (s)

-2.98

Rubidium

Ruthenium
Ru3+ + e \(\rightleftharpoons\) Ru2+

0.249

RuO2(s) + 4H+ + 4e \(\rightleftharpoons\) Ru(s) +

0.68

2H2O(l)

Ru(NH3)63+ + e \(\rightleftharpoons\) Ru(s) +


Ru(NH3)62+

0.10

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Aluminum

E (V)

Ru(CN)63 +e \(\rightleftharpoons\) Ru(s) + Ru(CN)64

0.86

Selenium
\[Se(s) + 2e^\rightleftharpoons Se^{2}\]

0.67 in 1 M NaOH

Se(s) + 2H+ + 2e \(\rightleftharpoons\) H2Se(g)

0.115

H2SeO3 + 4H+ + 4e \(\rightleftharpoons\) Se(s) +

0.74

3H2O(l)

SeO43 + 4H+ + e \(\rightleftharpoons\) H2SeO3 +

1.151

H2O(l)
Silicon
\[SiF_6^{2} + 4e^ \rightleftharpoons Si(s) + 6F^\]

1.37

SiO2(s) + 4H+ + 4e \(\rightleftharpoons\) Si(s) + 2H2O(l)

0.909

SiO2(s) + 8H+ + 8e \(\rightleftharpoons\) SiH4(g) +

0.516

2H2O(l)
Silver
Ag+ + e \(\rightleftharpoons\) Ag(s)

0.7996

AgBr(s) + e \(\rightleftharpoons\) Ag(s) + Br

0.071

Ag2C2O4(s) + 2e \(\rightleftharpoons\) 2Ag(s) + C2O42

0.47

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Aluminum

E (V)

AgCl(s) + e \(\rightleftharpoons\) Ag(s) + Cl

0.2223

AgI(s) + e \(\rightleftharpoons\) Ag(s) + I

0.152

Ag2S(s) + 2e \(\rightleftharpoons\) 2Ag(s) + S2

0.71

Ag(NH3)2+ + e \(\rightleftharpoons\) Ag(s) + 2NH3

0.373

Sodium
\[Na^+ + e^ \rightleftharpoons Na(s)\]

2.713

Strontium
\[Sr^{2+} + 2e^ \rightleftharpoons Sr(s)\]

2.89

\[S(s) + 2e^ \rightleftharpoons S^{2}\]

0.407

S(s) + 2H+ + 2e \(\rightleftharpoons\) H2S

0.144

S2O62 + 4H+ + 2e \(\rightleftharpoons\) 2H2SO3

0.569

S2O82 + 2e \(\rightleftharpoons\)2SO42

1.96

S4O62 + 2e \(\rightleftharpoons\)2S2O32

0.080

Sulfur

2SO32 + 2H2O(l) + 2e\(\rightleftharpoons\) S2O42 +


4OH

1.13

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Aluminum

E (V)

2SO32 + 3H2O(l) + 4e\(\rightleftharpoons\)S2O32 +


6OH

2SO42 + 4H+ + 2e\(\rightleftharpoons\) S2O62 +

0.25

2H2O(l)

SO42 + H2O(l) + 2e\(\rightleftharpoons\) SO32+ 2OH

SO42 + 4H+ + 2e\(\rightleftharpoons\) H2SO32+

0.936

0.172

H2O(l)
Thallium
\[Tl^{3+} + 2e^ \rightleftharpoons Tl^+\]

0.77 in 1 M HCl

Tl3+ + 3e \(\rightleftharpoons\) Tl(s)

0.742

Sn2+ + 2e\(\rightleftharpoons\) Sn(s)

-0.14

Sn4+ + 2e \(\rightleftharpoons\) Sn2+

0.154

\[Ti^{2+} + 2e^ \rightleftharpoons Ti(s)\]

0.163

Ti3+ + e \(\rightleftharpoons\) Ti2+

0.37

\[WO_2(s) + 4H^+ + 4e^ \rightleftharpoons W(s) +


2H_2O(l)\]

0.119

Tin

Titanium

Tungsten

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Aluminum

E (V)

WO3(s) + 6H+ + 6e \(\rightleftharpoons\) W(s) +

0.090

3H2O(l)
Uranium
U3+ + 3e \(\rightleftharpoons\) U(s)

