ASE
General Static Analysis of Finite Element Structures
ASE Manual, Version 20149
Software Version SOFiSTiK 2014
c 2015 by SOFiSTiK AG, Oberschleissheim, Germany.
Copyright
SOFiSTiK AG
HQ Oberschleissheim
Bruckmannring 38
85764 Oberschleissheim
Germany
Office Nuremberg
Burgschmietstr. 40
90419 Nuremberg
Germany
Front Cover
Project: Yas Hotel, Abu Dhabi  Client: ALDAR Properties PJSC, Abu Dhabi  Structural Design and Engineering Gridshell:
schlaich bergermann und partner  Architect: Asymptote Architecture  Photo: Bjrn Moermann
Contents  ASE
Contents
Contents
1
Task Description
Theoretical Principles
2.1
General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2
Implemented Elements  licence level . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.3
Beam Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.3.1
Geometric nonlinear Theory 2nd and 3rd Order .
2.3.2
Coordinate System of Forces, Center of Gravity .
2.3.3
Warping torsion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.3.4
SOFiSTiK  TBeam Philosophy . . . . . . . . . . .
2.4
Pile Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.4.1
Winkler Coefficient . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.4.2
Numerical Solution and Accuracy . . . . . . . . . .
2.5
Truss and Cable Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.6
Spring Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.7
Boundary Elements BOUN and FLEX . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.8
Shell Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.8.1
Plate Structural Behaviour . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.8.2
Membrane Structural Behaviour . . . . . . . . . . .
2.8.3
Elastic Foundation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.8.4
Rotations around the Shell Normal . . . . . . . . .
2.8.5
Twisted Shell Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.8.6
Eccentrically Connected Shell Elements . . . . . .
2.8.7
Tendons in QUAD Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.8.8
Nonconforming Formulation . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.9
Volume Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.10 Primary Load Cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.11 Nonlinear Analyses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.12 Nonlinear Analysis of Plates and Shells . . . . . . . . . . .
2.12.1 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.12.2 Input of the Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.12.3 Analysis Basics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.12.4 Rounding off over Punching Points . . . . . . . . .
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Input Description
3.1
Input Language . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2
Input Records . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3
CTRL Control of the Calculation . . . . . . .
3.3.1
SOLV Equation solver . . . . . . . . .
3.3.2
CORE Parallel computation control
3.4
SYST Global Control Parameters . . . . . .
3.5
STEP Time Step Method Dynamics . . . .
3.6
HIST Storage STEPLCST . . . . . . . . . .
3.7
ULTI Limit Load Iteration . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.8
PLOT Plot of a Limit Load Iteration . . . . .
3.9
CREP Creep and Shrinkage . . . . . . . . .
3.10 GRP Group Selection Elements . . . . . . .
3.11 GRP2 Expanded Group Selection . . . . .
3.12 ELEM Single Element Settings . . . . . . . .
3.13 LEN0 Unstressed Length . . . . . . . . . . .
3.14 HIGH Membrane High Points . . . . . . . . .
3.15 PSEL Selection of Piles . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.16 TBEA Reduction of the Width for TBeams
3.17 REIQ Reinforcement in QUAD Elements .
3.18 STEX External Stiffness . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.19 OBLI Inclination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.20 SLIP SLIP Cable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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SOFiSTiK 2014
Contents  ASE
3.21
3.22
3.23
3.24
3.25
3.26
3.27
3.28
3.29
3.30
3.31
3.32
3.33
3.34
3.35
3.36
3.37
4
Output Description
4.1
Check List of the Generated Structure . . . . . .
4.2
Check List of the Nonlinear Parameters . . . .
4.3
Check List of the Analysis Control Parameters
4.4
Check Lists of the Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.5
Process of the Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.6
Eigenvalues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.7
Element Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.8
Nonlinear Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.9
Nodal Results and Support Reactions . . . . . .
4.10 Internal Forces and Moments at Nodes . . . . .
4.11 Error Estimates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.12 Distributed Support Reactions . . . . . . . . . . .
4.13 Strain Energy of Groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.14 Wind Load Generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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iii
ASE  Contents
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SOFiSTiK 2014
Task Description
ASE calculates the static and dynamic effects of general loading on any type of
structure. To start the calculations the user divides the structure to be analyzed
into an assembly of individual elements interconnected at nodes (Finite Element Method). Possible types of elements are : haunched beams, springs, cables, truss elements, plane triangular or quadrilateral shell elements and threedimensional continuum elements.
The program handles structures with rigid or elastic types of support. An elastic
support can be applied to an area, a line or at nodal points. Rigid elements or
skew supports can be taken into account.
ASE calculates the effects of nodal, line and block loads. The loads can be
defined independently from the selected element mesh. The generation of loads
from stresses of a primary load case allows the consideration of construction
stages, redistribution and creep effects.
Nonlinear calculations enables the user to take the failure of particular elements
into account, such as: cables in compression, uplifting of supported plates, yielding, friction or crack effects for spring and foundation elements. Nonlinear materials are available for threedimensional and shell elements. Geometrical nonlinear computations allow the investigation of 2nd and 3rd order theory effects by
cable, beam, shell and volume structures.
In case of beam structures, the program can calculate warping torsion with up
to 7 degrees of freedom per node.
The user of ASE should therefore gather experience from simple examples before tackling more complicated structures. A check of the results through approximate engineering calculations is imperative.
The basic version of ASE performs the linear analyses of beams, cables, trusses, plane and volume structures. Plain strain and rotational systems can be
analyzed with TALPA.
SOFiSTiK 2014
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Influence surfaces
Nonlinear analyses
Material nonlinearities
Geometrical nonlinearities
Membrane elements
Nonlinear dynamics
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2
2.1
Theoretical Principles
General
A continuum or a plane structure can be interpreted as a statically or geometrically infinitely indeterminate structure. If an analytical solution is unknown, every
numerically approximate method is based on converting this infinite system into
a finite one, in other words to discretizing it.
The advantage of the finite elements lies in their universal applicability to any
geometrical shape and almost to any loading. This is achieved by a modular
principle. Single elements which describe parts of the structure in a computer
oriented manner are assembled into a complete structure.
The continuous structure is represented thus by a large but finite number of elements. A discrete solution consisting of n unknowns is calculated instead of
the continuous solution. In general, the approximate solution may represent the
exact solution better with the use of more elements. The single elements of an
area can be of arbitrarily small dimensions in comparison to the dimensions of
the overall structure without giving rise to any incompatibilities with the presented theory. The refinement of the subdivision is, however, subjected to certain
limitations due to numerical reasons.
The Finite Element Method (FEM) employed in ASE is a displacement method,
meaning that the unknowns are deformation values at several selected points,
the socalled nodes. Displacements can be obtained with an elementwise interpolation of the nodal values. The calculation of the mechanical behaviour is
based generally on an energy principle (minimisation of the deformation work).
The result is a socalled stiffness matrix. This matrix specifies the reaction forces
at the nodes of an element when these nodes are subjected to known displacements.
The global force equilibrium is generated then for each node in order to determine the unknowns. A force in the same direction which is a function of this
or another displacement corresponds to each displacement. This leads to a
system of equations with n unknowns, where n can become very large. Numerically beneficial banded matrices result, however, due to the local character of
the elementwise interpolation.
The complete method is divided into four main parts:
1.
SOFiSTiK 2014
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2.
Assembly of the global stiffness matrix and solution of the resulting equation
system
3.
4.
The second step is that with most CPU time. It may use up to 90 percent of the
total CPU time. However, it has to occur only once for a static system.
The stresses jumps from element to element. The size of the jump is thus a
direct measure of the quality of the FE analysis.
2.2
The elements shown in the following table are available in ASE. A nonlinear
analysis can occur also for some types of elements. A detailed list of the implemented nonlinear effects is written in section 3.36.
Program ASE runs with licences to ASE, SEPP and PFAHL. Depending on the
licence not all elements can be used  see following table. Nonlinear analsis also
require a higher licence level.
Nonlinear
Geometrical
Material
Nonlinearity
SPRI
yes
yes
TRUS
yes+tension failure
yes
Element
CABL
BEAM
yes
yes
PILE1
yes
QUAD2
yes
yes
BRIC12
yes
yes
BOUN
FLEX12
yes
Halfspace2
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2.3
Beam Elements
d TH2
TH3
Figure 2.1: Column geometric nonlinear theory 2nd and 3rd order
In the column example in figure 2.1 the effect of theory TH2 causes a stiffness
reduction in the column due to the compression normal force (geometric stiffness). This creates an additional deflection dux in x direction (no duz!). The
beam can get longer than in the original shape. The bottom bending moment
increases due to the displacement of the vertical load Pz. This type of analysis
is also known as pidelta method.
In the complete geometric nonlinear analysis TH3 the column head follows the
physically correct path. Equilibrium is iterated on the real deformed shape.
In figure 2.2 a horizontally fixed bending girder is loaded vertically. In TH2 the
girder just deflects vertical without a normal force N.
In the TH3 analysis the vertical displacement causes a lengthing of the beam.
The created normal force N carries a part of the load and reduces the vertical
deformation.
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TH2 : N = 0
TH3 : N
Figure 2.2: girder geometric nonlinear theory 2nd and 3rd order
In TH2 the forces are related to the original coordinate system. So the shear
forces are transversal forces. In the column example in figure 2.1 N stays vertical
and VZ stays horizontal.
In TH3 the forces are always related to the deformed beam coordinate system.
The beam forces N, MY and MZ are related to the center of gravity of the actual
active partial section (not to node connecting line). MT, VY and VZ are related
to the center of shear.
Dead load is applied in the stiffness center (and not in the center of mass that
may differ in case of composite sections).
2.3.3
Warping torsion
Warping torsion can be used for straight beam structures with CTRL WARP 1.
Warping effects can also appear without warping support. In the following picture to example ase11_girder_overturning.dat in loadcase 11 a single moment MT=1 kNm (2*0.50 kNm) is applied in midspan of a single girder
90 % of it work via warping torsion as force pairs in the flanges  see MTs = 0.45
kNm. 10 % go directly into the section via Saint Venant shear  see MTp = 0.05
kNm. Warping parts (ASE output):
The total torsional moment Mt has 3 parts (MT= MTp +MTs +MTn):
MTp  primary torsional moment from Saint Venant shear stresses
MTs  secondary tors. moment (flange shear from warping longitudinal stresses)
MTn  theory 2. order torsional moment from twisted normal stresses
Mb warping moment (from warping longitudinal stresses  creates MTs at other
beam sections)
You can imagine the behavior as follows: the flange forces in midspan deflect
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SOFiSTiK 2014
the flanges opposite and transport a part of the loading via longitudinal stresses
to the support.
The longitudinal warping stress due to Mb in midspan create a flange shear
force at the supports. The corresponding torsional momennt MTs at the support
is about 0.05 kNm. At the support itself, the longitudinal warping stresses are
zero (free end)  see Mb = 0 kNm. The effects are as follows:
MT
MTp
MTs
Mb
Please notice that at the cantlever end (beam 10 x= 0.4) already a part of the
load MT= 10 kNm is carried by warping although there are no longitudinal
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This pair of forces (flange shear from warping longitudinal stresses) carries
a part of the MT loading.
An MTs at a beam section x1 creates longitudinal warping stresses at another beam section x2.
2.3.4
Attention: This model can not be used for influence line evaluation with ELLA
because ELLA does not add the slab parts to the beam!
A 2D slab analysis is usually sufficient and desirable for beams and continuous
beams with effective cross section widths in a slab. Only in a 2D slab analysis
normal forces are not determined in the slab or in the beam! The advantage
is that the slab can be simply designed (without normal forces) particularly for
the shear checks. In addition the determined beam moments can be designed
directly with the right Tbeam cross section.
Procedure: The user or the graphical input program positions a centric defined
beam in the node plane (with the Tbeam cross section see picture on the right).
The QUAD elements are also defined centric. As the beam is positioned in
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SOFiSTiK 2014
the centre of gravity (a little bit below the slab center), the upper edge of the
Tbeam looks a little bit out of the slab  this is also visible in WinGRAF. The
ANIMATOR displaces the cross section a little bit downwards, so that the upper
edges beam+slab appear at the same position for a better visualization. So in
the standard case the beam section is defined with the corresponding effective
slab width. Looking from the side (see picture left below) you see that cross
section parts and slab overlap and concrete areas are defined twice. These
double parts are now corrected in the TBeam philosophy:
Therefore in the stiffness analysis the slab part (Islab = bVh3/12 with b=effective
width = width of the cross section) is substracted automatically from the stiffness
of the beam ITbeam. An equivalent (reduced) beam is used:
Iequivalent beam = ITbeam Islab
In the same way the deadload of the equivalent beam is modified to avoid double
dead load.
Then the program at first determines a bending moment of this equivalent beam
in a FE analysis. The internal forces parts of the slab (Mslab = mslab V b) are
added automatically immediately. Thus the complete Tbeam internal forces are
available for the following beam design:
MTbeam = Mequivalent beam + Mslab
The bending moments My and the shear forces Vz are added as default, for
shells also the normal forces N. The torsional moment Mt is not added as default.
Output:
The parts of the slab are already included in the printout of the beam forces.
A statistic of the slab parts follows. The maximum slab parts are compared
with the maximum beam internal forces:
Statistic Beam  Additional Forces from a Slab
Loadcase 2
The printed beamforces include max. additional forces of a slab:
max. beamforce without slabaddition
max. slabaddition
cno bm
Vz
My
Vz
My
[m]
[kN]
[kNm]
[kN]
[kNm]
1 2.20 max 48.60 243.78
43.63
5.95
min 48.60
0.00
43.63
0.00
For safety the internal forces are not reduced in the FE plate elements, although
it would be possible about the amount of the increase of the beam internal
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The single beam must have a cross section with a defined width at the start
and the end. A defined width can be generated from a Tbeam (e.g. record
SREC in AQUA) and from general cross sections (e.g. AQUA record SECT
and following). The maximum width of the cross section is used in each case
(independent of the position of the plate, above or below). A cross section
which is input without dimensions however with stiffnesses (e.g. with record
SVAL) does not known any defined width. A plate part can therefore not be
added for these beams!
The single beam is connected generally directly with the nodes of the plate.
The beam reads the plate thickness and the modulus of elasticity from these
plate nodes. Different plate thicknesses are possible at the beam start and
end.
The beams must be positioned in the same plane as the plate. The plate
parts are not added for beams which are connected eccentrically.
The beam cross section must represent the effective cross section, therefore
the web and the effective plate. If a concrete slab on a steel girder should
be considered as a composite construction, the steel girder must be defined
with the effective concrete plate as cross section! The determined internal
forces and moments refer then to this composite cross section.
The effective width (cross section width) should be chosen a little bit smaller
than to large especially over the columns, because for the plate moment to
be added only the moment near the node at which the beam and the plate
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are combined is used (see CTRL PLAB V2). This plate moment is processed
then unchangeable acting about the whole width. The internal forces and
moments are therefore not exactly integrated about the effective width!
The plate stiffness Iplate (without the part of Steiner) is diverted from the
total cross section stiffness Icross. If the subtrahend Iplate is bigger than
0.8Icross, a warning is printed and the minimum stiffness of 0.2Icross is
used.
The attenuated stiffnesses are printed with ECHO PLAB FULL. If a cross
section is available at beams with different plate thicknesses (e.g. haunches), the attenuated stiffness is printed for the minimal and maximal plate
thickness.
The plate parts are already available in the printed beam internal forces and
moments and can be designed directly.
beam at FE node
CTRL PL AB 0
added plat e par t s
For comparison a load case can be calculated once without input of CTRL PLAB
and the second time with CTRL PLAB 0 and another load case number. The
beam internal forces and moments of both calculations can be represented then
with the same scale in a picture.
(More precise) calculation possibilities:
Also with the above describes method, the normal forces occur in the compression zone (plate) first during the design of the Tbeam. Normal forces are not
SOFiSTiK 2014
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considered during the calculation of the FE system. The effective width has to
be estimated manually and defined. In reality the normal forces act from the
supports into the plate. For a more precise calculation three possibilities are described here. For all three variants the effective width is realized automatically
via the normal force calculation and has not to be input:
1.
The web part which is positioned below the plate can be defined as a beam
which lies eccentrically below the plate. Then two nodes lying upon each
other are however necessary for the system input. This complicates the
input. Problems occur also for the design, because the sum of the internal
forces from web+plate including the parts of Steiner are necessary for a
design of the total Tbeam. The method is therefore only reasonable for
composite slabs with eccentrically defined steel beams (see ASE example
5.3).
2.
The web can be also generated with shell elements. The same problems
for the design result as for the eccentrical beam. In addition it should be
noted that the area in the intersection point plateweb is not defined twice:
3.
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plane. Thereby all elements have the same upper edge, the thicker beam
elements stand only below out. Normal forces which are considered for
the design are produced due to the eccentrical position of the elements.
Thereby the usual plate design is done simultaneously the beam design a special beam design is therefore not necessary. The FE analysis uses
here automatically the real effective width via the simultaneous analysis of
the normal force distribution. This method is therefore applicable not only
for the analysis of building slabs but also for analysis of concrete bridges.
