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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Reinforced Concrete
Design-II
By: Prof Dr. Qaisar Ali
Civil Engineering Department
UET Peshawar
www.drqaisarali.com

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

Reinforced Concrete Design II

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Course Content
Mid Term

Introduction

One-Way Slab System Design

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

ACI Coefficient Method for Analysis of One-Way Slabs

Two Way Slab System Design

ACI Analysis Method for Slabs Supported on Stiff Beams or Walls

ACI Direct Design Method for Slabs with or without Beams

Reinforced Concrete Design II

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Course Content
Final Term

Introduction to Earthquake Resistant Design of RC Structures

Introduction to Pre-stressed Concrete

Introduction to Bridge Engineering

Introduction to Retaining Walls

Introduction to Miscellaneous Topics

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

Reinforced Concrete Design II

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Grading Policy
Midterm

= 25 %

Final Term

= 50 %

Session Performance = 25 %
Assignments

= 10 % (6 Assignments )

Quizzes

= 15 % (6 Quizzes)

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

Reinforced Concrete Design II

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Lectures Availability

All lectures and related material will be available on


the website:

www.drqaisarali.com

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

Reinforced Concrete Design II

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Lecture-01

Introduction
By: Prof Dr. Qaisar Ali
Civil Engineering Department
UET Peshawar
www.drqaisarali.com

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

Reinforced Concrete Design II

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Topics
Concept of Demand and Capacity
Flexural Design of Beams using ACI Recommendations
Shear Design of Beams using ACI Recommendations
Example

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

Reinforced Concrete Design II

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Concept of Capacity and Demand


Demand

Demand on a structure refers to all external actions.

Gravity, wind, earthquake, snow are external actions.

These actions when act on the structure will induce internal


disturbance(s) in the structure in the form of stresses (such
as compression, tension, bending, shear, and torsion).
The internal stresses are also called load effects.

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

Reinforced Concrete Design II

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Concept of Capacity and Demand


Capacity

The overall ability of a structure to carry an imposed


demand.

Beam

will

resist

the

Applied Load
(Demand)

applied load up to its


capacity and will fail
when demand exceeds
capacity

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

Reinforced Concrete Design II

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Concept of Capacity and Demand


Failure

Occurs when Capacity is less than Demand.

To avoid failure, capacity to demand ratio should be kept


greater than one, or at least equal to one.

It is, however, intuitive to have some margin of safety i.e., to


have capacity to demand ratio more than one. How much?

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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Concept of Capacity and Demand


Failure

Failure (Capacity < Demand)

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Reinforced Concrete Design II

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Concept of Capacity and Demand


Example 1.1

Calculate demand in the form of stresses or load effects on


the given concrete pad of size 12 12.
50 Tons
Concrete pad

12
12

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Reinforced Concrete Design II

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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Concept of Capacity and Demand


Example 1.1

Solution: Based on convenience either the loads or the load


effects as demand are compared to the load carrying
capacity of the structure in the relevant units.
50 Tons

Demand in the form of load:

Capacity of the pad in the form

Load = 50 Tons

of resistance should be able to


carry a stress of 765.27 psi.

Demand in the form of Load effects:

In other words, the compressive

The effect of load on the pad will be

strength

a compressive stress equal to load

12

divided by the area of the pad.


Load Effect=(50 2204)/ (12 12)

concrete

pad

765.27 psi (demand).

12

= 765.27 psi

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

of

(capacity) should be more than

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Concept of Capacity and Demand


Example 1.2

Determine capacity to demand ratio for the pad of example


1.1 for the following

capacities given in the form of

compressive strength of concrete (i) 500 psi (ii) 765.27 psi


(iii) 1000 psi (iv) 2000 psi. Comment on the results?
50 Tons

12
12
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Reinforced Concrete Design II

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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Concept of Capacity and Demand


Example 1.2

Solution: As calculated in example 1.1, demand = 765.27 psi.


Therefore capacity to demand ratios are as under:

i.

Capacity/ Demand = 500 / 765.27 = 0.653 (Failure)

ii.

765.27/ 765.27 = 1.0 (Capacity just equal to Demand)

iii.

1000/ 765.27 = 1.3 (Capacity is 1.3 times greater than Demand)

iv.

2000/ 765.27 = 2.6 (Capacity is 2.6 times greater than Demand)

In (iii) and (iv), there is some margin of safety normally called as


factor of safety.

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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Concept of Capacity and Demand


Safety Factor

It is always better to have a factor of safety in our designs.

It can be achieved easily if we fix the ratio of capacity to


demand greater than 1.0, say 1.5, 2.0 or so, as shown in
example 1.2.

