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Introduction To Reinforced Concrete Design

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Reinforced Concrete

Design-II

By: Prof Dr. Qaisar Ali

Civil Engineering Department

UET Peshawar

www.drqaisarali.com

Course Content

Mid Term

Introduction

Course Content

Final Term

Grading Policy

Midterm

= 25 %

Final Term

= 50 %

Session Performance = 25 %

Assignments

= 10 % (6 Assignments )

Quizzes

= 15 % (6 Quizzes)

Lectures Availability

the website:

www.drqaisarali.com

Lecture-01

Introduction

By: Prof Dr. Qaisar Ali

Civil Engineering Department

UET Peshawar

www.drqaisarali.com

Topics

Concept of Demand and Capacity

Flexural Design of Beams using ACI Recommendations

Shear Design of Beams using ACI Recommendations

Example

Demand

disturbance(s) in the structure in the form of stresses (such

as compression, tension, bending, shear, and torsion).

The internal stresses are also called load effects.

Capacity

demand.

Beam

will

resist

the

Applied Load

(Demand)

capacity and will fail

when demand exceeds

capacity

Failure

greater than one, or at least equal to one.

have capacity to demand ratio more than one. How much?

10

Failure

11

Example 1.1

the given concrete pad of size 12 12.

50 Tons

Concrete pad

12

12

12

Example 1.1

effects as demand are compared to the load carrying

capacity of the structure in the relevant units.

50 Tons

Load = 50 Tons

carry a stress of 765.27 psi.

strength

12

Load Effect=(50 2204)/ (12 12)

concrete

pad

12

= 765.27 psi

of

13

Example 1.2

1.1 for the following

(iii) 1000 psi (iv) 2000 psi. Comment on the results?

50 Tons

12

12

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

14

Example 1.2

Therefore capacity to demand ratios are as under:

i.

ii.

iii.

iv.

factor of safety.

15

Safety Factor

demand greater than 1.0, say 1.5, 2.0 or so, as shown in

example 1.2.

16

Safety Factor

safety such that capacity to demand ratio still remains 1.0.

Then there are three ways of doing this:

e.g. 70 ton instead of 50 ton in the previous example,

1500 psi for concrete whose actual strength is 3000 psi

Doing both.

17

Working Stress Method

the material strength is knowingly taken less than the actual

e.g. half of the actual to provide a factor of safety equal to

2.0.

18

Strength Design Method

reduced strength of the material are considered, but both based on

scientific rationale. For example, it is quite possible that during the

life span of a structure, dead and live loads increase.

The factors of 1.2 and 1.6 used by ACI 318-11 (Building code

requirements for structural concrete, American Concrete Institute

committee 318) as load amplification factors for dead load and live

load respectively are based on probability based research studies.

19

Strength Design Method

considering the fact that variation in strength is possible due

to imperfections, age factor etc. Strength reduction factors

are used for this purpose.

combined effect of increased load and reduced strength,

both modified based on a valid rationale.

20

10

About Ton

we will refer to Metric Ton in our discussion.

21

Example 1.3

area of the pad cannot be increased for some reasons.

200 Tons

Concrete pad

12

12

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

22

11

Example 1.3

Solution:

Demand in the form of load (P) = 200 Tons = 200 2204/1000 = 440.8 kips

Demand in the form of load effects (Stress) = (200 2204)/ (12 12)

= 3061.11 psi = 3.0611 ksi

Capacity in the form of strength = 1.5 ksi (less than the demand of 3.0611 ksi).

Increase area of the pad (geometry); it cannot be done as required in the example.

Increase the strength by using some other material; using high strength concrete,

steel or other material; economical is to use concrete and steel combine.

23

Example 1.3

Solution:

Let us assume that we want to use steel bar reinforcement of yield strength fy =

40 ksi. Then capacity to be provided combinely by both materials should be at

least equal to the demand. And let us follow the Working Stress approach, then:

{P = Rc + Rs (Demand=Capacity)}

(Force units)

(Force units)

Therefore,

440.8 = (144 3/2) + (As 40/2)

As = 11.24 in2 (Think on how to provide this much area of steel? This is how

compression members are designed against axial loading).