Each elements is processed for themselves alone during design and not
the total Tbeam cross section! This method is however only correct for
beams with moderate thickness. The design can be uneconomical for larger beams (web height larger than 2.5plate thickness), but it is in each case
at the sure side. The simple method with fictitious beams lying in the plate
is more practical for larger web heights.
See also tbeam_philosophy_e.pdf
eccent icit y
plane of t he
node point s
under side of t he
QUAD element s
For all analysis methods the resultant internal forces and moments can be determined with the program SIR (Sectional Results). Afterwards a design as beam
cross section is possible, also for system 2 from folded structure elements. This
is especially necessary in bridge design for checks of the ultimate limit state and
for checks for safety against cracking.
Attention: This model can not be used for influence line evaluation with ELLA
because ELLA does not add the slab parts to the beam!
Literature:
K ATZ [10]
2.4
K ATZ
AND
ET AL .
Pile Elements
A single pile is idealized through a straight, elastically supported beam with shear deformations and 2nd order theory. It is numerically integrated with the
SOFiSTiK 2014
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complete system of 12 differential equations. Pile elements get a minimal constraint of the rotational spring in order to prevent instabilities.
Example see single_pile.dat
These equations are integrated numerically with the RungeKutta method.
PLC analysis for piles:
In this way also system with pile elements can be used including creep in CSM.
Shrinkage will never be taken into account for piles, creep acts for the pile and
the bedding! If GRP PHIF is input this value is taken for both the pile and the
bedding.
The pile element is not contained in the basic licence of ASE.
2.4.1
Winkler Coefficient
The definition of the bedding constants requires a good engineering understanding of the problem. For their definition it is most important to take into account
that the Winkler coefficient is not a simple material property but depends on the
system dimensions and the loading. The Winkler coefficient defines the stress
caused by a given deformation whereas the influence of adjacent points (shear
deformations) is not taken into account. The dimension of a bedding is therefore
given as kN/ m3 . A displacement causes a stress (kN/ m2 ).
However, the pile bedding is defined in kN/ m2 since the pile width has to be
integrated into this value. In this case, a displacement causes a load (kN/ m).
Since the pile width influences also the Winkler coefficient, the pile dimensions
are dropped possibly from the equation and the pile Winkler coefficient can be
estimated also from the elastic modulus of the soil and a form factor.
For circular pile cross sections and a Poissons ratio of 0.4 a form factor of 1.12
can be derived. For a Poissons ratio of 0.0 the form factor would be 1.57. In
EBK 82 of the Road Traffic Department in RheinlandPfalz the extreme values
of the form factor are scheduled to be 0.5 and 2.0.
Simplifying to DIN 4014 a foundation modulus ks = Es / D (at D > 1.0m D = 1.0m
may be used) can be determined and from that a beam foundation k = D ks as
lineshaped foundation per m pile length.
2.4.2
In general, the set of differential equations can not be solved directly. Therefore,
for each pile, these equations are integrated numerically by the RungeKutta
method. The step width is controlled automatically to maintain a relative accuracy of 0.01 percent. The setting of higher error limits results in a reduction of the
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CPU time. The setting of smaller error limits is reasonable up to a certain value,
which depends on the machine accuracy of the computer used. The reduction
of the error limit below a certain value is not reasonable because the computational error increases again due to the rounding errors in the high number of the
necessary additions.
In the case of an unbedded beam the step width can be set very large. By
contrast, for large Winkler coefficients the numerical calculation becomes more
difficult. As a criterion the characteristic length is used, defined as:
L=
p
4
4 E/ K
(2.1)
This value is an estimation of the distance between the zero points of the solution function. For reasons with reference to the numerical integration, the characteristic length should not become less than 1/5 up to 1/10 of the element
length. If this condition is not satisfied, great accuracy problems may occur
resulting in differential forces in the nodes which are pointed out in an error
message.
These problems can be overcome by subdividing a pile into more subelements.
In the case that a pile is subdivided into more elements, the placing of the nodes
at points of changing soil parameters (layers) is to be preferred over an uniform
subdivision.
Pile elements get a minimal constraint of the rotational spring in order to prevent
instabilities.
If otherwise nothing was specified, a linear analysis is performed. Nonlinear
effects are:
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2.5
Truss and cable elements can transfer only axial forces. In the case of nonlinear
analysis the cable elements can not sustain compressive forces.
Example see ase5_cable_trestle.dat
An internal cable sag is considered for geometrically nonlinear analysis. In this
case the transverse loading of the cable is calculated for the cable geometry
(extensible plane prestressed cable). Without using internal cable sag a cable
can be subdivided into shorter individual cables. The resulting cable chains can
be analysed in a stable way with a prestress. For the control of the internal cable
sag please look at CTRL CABL too.
2.6
Spring Elements
Spring elements idealize structural parts by means of a simplified forcedisplacement relationship. This is usually a linear equation which is based on
the spring constant:
P=C
(2.2)
A spring is defined with a direction (dX, dY, dZ) and three spring constants.
The here implemented element allows the following nonlinear effects which are
of course only usefully during a nonlinear analysis:
yield
friction with cohesion
slip
spring nonlinear work laws, please refer to section 3.36
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2.7
The elastic boundary conditions do not represent actual elements. They describe the additional stiffnesses of the structure. Results are not saved in the
case of FLEX. The effect of the elements appears directly in the form of support
reactions at the corresponding nodes. For BOUN additional distributed boundary forces are stored for graphical output.
Distributed support reactions are determined for boundary elements with number (compare program SOFIMSHA/SOFIMSHC). If two boundaries are defined
at an edge, the distributed support reactions are calculated once only and they
are output for the boundary with the smaller boundary number. Single supports
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215
CR + CL
CR + CL
CL + 3 CR
(2.3)
with:
CR = CA L/ 12
CL = CB L/ 12
CA,CB
distance of nodes.
2.8
Shell Elements
The shell element implemented in program ASE is a surface element. The individual elements are plane and they lie in each case in a plane whose normal
is generated through the vector product ((X3X1)(X2X4)) of the diagonals. The
deviation of the elements plane from the nodes is taken into consideration by
means of additional eccentricities. The local coordinate system is oriented in
such a way that the z axis is given with the normal to the elements plane and
the local x axis can be selected freely. The default orientation is parallel to the
global XY plane with an angle smallerequal than 90 degrees to the global X axis. If the observer looks into the positive direction of the z axis (thus from above
), then he watches the nodes numbered counterclockwise. If the elements
plane coincides with the global XY plane, the local and the global coordinate
systems are then identical.
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The triangular element is considerably worse than the quadrilateral element and
it should be used only, if no other choice of mesh partitioning can be found.
Generally it should not to be used in the vicinity of supports.
Because the normal element remains plane, the bending and the membrane
structural behaviour of the individual element are decoupled. The element properties can be defined thus separately for the both components. Additionally the
consideration of the components of an elastic support and a numerically conditional stiffness for the rotations around the shell normal occurs still.
For a twisted element the membrane and plate parts are generated by decoupling. Then they are coupled with each other via the twist of the element. Thus
the element is able to represent curved shells very exactly. This was demonstrated with corresponding benchmarks.
The consideration of each structural behaviour can be specified in the program
SOFIMSHA/SOFIMSHC for each particular element. The defaulted values are:
SYST FRAM
SYST GIRD
SYST SPAC
The elements defined in SOFIMSHA/SOFIMSHC without load bearing behaviour are not considered for the structure. They can be referenced, however,
in the case of load cases with free loads. In this way, a load area which consists
of QUAD elements can be used for block loading of girders or threedimensional
elements.
The ASE element is defined as a general quadrilateral. The accuracy of the
solution, however, depends on the geometry of the element, thus not all conceivable element shapes are permitted.
The optimum element is the square or the equilateral triangle. Rectangles and
parallelograms are the secondbest shape and the general quadrilateral the
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217
thirdbest. General quadrilaterals with reentrant corners are not allowed in the
element formulation.
A rectangle with a large side ratio a/b has difficulties in the representation of
the twisting moments and also for the bending near a corner. A ratio of 1:5 is
still tolerated in the program SOFIMSHA/SOFIMSHC and it should be exceeded
only in exceptions. The size ratio of two adjacent elements should not be smaller
than approx. 1:5. However, this value is relatively uncritical.
The ratio thickness to element dimension is uncritical, because a shear correction factor is applied. It should be clear to the user, however, that the shear
deformations in the case of thick plates result in deviations from the Kirchhoffs theory. The ratio of the thicknesses of two adjacent elements should not be
smaller than 1:10 due to its cubic effect.
2.8.1
The ASE element for the plate structural behaviour is based on Mindlins plate
theory, as described in the implementations of H UGHES AND T EZDUYAR [8],
T ESSLER AND H UGHES [16] and C RISFIELD [4], with an extension of a nonconforming formulation.
The cross sections remain plane also according to Mindlins theory, however,
they are not perpendicular anymore to the neutral axis. The same shape functions as for the displacements are used for the additional shear rotations. The
total rotation is then the sum of the shear deformation and the bending rotation.
+ S
(2.4)
with:
deflection
total rotation
shear rotation
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(2.5)
SOFiSTiK 2014
ky =
ky =
(2.6)
S =
Sy = y
(2.7)
(2.8)
(2.9)
(2.10)
my = By ky By k
(2.11)
my = Bd ky
(2.12)
= S S
(2.13)
y = Sy Sy
(2.14)
and
By =
E t3
12 (1
Ey ty3
12 (1
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)
2
S =
)
2
Sy =
5
6
5
6
G t
(2.15)
G ty
(2.16)
219
3
E ty
12 (1 2
(2.17)
torsional stiffness
Bd =
G td3
(2.18)
12
with
E , Ey
elastic moduli
shear modulus
Poissons ratio
t , ty , ty , td plate thicknesses
(2.19)
B By
To reach this the mathematical thickness for ty and td must be input in addition to the orthotropic input of E and Ey .
ty = td = t
(2.20)
By/ B
z = sin
B =
220
E t3
12 (1 2 )
=1+
2
(2.21)
(2.22)
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B y = 1
0.81
E t 2
2
1 + 2.5 2
(2.24)
By 0
Bd =
(2.23)
E t3
2 12 (1 2 )
(2.25)
ty = t 1 +
b to3
1/ 3
t3
(2.26)
ty = t
(2.27)
Bd = Bd (t ) + C/ (2 )
(2.28)
where:
C
, b
t , to
Examples for orthotropic cases can be found e.g. in the book by T IMOSHENKO
AND W OINOWSKYK RIEGER [17].
2.8.2
The element formulation of the membrane stress state occurs either via a classical isoparametric formulation or probably via a similarly classical nonconforming
formulation written by Wilson and Taylor.
The thicknesses as well as the elastic moduli in different directions are taken into consideration. The poisson ratio corresponding to Ex is used. For
anisotropic poissons ratio see chapter membrane structures and example
membrane_poisson_ratio.dat
n = S Sy y
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(2.29)
221
nyy = Sy y Sy
(2.30)
ny = G ty y
(2.31)
Sy =
E t
1 2
Ey ty
1 2
Sy =
2.8.3
E ty
1 2
(2.32)
(2.33)
(2.34)
Elastic Foundation
The QUAD element can be expanded with stiffness components in order to describe an elastically supported area. Only appropriate inputs can activate this
foundation component.
The foundation can be defined both perpendicularly and tangentially to the area.
The nonlinear effects like failure, yielding and friction may be specified.
An elastic foundation is an engineering trick used for the approximate modelling
of subsiding structures. The method is known from foundation engineering, however, it can be used also for the description of support conditions in structural
engineering.
The foundation coefficient indicates the stress resulting at a point which is subjected to a certain displacement. It is not a material constant, it is calculated
later with a settlement analysis. In principle, its value always consists of an
elastic modulus together with a geometrical dimension. The displacements of
adjacent points are independent of each other, since shear deformations are not
taken into consideration with this method.
A more exact analysis of foundations according to the stiffness modulus method
is possible with the program HASE.
The easiest case is a single compressible layer of uniform thickness h. The
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(1 )
h (1 + ) (1 2)
Es
h
(2.35)
In analog mode one can obtain Winkler coefficients for multilayered systems.
These coefficients are more acceptable as the layer becomes thinner in comparison to its deformation. If, however, the layer is relatively thick in comparison
to the loaded area, or if it is infinitely thick, the Winkler coefficient has to be estimated in a settlement analysis at the point of interest. The horizontal foundation
has usually the same order of magnitude.
Column heads are defined sometimes with elastic foundations, especially in the
case of masonry. By defining the Winkler coefficient one must keep in mind, that
a twodimensional foundation develops a certain rotational spring effect which
is more important to the loading of a plate than the perpendicular displacement
spring.
A column of the height h which is supported articulated at its foot has a rotational
stiffness equal to
C =
3 E
h
(2.36)
(2.37)
3E
h
(2.38)
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223
The rotational degree of freedom around the shell normal is not contained in
both load bearing behaviours. In order to prevent numerical difficulties for threedimensional structures, the Inplanerotation of the nodes is coupled via a weak
torsional spring at the displacements of the corner nodes in an intern way.
2.8.5
If not all four nodes of an element lie in a plane (e.g. in the case of a hypershell),
then the program defines an eccentric kinematic constraint of the corner nodes
at a plane element in a median plane in an intern way. Threedimensional curved
structures may be analysed in this way with sufficient accuracy.
In the case of twisted shell elements as well as geometrically nonlinear analyses (twisted elements are generated automatically with the latter), internal
springs are used now instead of the rotational stiffnesses mentioned in the previous paragraph. These springs convert the moment loading of a node around
the shell normal to axial forces in the shell. The shear stiffness of the elements
is modified slightly with this method, however, this is the only way to achieve
moment equilibrium at the nodes of threedimensional curved structures.
2.8.6
In the case of Tbeams, it is an advantage to lay all nodes in the plane of the
top surface of the plate and to connect the elements with different thicknesses
eccentrically to this plane. Then the Tbeam effect is realized correctly.
The position of the elements is input in the program SOFIMSHA/SOFIMSHC
(e.g. QUAD ... POSI=BELO).
Additional explanations can be found in the school example Prestressed
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Prestressed cables defined with the program TENDON have the same element
number as the QUAD element that contains them. They are characterised additionally with a cable number and with construction stage numbers for installation,
grouting and a possible removal. They possess their own stiffness and are processed independently from the QUAD elements. Thus not only the deflecting
loads are applied to the structure, but also stress changes in the tendon are
calculated. The input occurs by the means of GRP CS.
Prestressing cables in the QUAD elements can be used only in a geometrically
linear analysis.
2.8.8
Nonconforming Formulation
QTYP 1
AND
T EZDUYAR
AND
Elements of type 0 can describe only uniform moments and membrane forces
inside them. Elements of type 1 can describe a linear moment variation, if they
are rectangular, whereas a general quadrilateral element can only do that approximately. Membrane forces can vary linearly.
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225
2.9
Volume Elements
Yield criteria for plastic analyses including analytical primary stress states
Mohr Coulomb
Materials CONC and STEE are only computed linear in volume elements! For a
nonlinear analysis with concrete or steel see:
Concrete: bric_concrete.dat
Steel: bric_steel_van_mise.dat
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2.10
For the analysis of construction stages or for the definition of load steps in geometrical nonlinear analyses it is possible to use a previous load case. The
parameters of the primary stress state are defined groupwise for this purpose.
A detailed description of the method is also given in the TALPA manual.
Construction stages can be considered with different accuracies. The easiest
way, of course, is to analyse the construction stages with the respective structural system independently on each other and then proceed with the superposition and the design of the structure. The different statical systems can be
selected through the assignment of the elements in groups.
ASE has, however, also a very efficient possibility to use stresses and deformations of a primary load case which allow the complete consideration of effects
from creep or system change. See also module CSM Construction stage manager.
During application the user must keep in mind that each stress state in a single
element corresponds to an external loading of the element and is in equilibrium
with that loading.
ASE calculates now equivalent forces from the internal forces or stresses of the
elements and can apply them as loading (GRP...FACL). These forces create
a deformation state which counteracts the internal forces and makes them to
zero when the statical system is not changed. If a system change has taken
place in the meanwhile or if these loads have been applied with different factors,
corresponding inherent stress states result.
Following principal cases have to be distinguished:
1.
If the old loading is activated together with the primary state with a factor
GRP...FACL=1.0, new loads do not result. The stresses remain the same,
the deformations are zero. According to SYST...PLC the total deformations
or at SYST...PLC=0 only the addition deformations are output.
2.
If only the primary state is applied as loading with a factor GRP ... FACL=0,
the resultant loading is the primary load case with inverted sign. This gives
rise to unloading deformations that generate a stress state which becomes
zero together with the primary stress state in the case of free deformability.
This FACL=0 method should only be used in special cases. FACL=1 is the
usual default.