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Reinforced Concrete Design II

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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Concept of Capacity and Demand


Safety Factor

For certain reasons, however, let say we insist on a factor of


safety such that capacity to demand ratio still remains 1.0.
Then there are three ways of doing this:

Take an increased demand instead of actual demand (load),


e.g. 70 ton instead of 50 ton in the previous example,

Take a reduced capacity instead of actual capacity such as


1500 psi for concrete whose actual strength is 3000 psi

Doing both.

How are these three situations achieved?

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Reinforced Concrete Design II

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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Concept of Capacity and Demand


Working Stress Method

In the Working Stress or Allowable Stress Design method,


the material strength is knowingly taken less than the actual
e.g. half of the actual to provide a factor of safety equal to
2.0.

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Reinforced Concrete Design II

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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Concept of Capacity and Demand


Strength Design Method

In the Strength Design method, the increased loads and the


reduced strength of the material are considered, but both based on
scientific rationale. For example, it is quite possible that during the
life span of a structure, dead and live loads increase.

The factors of 1.2 and 1.6 used by ACI 318-11 (Building code
requirements for structural concrete, American Concrete Institute
committee 318) as load amplification factors for dead load and live
load respectively are based on probability based research studies.

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

Note: We shall be following ACI 318-11 throughout this course

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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Concept of Capacity and Demand


Strength Design Method

Similarly, the strength is not reduced arbitrarily but


considering the fact that variation in strength is possible due
to imperfections, age factor etc. Strength reduction factors
are used for this purpose.

Factor of safety in Strength Design method is thus the


combined effect of increased load and reduced strength,
both modified based on a valid rationale.

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Reinforced Concrete Design II

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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Concept of Capacity and Demand


About Ton

1 metric ton = 1000 kg or 2204 pound

1 long ton: In the U.S., a long ton = 2240 pound

1 short ton: In the U.S., a short ton = 2000 pound

In Pakistan, the use of metric ton is very common; therefore


we will refer to Metric Ton in our discussion.

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

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Reinforced Concrete Design II

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Concept of Capacity and Demand


Example 1.3

Design the 12 12 pad to carry a load of 200 tons. The


area of the pad cannot be increased for some reasons.

Concrete strength (fc) = 3 ksi, therefore

Allowable strength = fc/2 = 1.5 ksi (for Working Stress method)


200 Tons

Concrete pad

12
12
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Reinforced Concrete Design II

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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Concept of Capacity and Demand


Example 1.3

Solution:

Demand in the form of load (P) = 200 Tons = 200 2204/1000 = 440.8 kips

Demand in the form of load effects (Stress) = (200 2204)/ (12 12)
= 3061.11 psi = 3.0611 ksi

Capacity in the form of strength = 1.5 ksi (less than the demand of 3.0611 ksi).

There are two possibilities to solve this problem:

Increase area of the pad (geometry); it cannot be done as required in the example.

Increase the strength by using some other material; using high strength concrete,
steel or other material; economical is to use concrete and steel combine.

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

Reinforced Concrete Design II

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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Concept of Capacity and Demand


Example 1.3

Solution:

Let us assume that we want to use steel bar reinforcement of yield strength fy =
40 ksi. Then capacity to be provided combinely by both materials should be at
least equal to the demand. And let us follow the Working Stress approach, then:

{P = Rc + Rs (Demand=Capacity)}

(Force units)

Capacity of pad = Acfc/2 + Asfy/2

(Force units)

Therefore,
440.8 = (144 3/2) + (As 40/2)

As = 11.24 in2 (Think on how to provide this much area of steel? This is how
compression members are designed against axial loading).

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Reinforced Concrete Design II

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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Concept of Capacity and Demand


Example 1.4

Check the capacity of the plain concrete beam given in figure


below against flexural stresses within the linear elastic range.
Concrete compressive strength (fc) = 3 ksi
2.0 kip/ft

20

20-0
12

Beam section
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Reinforced Concrete Design II

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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Concept of Capacity and Demand


Example 1.4

Solution:

M = wl2/8 = {2.0 (20)2/8} 12 = 1200 in-kips

Self-weight of beam (w/ft) = (12 20 0.145/144) = 0.24167 k/ft

Msw (moment due to self-weight of beam) = (0.2416720212/8) = 145


in-kips

M (total) = 1200 + 145 = 1345 in-kips

In the linear elastic range, flexural stress in concrete beam can be


calculated as:

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

= My/I (linear elastic range)

Therefore, M = I/y
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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Concept of Capacity and Demand


Example 1.4

Solution:

y = (20/2) = 10 ; I = 12 203/12 = 8000 in4

=?