1.66

U4+ + e \(\rightleftharpoons\) U3+

0.52

UO2+ + 4H+ + e\(\rightleftharpoons\)U4+ + 2H2O(l)

0.27

UO22+ + e\(\rightleftharpoons\)UO2+

0.16

UO22+ + 4H+ + 2e\(\rightleftharpoons\) U4+ + 2H2O(l)

0.327

Vanadium
\[V^{2+} + 2e^ \rightleftharpoons V(s)\]

1.13

V3+ + e \(\rightleftharpoons\) V2+

0.255

VO2+ + 2H+ +e \(\rightleftharpoons\)V3+ + H2O(l)

0.337

VO22+ + 2H+ +e \(\rightleftharpoons\) VO2+ + H2O(l)

1.000

Zinc

Zn2+(aq) + 2e \(\rightleftharpoons\) Zn(s)

0.7618

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Aluminum

E (V)

Zn(OH)42 + 2e \(\rightleftharpoons\) Zn(s) + 4OH

1.285

Zn(NH3)42+ + 2e \(\rightleftharpoons\) Zn(s) + 4NH3

1.04

Zn(CN)42 + 2e \(\rightleftharpoons\) Zn(s) + 4CN

1.34

Contributors
David Harvey (DePauw University)

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P2: Standard Reduction Potentials by Value

P2: Standard Reduction Potentials by Value


The following table provides Eo for selected reduction reactions. Values are from the following sources: Bard, A. J.; Parsons,
B.; Jordon, J., eds. Standard Potentials in Aqueous Solutions, Dekker: New York, 1985; Milazzo, G.; Caroli, S.; Sharma, V.
K. Tables of Standard Electrode Potentials, Wiley: London, 1978; Swift, E. H.; Butler, E. A. Quantitative Measurements and
Chemical Equilibria, Freeman: New York, 1972.
The table is ordered such that the stronger (more reactive) reductants are at the top and the stronger oxidants are at the bottom.
Standard Cathode (Reduction) Half-Reaction

Standard Reduction Potential E (volts)

Li+(aq) + e- \(\rightleftharpoons\) Li(s)

3.040

Ba2+ + 2e\(\rightleftharpoons\) Ba(s)

2.92

Rb+ + e- \(\rightleftharpoons\) Rb (s)

-2.98

K+(aq) + e- \(\rightleftharpoons\) K(s)

-2.93

Cs+(aq) + e- \(\rightleftharpoons\) Cs(s)

-2.92

Ba2+(aq) + 2e- \(\rightleftharpoons\) Ba(s)

-2.91

Sr2+(aq) + 2e- \(\rightleftharpoons\) Sr(s)

-2.89

Ca2+(aq) + 2e- \(\rightleftharpoons\) Ca(s)

2.84

Na+(aq) + e- \(\rightleftharpoons\) Na(s)

2.713

Mg(OH)2(s) + 2e\(\rightleftharpoons\) Mg(s) + 2OH

2.687

La3+ + 3e\(\rightleftharpoons\) La(s)

2.38

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Mg2+(aq) + 2e- \(\rightleftharpoons\) Mg(s)

-2.356

Ce3+ + 3e\(\rightleftharpoons\) Ce(s)

2.336

Al(OH)4 + 3e\(\rightleftharpoons\) Al(s) + 4OH

2.310

AlF63 + 3e\(\rightleftharpoons\) Al(s) + 6F

2.07

Be2+ + 2e\(\rightleftharpoons\) Be(s)

1.99

B(OH)4 + 3e\(\rightleftharpoons\) B(s) + 4OH

1.811

U3+ + 3e\(\rightleftharpoons\) U(s)

1.66

Al3+(aq) + 3e- \(\rightleftharpoons\) Al(s)

1.676

SiF62 + 4e\(\rightleftharpoons\) Si(s) + 6F

1.37

Zn(CN)42 + 2e\(\rightleftharpoons\) Zn(s) + 4CN

1.34

Zn(OH)42 + 2e\(\rightleftharpoons\) Zn(s) + 4OH

1.285

Mn2+ + 2e\(\rightleftharpoons\) Mn(s)

1.17

V2+ + 2e\(\rightleftharpoons\) V(s)

1.13

2SO32 + 2H2O(l) + 2e \(\rightleftharpoons\) S2O42 +

1.13

4OH

Zn(NH3)42+ + 2e \(\rightleftharpoons\) Zn(s) + 4NH3

1.04

O2 (aq) + e- \(\rightleftharpoons\) O2-(aq)