A graphical explanation to this can also be found in figure 2.18 :taking over the
primary load case
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If some elements are removed from the system of the primary stress state along
with their corresponding loads, the initial equilibrium is disturbed and forces arise
at the boundary nodes of the removed parts. The remaining elements expand
to the direction of the removed parts. If the primary state is generated analytically, the removed parts do not have to be defined once, because all necessary
information can be extracted from the remaining elements.
Using ECHO LOAD EXTR one can obtain an output of the internally generated
loading at every node. This option should be used generally during analyses
with primary states, because it is the best means for tracking down errors in the
description of the states. The really applied nodal loads (nodal load vectors) can
be represented with the program WinGRAF.
Further instructions can be found in the description of the record GRP in the
TALPA manual or in the examples.
See also figure 2.18 :taking over the primary load case
2.11
Nonlinear Analyses
Nonlinear effects can be analysed only with iterations. This is done in ASE
usually with a modified Newton method with constant stiffness matrix. The advantages of the method are that the stiffness matrix does not need to be decomposed more than once and that the system matrix remains always positive
definite. The speed of the method is increased through an accelerating algorithm written by Crisfield. This method notices the residual forces developing
during the iterations and calculates the coefficients e and f for the displacement
increments of the current and the previous step. A damping of the method can
be specified in the case of critical systems (SYST...FMAX<1.0).
For a geometric nonlinear analsis a Line Search technique with an update of
stiffness is used  see CTRL ITER.
Examples see > Summary of example overviews
Following nonlinear effects are implemented currently: please also refer to NSTR in section 3.36:
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SOFiSTiK 2014
Tendons defined in the QUAD elements with the program TENDON can be used
only in geometrically linear analysis.
For TRUS, SPRI, CABL, BEAM, QUAD and BRIC in a geometrically nonlinear
analysis the initial stress matrix is added to the stresses of the primary stress
state (for TRUS, SPRI and CABL without reference to a primary stress state, the
prestress from the program SOFIMSHA/SOFIMSHC is used for this purpose see CTRL CABL). Thereby the iterations are markedly more stable when referring to a primary load case and the ultimate load can be calculated more precisely. A stability failure is recognized also in this way, even in the cases without
unplanned initial deformation (an unstable system is reported, if the stresses of
the primary state exceed the buckling load, i.e. the total stiffness matrix is negative). Since it is reported here, that the PLC was actually unstable, this feature
is only meaningful in the case of small load steps.
A module for the ultimate load calculation ULTI increases or decreases the load
stepbystep until it reaches a still sustained loading.
Initial deformations of the structure can be read as results of already analysed load cases with the record SYST...PLC...FACV. With GRP...FACL=0 and
FACP=0 the initial deformation is applied without stresses. This can also be
done more clearly with OBLI (the OBLI oblique position or predeformation can
also be mixed with a primary stress state SYST PLC). In the stored results, the
initial deformation is added to the incremental displacements of the actual loadcase. With CTRL DIFF the increment can be stored separately. Deformations
from a modal analysis (bucling eigenvalue) can be used as initial deformation via
scaling with FACV or OBLI see ase9_quad_euler_beam.dat task (ULTI iteration
... with predeformation)
Nonlinear analyses are not possible with the basic version.
2.12
2.12.1
Overview
SOFiSTiK 2014
229
al. In this case it is used to establish the positions of the individual layers. This
method is especially suited for the nonlinear calculation of plates and shells
consisting of steel and reinforced concrete. Up to now the nonlinear construction material models, steel and concrete, have been implemented for the shellelements.
Example
Input file
Concrete
a1_introduction_example.dat
Steel
ase12_buckling_slab.dat
nonlinear_quad_concrete_beam.dat
nonlinear_quad_concrete_beam.pdf
arch_bridge.dat
Steel_fibre_concrete
steel_fibre_concrete.dat
Sector tank
concrete_tank_cracked.dat
Fire design
quads_on_fire_1.dat
quads_on_fire_1_english.pdf
The calculation program ASE can evaluate an analysis for either the workingor the failurestress level. It is advisable to use the option ECHO MAT YES in
ASE, which checks the material values. The really used stressstrain curves of
the material are plotted then and the significant values are printed.
Examples for a free work law input:
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Input file
a1_spring_overview.dat
spring_law_3_pkin.dat
steel_fibre_concrete.dat
ase12_buckling_slab.dat
Layer Sperrholzplatte
ase.dat/english/special/timber_quad_layer.dat
Layer Hohlkrperbeton
bubble_deck.dat
the stressstrain curves which are represented below for the desired concrete.
Here are according to chapter 9.1.5 of DIN 10451 (02.07):
sigu (red)
Stressstraincurve for the cross section design (parabolarectanglediagram) according to equation (65) and (66) [ 4]
.
sigr (blue)
Stressstraincurve for nonlinear methods of the determination of internal forces and moments according to equation
(62) with fc = fcR [ 4] .
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231
Figure 2.11: AQUA plot of the standard stressstrain curves for concrete C 25/30
according to DIN 10451 (07.02)
In analog mode one gets the stressstrain curves for the reinforcement according
to chapter 9.2.3 and 9.2.4 of DIN 10451 (07.02):
Figure 2.12: AQUA plot of the standard stressstrain curves for reinforcement
500S(A) according to DIN 10451 (07.02)
ASE uses the stressstrain curves from AQUA. In this way also arbitrary stressstrain curves which are defined manually can be considered.
Following requirements are to be considered for the input of the stressstrain
curve type in order to select the correct curve during calculation in ASE with
record NSTR. The stressstrain curve for concrete as well as for steel is defined
with the item KSV in record NSTR and without the input for KSB. If a stress
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SOFiSTiK 2014
strain curve is defined for KSV and for KSB, KSV sets the curve for concrete
and KSB for the reinforcement. In this way arbitrary combinations are possible.
Types and designations of the stressstrain curves in AQUA and ASE
Designation of the
stressstrain curve
ULTI
CALC
CAL / CALD
SERV
SL / SLD
Following AQUA input defines a new serviceability stressstrain curve for concrete as well as for reinforcement with the safety 1.3:
$ Input of an example stressstrain curve for serviceability limit
state: $
SSLA SERV 1.3 $ first SSLA record defines the type of the stressstrain curve $
$ The value after type of the stressstrain curve sets the
corresponding $
$ safety coefficient $
SSLA
EPS
SIG
TYPE
0.30
0.0
$ tensile zone $
0.09
2.1
0
0
$$
1.1
17.8
spl
2.0
24.0
spl
3.5
23.0
$ compression zone $
4.5
0
$ reinforcement: $
STEE 2 BST 500SA
$ Input of an example stressstrain curve for serviceability limit
state:  $
SSLA SERV 1.3 $ first SSLA record defines the type of the stressstrain curve $
$ The value after type of the stressstrain curve sets the
corresponding $
$ safety coefficient $
SSLA
EPS
SIG
TYPE=POL
50
525
$ compression zone $
25
525
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233
2.3
0
2.3
25
50
500
0
500
525
525
$$
$ tensile zone $
The stressstrain curves which are input in this way can be seen and checked
as modified serviceability stressstrain curve (sigm / green) in the AQUA output
of the material values and in the plot of the stressstrain curves:
Figure 2.13: AQUA plot with manually defined stressstrain curve sigm (green) for
concrete
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Figure 2.15: Detailed plot of the tensile zone of the concrete stressstrain curve in
ASE
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235
PROG AQUA
MATE 11 E
60e3
MUE 0.2
MATE 12 E
0.8e3
MUE 0.3
$ glassplasticglass $
MLAY NO 1 T0 0.006 11 $$
T1 0.003 12 $$
T2 0.003 12 $$
T3 0.003 12 $$
T4 0.006 11
END
$ glass $
$ plastic $
The intermediate layers t2+t3 were defined only for a more clear output! The
layer material No. 1 can be used only for QUAD elements.
Example MLAY input see bubble_deck.dat
or for a timber slab: timber_quad_layer.dat
Note: The analysis is according to plate theory, i.e. assuming that the crosssection does not have planar deformation! The displacement of the plates between each other is not taken into account. For this one would have to couple
the plates with springs!
This model is not suited for the analysis of local failure at the coupling points
of laminated glass plates, because for such an analysis the planar deformation
of the crosssections is very important. At these points one could evaluate a
spatial stressstate, which can only be depicted by volume elements.
Any arbitrary material can be used basically also orthotropic as layer for nonlinear analyses.
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At the moment only layers from the material concrete or steel are processed
nonlinearly. The loading and unloading curve is generated independent on each
other (hysteresis).
2.12.3
Analysis Basics
Linear Analysis
Bending
The total moment of inertia of a layered element is made up by the sum of each
layers moment of inertia and the Steinerpart of the individual layers. Here an
eccentricity of the centroids position could be created due to stiffer layers on one
side of the element, e.g. sandwichelement with different toplayer thicknesses.
The eccentricity is established automatically and is considered for simple plate
bending, it also leads the correct length deformation of the elements. This effect also becomes apparent for an eccentric connection with a homogeneous
element.
The input of orthotropic materials is not allowed, due to the occurrence of various
eccentricities in various directions. This is blocked by the program and leads to
an error message.
Linear normalstresses in the layers are generated by the strains in the layers.
They are calculated as usual by the stressstrain matrix D of the material in a
layer:
= D
(2.39)
with:
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237
,PLC
FACP
FACS
FCREEP1
FCREEP2
,LOAD
The GRP factor FACL is generally multiplied to the primary loadcase as a value
of 1.0. It generates the expansion loads from the primary stresses ,PLC . If the
stresses of the PLC together with the loads of the PLC are multiplied with the
factors FACL=1.0 and FACP=1.0, then the system will remain in equilibrium and
no additional expansions or displacements are created. The FACL expansion
loads are then in equilibrium with the external loads:
Figure 2.18: Load equilibrium when taking over the primary load case without any
new loads
The nodal load resulting from FACL and the element stress is generated because the element wants expand due to the primary compressive stress.
The internal forces and moments are calculated by integrating the stresses in
the layers, over the element thickness of each layer.
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SOFiSTiK 2014
Shear
Initially the shear stiffnesses of the individual layers are summed up for the stiffness determination.
The following equation is used to calculate the shear stress from the shear force
q.
=
q S
b
(2.41)
For homogenous material definitions, in the linear domain, this would result in a
parableshaped shear stress distribution over the height of the element, with the
maximum value of m = 1.5 q/ h. For sandwich elements, with thick (strong)
toplayers, it would mean that a nearly constant shear stress is present in the
middle of the element; given by m = 1.0 q/ h (h=element thickness).
Nonlinear Analysis STEEL
Example see ase12_buckling_slab.dat
For a nonlinear analysis, the calculation of the new linear stresses is initially
made by assuming a linear material behaviour for every layer xi. The following
applies when proceeding with the primary load case:
= ,PLC + D d
(2.42)
= ,PLF + d
(2.43)
and
(simplified)
The total stress is therefore not just put together by the total strain multiplied
with the stiffness, instead it might be that the nonlinear eigenstresses of the
individual layers of ,PLC have to be considered. For the consistent treatment
of the problem, including the correct generation of the loading and unloading
curves of the layer model, it is of importance that not only the internal forces and
moments are stored in the database, but also all the stress in all the layers and
all the Gausspoints. This information is needed for the next load case as ,PLC .
From these initial linear stresses a new linear comparison stress is calculated:
For QUAD elements the following applies:
=
2 + 3 2 + 3 2
2 + y2 y + 3y
(2.44)
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Usual procedure:
The element is subdivided into NLAY layers. The stresses sigmax, sigmay
and tauxy and the principal stresses sigmaI and sigmaII are calculated for
every layers boundary. For each principal stress direction a stressstrain curve
is generated, which results from the principal stress relation in the respective
direction. The thus established nonlinear stresses are then integrated over all
the layers to find the internal forces. After this all the forces of the reinforcement
including the tensionstiffeningeffect are added. Finally an independent check
is made for the plates shear stresses.
The following is a list of the concrete parameters taken from record CONC:
CONCFC
CONCFCT
CONCFCTK
CONCGC
CONCGF
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LC  BET2
In both cases the pure concrete alone must include any tensile strengths. CTRL
CONC V4 0.0 or 0.01 must be input!
The increase of the steel stress due to the concrete action between the cracks
may be brought into approach (default for fct or CTRL CONC V3).
A nonlinear analysis for the ultimate limit state is particularly necessary for additional effects from secondorder theory. Such an analysis with temporarily
switchedoff tensile strength of the pure concrete causes however often big deformations and bad convergences.
A reasonable procedure is therefore often also a determination of the internal
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forces and moments with average values of the material strengths (analysis
in serviceability limit state) and a definitive design of the redistributed internal
forces and moments with an average load safety coefficient (e.g. 1.45)
Futher explanations see example a2_nonlinear_slab.dat
Nonlinear StressStrain Curve in the Compressive Zone
The maximum concrete compression stiffness betaic, found in the compressive
zone, is deduced from the principal stress relation. Betaic can either be read
from the Kupfer curve, or it can be calculated by the respective equations [ 1] ,
pg. 260.
With this maximum value betaic an uniaxial stressstrain line can be generated
according to the concrete stressstrain curve for every of both principal stress
directions.
An increase value higher than 1.0 is only allowed for calculations in serviceability limit state. For calculations with gammatimes loads (ultimate limit state)
this increase is deactivated in the default, because it is mostly desired that the
maximum stress increases about the basic value of the concrete compressive
strength betaic  see CTRL CONC V2. A reduction of the permissible compressive stresses is always considered for lateral tension.
If the stress which is determined at first linearly is higher than the allowed stress,
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the stress is reduced parallelly. The calculation is repeated again with the possible modified principle stress ratio.
Tensile zone
In the tensile zone of concrete, the maximum value betaz, is always taken as
the lower fractile of the concrete stiffness fctk. The length of the descending
curve results from the tension crack energy GF of the processing zone. Typical
values lie between 0.10 and 0.25 Nmm/mm2 . The program restricts the length
of the descending curve to 5epslin  see CTRL CONC VAL.
If a stressstrain curve for concrete is already defined in the tensile zone
in AQUA, then this one is used instead of the here described programinternal curve! Thus it is possible to calculated steel fibre concrete >
steel_fibre_concrete.dat
The element is seen as cracked as soon as the tensilestrain crosses the linear
limit value of epslin. Any further strain is stored as plastic tensilestrain and is
taken into account for reloading after an element has been unloaded (hysteresis). Due to the possibility of excessive tensile stiffness perpendicular to the
first crack, the program has to store two plastic tensilestrains at each point (first
crack and second crack).
It could be that a crack has already emerged when a primary load case is taken
over. In this case the fixed crack direction of the primary load case is used for the
calculation of the stresses. For this calculation the strains in the direction of the
crack and perpendicular to it are used. When a possible shear stress is present
at the crack it is lowered by a simple friction consideration (Cracktoothing input
with AQUACONCMUEC). This would prevent the occurrence of a second crack
perpendicular to the first crack. For biaxial coated material, without the primary
load case, two cracks are always perpendicular to each other.
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Reinforcement
The program takes the defined reinforcement as the default reinforcement. The
nonlinear analysis is then performed for the default reinforcement. An automatic
increase in lacking structural safety does not take place! It is therefore the users
responsibility to check the certainty of the convergence of the analysis! Possible
residual forces of the nonlinear iteration have to be checked. Since these residual forces are stored as support forces they can be checked with the program
WinGRAF, this is done by generating a plot of the support forces. During a plate
analysis residual forces are also generated in the plates plane (normal forces),
this is because the program needs to find equilibrium of the normal stresses.
The reinforcement parameters and a given minimum reinforcement is taken
from BEMESSPARA or from the corresponding SSD design parameter dialog. REIQ is used to import a reinforcement from a previously generated BEMESSanalysis. The recommended method is used in the example
a2_nonlinear_slab.dat . An analysis can also be made with nonreinforced
concrete, when no reinforcement is defined. Further information on the program
ASE can be found in the chapter Definition of Reinforcement as well as the
latest TEDDYHelp .
The consideration of the tension stiffening is done generally with a modification
of the steel stressstrain curve described in [ 2] page 269. Since ASE 11.7621
the consideration in serviceability limit state (NSTR SL/SLD) occurs according
to the method of SchieSSl (DAfStB Heft 400) or EC 2, because more realistic
deformation values result here. For the ultimate limit state and the nonlinear
determination of the internal forces and moments (NSTR UL/ULD or CAL/CALD)
the consideration of the tension stiffening is done according to the simplified
method of the modified steel strains according to DAfStB Heft 525. For a better
clarity the in each case used method in ASE is output again at the nonlinear
properties of the plane elements.
Please note, that the serviceability analysis (NSTR KSV SL) should be done
usually according to Heft 400 also for DIN 10451 and respectively acc. EN
199211, because it leads to a better agreement with the test result according
our experiences.
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Figure 2.22: Simplified method of the tensile stiffening acc. to Heft 525 (Bild H
84)
As the pure concrete layers also work in tension, the following working method
is used:
In a first step the strains in the steel layers in reinforcement direction are
determined. These strains are equal to the mean steel strains sm according
to S CHIESSEL [12].