The lower fibers of the given beam will be subjected to tensile


stresses. The tensile strength of concrete (Modulus of rupture) is
given by ACI code as 7.5 f , (ACI 18.3.3).
f = 7.5 3000 = 411 psi

Therefore, tension = 7.5

Hence M = Capacity of concrete in bending = 411 8000/ (10 1000)


= 328.8 in-kips

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

Therefore, Demand = 1345 in-kips and Capacity = 328.8 in-kips


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Reinforced Concrete Design II

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Flexural Design of Beams Using ACI


Recommendations
Load combinations: ACI 318-11, Section 9.2.
Load Combinations: ACI 318-11, Section 9.2.

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

U = 1.4(D + F)

(9-1)

U = 1.2(D + F + T) + 1.6(L + H) + 0.5(Lr or S or R)

(9-2)

U = 1.2D + 1.6(Lr or S or R) + (1.0L or 0.8W)

(9-3)

U = 1.2D + 1.6W + 1.0L + 0.5(Lr or S or R)

(9-4)

U = 1.2D + 1.0E + 1.0L + 0.2S

(9-5)

U = 0.9D + 1.6W + 1.6H

(9-6)

U = 0.9D + 1.0E + 1.6H

(9-7)

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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Flexural Design of Beams Using ACI


Recommendations
Strength Reduction Factors: ACI 318-11, Section 9.3.

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Reinforced Concrete Design II

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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Flexural Design of Beams Using ACI


Recommendations
Design:

Mn Mu (Mn is Mdesign or Mcapacity)


For Mn = Mu

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

As = Mu/ {fy (d a/2)}

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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Flexural Design of Beams Using ACI


Recommendations
Design:

min = 3 fc /fy 200/fy (ACI 10.5.1)

max = 0.851(fc/fy){u/(u + t)}

Where,
u = 0.003
t = Net tensile strain (ACI 10.3.4). When t = 0.005, = 0.9 for
flexural design.
1= 0.85 (for fc 4000 psi, ACI 10.2.7.3)

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

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Reinforced Concrete Design II

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Flexural Design of Beams Using ACI


Recommendations
Design:
max and min for various values of fc and fy

Table 01: Maximum & Minimum Reinforcement Ratios


fc (psi)

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

3000

4000

5000

fy (psi)

40000

60000

40000

60000

40000

60000

min

0.005

0.0033

0.005

0.0033

0.0053

0.0035

max

0.0203

0.0135

0.027

0.018

0.0319

0.0213

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Shear Design of Beams using ACI


Recommendations
When Vc/2 Vu, no web reinforcement is required.
When Vc Vu, theoretically no web reinforcement is
required. However as long as Vc/2 is not greater
than Vu, ACI 11.1.1 recommends minimum web
reinforcement.

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

Reinforced Concrete Design II

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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Shear Design of Beams using ACI


Recommendations
Maximum spacing and minimum reinforcement
requirement as permitted by ACI 11.4.5 and 11.4.6
shall be minimum of:

smax = Avfy/(50bw),

d/2

24 inches

Avfy/ {0.75 f bw}

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

Reinforced Concrete Design II

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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Shear Design of Beams using ACI


Recommendations
When Vc < Vu, web reinforcement is required as:
Vu = Vc + Vs
Vs = Vu Vc
Avfyd/s = Vu Vc
s = Avfyd/(Vu Vc)

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

Reinforced Concrete Design II

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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Shear Design of Beams using ACI


Recommendations
Check for Depth of Beam:
Vs 8 f bwd (ACI 11.4.7.9)
If not satisfied, increase depth of beam.

Check for Spacing:


Vs 4

f bwd (ACI 11.4.5.3)

If not satisfied, reduce maximum spacing requirement by one


half.

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

Reinforced Concrete Design II

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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Shear Design of Beams using ACI


Recommendations

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

Reinforced Concrete Design II

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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Shear Design of Beams using ACI


Recommendations
Placement of Shear Reinforcement

Sd = Design Spacing (Vc < Vu )


Smax = Maximum Spacing (Vc > Vu)
Vu is the shear force at distance d from the face of the support.
Vc and Vc/2 are plotted on shear force diagram.

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Reinforced Concrete Design II

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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Example 1.6
Flexural and Shear Design of Beam as per ACI:

Design the beam shown below as per ACI 318-11.


W D.L = 1.0 kip/ft
W L.L = 1.5 kip/ft

20-0
Take f c = 3 ksi & fy = 40 ksi

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

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Reinforced Concrete Design II

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Example 1.6
Flexural and Shear Design of Beam as per ACI:

Solution:

Step No. 01: Sizes.