24

12

Example 1.4

below against flexural stresses within the linear elastic range.

Concrete compressive strength (fc) = 3 ksi

2.0 kip/ft

20

20-0

12

Beam section

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

25

Example 1.4

Solution:

in-kips

calculated as:

Therefore, M = I/y

Reinforced Concrete Design II

26

13

Example 1.4

Solution:

=?

stresses. The tensile strength of concrete (Modulus of rupture) is

given by ACI code as 7.5 f , (ACI 18.3.3).

f = 7.5 3000 = 411 psi

= 328.8 in-kips

27

Recommendations

Load combinations: ACI 318-11, Section 9.2.

Load Combinations: ACI 318-11, Section 9.2.

U = 1.4(D + F)

(9-1)

(9-2)

(9-3)

(9-4)

(9-5)

(9-6)

(9-7)

28

14

Recommendations

Strength Reduction Factors: ACI 318-11, Section 9.3.

29

Recommendations

Design:

For Mn = Mu

30

15

Recommendations

Design:

Where,

u = 0.003

t = Net tensile strain (ACI 10.3.4). When t = 0.005, = 0.9 for

flexural design.

1= 0.85 (for fc 4000 psi, ACI 10.2.7.3)

31

Recommendations

Design:

max and min for various values of fc and fy

fc (psi)

3000

4000

5000

fy (psi)

40000

60000

40000

60000

40000

60000

min

0.005

0.0033

0.005

0.0033

0.0053

0.0035

max

0.0203

0.0135

0.027

0.018

0.0319

0.0213

32

16

Recommendations

When Vc/2 Vu, no web reinforcement is required.

When Vc Vu, theoretically no web reinforcement is

required. However as long as Vc/2 is not greater

than Vu, ACI 11.1.1 recommends minimum web

reinforcement.

33

Recommendations

Maximum spacing and minimum reinforcement

requirement as permitted by ACI 11.4.5 and 11.4.6

shall be minimum of:

smax = Avfy/(50bw),

d/2

24 inches

34

17

Recommendations

When Vc < Vu, web reinforcement is required as:

Vu = Vc + Vs

Vs = Vu Vc

Avfyd/s = Vu Vc

s = Avfyd/(Vu Vc)

35

Recommendations

Check for Depth of Beam:

Vs 8 f bwd (ACI 11.4.7.9)

If not satisfied, increase depth of beam.

Vs 4

half.

36

18

Recommendations

37

Recommendations

Placement of Shear Reinforcement

Smax = Maximum Spacing (Vc > Vu)

Vu is the shear force at distance d from the face of the support.

Vc and Vc/2 are plotted on shear force diagram.

38

19

Example 1.6

Flexural and Shear Design of Beam as per ACI:

W D.L = 1.0 kip/ft

W L.L = 1.5 kip/ft

20-0

Take f c = 3 ksi & fy = 40 ksi

39

Example 1.6

Flexural and Shear Design of Beam as per ACI:

Solution:

(assumption).

W L.L = 1.5 kip/ft

20-0

20

14

Beam section

40

20

Example 1.6

Flexural and Shear Design of Beam as per ACI:

Solution:

= 1.2 (1.0 + 0.292) + 1.6 1.5 = 3.9504 kips/ft

41

Example 1.6

Flexural and Shear Design of Beam as per ACI:

Solution:

Flexural Analysis:

Mu = W u l2/8 = 3.9504 (20)2 12/8 = 2370.24 in-kips

3.9504 kip/ft

Vu = 39.5 {10 (17.5/12)}/10 = 33.74 k

33.74 kips

39.50

SFD

2370.24

BMD

42

21

Example 1.6

Flexural and Shear Design of Beam as per ACI:

Solution:

For Mn = Mu

Asfy(d a/2) = Mu

43

Example 1.6

Flexural and Shear Design of Beam as per ACI:

Solution:

First Trial:

Assume a = 4

a = Asfy/ (0.85fcbw)

44

22

Example 1.6

Flexural and Shear Design of Beam as per ACI:

Solution:

Second Trial:

a = 4.35 40/ (0.85 3 14) = 4.88 inches

Third Trial:

45

Example 1.6

Flexural and Shear Design of Beam as per ACI:

Solution:

min = 3

200/40000 = 0.005

46

23

Example 1.6

Flexural and Shear Design of Beam as per ACI:

Solution:

t = Net tensile strain (ACI 10.3.4). When t = 0.005, = 0.9 for flexural design.

concrete.

47

Example 1.6

Flexural and Shear Design of Beam as per ACI:

Solution:

Bar Placement: 10 #6 bars will provide 4.40 in2 of steel area which is

slightly greater than required.

48

24

Example 1.6

Flexural and Shear Design of Beam as per ACI:

Solution:

the support.

For Curtailment and bent up bar details refer to the following figures

provided at the end of this lecture:

49

Example 1.6

Flexural and Shear Design of Beam as per ACI:

Solution:

Vu = 33.74 kips

f bwd

50

25

Example 1.6

Flexural and Shear Design of Beam as per ACI:

Solution:

= 0.750.224017.5/ (33.7420.13) 8.5

51

Example 1.6

Flexural and Shear Design of Beam as per ACI:

Solution:

permitted by ACI 11.4.5 and 11.4.6 is minimum of:

smax = 24

Reinforced Concrete Design II

52

26

Example 1.6

Flexural and Shear Design of Beam as per ACI:

Solution:

Other checks:

Vs 8

8

53

Example 1.6

Flexural and Shear Design of Beam as per ACI:

Solution:

Other checks:

Check if Vs 4

If Vs 4

54

27

Example 1.6

Flexural and Shear Design of Beam as per ACI:

Step 05: Drafting (Shear Reinforcement)

3.9504 kip/ft

33.74 kips

39.50

kips

20.13 kips

10.06 kips

x1

x2

x1 = (10.06)(10)/(39.50) 2.5 ft

x2 = (20.13)(10)/(39.50) 5.0 ft

Note:

As Sd Smax we will provide sd up to 7.5 ft from

the face of support. Beyond this point, theoretically

no reinforcement is required, however, we will

provide #3 2-legged stirrups @ 12 in c/c.

55

Example 1.6

Flexural and Shear Design of Beam as per ACI:

Step 05: Drafting (Flexural Reinforcement)

#3, 2 legged

vertical stirrups @ 12" c/c

2 #4 bars

s/2 = 4.25"

C (5 + 5) #6 Bars

1" Spacer bars @ 3' c/c

B

L/8 = 2.5'

7.5'

5.0'

L = 20.0'

5 #6 Bars

L/8 = 2.5'

7.5'

2 #4 Bars

2 #4 Bars

#3, 2 legged

stirrups @ 8.5" c/c

5 #6 Bars

20"

2 #4 Bars

#3, 2 legged

stirrups @ 8.5" c/c

20"

#3, 2 legged

stirrups @ 12" c/c

20"

(5 + 5) #6 Bars

(5 + 5) #6 Bars

14"

14"

14"

SECTION A-A

SECTION B-B

SECTION C-C

56

28

3D Model

SketchUp Model

57

References

ACI 318-11

Design of Concrete Structures (13th Ed.) by Nilson,

Darwin and Dolan

58

29

Appendix

Exact curtailments lengths for simply supported positive moments (to be measured from face of the support)

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

59

Appendix

L1

L1

L2

L2

L1

L2

L2

8

L2

L1

Figure: Cutoff for bars in approximately equal spans with uniformly distributed loads

60

30

The End

61

31

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