-1.0

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Cd(CN)42 + 2e\(\rightleftharpoons\) Cd(s) + 4CN

MoO42 + 4H2O(l) + 6e\(\rightleftharpoons\)Mo(s) +


8OH

SiO2(s) + 4H+ + 4e\(\rightleftharpoons\) Si(s) +

0.943

0.913

0.909

2H2O(l)

SO42 + H2O(l) + 2e \(\rightleftharpoons\) SO32+


2OH

0.936

Cr2+ + 2e \(\rightleftharpoons\) Cr(s)

0.90

B(OH)3 + 3H+ + 3e \(\rightleftharpoons\) B(s) +

0.890

3H2O(l)
2H2O(l) + 2e- \(\rightleftharpoons\) H2(g) + 2OH-(aq)

-0.828

Zn2+(aq) + 2e- \(\rightleftharpoons\) Zn(s)

0.7618

Co(OH)2(s) + 2e\(\rightleftharpoons\) Co(s) + 2OH

0.746

Cr3+(aq) + 3e- \(\rightleftharpoons\) Cr(s)

0.424

Ni(OH)2 + 2e\(\rightleftharpoons\) Ni(s) + 2OH

0.72

Ag2S(s) + 2e\(\rightleftharpoons\) 2Ag(s) + S2

0.71

Se(s) + 2e\(\rightleftharpoons\) Se2

0.67 in 1 M NaOH

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Cd(NH3)42+ + 2e\(\rightleftharpoons\) Cd(s) + 4NH3

2SO32 + 3H2O(l) + 4e \(\rightleftharpoons\)S2O32 +


6OH

0.622

0.576 in 1 M NaOH

U4+ + e \(\rightleftharpoons\) U3+

0.52

SiO2(s) + 8H+ + 8e \(\rightleftharpoons\) SiH4(g) +

0.516

2H2O(l)
Sb + 3H+ + 3e \(\rightleftharpoons\) SbH3(g)

0.510

H3PO3+ 2H+ + 2e \(\rightleftharpoons\) H3PO2 +

-0.50

H2O(l)

Ni(NH3)62+ + 2e \(\rightleftharpoons\) Ni(s) + 6NH3

0.49

2CO2(g) + 2H+ +2e\(\rightleftharpoons\) H2C2O4

0.481

Cr3+ + e\(\rightleftharpoons\) Cr2+

0.424

Fe2+(aq) + 2e- \(\rightleftharpoons\) Fe(s)

-0.44

S(s) + 2e\(\rightleftharpoons\) S2

0.407

Cd2+(aq) + 2e- \(\rightleftharpoons\) Cd(s)

0.4030

Ag(NH3)2+ + e\(\rightleftharpoons\) Ag(s) + 2NH3

0.373

Ti3+ + e\(\rightleftharpoons\) Ti2+

0.37

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PbSO4(s) + 2e\(\rightleftharpoons\) Pb(s) + SO42

0.356

Co2+(aq) + 2e- \(\rightleftharpoons\) Co(s)

0.277

2SO42 + 4H+ + 2e \(\rightleftharpoons\) S2O62 +

0.25

2H2O(l)

N2(g) + 5H+ + 4e\(\rightleftharpoons\) N2H5+

H3PO4 + 2H+ + 2e\(\rightleftharpoons\) H3PO3 +

0.23

-0.28

H2O(l)
Ni2+(aq) + 2e- \(\rightleftharpoons\) Ni(s)

0.257

V3+ + e \(\rightleftharpoons\) V2+

0.255

As + 3H+ + 3e \(\rightleftharpoons\) AsH3(g)

0.225

CO2(g) + 2H+ + 2e \(\rightleftharpoons\) HCO2H

0.20

Mo3+ + 3e \(\rightleftharpoons\) Mo(s)

0.2

Sn2+ + 2e \(\rightleftharpoons\) Sn(s)

0.19 in 1 M HCl

Ti2+ + 2e\(\rightleftharpoons\) Ti(s)

0.163

MoO2(s) + 4H+ + 4e\(\rightleftharpoons\) Mo(s) +

0.152

2H2O(l)
AgI(s) + e \(\rightleftharpoons\) Ag(s) + I

0.152

Sn2+(aq) + 2e- \(\rightleftharpoons\) Sn(s)