For 20 length, a 20 deep beam would be appropriate


(assumption).

Width of beam cross section (bw) = 14 (assumption)

W D.L = 1.0 kip/ft


W L.L = 1.5 kip/ft

20-0

20

14
Beam section

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Reinforced Concrete Design II

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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Example 1.6
Flexural and Shear Design of Beam as per ACI:

Solution:

Step No. 02: Loads.

Self weight of beam = cbwh = 0.15 (14 20/144) = 0.292 kips/ft

W u = 1.2D.L + 1.6L.L (ACI 9.2)


= 1.2 (1.0 + 0.292) + 1.6 1.5 = 3.9504 kips/ft

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

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Reinforced Concrete Design II

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Example 1.6
Flexural and Shear Design of Beam as per ACI:

Solution:

Step No. 03: Analysis.

Flexural Analysis:
Mu = W u l2/8 = 3.9504 (20)2 12/8 = 2370.24 in-kips
3.9504 kip/ft

Analysis for Shear in beam:


Vu = 39.5 {10 (17.5/12)}/10 = 33.74 k

33.74 kips
39.50
SFD

2370.24

BMD

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Reinforced Concrete Design II

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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Example 1.6
Flexural and Shear Design of Beam as per ACI:

Solution:

Step No. 04: Design.

Design for flexure:

Mn Mu (Mn is Mdesign or Mcapacity)

For Mn = Mu

Asfy(d a/2) = Mu

As = Mu/ {fy (d a/2)}

Calculate As by trial and success method.

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

Reinforced Concrete Design II

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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Example 1.6
Flexural and Shear Design of Beam as per ACI:

Solution:

Step No. 04: Design.

Design for flexure:

First Trial:

Assume a = 4

As = 2370.24 / [0.9 40 {17.5 (4/2)}] = 4.25 in2

a = Asfy/ (0.85fcbw)

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

= 4.25 40/ (0.85 3 14) = 4.76 inches

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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Example 1.6
Flexural and Shear Design of Beam as per ACI:

Solution:

Step No. 04: Design.

Design for flexure:

Second Trial:

As = 2370.24 / [0.9 40 {17.5 (4.76/2)}] = 4.35 in2


a = 4.35 40/ (0.85 3 14) = 4.88 inches

As = 2370.24 / [0.9 40 {17.5 (4.88/2)}] = 4.37 in2

Third Trial:

a = 4.37 40/ (0.85 3 14) = 4.90 inches

Close enough to the previous value of a so that As = 4.37 in2 O.K

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Reinforced Concrete Design II

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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Example 1.6
Flexural and Shear Design of Beam as per ACI:

Solution:

Step No. 04: Design.

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

Design for flexure:

Check for maximum and minimum reinforcement allowed by ACI:

min = 3

3 3000 /40000 = 0.004

200/40000 = 0.005

Therefore, min = 0.005

Asmin = minbwd = 0.005 14 17.5 = 1.225 in2

f /fy 200/fy (ACI 10.5.1)

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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Example 1.6
Flexural and Shear Design of Beam as per ACI:

Solution:

Step No. 04: Design.

Design for flexure:

max = 0.851(fc/fy){u/(u + t)}

t = Net tensile strain (ACI 10.3.4). When t = 0.005, = 0.9 for flexural design.

1= 0.85 (for fc 4000 psi, ACI 10.2.7.3)

max = 0.85 0.85 (3/40) (0.003/(0.003+0.005) = 0.0204 = 2 % of area of


concrete.

Asmax = 0.0204 14 17.5 = 4.998 in2

Asmin (1.225) < As (4.37) < Asmax (4.998) O.K

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

Reinforced Concrete Design II

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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Example 1.6
Flexural and Shear Design of Beam as per ACI:

Solution:

Step No. 04: Design.

Design for flexure:

Bar Placement: 10 #6 bars will provide 4.40 in2 of steel area which is
slightly greater than required.

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

Other options can be explored. For example,

8 #7 bars (4.80 in2),

6 #8 bars (4.74 in2),

or combination of two different size bars.

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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Example 1.6
Flexural and Shear Design of Beam as per ACI:

Solution:

Step No. 04: Design.

Design for flexure:

Curtailment of flexural reinforcement:

Positive steel can be curtailed 50 % at a distance (l/8) from face of


the support.

For Curtailment and bent up bar details refer to the following figures
provided at the end of this lecture:

Graph A2 and A3 in Appendix A of Nilson 13th Ed.