Using the tensile working law the two majoring strains I and II are determined
based on the actual tensile strength amd the process zone length LZ (see
below):
I:
II: average strain for finished crack development = at the end of the decreasing part of the tensile work law
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TFinite
Elemente im Stahlbeton  Betonkalender 1993/I StempniewskiT a
value between 200600 mm is recommended.
In the real analysis now this strain DEPSX= 0.404 promille is scaled to the
actual element gauss point size.
e.g.
element area = 0.05m*0.05m = 0.0025m2 = per gauss
point 0.000625m2 > element gauss point size L_Gauss = squareroot(0.000625m2) = 0.025m.
For an actual element with L_Gauss > LZ, DEPSX_GAUSS is calculated to DEPSX_GAUSS = DEPSX*LZ/L_Gauss (descending part is shortened).
So for an element size of 0.05m*0.05m a descending part of DEPSX_GAUSS = DEPSX = 0.404 promille is taken into account.
For the new design codes (and without the input of CTRL CONC V5 400) the
crack width is then calculated according to DIN 1045.1 11.2.4 or according
to the Eurocode equation.
The average force of the steel insert is calculated by multiplying the steel
stress for the crack cross section in the cracked condition (state II) s with
the reinforced concrete area. This value is added to the concretes internal
forces and moments.
The crack widths are first calculated in the direction of the reinforcement!
If the crack direction is not perpendicular to the reinforcement, the crack
distance and the crack width are modified according to EN 1992II 7.3.4(4).
For nonreinforced elements it is only possible to calculate one crack direction, but the crack width can not be established. The the average strain is
plotted as crack width.
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The coefficient describing the connection properties is to be defined in AQUASTEE. The factor for the influence of the load period is input in ASELC.
For ultimate limit state the calculation is done according to Heft 525, if DIN 10451, DIN FB 102 or EN 199211 is set.
Shear force
The shear stresses for the concrete law are not calculated for each layer, as is
the case for the plastic yield criteria of STEEL, instead a simple shear limitation
of the shear force is set with an assumed shear stress in the cracked condition
(state II) of
= q/ z = q/ (0.8 h)
(2.45)
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perposition of the load cases and a reinforced concrete design calculation of the
linear internal forces and moments. BEMESS will store the required reinforcement dimensions under the design case number 1 (see BEMESSCTRLLCR).
Subsequently a state load case has to be put together for the nonlinear analysis.
For the calculation of longterm deformations the load case components consist
of self weight and a portion of the imposed load. A linear analysis of this load
case is made, which is needed as a comparative reference later on. Now the
nonlinear analysis of this load case, under a different load case number and
with a predefined reinforcement, is calculated (design parameter from BEMESSPARA and input for ASEREIQ).
The convergence of this nonlinear analysis needs to be checked. The program
finds a stable solution for the case where the energy remains the same (Energy
convergence). Varying residual forces might occur due to inadequate convergence in the normal force directions. These are generally not of importance, but
should be checked with WinGRAF...nodes...residual forces.
The first load case of the nonlinear analysis is usually calculated by excluding
creep and shrinkage. Subsequently another nonlinear calculation is made, including creep and shrinkage, under a different load case number. This is done
so that the different effects can be compared and evaluated. It is also advisable
to generate several calculations where the concrete stiffness FCTK is altered,
due to the fact that this parameter has a significant impact on the entire analysis.
The entire analysis should then be verified with the following load case results:
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The following rules apply for the concrete cover, the steel bar diameters and
the reinforcement directions:
Concrete cover: Distance to the centroid of the reinforcement:
Is taken over from the design parameters (BEMESSPARA or SSD)
or:
from a SOFiPLUS definition from the database
or used as a default of 60 mm
Steel bar diameter: Same procedure as the centroid distance
default 10 mm
Reinforcement directions:
They are:
taken over at first from the design parameters
(BEMESSPARA or SSD)
possible overwrote with a SOFiPLUS definition.
For the case where BEMESS results are taken over and
no
directions have been defined by SOFiPLUS:
Then the directions of BEMESS are used
Otherwise:
The reinforcement direction from SOFiPLUS is used. The
smallest angle deviation is added to already defined
directions, for reinforcements from BEMESS.
0 and 90 degree steel is assumed for the case where
nothing has been defined.
2.12.4
Enhanced computation on singular support points in the material nonlinear concrete analysis (SYST NMAT YES):
Following problem exists: Such singular supports caused singular forces that
could not be carried in the concrete nonlinear material model, especially in
combination with singular rotational constraints.
At punching nodes from BEMESS now a first singular support or connection
force (and bending moment) will be distributed on neighbouring nodes inside the
column perimeter to simulate a constant distributed support pressure. Thus the
feature only works after a BEMESS ultimate design with PUNC YES or PUNC
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CHEK! The support force of the centre is distributed via an internal coupling ring
around the centre node and elastic springs to further nodes inside the column
area.
The processing is documented in the statistic print out "rounding singular punching nodes". It can be switched off with CTRL CONC V7 0. It only works on
BEMESS punching nodes but also if they come from beam connections in a 3D
analysis. It also converts singular connection bending moments in a triangular
connection pressure. The effect can be studied well by comparing a run with
CTRL CONC V7 0 and a run with CTRL CONC V7 1.
Especially at fine discretized punching points a rotational constraints will be analyzed more realistic (stronger). On such points the singular support moment
caused a strong singular curvature in the fine mesh and thus a lower constraint.
In a material linear analysis this feature is switched off by default, but can be
enforced with CTRL CONC V7 1.
2.12.5
Graphical Representation
The graphical output of the results over the thickness of the QUAD elements is
another side effect of the consistent saving of the results in all the layers. The
ANIMATOR can be used for the visualization of the results (choose a loadcase
and double klick an element). The following picture shows the stresses in a
single QUAD element. The element is a sandwich element, where the soft inner
layer is covered by two harder toplayers.
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The next picture shows the nonlinear stresses in a concrete arched shell. Here
the cracks can be seen in the tensile zone. The thin lines are the stresses in the
reinforcement layers. The significant numerical values, e.g. the maximum steel
stress, are output in addition in the dialogue box.
Example tunnel shell quads_on_fire_2.dat
The visualization of the nonlinear results from the steel and concrete law is still
possible with WinGRAF, e.g. the visualization of the crack distribution at the
underside of a plate, like in example of the reinforced concrete slab in cracked
condition.
Numerical output of the Results
The entire nonlinear results, like the crack widths or stresses in the cracked
condition (state II), can only be released numerically in the ASE calculation. For
this the ECHO FORC record is used.
Statistics of Nonlinear Effects
The available nonlinear effects are logged at the end of a nonlinear calculation
in ASE in STATISTIC NONLINEAR EFFEKTS
2.12.6
Miscellaneous Information
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All these three problems lead to a point where the load can not be compensated
anymore, due to an increase in strain. So the product of loadstrain = energy will
increase constantly.
This can only be resolved by altering the system:
increase reinforcement
adjust the dimensions
decrease the load (try a lower load step)
If the program does not reach a residual force equilibrium, even if the energy
converges (the energy seems to remain close to the limiting value), then
generally it could be attributed to the following reason: The program does not
reach equilibrium in the normal direction of the plate  small changes in the
strain plane generate large normal forces. Although this phenomena is usually
insignificant for plate calculations and only has a local influence on the result.
This becomes apparent when a check is performed on the residual forces
(WinGRAF...nodes...residual forces).
Often a damping of the iteration is successful with SYST...FMAX 0.90 (FMAX
smaller than 1.0 or FMAX 1.10).
If no convergence is found, the intermediate results of the iterations are saved
with the load case numbers from 90001. They can be checked in the ANIMATOR
with displacements and in WinGRAF with residual forces in order to find out the
cause of the lacked convergence. With ECHO RESI 7 this can be enforced also
for a convergent run.
Often the convergence can be improved by the lowering of the concrete tension
stiffness e.g. to 0.5 N/mm2 . This is because the negative stiffness, on the decreasing curve of the concrete stressstrain curve, is not that big and it can be
equilibrated by the positive stiffness of the reinforcement including the tension stiffening. On the other hand it is possible that a bigger concrete tension stiffness
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For nonlinear material calculations it often happens that this automatic method
does not reach adequate equilibrium, due to a lack in normal force convergence,
even if the bearing load has not been reached yet. This can be overcome by entering a negative input for STEP under the record ULTI. Now the load is continuously increased, even if no convergence is reached after every individual load
step. The user has to be assessed then the systems bearing capacity according
to the energy convergence, the remaining residual forces and the load deflection curve. Alternatively the procedure could gain stability through the dynamic
calculation.
2.13
2.13.1
Overview
The membrane element implemented in ASE can be used only for calculations
with large deformations with SYST ... PROB TH3. It is activated with the material input AQUA NMAT MEMB or with an input in SOFiMSHA...QUAD...NRA=2
(QUAD only with membrane action). The program configuration levels ASE13
are necessary for the material nonlinear element and ASE4 for compression
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failure.
Properties
The membrane element described here is implemented in the FE program ASE
of the SOFiSTiK AG. It has following properties:
The membrane element processes only membrane internal forces and moments (NX, NY, NXY).
It bears large twists and transmits the membrane forces from the twist into
the right direction (here forces are available perpendicular to the thought
element centre area).
The stiffness of the membrane element consists of the normal strain stiffness
in the element plane and of a initial stress stiffness from the prestress of the
element.
K
K0 + Ks
(2.46)
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P2
2 + 2
2 + 2
(2.47)
Stressstrain relation:
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1
( )
E
E ( )
E ( )
1
E ( )
(2.48)
257
E ( ) = E
1
+ E1:1
p
2
1
p
+ E1:1
2
(2.49)
(2.50)
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Figure 2.26: A boundary cable left with small, right with large prestress
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The strain stiffness disappears here in the mathematical model. The equilibrium
results only from the threedimensional equilibrium of the isotropic stresses. The
stiffness of the membrane results to:
K
= K
(2.51)
The stiffness keeps the membrane in its form perpendicularly to the membrane
area. Thought points are freely movable in the plane of the membrane area. For
the genuine soap skin the phenomenon is visible at the blurring of the points
(bubbles) on the skin surface.
The in all directions constant prestress is input in ASE with the record GRP ...
PREX,PREY (acts on all element types, also on cables, beams ...).
Constant orthotropic prestress
The direction of effective span is often dominating in one direction for rectangular
membrane areas. Then it is desired to set a larger prestress in this direction than
perpendicularly to it. Nevertheless the prestress is of the same size in all points,
if also orthotropically.
Figure 2.28: Orthotropic prestress  in longitudinal direction larger than in transverse direction
The orthotropic constant prestress is input in ASE either with the record GRP
... PREX,PREY in local element direction or with the record HIGH with a high
reference point distance > 999 m in global direction.
Orthotropic high reference point prestress
If genuine high reference points are available for membranes, the orthotropic
prestress is often desired with a fixed ratio of tangential/radial prestress in order
to avoid a large tying up of the membrane at the high reference point. A radial
stress which increases to the high reference point is necessary for that.
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A such axisymmetric stress state of the high reference point is generated with
HIGH. The ratio of the tangential to the radial prestress is input with the item
PTPR. In dependence on PTPR the stress increases much or not so much to
the high reference point.
Example of a high refence point at X = 5.0 m, Y = 0.0 m:
HIGH X 5.0 Y 0.0 PR1 20 PTPR 0.4 produces:
sigr in distance of 1m
= 20.00 kN/m
sigt in distance of 1m
20*1/10*exp(0.4*ln(10))
5.02 kN/m
As a default an input for a high reference point has an effect for all QUAD elements, also for elements which are not a membrane. For mixed systems the
prestress is allocated therefore with NOG to the corresponding group. It is also
possible to input some high reference points per group. The program generates
then the average value from the inputs in each element in dependence on the
distance to the different high reference points. In the following example there are
four high points and one low point in a membrane area. The tangential part PTPR may not be too large for the high reference points, because the membrane
constricts itself and tears off. The factor PTPR is input therefore different for the
five high reference points in this example.
Figure 2.29: Orthotropic high reference point prestress with some high reference
points ( membran5.dat)
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If the distance is larger than 1000 m, the constant prestress is assumed with a
stress in direction to the high reference point always of PR1 and a stress perpendicularly to it always of PTPRPR1 and therefore without radial reduction.
The advantage of this input is the simple definition of skewed prestress independently on the direction of the local element coordinate systems! The stress
in the QUAD elements results from the global directions!
Elastic skin
A membrane can be defined from the beginning with the real stiffness and can
be hoisted from the plane initial system at the high reference points or at the
boundary cables. It results then large stresses in direction to the high reference
points in dependence on the material properties. They can be scaled, however,
by using this state with the group factors FACL+FACS. The use of a elastic skin
formfinding is described in chapter Unstable Membrane Forms.
Input of the Prestress for Different Groups
Definition in different groups
For membrane analyses the system has to be got already in the first step an
information about a prestress in the elements, because otherwise the system
is unstable  the stiffness is zero perpendicularly to the membrane without prestress! A load prestress is still not considered for the system stiffness. The
prestress has to be input therefore with GRP or HIGH.
The different elements of the structure like:
membrane areas
boundary cables
structural cables
pylones and other beams
massive support elements (concrete walls ...)
are defined in different groups and can get thus different prestresses from GRP
and HIGH.
If different radii in boundary cables should be kept exactly (formfinding also for
boundary cables), then also the boundary cables should be defined in different groups. If the boundary radii were already input graphically (is absolutely
recommended), it is possible to refrain the exact input of the boundary cable
prestress, because the boundary cable force results from the radius and the
membrane prestress during the formfinding.
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cable 2
cable 1
cable 3
2.13.3
Formfinding
Definition of a threedimensional initial system with at first plane partial areas: The boundary points of the structure are input threedimensionally. The
remaining areas are defined e.g. as folded structure. The program takes
over the formfinding of the inner area.
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The membrane prestress is defined isotropic with GRP ... SIGX SIGY in kN/m
during the formfinding step. Because the strains should not lead to stress modifications due to the formfinding, the element stiffness is set almost to 0: GRP
FACS=1E10. The QUAD elements with the material number 1 are defined as
membrane elements ( AQUA NMAT 1 MEMB). ASE input:
PROG ASE
HEAD Formfinding for Threedimensional Initial Systems
SYST PROB TH3 $ for geomatrical nonlinear iterations $
GRP 0 FACS 1E10 PREX 10 PREY 10 $ prestress definition 10 kN/m $
LC 1 TITL Formfinding
$ formfinding without further load $
END
A load case with real 1.0times stiffness should be follow after each formfinding load case for the check of the formfinding in order to guarantee that possible
constraints do not lead to impermissible differences during formfinding (see constraints during formfinding CTRL FIXZ 1).
PROG ASE
HEAD Compensation of Possible Residual Forces
SYST PROB TH3 PLC 1
$ uses the primary load case 1 $
GRP 0 FACS 1 $ elemets with full stiffness, stresses $
LC 2
$ are used from load case 1 (see record GRP) $
END
The iterations are necessary due to the effects from thirdorder theory. The
vertical force parts (sinus() 6= ) change due to the large displacements. In
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addition the element geometries change also in part considerably. The first ASE
calculations ends successfully after 9 iterations:
Iteration 1 Residual 1.889
Update nonlinear stiffness
Iteration 2 Residual 0.239
Iteration 3 Residual 0.222
Update nonlinear stiffness
Iteration 4 Residual 0.134
Iteration 5 Residual 0.017
Iteration 6 Residual 0.008
Update nonlinear stiffness
Iteration 7 Residual 0.003
The convergence has to be checked by the user. Indeed the programs prints a
warning in the case of inadequate convergence, but it saves the results nevertheless.
The result of the formfinding of load case 1 is shown in the following picture. The
load case 2 does not deliver any modifications. The check of the formfinding
does not show disturbances.
For orthotropic prestress other forms which are all free form areas result in dependence on the prestress condition:
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Figure 2.33: Vlong/Vlat=1:5 Vlong/Vlat=1:2 orthotropic prestress threedimensional initial system angle
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Figure 2.34: Stand roofing  initial system plane left and angular picture right
Group classification:
group 1:
membrane
group 2:
expected radius = 16 m
group 3:
expected radius = 46 m
Here the cable radius is preset instead of the cable force. The membrane prestress should have 10 kN/m in x direction, however, only 5 kN/m in y direction!
Thus a first estimated cable force of P = n r with a membrane force n=10 kN/m
perpendicular to the cable results (group 2: N = 16m 10 kN/m = 160 kN).
Because the cable radius is not to be modified significantly, the cable elements
are considered with their normal stiffness (GRP ... FACS 1.0) during the calculation. A cable force modification is possible thereby. Here it is important, that
the radius of the input is kept approximately in the final result (specification of
the architect).