-0.14

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Pb2+(aq) + 2e- \(\rightleftharpoons\) Pb(s)

-0.126

CrO42 + 4H2O(l) +

0.13 in 1 M NaOH

3e \(\rightleftharpoons\)2Cr(OH)4 + 4OH

WO2(s) + 4H+ + 4e\(\rightleftharpoons\) W(s) +

0.119

2H2O(l)

Se(s) + 2H+ + 2e\(\rightleftharpoons\) H2Se(g)

CO2(g) + 2H+ + 2e\(\rightleftharpoons\) CO(g) +

0.115

0.106

H2O(l)

WO3(s) + 6H+ + 6e\(\rightleftharpoons\) W(s) +

0.090

3H2O(l)

Hg2I2(s) + 2e\(\rightleftharpoons\) 2Hg(l) + 2I

0.0405

Fe3+(aq) + 3e- \(\rightleftharpoons\) Fe(s)

-0.037

2H+(aq) + 2e- \(\rightleftharpoons\) H2(g)

0.00

P(s,white) + 3H+ + 3e\(\rightleftharpoons\) PH3(g)

0.06

AgBr(s) + e\(\rightleftharpoons\) Ag(s) + Br

0.071

S4O62 + 2e\(\rightleftharpoons\)2S2O32

0.080

Co(NH3)63+ +e\(\rightleftharpoons\)Co(NH3)62+

0.1

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Ru(NH3)63+ + e\(\rightleftharpoons\) Ru(s) +


Ru(NH3)6

2+

0.10

S(s) + 2H+ + 2e\(\rightleftharpoons\) H2S

0.144

Sn4+(aq) + 2e- \(\rightleftharpoons\) Sn2+(aq)

0.154

Cu2+(aq) + e- \(\rightleftharpoons\) Cu+(aq)

0.159

UO22+ + e \(\rightleftharpoons\)UO2+

0.16

Co(OH)3(s) + e\(\rightleftharpoons\) Co(OH)2(s) +


OH
ClO4-(aq) + H2O(l) + 2e- \(\rightleftharpoons\)
ClO3-(aq) + 2OH-(aq)

SO42 + 4H+ + 2e \(\rightleftharpoons\) H2SO32+

0.17

0.17

0.172

H2O(l)

BiCl4 + 3e\(\rightleftharpoons\) Bi(s) + 4Cl

0.199

SbO+ + 2H+ + 3e\(\rightleftharpoons\) Sb(s) + H2O(l)

0.212

AgCl(s) + e- \(\rightleftharpoons\) Ag(s) + Cl-(aq)

0.2223

HCHO + 2H+ + 2e\(\rightleftharpoons\) CH3OH

0.2323

HAsO2 + 3H+ + 3e\(\rightleftharpoons\) As(s) +

0.240

2H2O(l)
Ru3+ + e\(\rightleftharpoons\) Ru2+

0.249

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IO3+ 3H2O(l) + 6e\(\rightleftharpoons\) I + 6OH

0.257

Hg2Cl2(s) + 2e\(\rightleftharpoons\) 2Hg(l) + 2Cl

0.2682

UO2+ + 4H+ + e \(\rightleftharpoons\)U4+ + 2H2O(l)

0.27

Bi3+ + 3e\(\rightleftharpoons\) Bi(s)

0.317

UO22+ + 4H+ + 2e \(\rightleftharpoons\) U4+ +

0.327

2H2O(l)

VO2+ + 2H+ +e\(\rightleftharpoons\)V3+ + H2O(l)

0.337

Cu2+(aq) + 2e- \(\rightleftharpoons\) Cu(s)

0.3419

ClO3-(aq) + H2O(l) + 2e- \(\rightleftharpoons\)


ClO2-(aq) + 2OH-(aq)

0.35

Fe(CN)63 + e \(\rightleftharpoons\) Fe(CN)64

0.356

O2(g) + 2H2O(l) + 4e\(\rightleftharpoons\) 4OH

0.401

ClO + H2O(l) + e \(\rightleftharpoons\) Cl2(g) +


2OH

Ag2C2O4(s) + 2e\(\rightleftharpoons\) 2Ag(s) +


2

0.421 in 1 M NaOH

0.47

C2O4

Cu+(aq) + e- \(\rightleftharpoons\) Cu(s)

