‡ Is the study of food in relation to health

‡ Process by which food is taken into and used by the body and it includes digestion, absorption, transport and metabolism.

‡ The study of nutrition is interrelated with allied arts and sciences, chemistry, biology, etc.

FUNCTION
OF

NUTRITION

‡

the recognition of the role of nutrition in preventing diseases or illnesses.

‡ the concern for adapting food patterns of individuals to their nutritional needs within the framework of their cultural, economic and psychological situation and style.

‡ the awareness of the need in specified disease states to modify nutritional factors for therapeutic purpose.

HISTORY
OF

NUTRITION
AS A

SCIENCE

NATURALISTIC ERA (400 B.C-1750 A.D.) ‡ Hippocrates as father of medicine , 1st to show interest in nutrition. ‡ Effects of food and exercise to one s health ‡ Relation to chemistry, medicine and physiology.

‡LAVOISER known as the father of nutrition , because of his respiration and oxidation studies discoveries of oxygen, carbon dioxide, hydrogen and nitrogen, different substances needed by the body, carbohydrate, fat protein and mineral ash other substances necessary to promote growth, vitamins, their isolation and synthesis were also discovered.

CHEMICAL-ANALYTICAL ERA (1750A.D.-1900A.D.)

ANTOINE LAVOISIERFATHER OF NUTRITION

BIOLOGICAL ERA (1900-1955)
‡ more discoveries of factors with vitaminlike properties(essential elements of the human diet and others for various aspects of animals)

‡ study of the interrelationships existing between nutrients and their biological roles

‡ Determination of human dietary requirements ‡ Nutrition education and its application in the improvement of nutritional status.

CELLULAR/MOLECULAR ERA(1955 TO PRESENT)

Study of molecular metabolism Use of more sophisticated equipment like radioactive isotopes, electron microscope and micro-technical techniques.

Roles of different nutrients that play in growth, development and maintenance of cells; deficiency at any point adversely affects the whole body.

AGE OF HIGH TECHNOLOGY AND BIOTECHNOLOGY
Production of hormones and enzymes by bacteria. Production of insulin, extraction of the hormone from the stomach of larger animals ‡Effect of interferon on certain virus

‡Correcting genetic defects in human such as sickle cell anemia
Improvement of livestock and crops

‡HISTORICAL HIGHLIGHTS OF NUTRITION IN THE PHILIPPINES

FIRST PERIOD(1903-1923): Studies done by American and foreign scientists aided by Filipino workers. Studies on beri-beri and proximate composition of foods and worked on Filipino and physiological standards.

Other studies conducted were:
1. analysis of various foods by Gibbs and Agcaoili(1912) 2. analysis on Philippine fruits by Pratt(1913) 3. analysis on varieties of rice by Wells (1923)

1914 -The UP College of
Agriculture published studies made by their investigators
‡ Gonzales on coconut ‡ Dacanay on Philippine bananas ‡ Labayan on sweet potatoes

Philippine Bananas

Potatoes

VEDDER AND R.R. WILLIAMS
-Cause of beri-beri large scale of manufacture of tiki-tiki extracts(initiated by Bureau of Sciences, one of the first institutions established in the country.) -These extracts reduced infant mortality rate among infants.

SECOND PERIOD (1923-1943)
‡Intensification of research studies in our country ‡Research studies were organized and more funds and facilities were made available to our Filipino scientists.

Studies conducted and published are the following:
Basal metabolic standards for Filipino students( Fleming O. Santos 1923) ‡Calcium content of local foods(Adriano-1925) ‡Height and weight Table- Siasoco and Goco

‡ Food Processing-pioneered by

Orosa, followed by Acena, Adriano and Sumulong ‡ Growth Standards Determination‡Concepcion, Icasiano and Cruz

1932 - The National Research
Council(NRC) of the Philippines was established and on a section on nutrition was created under the Chairmanship of F.O. Santos(Father of Nutrition in the Phils.)

ACCOMPLISHMENT OF THIS SECTION:
First table of RDA for specific nutrient by Concepcion, Hermano and Gutierrez in 1941. Revision of RDA table which included Niacin and Riboflavin by Santos and Concepcion in 1947.

THIRD PERIOD(FROM WORLD WAR II TO 1960)
Highlighted by the creation of nutrition agencies and councils which worked on organized activities in nutrition and food research and the coordination of the activities of the government and private agencies involved in nutrition work.

NUTRITION AGENCIES

:

1. PHILIPPINE INSTITUTE OF NUTRITION (PIN)- 1947 ‡Researches on food and nutritional biochemistry, basic and applied nutrition and nutrition surveys. 1958-transferred to DOH under the
National Science Development Board (NSDB) through R.A.2067 and renamed

Food and Nutrition Research Center(FNRC).

MAJOR ACCOMPLISHMENTS:
‡ completion of the ten regional

surveys throughout the Philippines(1957-1968) ‡ assessment of the problems and the extent of malnutrition ‡revisions of the food consumption table

2. FOOD COMMISSION- created by President Elpidio Quirino(1951) established nutrition services related to the production, distribution and consumption of food.

3. NUTRITION FOUNDATION OF THE PHILIPPINES(NFP-1959)
A private agency organized by prominent men of science with the objective of helping improve the health of the people through assistance programs on foods and nutrition designed to complement and supplement government efforts.