Otherwise the membrane should be kept the stress. The membrane stiffness is
set therefore as usual with GRP ... FACS 1E10:
PROG
HEAD
CTRL
SYST
GRP
GRP
GRP
LC 1
END
ASE
Formfinding
CABL 0
$ without inner cable
PROB TH3
1
FACS 1E10 PREX 10 PREY 5
2
FACS 1
PREX 160
$
3
FACS 1
PREX 460
$
DLZ 1 TITL Formfinding with DL
The dead load is used simultaneously. The form is searched therefore for the
loading prestress + dead load. Only the elimination of possible constraint forces
is done again in a following calculation in load case 2:
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PROG ASE
HEAD Compensation of Possible Residual Forces with FACS=1.0
SYST PROB TH3 PLC 1
$ uses primary load case 1 $
GRP  FACS 1 $ elements now with full stiffness, stresses $
LC 2 DLZ 1 TITL end of formfinding FACS=1.0
END
Because the displacement picture is not different for load case1 and 2, only the
final result of load case 2 is shown here:
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or r = P / n = 8 kN / 2 kN/m = 4 m
Figure 2.37: Patio  left plane initial system  right result of the formfinding
269
PROG ASE
HEAD Input of highe reference point
SYST PROB TH3
GRP
0
FACS 1E10 $ membrane $
HIGH 0 0 PR1 10 PTPR 0.1
LC 1 DLZ 1 TITL Formfinding
LCC ... copy nodal displacement from SOFILOAD  see input file ase.
dat..membranes \sofExampleFile{ase}[english/membranes]{high\_point.
dat}[]
END
HEAD Compensation with FACS=1.0
SYST PROB TH3 PLF 1
GRP
FACS 1.0 $ membrane $
LC 2 DLZ 1 TITL Compensation with FACS=1.0
END
Figure 2.38: Angular picture: plane initial system  result of the formfinding principle membrane force
The formfinding which begins with a plane initial mesh is to be seen also very
well for another example with four high points and one low point. The system is
here also generated very fast in the plane by copying the high reference point
macro (example file membran5.dat).
Mesh Control
It exists the danger in the formfinding step, that the nodal points become blurred
in the membrane plane. In order to avoid that, intern disc stiffnesses are generated with the socalled mesh control during formfinding.
If this automatic mesh control does not function, further variants can be activated
with the manual control CTRL ... FIXZ:
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Figure 2.39: Possible displacements of membrane nodes  constraints are generated perpendicularly to the drawn vectors at FIXZ=2
The automatic fixation of the nodes in the membrane plane is only used for the
formfinding QUAD elements. A formfinding is assumed, if the stiffness factor
of all QUAD elements which adjoin to a node is smaller than 0.5 (e.g. GRP ...
FACS=1.E10). If other static elements (e.g. QUAD) exists with full stiffness or
bending beams are available at a node, then no fixation is done at this node.
After end of the formfinding (e.g. for calculation of wind load cases) the membrane is used with full stiffness GRP ... FACS=1.0 and no fixation of the nodes
is done in the membrane plane.
Possible variants:
CTRL FIXZ=1
CTRL FIXZ=2
CTRL FIXZ=3
CTRL FIXZ=4
CTRL FIXZ=5
CTRL FIXZ=4
or 5
cable radii
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tion to the formfinding system. Without further control, however, the ANIMATOR
would swing between the input system and the system deformed by the wind.
In addition a new selection of the local coordinate system of the membrane elements is sometimes reasonable, if e.g. a fibre direction of the cloth should be
defined from the high reference point.
A function SYST ... STOR is therefore available in ASE. With this function the
coordinates and the local coordinate systems of the elements can be generated newly by using the deformations of a load case PLC. Displacements of the
load cases which put on that are only output as difference displacements to this
updated system.
Following literals are indicated in this case for STOR:
STOR YES
The position of the new local coordinate system of the QUAD elements
results from the strains of the primary load case PLC.
STOR NEW, XX, YY, ZZ, NEGX, NEGY, NEGZ
The local coordinate systems are calculated newly from the new
coordinates.
see manual SOFiMSHA record QUAD  KR
Example simple_angle.dat
The local coordinate systems and the stresses of the load case 2 are printed as
follows in the initial system:
Figure 2.40: Coordinate system and representation of the internal forces and moments at the initial system
the same representation is printed considerably more beautifully. The undeformed (!) structure of the updated system is represented now:
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Figure 2.41: Representation of the coordinate system and the internal forces and
moments at the updated system
With STOR YES the internal forces and moments of the primary load case can
be used and represented furthermore, because the internal forces and moments
refer to the new coordinate system.
With STOR NEW,XX ... NEGZ the internal forces and moments do not match
the new coordinate system and they are deleted during an ASE calculation with
SYST ... STOR NEW...NEGZ.
The displacements of the primary load case are deleted in any case, because
they are included now in the geometry  in the new coordinates.
The current database can be saved with SYST ... STOR before an update, e.g.
with
+sys copy $(project).cdb sichxyz.cdb.
Formfinding with Loading
The dead load of the construction was input during formfinding already in the
example of the stand roofing. The found form lies then a little deeper as the
pure membrane form without dead load. The effect does not strike for a small
dead load. Also the boundary cable is very light.
It is also possible to search deliberately a form with consideration of an outside
loading, e.g. with constant internal pressure.
An internal pressure of 2 kN/m2 is used during the formfinding in the example
simple_angle.dat. The membrane prestress is selected with 2 kN/m2 . The
formfinding is done now in several steps in order to consider the new orientation
of the load area see following chapter.
PROG ASE
HEAD New formfinding with additional internal pressure2 KN/m2
SYST PROB TH3
GRP 0 FCKS 1E10 PREX 2 PREY 2 $ membrane 2 KN/m $
LC 11 TITL Formfinding internal pressure 1
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The membrane eigenstiffness is switched off again in the formfinding load cases
11+12 in order to prevent stress modifications in the membrane force due to
strains. The load case 12 shows following deformation picture:
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Figure 2.43: load case 11 load case 12 Angle with internal pressure
Because the local coordinate systems are directed inwards, the internal pressure was input negatively.
The lower picture shows the formfinding of a compressed air tennis hall beginning with a plane mesh. The calculation as ideal soap skin results here in a
curios corner generation. Real tennis halls leave mostly the ideal soap skin form
for the benefit of a better space utilization in the corner with the disadvantage of
an orthotrop stress distribution with disturbance areas in the corner.
Figure 2.44: Tennis hall: pumping up of a soap skin with plane initial system tennis.dat
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Static Analysis
In general the formfinding is only a first step during the calculation of membrane
structures. The loading wind and snow which is essentially for the design of
the building structure must be carried by the system which is determined during
formfinding. The snow load can be defined mostly very simple. The wind load,
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however, depends on the height, position and direction of the single element.
Generation of the Wind Load
If the possibilities for the input of the wind load are not sufficient in
SOFiMSHA, the wind load can be defined also as block load: example
membrane_compression.dat . With a little more expenditure the wind load can
be input also as a function of the height in dependence on the position with angle
functions.
The output of all elements including the definition of the element centre of gravity
as well as the printout of the local z axis (normal) can be done in ASE with
ECHO ELEM 4. If the list is read into a table calculation program, it can be fast
converted into a load input by using of formulas. Then each element get its own
local loading. A system has not to be calculated using ECHO ELEM 4 in an
ASE calculation  CTRL SOLV 0 can be input here. The output values refer to
the system which was displaced possibly with the primary load case SYST ...
PLC. Following input generates the subsequent output:
PROG ASE
HEAD Element centre of gravitiy and normal vector for wind loading
ECHO FULL NO
ECHO ELEM 4
CTRL SOLV 0
SYST PLC 12
LC 13 DLZ 1
END
S H E L L E L E M E N T S
ELNo
XM(m)
YM(m)
ZM(m)
1 22.267
6.178
.398
2 21.832
8.165
.326
3 20.999
3.618
.633
4 19.828
1.022
.817
5 20.687
8.110
.628
6 20.635
5.709
.978
7 20.237
7.585
.902
element centre of gravity
nx
ny
nz
.342 .082 .936
.222 .264 .939
.381 .105 .919
.412 .123 .903
.251 .283 .926
.364 .069 .929
.249 .264 .932
normal vector
277
stresses.
A wind pressure from below which uses the prestress in transverse direction up
is used in the example stand roofing ( roof.dat). It would produce therefore
folds in reality. At first the system is updated in the calculation by setting up onto
formfinding load case 2:
PROG
HEAD
HEAD
SYST
END
ASE
System update for calculation of new displacements
from formfinding state LC 2
PLC 2 STOR YES
All elements with the stiffness factor 1.0 have to be input now for the following
wind loading, because strains should generate now stress modifications in the
system.
In the following picture the stress in the centre are actually only uniaxial for full
wind. The stress is omitted biaxially even in four elements:
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Figure 2.48: Membrane forces wind from below   rigth: in initial system
EY
MUE
shear modulus
1
=
y 1 2
y
E
0
Ey
G (1 2 )
(2.52)
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The tangential prestress can not be chosen in an any large way already in the
simple example membhoch.dat. If the tangential prestress is input in record
HIGH about the factor 0.3, ASE prints a divergence. An ANIMATOR picture of
the load case which is nevertheless saved shows following picture:
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Due to a further lifting the neck cords up always more during the xyz compensation calculation. By looking at the picture for 4 m lifting the closing forces of
the defined membrane prestress in ring direction can be already seen at the
bottleneck. The calculation for 7 m lifting is only convergent, if the elements
get a residual stiffness with FACS 0.005. The following pictures do not show
any correct membrane stress state, but they point out at an unstable formfinding
process:
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This effect can be shown at a soap skin which should be hoisted with a small
ring. After a critical height the soap skin constricts itself and is detached suddenly.
Following process is trusted by the human eye: The stress modification due to
strains are not suppressed anymore but they are allowed. The stress in the
ring area increases due to the lifting of the inner rings. The usual picture of a
deformed soap skin (or of tights which are tensed over the initial mesh) results
thereby.
2.13.6
With the same methods formfindings can be done also for cable meshes. Discrete cable elements are defined here instead of the membrane. As for the
membrane the cable elements can be used either as elements with constant
prestress and known length or as elements with full strain stiffness and planned
initial length. Latter one is mostly desired for the simpler filling measuring of sin282
SOFiSTiK 2014
gle cables with the same length. But it leads to distortions in the grid in the plane
projection of the displaced mesh. The lower picture shows the concept design
of a footbridge which is supported on a cable mesh  it is a research paper for
the bridging of the railway station place in Braunschweig.
At first the system is patitioned in an element grid in the plane with cables of
the same length. The boundary arches are connected at first at an approximate form. In the following formfinding steps in which the corner points of the
mesh are compulsory displaced into the desired vertical position the boundary
cables were defined at first as very elastic. That means they might change their
length arbitrarily, while the inner cables were defined with normal strain stiffness,
because they should not change their position. The four cables which are generated around the inner deep points as well as single cables in the nearness are
an exception. They have to be defined also partially elastically in order to get a
sufficient lowering of the deep points and thus a double curvature of the cable
mesh. These during formfinding more elastic inner cables have to be produced
and installed therefore with a larger length. Foremost the double curvature of
a membrane or of a mesh creates, however, the possibility to carry outer loads
without larger deformations. The stability becomes thereby clearly better also
for the dynamic vibration inclination.
The pointwise loading due to the footbridge which is not shown here leads to a
further local subsidence of the cable mesh. This is, however, favourably for the
stability.
The compliance with a structure clearance for the lower street (shown in the side
view) which is necessary also during load action was decisive for the concept
design.
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2.13.7
System input:
Definition of the boundary arches with the approximate curvature radius during input
Usage of macros which are like a spider net for modelling of the high reference points
Input of a central support node at the high reference points and connection
of the surrounding membrane nodes at the structural points
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Formfinding:
Input of these elements which should keep their stress in the formfinding
with GRP ... FACS 1E10  The strains does not generate then additional
stresses.
Termination of the formfinding always with a following load case with full
stiffness GRP ... FACS=1.0, setting up onto the last load case as primary
load case
A prestress may not be input at GRP ..., because it would be added to the
primary stresses. Exception: The primary stresses are not used with GRP
... FACL=0.
GRP ... FACL=1 (default) adopts the primary stresses. So that they are
in equilibrium with the applied loads, the external loads like dead load, internal pressure or wind load have to be used again and again. Exception:
Constraint loads like support displacements, temperature or prestress loads,
because they are not external loads.
Static loading:
For problems with the convergence the loading (wind) should be used with
a small factor and then further increase of the load after setting up onto this
convergent state as primary state.
A stable system is reported, then calculate only one iteration step with CTRL
... ITER 1 and check the displacements with the ANIMATOR (first step force
density method)
Do not input the factor GRP ... FACS for the cables too small (better FACS=0.01) or calculate it with CTRL ITER 3 V2 1
If the cables are set with full stiffness in the first formfinding but the membrane elastically , iteration problems may be available  then use the cable
SOFiSTiK 2014
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stiffness with FACS 0.01. It is better set the boundary curvatures with preset
cable prestresses.
For insistent problems, mail the input file to the SOFiSTiK support.
2.13.8
Example
Special feature
tennis.dat
simple_angle.dat
high_point.dat
roof.dat
Further examples:
2.13.9
For the membrane analysis the extensions ASE1 and ASE3 are necessary additionally to the ASE basic packet, for nonlinear material analysis (compression
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2.14
For dynamic eigenvalues there are two main analysis methods available:
1. Direkt method according to Lanczos
2. Simultaneous inverse vector iteration
The method according to Lanczos is usually always the quickest one. Especially
in the case of many eigenvalues (more than 10) it is the only practical method.
The number of the required eigenvalues depends in turn on the expected excitation frequencies. The simultaneous inverse vector iteration should be used, if
the interest is limited to a few eigenvalues only or if a check of the number of
eigenvalues below a certain frequency is required (Sturm sequence).
The modal shapes are saved like regular load cases. They can be further processed as desired, and then they can be used chiefly with the program DYNA
for a dynamic analysis.
For the simultaneous vector iteration the higher eigenvalues converge much
more worse than the lower. Therefore it is reasonable, if enough memory is
available, to iterate a few more vectors than one needs. The method is, however, inappropriate for a large number of eigenvalues.
The number of iterations is predetermined by the program. If the convergence is
slow, one should switch generally to the Lanczos method instead of increasing
the number of iterations. The iteration is interrupted, if the number of the maximum iterations is reached or if the maximum eigenvalue has changed only by
the factor less than 0.00001 opposite to the previous iteration.
For the method according to Lanczos the number of the Lanczos vectors should
be selected usually twice so large as the number of the desired eigenvalues. An
iteration is not necessary in this case.
Example see ase4_eigenfrequencies.dat
2.15
Buckling Eigenvalues
For buckling eigenvalues only the default method with EIGE ... BUCL should be
used:
The Pardiso Solver CTRL SOLV 4 should not be used here as he has problems
with determinants going to 0.0. The default solver CTRL SOLV 3 is better for
buckling eigenvalues.
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If too many or only negative eigenvalues aer found you can choose
an automatic eigenvalue shift with EIGE...LMIN AUTO. Example see
buckling_eigenvalue_shift.dat
Simple slab buckling see ase12_buckling_slab.dat
2.16
Masses
For dynamis eigenvalues only for beams consistent mass matrix are used  vgl.
CTRL MCON. All other elements use a diagonal mass matrix (lumped mass
matrix). See also program DYNA.
In a time step analysis all elements use a diagonal mass matrix .
The mass center is printed in the output. The complete calculated mass vector
including the dead weight can be output with ECHO LOAD EXTR.
A conversion of loads to masses can occur with the record MASS LC.
Example see ase4_eigenfrequencies.dat
In earthquake analysis: a1_dynamic_overview.dat
2.17
Damping Elements
2.18
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Literature  ASE
Literature
[1] K.J. Bathe and E.N. Dvorkin. A FourNode Plate Bending Element Based on Mindlin/Reissner Plate Theory and a Mixed Interpolation. Int.Journal.f.Numerical Meth. Engineering Vol.21 367383, 1985.
[2] J. Bellmann.
Vorgespannte schiefwinklige Plattenbalkenbrcke.
SOFiSTiK Seminar, 1994.
7.
[3] J. Bellmann and J. Rtzer. Beispiele zur Bemessung nach DIN 10451,
Mllbunkerwand. DBV: Band2: Ingenieurbau Beispiel 15, 2003.
[4] M.A. Crisfield. A Quadratic Mindlin Element Using Shear Constraints. Computers & Structures, Vol. 18, 833852, 1984.
[5] Timothy A. Davis. Ldl: a consise sparse cholesky factorization package.
http://www.cise.ufl.edu/research/sparse/ldl, 20032012.
[6] P.H. Feenstra and R. De Borst. Aspects of robust computational modeling
for plain and reinforced concrete. Heron Volume 38 No.4, 1993.
[7] T.J.R. Hughes and E. Hinton. Finite Elements for Plate and Shell Structures.
Pineridge Press International, Swansea, 1986.
[8] T.J.R. Hughes and T.E. Tezduyar. Finite Elements Based Upon Mindlin
Plate Theory With Particular Reference to the FourNode Bilinear Isoparametric Element. Journal of Applied Mechanics, 48/3, 1981.