0.52

I2(s) + 2e- \(\rightleftharpoons\) 2I-(aq)

0.5355

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I3 + 2e\(\rightleftharpoons\) 3I

0.536

Ga3+ + 3e\(\rightleftharpoons\) Ga(s)

-0.56

Cu2+ + Cl + e\(\rightleftharpoons\) CuCl(s)

0.559

S2O62 + 4H+ + 2e\(\rightleftharpoons\) 2H2SO3

0.569

H3AsO4 + 2H+ + 2e\(\rightleftharpoons\) HAsO2 +

0.560

2H2O(l)
ClO2-(aq) + H2O(l) + 2e- \(\rightleftharpoons\)
ClO-(aq) + 2OH-(aq)
MnO4 + 2H2O(l) + 3e\(\rightleftharpoons\) MnO2(s)
+ 4OH

Sb2O5(s) + 6H+ + 4e\(\rightleftharpoons\) 2SbO+ +

0.59

0.60

0.605

3H2O(l)
PtCl62 + 2e\(\rightleftharpoons\) PtCl42- + 2Cl

0.68

RuO2(s) + 4H+ + 4e\(\rightleftharpoons\) Ru(s) +

0.68

2H2O(l)

O2(g) + 2H+ + 2e\(\rightleftharpoons\) H2O2

0.695

PtCl42 + 2e\(\rightleftharpoons\) Pt(s) + 4Cl

0.73

H2SeO3 + 4H+ + 4e\(\rightleftharpoons\) Se(s) +

0.74

3H2O(l)
Tl3+ + 3e\(\rightleftharpoons\) Tl(s)

0.742

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Fe3+(aq) + e- \(\rightleftharpoons\) Fe2+(aq)

0.771

Hg22+(aq) + 2e- \(\rightleftharpoons\) 2Hg(l)

0.7960

Ag+(aq) + e- \(\rightleftharpoons\) Ag(s)

0.7996

Hg2+(aq) + 2e- \(\rightleftharpoons\) Hg(l)

0.8535

Cu2+ + I +e\(\rightleftharpoons\) CuI(s)

0.86

Ru(CN)63 +e\(\rightleftharpoons\) Ru(s) +

0.86

Ru(CN)6

ClO + H2O(l) + 2e\(\rightleftharpoons\) Cl + 2OH

0.890 in 1 M NaOH

2Hg2+(aq) + 2e- \(\rightleftharpoons\) Hg22+(aq)

0.911

HgO(s) + 2H+ + 2e\(\rightleftharpoons\) Hg(l) +

0.926

H2O(l)

NO3 + 3H+ + 2e\(\rightleftharpoons\) HNO2 +

0.94

H2O(l)
MnO2(s) + 4H+ + e- \(\rightleftharpoons\) Mn3+ (aq) +
H2O(I)

0.95

NO3-(aq) + 4H+(aq) + 3e- \(\rightleftharpoons\) NO(g)


+ 2H2O(l)

0.96

HIO + H+ + 2e\(\rightleftharpoons\) I + H2O(l)

0.985

HNO2 + H+ +e\(\rightleftharpoons\) NO(g) + H2O(l)

0.996

VO22+ + 2H+ +e\(\rightleftharpoons\) VO2+ + H2O(l)

1.000

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AuCl4 + 3e\(\rightleftharpoons\) Au(s) + 4Cl


NO2 (g) + H+ (aq) + e- \(\rightleftharpoons\) HNO2
(aq)

1.002

1.07

Br2(l) + 2e- \(\rightleftharpoons\) 2Br-(aq)

1.087

Fe(phen)63+ +e \(\rightleftharpoons\) Fe(phen)62+

1.147

SeO43 + 4H+ + e\(\rightleftharpoons\) H2SeO3 +

1.151

H2O(l)

ClO3 + 2H+ + e\(\rightleftharpoons\) ClO2(g) + H2O

1.175

ClO3 + 3H+ + 2e \(\rightleftharpoons\) HClO2 + H2O

1.181

IO3 + 6H+ + 5e\(\rightleftharpoons\) I2(s) +

1.195

3H2O(l)
Pt2+ + 2e\(\rightleftharpoons\) Pt(s)