1947- series of experiments on beriberi was initiated by Salcedo and coworkers
‡it was found out that enriched rice lowered mortality rate of beri-beri R.A. 832- Rice Enrichment Law was passed.

FOURTH PERIOD(1960 UP TO PRESENT)
Attempts of the government and private sectors to coordinate all activities related to food, nutrition and agriculture throughout the Philippines to solve the malnutrition of the country.

1960- The National Coordinating
Council on Foods and Nutrition(NCCFN) was organized by Dr. Conrado Pascual. ( marked the formal beginning of the coordination of the applied nutrition,nutrition research as well as food research activities

July 1, 1960- The DOH established
the NNP now National Nutrition Service, and through its mothercraft centers helped prevent malnutrition among the preschoolers.

1968- The Malnutrition Ward was first established by Dr. F. Solon at Southern Island Hospital in Cebu and is now made a part of their service in almost all government hospitals.

January 21,1971 Pres. Marcos issued Executive Order no. 285, authorizing the Natl. Food and Agricultural Council to coordinate all food and nutrition programs in the country. The program was referred to as the Philippine Food and Nutrition Program (PFNP)

June 25,1974 The National Nutrition
Council created under the office of the was charged with the task of formulating President by an integrated Nutrition nationwide. Presidential Decree 491 (Nutrition Act) ‡ the act designated JULY as Nutrition Month

JULY 2, 1974 The Nutrition Center of the Philippines by Mrs. Imelda Marcos generate interest and resources from among private sectors and international institutions. ‡design specific projects and activities towards erasing the malnutrition problems in the country
.

1977- PD 1286(The Nutrition and Dietitics Decree of 1977) regulates the practice of nutrition and dietitics. -sets minimum requirements for nutritionist dieticians for hospitals and nutrition agencies

1978- PD 1956 proclaimed to further strengthened Nutrition Program of the country. -provides for the Barangay Nutrition Scholar(BNS) for every Barangay

SCOPE OF NUTRITION AS A SCIENCE 

1. Basic or

Fundamental Nutrition  -a study of the physiologic needs in terms of specific nutrients

2. NUTRITION IN GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OR CHILD AND MATERNAL NUTRITION 

- A Study

of Nutritional Principles and application throughout the life cycle or it could be concentrated on infancy, childhood, pregnancy and lactation which are the most vulnerable groups.

3. Dietetics or Therapeutic Nutrition 

The adequacy of nutrient

and diet to meet individual s needs under normal or pathological conditions.

4. Medical or Clinical Nutrition 

A study of the effects on

the body when nutritional needs are not met or when there is excessive intake

5. Community or Public Health Nutrition  Ways and means of supplying

adequate diets in group of people starting with the family or a community  Can be nationwide or international

6. Comparative Nutrition 
A study of species differences in

their nutritional needs  Specialized fields under this are:  Human nutrition  Animal  Plant

7. Other areas of Specialization  The study of Nutrition is

interrelated with allied fields since nutrition is a science as well as a art.  Nutrition in Dentistry, Geriatric nutrition, infant or pediatric nutrition.

Definitions of Terms
-FOODS-ANYTHING WHICH WHEN TAKEN AND DIGESTED NOURISHES THE BODY -A VITAL NEED WITHOUT WHICH MAN CANNOT LIVE -CAN BE ORGANIC OR INORGANIC

FOOD 
ARE ALSO CULTURALLY ACCEPTABLE

SUBSTANCES THAT SUPPLY HEAT, AND ENERGY,BUILD REPAIR BODY TISSUES AND REGULATE BODY PROCESSES.  INDIVIDUAL S ATTITUDES TOWARDS FOODS ARE CONSTANTLY CHANGING IN ACCORDANCE WITH HIS CURRENT EMOTIONAL NEEDS  CAN BE BOTH A REWARD OR A SECURITY OR A SHOW-OFF FOOD TO OTHERS

QUALITIES OF GOOD FOOD 
1. NOURISHING OR NUTRITIOUS  2. IT HAS SATIETY VALUE  3. PREPARED UNDER SANITARY

CONDITIONS, AESTHETICALLY AND SCIENTIFICALLY  4. FREE FROM TOXIC AGENTS  5. PALATABILITY SATISFIES THE CONSUMERS  OFFERS VARIETY AND PLANNED WITHIN SOCIO-ECONOMIC CONTEXT

GOOD FOOD

NUTRIENTS
-are chemical substances found in food performing diverse roles in the body namely, to provide heat and energy, to build and repair body tissues and to regulate body processes
.

NUTRIENTS CAN BE CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO THE FOLLOWING:

1. As to Function- Nutrients from tissues in the body and body building. These furnish heat and energy such as fats, carbohydrates and proteins. 2. As to Chemical Properties-organic or inorganic 3. As to Essentiality-this refers to the significant contribution to the bodyd s physiological functioning.

4.

As to Concentration

- Some nutrients are needed in large amounts than others.

Carbohydrates, Proteins, Fats- major organic nutrients which are broken down to supply energy.
-

Six Major Nutrients

- Vitamins, Mineral and Water- taken in the body without being broken down, essential participants in the chemical reactions to maintain life.

FOOD FOR SURVIVAL

FRUITS AND VEGETABLES

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