[9] C. Katz. Berechnung von allgemeinen Pfahlwerken. Bauingenieur 61 563568, 1986.
[10] C. Katz. Neues zu Plattenbalken. 7. SOFiSTiK Seminar, 1994.
[11] C. Katz and J. Stieda. Praktische FEBerechnungen mit Plattenbalken.
Bauinformatik 1, 1992.
[12] P. Schiessel. Grundlagen der Neuregelung zur Beschrnkung der Rissbreite. Heft 400 DAfStb, 1994.
[13] W. Schneider. Zustand II Berechnungen in der Praxis (Beitrag). SOFiSTiK
Seminar Leipzig, 2003.
[14] Stempniewski and Eibl. Finite Elemente im Stahlbeton. Betonkalender
1993Teil 1 S. 249., 1993.
[15] R.L. Taylor, P.J. Beresford, and E.L. Wilson. A NonConforming Element for
Stress Analysis. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering, Vol. 10:12111219, 1976.
SOFiSTiK 2014
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ASE  Literature
[18] W. Wunderlich, G. Kiener, and W. Ostermann. Modellierung und Berechnung von Deckenplatten mit Unterzgen. Bauingenieur, 1994.
[19] xx. mit Berichtigung 1, Juli 2002 z.B. in [2]. DIN 10451 Ausgabe Juli 2001,
2002.
[20] xx. Erluterungen zu DIN 10451. Heft 525 DAfStb September, 2003.
[21] O.C. Zienkiewicz. Methode der finiten Elemente, 2.Auflage. Hanser Verlag
Mnchen, 1984.
[22] K. Zilch and A. Rogge. Bemessung von Stahlbeton und Spannbetonbauteilen im Brcken und Hochbau. Betonkalender 2, 2004.
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3
3.1
Input Description
Input Language
The input is made in the CADINP language (see general manual SOFiSTiK:
Basics).
Three categories of units are distinguished:
mm
[mm]
[mm] 1011
Implicit unit. Implicit units are categorised semantically and denoted by a corresponding identity number (shown in green). Valid categories referring to the unit length are, for example, geodetic
elevation, section length and thickness. The default unit for each
category is defined by the currently active (design code specific) unit set. This input default can be overridden as described above.
The specified unit in square brackets corresponds to the default for
unit set 5 (Eurocodes, NORM UNIT 5).
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3.2
Input Records
The statical system is input with a graphic input program or with the program
SOFIMSHA/SOFIMSHC. Material values can be modified, however, in ASE.
The input is divided into blocks which are terminated with an END record. A
particular system or load case can be analysed within each block. The program
ends, if an empty block (END/END) is found.
The following records are defined:
Record
Items
CTRL
OPT
VAL
SYST
TYPE
PROB
ITER
TOL
FMAX
FMIN
EMIN
PLC
FACV
NMAT
STOR
CHAM
DT
INT
ALF
DEL
THE
LCST
FAK1
FAKE
DFAK
PRO
DL
PRIM
STEP
EMAX
SELE
ULTI
STEP
DMIN
PLOT
LC
TO
NNO
DIRE
TYPE
CREP
NCRE
RO
RH
TEMP
BEAM
GRP
NO
VAL
FACS
PLC
GAM
SIGN
SIGH
FACL
FACD
FACP
FACT
HW
GAMA
RADA
RADB
MODD
CS
PREX
PREY
PHI
EPS
RELZ
PHIF
PHIS
T1
HING
FACB
CSDL
MNO
NO
STEA
QUEA
QUEX
QUEY
ALP0
ULUS
QEMX
EXPO
GEOM
ELEM
ETYP
NO
FACS
FACL
LEN0
ETYP
NO
L0
TYPE
HIGH
XM
YM
ZM
NX
NY
NZ
PR1
PTPR
NOG
*PSEL
FROM
TO
INC
REDP
REDA
REDT
TBEA
NC
REIQ
LCB
FACT
STEX
NAME
GRP2
LCRS
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Record
Items
OBLI
SX
SY
SZ
LC
FACV
VMAX
DIRE
MNO
V0
P0
PLC
STOR
SLIP
NOSL
NOG
NOEL
VOLU
NO
GRP
POSI
DV
DT
MASS
MOVS
NO
TYPE
FROM
TO
INC
L0
LAUN
GRP
DX
DY
DZ
XM
YM
SFIX
LC
PLC
LC
NO
FACT
DLX
DLY
DLZ
BET2
TITL
TYPE
GAMU
GAMF
PSI0
PSI1
PSI2
PS1S
CRI1
CRI2
CRI3
NO
T1
T2
NOG
FACT
EMOD
RELA
TEMP
EXPO
LAG
LCNO
FACT
TYPE
TOL
PROJ
PEXT
NOG
NOEL
P0
SIDE
BETA
MUE
SS
LCC
NO
FACT
NOG
NFRO
NTO
NINC
ULTI
PLC
EIGE
NEIG
ETYP
NITE
MITE
LMIN
SAVE
LC
MASS
NO
MX
MY
MZ
MXX
MYY
MZZ
V0
NO
VX
VY
VZ
REIN
MOD
RMOD
LCR
ZGRP
SFAC
P6
P7
P8
P9
P10
P11
P12
TITL
STAT
KSV
KSB
AM1
AM2
AM3
AM4
AMAX
SC1
SC2
SS1
SS2
C1
C2
S1
S2
Z1
Z2
SMOD
TSV
MSCD
KTAU
TTOL
TANA
TANB
SCL
KMOD
KSV
KSB
KMIN
KMAX
ALPH
FMAX
CRAC
CW
BB
HMIN
HMAX
CW
CHKC
CHKT
CHKS
FAT
SIGS
TANS
TANC
DUMP
OPT
VAL
DESI
NSTR
ECHO
The record PSEL is only available in the ASE version which was expanded by
the pile element.
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The records HEAD, END and PAGE are described in the general manual
SOFiSTiK: Basics.
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3.3
CTRL
Item
Description
Unit
Default
OPT
Control option
LT
SOLV
Iteration method
QTYP
Formulation of QUAD+TENDON
elements
AFIX
Handling of movable degrees of
freedom
MSTE Number of the RungeKutta steps
CABL Cable handling for geometrically
nonlinear calculation
NLAY Parameters for QUAD layers
FRIC
PLAB
RMAP Returnmapping
UNRE BEAM prestress from the program TENDON
SFIX
Linearization of beam calculation
according to OeNORM B4702
INPL
Inplane stiffnesses
CONC Concrete in cracked condition
Table continued on next page.
SOFiSTiK 2014
35
Item
Description
Unit
Default
STEA
Formfinding
cablestayed
bridges: normal force stiffness
component of beams
QUEA Formfinding
cablestayed
bridges: normal force stiffness
component of QUAD elements
DIFF
Saving of the difference internal
forces between a load case and
the primary load case
BRIC Control of BRIC elements
CANT
Primary displacements
SOFT
V2
V3
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ITER
Crisfield method
VAL 1
Linesearch method
VAL +2
VAL 3
1+2
Default:
 for PROB NONL: VAL 0 = Crisfield method
 for PROB NONL and nonlinear springs:
VAL 3
 for PROB TH3:
VAL 3 = Linesearch with tang. stiffness
V2 1
V2 x
V4 x
V5 x
V6 0
V6 1
damping method 1
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V6 2
QTYP
standard element
VAL 1
nonconforming formulation
V2 1
AFIX
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Degrees of freedom which are movable exactly get announced by an error message. The calculation is interrupted.
Default: 1
MSTE
CABL
Cable handling
0
Default: 2
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39
PLAB
Tbeam philosophy
The plate components are deducted automatically during the stiffness
calculation for beams inside plates with cross section widths defined
in the program AQUA. The dead load is adjusted to avoid double dead
load. The components of the plate internal forces are added then to
the results of the beam internal forces for a subsequent dimensioning.
Restrictions:
Processing only for cross sections with defined cross section outline (SREC,SECT...) which were defined with the program AQUA.
Also composite sections are allowed. The acting width is taken
from the concrete parts only.
Details:
Control:
+1
+2
+4
+8
Default: 7 = My + Vz + N
The processing is cancelled with CTRL PLAB 0
V2: With Ctrl PLAB V2 1 also the next quad node rigth and left
is used to evaluate the added quad forces (to take into account the
quad force distribution more acccurate). With Ctrl PLAB V2 0 only
the central node is used.
Default: 1
Output:
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A statistic of the plate components follows after the beam internal forces and moments. The maximum plate components are
compared with the maximum beam internal forces.
Number of layers
V2 +1
V2 +2
V2 +3
extreme refinement on +z
V4 1
V5 1
V9
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For point supported slabs the allowable shear stress is exceeded often in supportnear elements. It results in shear plastification. For
this shear plastification the punching information of BEMESS is taken into account in a nonlinear slab analysis. At punching node, the
shear plasticity check will be switched off inside an radius of columnedge+hm. Thus an increase of FRIC to for example 9.9 N/mm2 for
elimination of these sometimes unwanted shear plastification effects
is only necessary in special cases.
Default: 2.40 [ N/mm2 ]
V2
final stress.
With CTRL FRIC 3.00 V2 1.40 a descending final max.
allowable shear stress (here 1.40 N/mm2) can be defined.
The stiffness in the descending part is equal to the increasing one.
FORM
Yield process
Control of the thickness reduction for large deformations
1
fixes generally all nodes in global XY = formfinding in global Z can be used also for a cable nets
fixes the local z coordinate in the first iteration step, in further steps the transverse direction (as for FIXZ 2)
no such effects
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Default: 1
WARP
Warping torsion
1
Default: 0
STII
RMAP
ReturnMapping BRIC
For BRIC yield rules the Returnmapping method is preset (default
CTRL RMAP 1). With CTRL RMAP 0 it is possible to change to
the method with plastic displacement increments. With CTRL RMAP
2 the material routines can be activated from the program TALPA
for nonlinear BRIC volume elements (is used automatically). The
Returnmapping method has particularly in the area of tensile fracture zone a definite better convergence behaviour.
UNRE
For the use of the BEAM prestress from the program TENDON following inputs are possible:
1
1
The static indeterminate part is calculated and stored together with the static determinate part. The beam internal
forces and moments includes both parts (= default).
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The decisive connection nodes for the beam and disk elements are
searched for the transfer of the moments around the local z axis.
The stiffnesses of the bordering QUAD elements are increased by
an inplane moment spring. Thus a pile can transmit moments around
both beam axis to the wall disks. The appropriate node numbers are
printed. The method can be switched off with CTRL INPL 0. With
CTLR INPL value it can be factorized, e.g. CTLR INPL 0.001.
CONC
V2 1
V3
V4
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es the uniaxial value in case of a transverse crack (tension stress=0). Without this bit 1 the compression strength
is reduced by the transverse tension strain (and not by
the stress). The strength reduction is limited to 75 % fc.
Please also refer to BEMESS CTRL TENS.
Bit 2 : With CTRL CONC V6 +2 the worklaw is not only
deformed in vertical direction but also in strain direction to
keep the starting E modulus constant.
Default V6=2 (=only bit 2)
V7
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STEA
With CTRL STEA the normal force stiffness component of beams can be increased. The bending stiffness remains unchangeable.
STEA can also use groupwise in GRP2 Example see
suspension_bridge_formfinding.dat
QUEA
DIFF
BRIC
+16
Default: BRIC 1
CANT
316
If new groups and new nodes are activated for instance in cantilevering construction, a primary displacement has to be determined for
these new nodes, although they were not still available in the primary
load case SYST PLC. Using complex FE cantilever parts, the parts
sometimes distorted too much. Thus the new member is attached
as a whole (block) freely of stress. This can be controlled with CTRL
CANT. Usage see program CSM Construction Stage Manager.
0
no action
SOFiSTiK 2014
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SPRI
Spring options:
+1 and +8: Consideration of the eccentricity of springs.
Coupling spring elements can account for the real distance of the nodes with an implicit KP kinematic constraint. A transverse spring
force will transfer a moment to the nodes. Without +1 and +8 the
transverse force is transported without a moment  which is mechanically not correct.
+4: direction change of coupling springs.
0
+1
+8
automatic decision:
For BRIC and inplaneQUAD connections the eccentricity
is not applied, because in that cases a smeared friction
is assumed and QUADs and BRICs cannot transfer such
bending moments. The eccentricity effect is also not applied for truss and cable connections without beam connections.
+4
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With +4 a coupling spring will always keep its direction and not work like a truss. +4 is the perfect default for
transvers free bridge bearings. If the direction of a coupling
spring does not fit to the direction of the nodal connection
vector, the spring will always keep its direction! Normally
a direction fixed spring should be defined with nodes with
the same coordinate ( distance 0).
Option V2: With CTRL SPRI V2=2 the shift of the zeropoint of the
work law curve after plastification (=hysteresis) can be switched off.
This is senseful for work law curves that shall simulate a gap. V2 not
equal 2 = with hysteresis.
Default: CTRL SPRI 8+4 V2 0
MCON
GIT
Additional reduction of nonlinear torsional stiffness for lateral buckling analysis (NSTR S1)
see example: aseaqb_4_lateral_buckl_prestress.dat
3.3.1
SOLV
Description
VAL
Unit
Default
For solving the equation systems of the FiniteElement problem, SOFiSTiK provides a number of solvers. Which solver is used best depends highly on the type
of the system and requires knowledge of relevant system parameters. Following
types are available:
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The advantage of the direct solvers is especially given in case of multiple right
hand sides, as the effort for solving them is very small compared to the triangulization of the equation system. Thus they are the first choice for any dynamic
analysis or in case of many load cases.
In order to minimize computational effort, the solvers need an optimized sequence of equation numbers. This optimization step is usually performed during
system generation. The programs SOFIMSHA/C by default always create a sequence which is suitable for the direct sparse solver (3). The solvers (1) or (2)
however require a skyline oriented numbering which may be obtained using the
option (CTRL OPTI 1) or (CTRL OPTI 2) during system generation. The correct
setting will be checked and a warning will be issued in case a correct numbering
is not available.
The iterative (CTRL SOLV 2) and the parallel sparse solver (CTRL SOLV 4) can
be run in parallel providing an additional reduction in computing time. A parallelization basically requires a license of type HISOLV. More information about
parallelization can be found in subsection 3.3.2 describing the input parameter
(CTRL CORE).
The equation solvers are selected using the parameter (CTRL SOLV). The first
value defines the type of the solver, followed by optional additional parameters.
Direct Skyline Solver (Gauss/ Cholesky)
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SOLV
VAL
Description
Unit
Default
Description
Unit
Default
V2
V3
V4
Type of preconditioning:
0
Diagonal Scaling (not recommended)
1
Incomplete Cholesky
2
Incomplete Inverse
V5
V6
The iterative solver uses a conjugate gradient method in combination with preconditioning. For the preconditioning, following variants are supported:
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Description
Unit
Default
Description
Unit
Default
This solver PARDISO uses processor optimized high performance libraries from
the Intel Math Kernel Library MKL. It usually provides the least computing times.
It does not require an a priori optimization of the equation numbers during system generation. Hence, the equation optimization in SOFiMSHA/C could also
be deactivated using (CTRL OPTI 0) in order to save memory during system
generation. On the other hand however, this solver does not allow reusing the
factorized stiffness matrix in other programs. Thus, a usage in combination with
the program ELLA is not possible.
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Further options
CTRL SOLV 0 suppresses the solution of the system. This is a useful feature to
check the effective system loads.
STEU SOLV 999 prevents a rebuild of the stiffness matrix within a load case
loop in each step.
3.3.2
CORE
Description
VAL
Unit
Default
SOFiSTiK supports parallel computing for selected equation solvers. Additionally, some programs offer parallel element processing capabilities independent
of the chosen equation solver (CTRL SOLV).
Activation of parallel computing
By default parallel computing is triggered automatically where it is feasible.
Parallel computing requires corresponding harware and operation system support. In addition, availability of an adequate SOFiSTiK license is obligatory.
Hint
Parallel computing requires availability of a HISOLV license (ISOL granule).
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respective run.
Hint
Neither option b) nor option c) state an explicit parallel computation request. The decision if a parallel computation is triggered, depends on the
actual analysis option (parallel processing must be supported for the specific task) and the availability of an adequate license. Parallel computing
can be suppressed by explitly setting the number of available threads to 1
(or 0).
CTRL SOLV
Serial
Parallel
n.a.
Iterativ
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HISOLV HISOLV
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3.4
SYST
Item
Description
Unit
Default
TYPE
Control option
LT
LT
LINE
ITER
90
TOL
Iteration tolerance
0.001
Linear analysis
LIFT
TOL8
FMAX
4.00
FMIN
0.25
EMAX
0.60
EMIN
0.40
PLC
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Item
Description
FACV
Unit
Default
LT
NO
LT
NO
Default 1.0
for buckling eigenvalue analysis:
for geometric nonlinear PLC: 1.0
otherwise for buckling: 0.0
VMAX
NMAT
NO
STOR
Geometry update
CHAM
magnification calculation
Nonlinear analyses are not possible with the basic version of program.