Figure 5.15 of chapter 5 in Nilson 13th Ed.

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

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Reinforced Concrete Design II

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Example 1.6
Flexural and Shear Design of Beam as per ACI:

Solution:

Step No. 04: Design.

Design for Shear:

Vu = 33.74 kips

Vc = (Capacity of concrete in shear) = 2

f bwd

= 0.752 3000 1417.5/1000 = 20.13 k (=0.75, ACI 9.3.2.3)

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

As Vc < Vu, Shear reinforcement is required.

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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Example 1.6
Flexural and Shear Design of Beam as per ACI:

Solution:

Step No. 04: Design.

Design for Shear:

Assuming #3, 2 legged (0.22 in2), vertical stirrups.

Spacing required (Sd) = Avfyd/ (Vu Vc)


= 0.750.224017.5/ (33.7420.13) 8.5

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

Reinforced Concrete Design II

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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Example 1.6
Flexural and Shear Design of Beam as per ACI:

Solution:

Step No. 04: Design.

Design for Shear:

Maximum spacing and minimum reinforcement requirement as


permitted by ACI 11.4.5 and 11.4.6 is minimum of:

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

smax = Avfy/(50bw) =0.22 40000/(50 14) = 12.57

smax = d/2 = 17.5/2 = 8.75

smax = 24

Avfy/ 0.75(fc)bw = 0.2240000/ {(0.75(3000)14} =15.30

Therefore smax = 8.75


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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Example 1.6
Flexural and Shear Design of Beam as per ACI:

Solution:

Step No. 04: Design.

Design for Shear:

Other checks:

Check for depth of beam:


Vs 8
8

f bwd (ACI 11.4.7.9)

f bwd = 0.75 8 3000 14 17.5/1000 = 80.52 k

Vs = Vu Vc = 33.74 20.13 =13.61 k < 80.52 k, O.K.

Therefore depth is O.K. If not, increase depth of beam.

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

Reinforced Concrete Design II

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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Example 1.6
Flexural and Shear Design of Beam as per ACI:

Solution:

Step No. 04: Design.

Design for Shear:

Other checks:

Check if Vs 4

If Vs 4

f bwd (ACI 11.4.5.3):

f bwd, the maximum spacing (smax) is O.K. Otherwise

reduce spacing by one half.

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

13.61 kips < 40.26 kips O.K.

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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Example 1.6
Flexural and Shear Design of Beam as per ACI:
Step 05: Drafting (Shear Reinforcement)

3.9504 kip/ft

33.74 kips

39.50
kips

20.13 kips
10.06 kips

x1
x2

x1 = (10.06)(10)/(39.50) 2.5 ft
x2 = (20.13)(10)/(39.50) 5.0 ft

Note:
As Sd Smax we will provide sd up to 7.5 ft from
the face of support. Beyond this point, theoretically
no reinforcement is required, however, we will
provide #3 2-legged stirrups @ 12 in c/c.

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

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Reinforced Concrete Design II

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Example 1.6
Flexural and Shear Design of Beam as per ACI:
Step 05: Drafting (Flexural Reinforcement)

#3, 2 legged
vertical stirrups @ 12" c/c

#3, 2 legged vertical stirrups @ 8.5" c/c

2 #4 bars

s/2 = 4.25"

C (5 + 5) #6 Bars
1" Spacer bars @ 3' c/c

B
L/8 = 2.5'
7.5'

5.0'
L = 20.0'

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

5 #6 Bars
L/8 = 2.5'
7.5'

2 #4 Bars

2 #4 Bars

#3, 2 legged
stirrups @ 8.5" c/c
5 #6 Bars

20"

#3, 2 legged vertical stirrups @ 8.5" c/c

2 #4 Bars

#3, 2 legged
stirrups @ 8.5" c/c
20"

#3, 2 legged
stirrups @ 12" c/c
20"

(5 + 5) #6 Bars

(5 + 5) #6 Bars

14"

14"

14"

SECTION A-A

SECTION B-B

SECTION C-C

Reinforced Concrete Design II

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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

3D Model
SketchUp Model

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

Reinforced Concrete Design II

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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

References
ACI 318-11
Design of Concrete Structures (13th Ed.) by Nilson,
Darwin and Dolan

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

Reinforced Concrete Design II

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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Appendix

Exact curtailments lengths for simply supported positive moments (to be measured from face of the support)
Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

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Reinforced Concrete Design II

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Appendix

L1

L1

L2

L2

L1

L2

L2
8

L2

L1

Figure: Cutoff for bars in approximately equal spans with uniformly distributed loads

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

Reinforced Concrete Design II

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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

The End

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