1.2

ClO4 + 2H+ + 2e \(\rightleftharpoons\) ClO3 + H2O

1.201

O2(g) + 4H+(aq) + 4e- \(\rightleftharpoons\) 2H2O(l)

1.229

MnO2(s) + 4H+ + 2e\(\rightleftharpoons\) Mn2+ +

1.23

2H2O(l)

Tl3+ + 2e \(\rightleftharpoons\) Tl+

0.77 in 1 M HCl

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2HNO2 + 4H+ + 4e\(\rightleftharpoons\) N2O(g) +

1.297

3H2O(l)

HOBr + H+ + 2e\(\rightleftharpoons\) Br + H2O(l)


Cr2O72-(aq) + 14H+(aq) + 6e- \(\rightleftharpoons\)
2Cr3+(aq) + 7H2O(l)

Cr2O72 + 14H+ + 6e \(\rightleftharpoons\) 2Cr3+ +

1.341

1.36

1.36

7H2O(l)
Cl2(g) + 2e- \(\rightleftharpoons\) 2Cl-(aq)

1.396

Au3+ + 2e\(\rightleftharpoons\) Au+

1.36

Hg2Br2(s) + 2e\(\rightleftharpoons\) 2Hg(l) + 2Br

1.392

Ce4+(aq) + e- \(\rightleftharpoons\) Ce3+(aq)

1.44

PbO2(s) + 4H+ +2e- \(\rightleftharpoons\) Pb2+(aq) +


2H2O(l)

1.46

BrO3 + 6H+ + 6e\(\rightleftharpoons\) Br + 3H2O

1.478

Mn3+ + e\(\rightleftharpoons\) Mn2+

1.5

MnO4-(aq) + 8H+(aq) + 5e- \(\rightleftharpoons\)


Mn2+(aq) + 4H2O(l)

BrO3 + 6H+ + 5e\(\rightleftharpoons\) Br2(l) +

1.51

1.5

3H2O
Au3+ + 3e\(\rightleftharpoons\) Au(s)

1.52

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2NO(g) + 2H+ + 2e\(\rightleftharpoons\) N2O(g) +

1.59

H2O(l)

HOBr + H+ + e\(\rightleftharpoons\) Br + H2O(l)

1.604

HClO2 + 2H+ + 2e\(\rightleftharpoons\) HOCl + H2O

1.64

PbO2(s) + 4SO42 + 4H+ + 2e\(\rightleftharpoons\)

1.690

PbSO4(s) + 2H2O(l)

MnO4 + 4H+ +3e\(\rightleftharpoons\) MnO2(s) +

1.70

2H2O(l)
Ce4+ + e\(\rightleftharpoons\) Ce3+

1.72

N2O(g) + 2H+ + 2e\(\rightleftharpoons\) N2(g) +

1.77

H2O(l)
H2O2(aq) + 2H+(aq) + 2e- \(\rightleftharpoons\)
2H2O(l)

1.763

Au+ + e\(\rightleftharpoons\) Au(s)

1.83

Co3+(aq) + e- \(\rightleftharpoons\) Co2+(aq)

1.92

S2O82 + 2e\(\rightleftharpoons\)2SO42

1.96

O3(g) + 2H+(aq) + 2e- \(\rightleftharpoons\) O2(g) +


H2O(l)

2.07

BaO(s) + 2H+ + 2e\(\rightleftharpoons\) Ba(s) +


H2O(l)

2.365

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F2(g) + 2e- \(\rightleftharpoons\) 2F-(aq)

2.87

F2(g) + 2H+ + 2e\(\rightleftharpoons\) 2HF

3.053

Contributors
David Harvey (DePauw University)

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P3: Activity Series of Metals

P3: Activity Series of Metals


The reactivity series is a series of metals, in order of reactivity from highest to lowest. It is used to determine the products of
single displacement reactions, whereby metal A will replace another metal B in a solution if A is higher in the series. Activity
series of some of the more common metals, listed in descending order of reactivity.