Further explanations to PROB:
LINE
linear analysis
= NONL + analysis according to the secondorder theory for calculation of columns and frames according to the secondorder theory
(pidelta)
Beam elements are calculated with TH2 with a iteration method in
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analog mode to STAR2 (the normal ASE iteration method with residual forces is used for TH3 or CTRL ITER 3)
TH3
= NONL + geometrically nonlinear analysis contains TH2 and additionally the effects of the geometrical system modification, e.g.
snape through, length modification for big deformations, behaviour
after buckling
On TH2TH3 Difference see Theoretical Background  Beam Element
TH3b
LIFT
Analysis of plates with corners which are displaced upwards A nonlinear analysis is started, at which also fixed supports and elastic
edges can be displaced upwards due to tension; see CTRL SOFT
Examples:
SYST PROB LINE:
Input file
ASE introduction
ase1_overview.dat
bemess6_design.dat
csm31_design.dat
Input file
a1_spring_overview.dat
ase_nstr_pld_pile_crash.dat
a1_introduction_example.dat
Bric tunneling
ase14_tunnel_3d.dat
Input file
Beam overturning
ase11_girder_overturning.dat
aseaqb_1_column_cracked.dat
Input file
ase_geo_nonl_overview.dat
Suspension bridge
suspension_bridge_formfinding.dat
Cable sag
ase5_cable_trestle.dat
ase9_quad_euler_beam.dat
ase13_shell_buckling.dat
Table continued on next page.
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Input file
webblecbuckling.dat
Quad membranes
tennis.dat
Bric buckling
bric_beul.dat
see
Work laws
Copy loads
> LCC
Mass conversion
> MASS
> KRIE
Nonlinear effects
Quad nonlinear
Membranes
> MEMB
> TRAG
Incremental launching
> TAKT
> MOVS
> STEP
Halfspace analysis
> HASE
Plot  diagrams
> PLOT
An overview over all examples can be found in TEDDY menue file  examples in
folder ASEenglish. Then look further e.g. to folder nonlinear_quad. Or you go
over the SOFiSTiK installation folder to
c:/program...sofistik/2014/ANALYSIS_30/ase.dat/english/nonlinear_quad
Further input remarks:
The value of PLC defines a global primary load case. This is used subsequently as default for the primary load case of all group inputs. Furthermore the
displacements of the primary load case are added then and only then to the displacements of the current load case, if the PLC has been defined in the SYST
input. In the case of geometrical nonlinear analysis the stiffness is calculated
for the deformed structure.
A predeformation with PLC and FACV effects the internal forces moments
only for PROB TH3, see Chapter 2: Nonlinear Analyses and Chapter
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5: example Buckling Mode Shapes in Supercritical Region. The application of a nonstressed predeformation is explained in the school example
ase9_quad_euler_beam.dat.
The stresses of the primary load case are used with GRP FACL=FACP=1. If the
loads of the primary load case are applied simultaneously, then the system is
in equilibrium and no additional displacements arise (if no changes are made in
the system).
If a primary load case with TH3 is defined for an eigenvalue determination, one
obtains the eigenfrequencies of the system under the stresses of the primary
load case (accompanying eigenvalue analysis).
With GRP FACL=FACP=0 the deformation of a load case can be defined here
as nonstressed scaled predeformation (see Chapter 5: example Buckling Mode
Shapes in Supercritical Region).
The inputs ITER to EMIN are evaluated only for nonlinear analysis. Such an
analysis is allowed only for a single load case.
Buckling eigenvalues on a deformed structure can be requested with explicit
SYST...FACV 1.0.
Explanations to the nonlinear iteration method:
Residual forces
New displacements and thus stresses are determined after every iteration step. It is checked, whether plasticising, cracks or
any other nonlinear effects have occurred at any elements. The
plasticized elements generate different nodal loads compared to
those of the linear analysis. These nodal loads which were generated by the elements are not anymore in equilibrium with the
external nodal loads (after the first iteration step). The remaining
residual forces are applied as additional loading during the next iteration step. Additional deformations and a new stress state
which in general is closer to equilibrium result. The maximum
residual force is printed for every iteration. If all residual forces
should be output, this can be controlled with the option ECHO
RESI.
Graphical control of the residual forces
If an iteration ends with residual forces, a picture of the residual
forces can be requested in the program WING with NODE SV.
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Since unbalanced residual forces are stored as supported reactions, the problem zone can be localized with that. Here the real
support areas should not be printed. Often, it is advisable to fade
out the real support areas with BOX and to draw only the interior
of the structure.
Tolerance limit of the iteration
The tolerance limit can be defined with the record SYST. Here
the reference value is the largest nodal value which is available
in the system. E.g. for a maximum nodal load of 200 kN the
tolerance limit for the residual forces is = 200 0.001 = 0.2 kN
(for TOL=0.001). In this case all loads of the system are used
including the inherent stress nodal loads of the elements.
The tolerance for nonlinear analysis can be input also absolutely
with SYST PROB NONL TOL value.
Example: With the input SYST PROB NONL TOL 0.5 the iteration is interrupted, if the maximum residual force is smaller than
the value 0.5 kN.
Iteration method
The default method for problems according to the secondorder
theory is the Linesearch method with the update of the tangential stiffness (see record CTRL). The load increment is reduced
here internally according to the available residual forces. If an
iteration step proceeds into the right direction, i.e. in the direction of an energy minimum, then a new tangential stiffness which
enhances the further iterations behaviour is generated, if necessary. Cracked elements are considered here also with a reduced
stiffness. The Crisfield method is the default (CTRL ITER 0) for
nonlinear calculations according to the firstorder theory. For
convergence problems the user should attempt also the in each
case other method (CTRL ITER 0 or CTRL ITER 1).
Variation of iteration factors
For convergence difficulties an improvement of the convergence
behaviour can be achieved often via reduction of the maximum
f value, e.g. FMAX 1.5. If the system still not converges, FMAX can be reduced until 0.7. However, many iteration steps
are needed then.
The Crisfield method which is implemented for the improvement
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In the same way dynamic eigen mode shapes with the last stable load case may
give an information about failure problems, because the critical natural vibration
shapes in the natural frequency are clearly smaller with increasing load. See
example ase9_quad_euler_beam.dat
GeometryUpdate
With SYST STOR the system which was displaced with the displacements of the
load case PLC can be stored with the updated nodal coordinates. A calculation
does not occur then.
SYST STOR=YES: The new local coordinate systems of the QUAD elements
are twisted by the rotations of the load case PLC. They, however, keep the direction defined in the input. Beam lengths are nor updated for loading .
SYST STOR=NEW: The local coordinate systems of the QUAD elements are
defined again, despite their definition in the input. Beam lengths are updated for
loading .
SYST STOR=XX,YY,ZZ and NEGX,NEGY,NEGZ: The direction of the local x
axis is preset for the new installation of the coordinate system of the elements,
cf. program SOFIMSHA/SOFIMSHC. Beam lengths are updated for loading.
STOR=NEW to STOR=NEGZ acts only to QUAD elements. The local coordinate
systems of beams are twisted generally with the PLC displacements.
Caution:
All results of the nodal displacements are extinguished during the geometry up
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date. Therefore the data base must be saved absolutely before! With the input
STOR=NEW to STOR=NEGZ all other results are extinguished too, because the
local directions are twisted. With the input STOR=YES it is possible to use the
old stresses via the record GRP, if no beam elements are available.
With SYST STOR UZ only the z displacements are corrected. For the x or y
displacements are also possible STOR UX and STOR UY.
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3.5
Item
Description
STEP
Unit
Default
DT
Time step
INT
/ LT
0.40
0.55
1.
/ LT
BET
DEL
THE
LCST
SELE
LCSM
2
DIV
ALF
The analysis of a time step of duration NVDT with direct (NewmarkWilson) integration is requested with STEP. The defaults for BET, DEL, THE correspond to
a Newmark method with numerical damping of higher frequencies for nonlinear
analysis.
Following input is possible:
BET 0.25 0.50 1.00
THE 0.70
For nonlinear dynamics we recommend: THE 0.70 or BET 0.4 0.55 1.00
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Examples to STEP
Input file
Introduction
a1_a1_dynamic_overview.dat
ase_nstr_pld_pile_crash.dat
step_nonl_concrete_girder.dat
pendulum_impact_test.dat
SEIL Impact
cable_dynamics.dat
Intelligent load
step_intelligent_load.dat
Bettung abhebend
step_intelligent_load_nonl.dat
movs_car_collision.dat
dynamic_relaxation_buckling.dat
dynamic_relaxation_air_cushion.dat
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In order to avoid large databases for the time step method the calculation can
occur only with two load cases which vary in each case. This works automatically using STEP N>1 and LCST. The results which are important for the user
can then be stored in separate storage load cases with STEP LCST ... SELE ... (bit pattern). For N>1 LFST is increased in each step (see example
a2_introduction_earthquake.dat). With STEP 0 LCST ... this feature can
also be used for normal loadcases. Following inputs are possible:
STEP 1 LCST ... SELE +1
= displacements
= support reactions
= velocities
= accelerations
= spring results
= truss+cable+boundary results
= QUAD results
= foundation results
= BRIC results
= loads
a2_introduction_earthquake.dat
Further examples for the dynamic calculations with ASE can be found in the
example folder ase.dat\english\dynamics.
With STEP...DIV a time step division can be controlled, if the nonlinear Iteration
does not achieve a necessary equilibrium:
DIV=0 
DIV=19
divide time step max. DIV times, create internal time step
division but loadcase output for the requested time steps
DIV=1119
adapt time step but store each time step. The resulting load
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3.6
HIST
Item
Description
Unit
Default
TYPE
Elementtype
LT
Elementnumber
TO
INC
stores nodal results for nodes 701750, all beam results and und Quad results
for elements 318+319.
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3.7
Item
Description
STEP
FAK1
ULTI
Unit
Default
0.005
DFAK
PRO
DL
LT
YES
PRIM
LT
YES
DMIN
The limit load iteration begins with the factor given for FAK1. Any factor which
was input in the record LC FACT is not considered in this case and it is ineffective. If the first calculation ends with a convergent iteration (notice the iteration
parameters ITER and TOL in the SYST record), a new load case is generated with a load case number increased by 1 and the load factor is increased by
DFAK.
Examples to ULTI:
Ultimate load iteration
Input file
ase9_quad_euler_beam.dat
Slab buckling
ase12_buckling_slab.dat
Shell buckling
ase13_shell_buckling.dat
nonlinear_quad_concrete_beam.dat
Table continued on next page.
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Input file
push_over_quad_beam_frame.dat
push_over_quad_deformation_controlled.dat
If a primary load case has been defined in SYST PLC or GRP PLC the first
calculation makes already use of this given primary load case.
If a load should not be increased during the limit load iteration, this can be requested via the function Copy Loads with ULTI=NO in the record LCC.
With PRIM YES the new load case makes use of the stable first load case. With
PRIM NO the analysis starts as in the first load case (PLC according to SYST
PLC or GRP PLC).
If the second load case ends with convergence too, the last step of the load
factor (DFAK) is multiplied by the progression PRO and used as new step. The
third load case obtains then the load factor FAK1 + DFAK + DFAKPRO and so
on.
The default values FAK1=1, DFAK=1 and PRO=2 result in the following load
steps:
Load case 1
Factor 1.00
Load case 2
Factor 2.00
Load case 3
Factor 4.00
Load case 4
Factor 8.00
Load case 5
Factor 16.00
Load deformation curves can be calculated with FAK1=1, DFAK=1 and PRO=1
(can be represented graphically, see example ase9_quad_euler_beam.dat):
Load case 1
Factor 1.00
Load case 2
Factor 2.00
Load case 3
Factor 3.00
Load case 4
Factor 4.00
Load case 5
Factor 5.00
If an iteration is divergent, i.e. equilibrium could not be reached, the last load
step is halved, if no input occurred for DMIN. With DMIN local stability problems
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may be eliminated. The user has to convince himself of the accuracy of the final
solution because also nonconvergent results may be saved!
The limit load iteration ends, if FAKE or the maximum number STEP are
reached. For negative FAKE also if the acceracy is reached. Input 0.02 =
2% (when the two last factors differ less than 2%).
If a new stable primary load case is used, the program generates always the
new tangential geometry stiffness matrix.
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3.8
PLOT
Item
Description
Unit
Default
LC
TO
NNO
Node number
DIRE
Direction
TYPE
Plot type
LT4
NO
FACT
loaddisplacement plot
FACR
TIME
XI
QUADlayer depth
(nur bei RICH= SX, SY, SXY,
TAUX, TAUY, SS1 oder SS2)
NULL
A plot of a limit load iteration can be generated with an input for PLOT. If no
input for TO is done, than the last load case number of a sequence is used automatically. Without input for NNO the node number with the largest displacement
is selected then automatically and without input for DIRE the direction with the
largest displacement.
Following directions can be input for DIRE:
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UX,UY,UZ
PHIX,PHIY,PHIZ
rotation
VX,VY,VZ,
nodal velocity
VPHX,VPHY,VPHZ
rotation
AX,AY,AZ
nodal acceleration
APHX,APHY,APHZ
rotation
PX,PY,PZ
support reaction
MX,MY,MZ
support moment
N,M,PT,V
NV
springforcespringdisplacement diagram
SX,SY,SXY,TAUX,TAUY
SS1,SS2
The definition for PLOT can be done also in a separate ASE input, e.g.
PROG ASE
HEAD
PLOT 101 NNO 200 DIRE Y
END
Examples to PLOT:
Task
Input file
ase9_quad_euler_beam.dat
step_nonl_concrete_girder.dat
spring_law_3_pkin_curve.dat
ase1_overview.dat
BeamMY curve
ase_nstr_pld_pile_crash.dat
aseaqb_1_column_cracked.dat
in bridge design
csm31_design.dat
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3.9
Item
Description
NCRE
CREP
Unit
Default
RO
dys
0.0
RH
40
TEMP
deg
20
BEAM
Control for takeover of the creep calculation for bending beams via creep curvatures
from the program AQB or for the calculation
in ASE
AQB
Take over from AQB
ASE
ASE
Calculation in ASE
Additional inputs are necessary in the record GRP ... PHI EPS RELZ PHIF:
PHI
EPS
RELZ
PHIF
creep
calculations:
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(springs + foundation)
(shrinkage)
with d=PHI/NCRE
Computation:
The program uses the stresses of the primary load case as stresses producing
creep. It applies the primary load case in an internal way with FACL=FACP=ZK
for the corresponding elements. For tendons the PLC is scheduled only in the
first creep step with the factor (1relz), in all further creep steps with the factor
1.0.
At shrinkage the partial shrinkage coefficient which was reduced according to
Trost is used: loadstrain = dZKF = ZKF/NCRE
The program allows in the case of calculations with primary load case only creep
values with dphi < 0.4. If the stresses producing creep are hardly reduced by
creep and shrinkage, RO has to be defined in a correspondingly small way or
more creep steps have to be input. For a prestress from the program TENDON
only RO=0 is possible generally in order to avoid an unintentional reduction of
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the creep effect for the statically determinate part of the prestress  possible
increase of NCRE. Values in the region of 0.8 are reasonable for creep of a
constraint condition, for example from construction stage. For values which are
smaller than d=0.2 the importance of RO comes in the background.
Creep and shrinkage are effective for all concrete elements of type BEAM,
TRUS, CABL, QUAD + BRIC. PHIF acts on spring and boundary elements and
on pile and quad bedding. Thereby the QUAD foundation can get another creep
coefficient (settlement) independently of the QUAD element. RELZ acts only on
tendons of the plate prestress.
With CREP BEAM it can be controlled, whether the creep calculation for bending
beams via creep curvatures is taken over from AQB (CREP BEAM=AQB) or
whether it should be determined in ASE (CREP BEAM=ASE = default). Caution:
Prestressed beams have to be calculated with AQB! Please refer to program
CSM.
The program extension ASE1 is necessary for creep calculations.
Examples to CREP
Input file
Technique by hand
ase7_creep_two_span_girder.dat
a1_introduction_example.dat
a2_nonlinear_slab.dat
Intruduction CSM
csm1_4span_centering.dat
csm2_simplecreep.dat
Prestressed bridge
csm31_design.dat
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3.10
Item
Description
NO
Group number
GRP
Unit
Default
ALL
LT
FULL
kN/ m3
Selection
OFF
YES
FULL
LIN
LINE
FACS
PLC
GAM
Parameter of an additional
K
SIGN
kN/ m2
SIGH
x = y = K z + SIGH
kN/ m2
FACL
FACD
FACL
99999.
FACP
(FACT
HW
GAMA
kN/m3
10
RADA
1/ sec
0.
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Item
Description
Unit
Default
RADB
sec
0.
MODD
CS
PREX
kN, m
PREY
kN, m
PHI
EPS
Shrinkage coefficient
RELZ
PHI
dys
ACTI
FACS
PHIS
T1
HING
FACB
CSDL
MNO
fixed connection
The record GRP defines the participating elements as well as the stress state
which is available at the beginning of the analysis. At first the defaults for all
groups are defined with GRP ALL or GRP  , e.g. GRP FULL. The following
input for a group overwrites then this default, e.g. GRP 5 NO.