Metals

Metal Ion

Reactivity

K+

Na

Na+

Li

Li+
reacts with water
2+

Ba

Ba

Sr

Sr2+

Ca

Ca2+

Mg

Mg2+

Al

Al3+

Mn

Mn2+

Zn

Zn2+

Cr

Cr2+

reacts with acids

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Fe

Fe2+

Cd

Cd2+

Co

Co2+

Ni

Ni2+

Sn

Sn2+

Pb

Pb2+

H2

H+

Sb

Sb2+

Bi

Bi2+

Cu

Cu2+

Hg

Hg2+

Ag

Ag+

Au

Au3+

Pt

Pt+

included for comparison

highly unreactive

When a metal in elemental form is placed in a solution of another metal salt it may be more energetically feasible for this
"elemental metal" to exist as an ion and the "ionic metal" to exist as the element. Therefore the elemental metal will "displace"
the ionic metal and the two swap places.
Only a metal higher in the reactivity series will displace another.
A metal can displace metal ions listed below it in the activity series, but not above. For example, zinc is more active than
copper and is able to displace copper ions from solution
\[ Zn(s) + Cu^{2+}(aq) \rightarrow Zn^{2+}(aq) + Cu(s)\]
However, silver cannot displace copper ions from solution. It is important to distinguish between the displacement of hydrogen
from an acid and hydrogen from water. Sodium is highly active and is able to displace hydrogen from water:

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\[ 2 Na (s) + 2 H_2O (l) \rightarrow 2 NaOH (aq) + H_2 (g)\]


Less active metals like iron or zinc cannot displace hydrogen from water but do readily react with acids:
\[Zn (s) + H_2SO_4 (aq) \rightarrow ZnSO_4 (aq) + H_2 (g)\]
Those metals that can displace H+ ions from acids are easily recognized by their position above H in the activity series. The
boundary between the metals that react with water and those that don't is harder to spot. For example, calcium is quite reactive
with water, whereas magnesium does not react with cold water but does displace hydrogen from steam. A more sophisticated
calculation involving electrode potentials is required to make accurate predictions in this area.

Origin
The reactivity of metals is due to the difference in stability of their electron configurations as atoms and as ions. As they are all
metals they will form positive ions when they react.
Potassium has a single outer shell electron to lose to obtain a stable "Noble gas" electron configuration; the precious metals
which exist in the d-block cannot form structures which are much more stable than their elemental state with the loss of just a
few electrons. Metals that require the loss of only one electron to form stable ions are more reactive than similar metals which
require the loss of more than one electron. Group 1A metals are the most reactive for that reason.
Metals with a greater total number of electrons tend to be more reactive as their outermost electrons (the ones which will be
lost) exist further from the positive nucleus and therefore they are held less strongly.

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P4: Polarographic Half-Wave Potentials

P4: Polarographic Half-Wave Potentials


The following table provides E1/2 values for selected reduction reactions. Values are from Dean, J. A. Analytical Chemistry
Handbook, McGraw-Hill: New York, 1995.
Element

E1/2 (volts vs. SCE)

Matrix

Al3+ + 3e Al(s)

0.5

0.2 M acetate (pH 4.54.7)

Cd2+ + 2e Cd(s)

0.60

0.1 M KCl
0.05 M H2SO4
1 M HNO3

Cr3+ + 3e Cr(s)

0.35 (+3 +2)


1.70 (+2 0)

Co3+ + 3e Co(s)

0.5 (+3 ? +2)


1.3 (+2 ? 0)

Co2+ + 2e Co(s)

1.03

1 M KSCN

0.04

0.1 M KSCN
0.1 M NH4ClO4
1 M Na2SO4
0.5 M potassium citrate (pH 7.5)

Cu2+ + 2e ? Cu(s)
0.22
Fe3+ + 3e Fe(s)

0.17 (+3 +2)


1.52 (+2 0)

1 M NH4Cl plus 1 M NH3


1 M NH4+/NH3 buffer (ph 89)
1 M NH4Cl plus 1 M NH3

0.5 M sodium tartrate (pH 5.8)

Fe3+ + e ? Fe2+

0.27

0.2 M Na2C2O4 (pH < 7.9)

Pb2+ + 2e Pb(s)

0.405
0.435

1 M HNO3
1 M KCl

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Element

E1/2 (volts vs. SCE)

Matrix

Mn2+ + 2e Mn(s)

1.65

1 M NH4Cl plus 1 M NH3

Ni2+ + 2e Ni(s)

0.70
1.09

1 M KSCN
1 M NH4Cl plus 1 M NH3

Zn2+ + 2e ? Zn(s)

0.995
1.33

0.1 M KCl
1 M NH4Cl plus 1 M NH3

Contributors
David Harvey (DePauw University)

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