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An input to GRP usually enforces a newbuilding of stiffness file $d1. It will also
be unusable for further load cases. The storage of this stiffness file is possible
with the record CTRL.
The group number of each element is obtained by dividing the element number
by the group divisor GDIV (see SOFIMSHA/SOFIMSHC manual SYST..GDIV).
The defaulted group selection is that one of the last analysis call or input block.
Without any inputs all elements are used. With an input only the specified groups
are activated.
If the subdivision of the elements occurs in groups, it should be kept in mind that
the specification of the analytical primary state may require in certain cases a
finer subdivision than the one assumed initially by the user.
GRP input without any group number set only the given parameters for the previous defined groups. Example:
GRP 1,2
GRP CS 5 $ without group number $
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The loading components from the stresses of the primary state are multiplied by
FACL to the load case which is to be calculated. FACD defines a dead weight
loading with the values GAM/GAMA of the material record in dead weight direction. This loading is usually in equilibrium with the primary state. The loads from
FACL and FACD act in all load cases of the input block.
If the old loads of the primary load case ( PLC) are applied simultaneously to
a system with the loads from the primary stresses with FACL=1, these both
loading cancel themselves. New deformations do not result. Therefore the loads
from the primary stresses oppose the old loads.
The item HW specifies the phreatic level in the corresponding group. Continuum elements (BRIC) located below HW are analysed under buoyancy. The
default setting fo HW is "infinitely deep". Depending on the direction of gravity
the phreatic level is set to 99999m, in this case.
The analysis of the tendons is controlled by CS similar to the program AQBS.
Depending on the value of CS the empty duct or the duct with the tendon or of
the grouted duct are used. If CS is not input, tendons are used with CS 998
(=bonded, if not ICS1=999 in TENDON for unbonded tendons). More explanations see prestressed_slab.dat
Prestress of elements via record GRP: GRP  PREX PREY
In the program SOFIMSHA/SOFIMSHC a prestress which is considered during
the calculation of stiffness can be input only at TRUSCABLSPRI.
With GRP ... PREX PREY a real prestress can be defined in addition to TRUSCABLSPRI also for QUAD and BEAM elements. This acts, first of all, as a
normal prestressed load. However, it is considered also with the factor CTRL
PRES for the initial stiffness. In this way membrane and cable structures can be
calculated more simply according to the thirdorder theory. A membrane high
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PRE acts in all load cases as long as a primary load case (PLC) is not used.
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Temporary BEAM pinjoints can be fixed with GRP HING FIX. Thus a construction stage can be calculated with pinjoint and a final stage without pinjoint. The
results can be superpositioned and designed. All pinjoints are active with the
default GRP HING ACTI.
Example see ase6_two_span_girder_construction_stages.dat
Later construction stages
With GRP CSDL the dead load of a later construction stage can be activated
already for composite beam cross sections with activated stiffness of the cross
section construction stage CS (green concrete dead load).
Example see csm3_composite_beam.dat
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3.11
Item
Description
NO
GRP2
Unit
Default
Group number
STEA
QUEA
QUEX
QUEY
0.001
1/2
0.55
ALP0
ULUS
QEMX
QEMY
EXPO
GEOM
BWES
STEA
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QUEA
QUEX
With QUEX it is possible to reduce the QUAD axial force stiffness only
in local x direction for orthotropic slabs.
QUEY
With QUEY it is possible to reduce the QUAD axial force stiffness only
in local y direction for orthotropic slabs.
ALP0
With ALP0 varying material stiffness due to different hydration degrees can be taken into account in an stress analysis of a HYDRA
temperature field. The lower threshold for stiffness development can
be input here (default 0.001).
With TEMP EMOD OFF this stiffness modification can be switched
off. Example see ripe_creep_comparision.dat
ULUS
QEMX
with QEMX the elastic modulus of QUAD elements can be modified in local x direction, e.g. GRP2  QEMX 0.001. Example see
steel_composite_orto.dat
QEMY
EXPO
BRIC hydration:
The exponent for the BRIC hydration Emodulus can now be input for
each group. The default is the value of TEMP EXPO.
GEOM
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1
dont scale means, that the geometric stiffness is added to the linear
stiffnesss matrix, deleted in the total geometric stiffnesss matrix and
thus is not scaled with the buckling factor.
Default: GRP2  GEOM 2
BWES
/ z teBWES 28BWES
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3.12
ELEM
Item
Description
Unit
Default
ETYP
LT
BEAM
Elementnumber
FACS
stifness factor
Overwrites GPRFAFC.
FACS=0 deactivates one single element (collaps analysis).
as GRP FACL
N/ mm2
FACL
Tension strength  ONLY for cracked concrete quads (SYST NMAT YES) (has no effect, if stress strain law is also defined in tension).
See example tunnel_shell.dat
Input for collaps analysis: in big sytems it is often necessary to check the behaviour under failure of one single element. With ELEM ETYP NO FACS one
single element can be switched off or weakened. Usually also the element force
of the PLC must be reduced usually also FACL has to be reduced!
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3.13
LEN0
Item
Description
ETYP
Element type
TRUS
Truss elements
CABL
Cable elements
Unit
Default
CABL
NO
L0
Unstressed length
TYPE
LT
TOTA
LC
GRP
TOTA
Example: cable_unstressed_length.dat
LEN0 CABL 501 L0 67.000 TYPE TOTA $ install cable with length 67.000m$
LEN0 CABL 502 L0 0.100 TYPE DELT $ 100 mm shorter than system length$
LEN0 CABL GRP 50 L0 0 TYPE LCL0 LF 7 $ with unstressed length of LC 7$
If a cable is activated in a CS for the first time and a LEN0 input is found for it, the
cable is installed stressfree with this length, independant of deformations in the
primary loadcase PLC! Internally it gets an additional prestress that shortens it
so that the desired length appears.
Without LEN0 (normal behaviour) a cable is installed in that way that on the
PLC deformations it has force 0 (without prestress and load on internal cable
sagging).
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3.14
Item
Description
XM
HIGH
Unit
Default
m/ LT
m/
NX
NY
Default: Z axis
kN/ m
NZ
PR1
PTPR
NOG
shows:
R in 1m distance = 20.00 kN/m
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3.15
Item
Description
FROM
PSEL
Unit
Default
TO
FROM
INC
Increment
REDP
1.0
REDA
1.0
REDT
1.0
PSEL can be used to deactivate certain piles or for the reduction of their bedding
due to shadowing inside of a pile group. The reduction factors are determined
according to code specifications or experiments.
If otherwise nothing is specified, all piles are used. Piles which are not used
have to be specified with REDP=0. PSEL inputs are saved permanently. They
are valid for every pile during any subsequent inputs so long as they are not
redefined.
Any input of PSEL causes the recalculation of the system matrix.
The record PSEL is only available in the ASE version which was expanded with
the pile element.
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3.16
TBEA
Item
Description
Unit
Default
NC
For bridge superstructures thin cantilevers get small bending moments or shear
forces in longitudinal direction. The multiplication of the internal forces and moments of the FE nodes with the whole plate is then too unfavourable. The cross
section width per cross section NC can be reduced now with the record TBEA
for the consideration of the haunched cover plate.
Attention: This model can not be used for influence line evaluation with ELLA
because ELLA does not add the slab parts to the beam!
Example see tbeam_philosophy_4.dat ( tbeam_philosophy_e.pdf ) and:
steel_composite_tbeam.dat (compare steel_composite_real.dat)
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3.17
Item
Description
LCR
FACT
LCRS
REIQ
Unit
Default
Design case number from the program BEMESS (number of a reinforcement distribution)
Multiplication factor
1.0
99
With REIQ a reinforcement of design case LCR can be used from the program
BEMESS for a nonlinear calculation of plates and shells according to cracked
condition. Nodal reinforcements are applied in all adjacent elements to get enough reinforcement in the gauss points  = shift of reinforcement. Element
reinforcement is applied as well.
Example see a2_nonlinear_slab.dat
For beam elements input for reinforcement cases are possible in BEW.
With minimum reinforcement and further datea from BEMESS PARA or the design parameter dialog then a reinforcement distribution is fixed and stored in
design case LCRS for graphical checks.
For the concrete cover, the bar steel diameters and reinforcements directions
the following rules are valid:
Concrete cover (centre of gravity distance of the reinforcement bars):
These values are used from the BEMESS PARA or the design
parameter dialog or as default with 60 mm.
Bar diameter: same procedure as for centre of gravity distance:
 default 10 mm
Reinforcement directions:
They are:
 used at first from BEMESS PARA or the design parameter
dialog
 BEMESS or SOFICADB reinforcement is taken into acSOFiSTiK 2014
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3.18
Item
Description
NAME
OPT
STEX
Unit
Default
LT24
A complete external stiffness can be added with STEX. External stiffnesses are
generated currently only by the program HASE for the halfspace (stiffness coefficient method).
The project name is the default for NAME. The mere input of STEX (without
name) suffices usually.
With STEX OPT ITER the halfspace stiffness can be used iteratively. Then only
the diagonal therms are used and the off diagonal therms are treated iteratively
(residual force iteration). For big systems this is also senseful for linear calculations because full conditioned stiffness matrix is often too big for the solver or
the calculation time too long.
Usage:
SYST PROB LINE $ siehe Beispiel > hase1_bottomslab.dat
STEX
LC 1,2,3
Linear analysis with the full conditioned stiffness matrix for small systems.
SYST PROB LINE $ siehe Beispiel > hase2_3d.dat
STEX OPT ITER
LC 1
Linear iterative analysis for big systems. Only one load case in one ASE
part (HEADEND) allowed. No nonlinear effects are taken into account.
The result loadcases can be superposed with MAXIMA.
SYST PROB NONL $ siehe Beispiel > hase2_3d.dat
STEX OPT ITER
LC 1
Nichtlinear effects as bottom slab lifting on tension or nonlinear pile bedding
are treated. A superposition with MAXIMA is usually not possible.
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Input file
hase2_3d.dat
hase5_profile_interpolation.dat
hase8_slab_with_piles.dat
hase23_pier_foundation.dat
Bottomslabpile interaction
kpp1.dat
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3.19
OBLI Inclination
Item
Description
SX
OBLI
Unit
Default
Inclination in X direction
SY
Inclination in Y direction
SZ
Inclination in Z direction
LC
FACV
VMAX
DIRE
XX,YY,ZZ
With OBLI it is possible to input a global inclination of the system. With the input
of SX=1/200 for example all nodes get an inclination of ux=1/200height. The
used height is the height above the node which is the lowest one in dead weight
direction (see program SOFIMSHA/SOFIMSHC record SYST GDIR).
The global inclination affects also the linear calculation according to firstorder
theory. It acts on all elements and also on mixed systems for example from
beam and shell elements. In the same way a imperfection of the beam axes is
considered due to the misalignment lateral buckling.
The input OBLI must occur before the definition of the load cases and acts then
for all load cases of this ASE calculation.
Imperfection
With OBLI LC FACV an additional load case can be defined for imperfections,
also if another primary load case is used with SYST PLC. The imperfection
load case in OBLI is used always as a nonstressed one and the normally
usual input GRP ... FACL is not necessary. Thus the input is easier and
simultaneously more flexible. The input SYST ... FACV should be omitted in
future. Alternatively (to FACL) a maximum imperfection can be scaled with
OBLI VMAX. DIRE defines the scaling direction if necessary (without DIRE the
maximum diplacementvector is scaled). For example OBLI LC 91 VMAX 0.050
DIRE YY describes an imperfection affin to load case 91 with a maximum value
in global Y direction of  50 mm.
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3.20
SLIP
Item
Description
Unit
Default
NOSL
NOG
SLIP Cable are a number of cable elements that get a forced common normal
force. Thus they can slide so to speak at intermediate points. The common
normal force is determined from the total strain of the corresponding cables
divided by their total length. In WINGARF/GRAFIX the axial displacement shows
the nodal deformation change. This can be used to visualize the slipping effect.
Slip cable are calculated without an own inner cable lag.
The definition of a SLIP Cable which is input in an ASE calculation is maintained
in the database. It is used also in the following calculations. A new SLIP input in
a further ASE calculation or a SLIP input without further parameters deletes the
SLIP Cable definition in the database.
Examples:
SLIP NOSL 4 NOG 4 assigns all cables of the element group 4 to the SLIP Cable No 4.
SLIP NOSL 5 NOEL 717,718,719 summarizes the cable elements to the
SLIP Cable 5. The single cables 717+718+719 will have the same normal force
in the final result.
Example see slip_cable.dat
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3.21
VOLU
Item
Description
Unit
Default
NO
GRP
associated QUADelements
POSI
LT
POSZ
MNO
P0
PLC
V0
m3
1008
kN/ m2
1192
DV
volumen addon
DT
temperature increase
[grd] 1215
MASS
mass participation
1008
m3
0.5
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3.22
MOVS
Item
Description
Unit
Default
NO
TYPE
Type
FROM
TO
FROM+1
INC
Increment
LT/ m
AUTO
L0
GRP
Examples to MOVS
Input file
Launching
csm40_incremental_launching_introduction.dat
Contact
movs_train_interaction.dat
Contact
movs_car_collision.dat
Kinematic
excavator.dat
For the dynamic time step analysis it can be defined with the record MOVS
(moving spring) that the wheel springs of a train which goes over the bridge
search themselves for the current contact nodes of the bridge. Thus a train ride
is implemented with all effects of the trainstructureinteraction. The mass of
the train is considered with the current train position. The contact nodes are
determined from the particular relative displacement of the going train and the
deformed bridge. Damper which are acted parallelly to the contact springs are
converted also to the particular interpolated contact node.
An input MOVS without further data delets MOVS elements of previous ASE
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runs.
A spring NO is defined as moving spring. Following types are possible:
TYPE=1
TYPE=2
With an input for L0 the definition of the springs is more simple, because only a
direction has to be input and no node for kinematic constraint. In SOFIMSHA/SOFIMSHC or the graphical input only a normal spring without 2. node must
be defined. The direction of the spring DX,DY+DZ then only defines the rough
direction in which the spring will look for a contact. The length  important for
first contact  will then be defined in ASE L0.
The definition of MOVS in an ASE calculation is maintained in the database.
It is used also in the following calculations. A new MOVS input in a further
ASE calculation or a MOVS input without further parameters deletes the MOVS
definition in the database.
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3.23
Item
Description
GRP
DX
LAUN
Unit
Default
Total displacement
DY
DZ
XM
YM
ZM
NR1
NR2
PHI
[rd] 3
Examples launching
Input file
Launching ASE
movs_incremental_launching_principle.dat
Launching CSM
csm41_launching_principle.dat
Launching training
csm40_launching_introduction.dat
Kinematic
kinematic_1.dat
Beam rotations
beam_rotation.dat
Excavator
excavator.dat
A detailed description and training can be found in the CSM manual: Theoretical
background  Incremental Launching Training.
An input LAUN shifts the nodes of the element group GRP with DX,DY,DZ. An
input of XM and YM rotates around the centre point with PHI [ rad] as arc length
(around global Z axis). Starting on a PLC primary load case, the launching input
is the new total displacement.
A rotation around X and Y axis is possible with
Input LAUN XM+YM : rotation around Z axis
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3.24
Item
Description
LC
PLC
SFIX
Unit
Default
LC
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3.25
Item
Description
NO
TEST
Instability test
LC
Unit
Default
FACT
1.0
DLX
0.0
DLY
0.0
DLZ
0.0
BET2
0.5
LT32
0.5
longtime loading
1.0
shortterm loading
TITL
TYPE
GAMU
GAMF
PSI0
PSI1
PSI2
PS1S
CRI1
CRI2
CRI3
Criteria 3
LC activates a load case. All loads which are input after the LC record are
assigned to this load case. The factor FACT affects all loads, however, not the
temperature, strain and prestressing loads! It does not affect DLX, DLY or DLZ
dead loads. The loads are saved in the database without factor.
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LC ALL calculates all load cases stored in the database from LC 1 to 9999.
LC TEST activates the instability test. Comes aufomatically only for instable
systems.
For a negative dead load direction which is defined in the program SOFIMSHA/SOFIMSHC with SYST GDIR (e.g. SYST...GDIR=NEGZ) a positive value has to
be input in LC DLx for a load in dead load direction (negative global direction).
An error message follows for the input of a negative value (e.g. LC DLZ 1.00),
because a double negation is misleading. A warning follows for a negative inputs
unequal to 1.00 (e.g. for earthquake).
Positive as well as negative values for DLZ are possible for SYST GDIR=POSZ
in program SOFIMSHA/SOFIMSHC.
During dynamic analysis ASE determines the dead weight of all elements according to its definition in the material records respective the cross section parameters. Additional masses can be defined with the record MASS. Therefore
for eigenvalue determinations the dead load has not to be input in the record LC.
For the dynamic time step method the mass inputs from ASE or DYNA are transformed to dead loads now with an input LC...DLZ, because these are used as
masses and therefore they have to produce dead load. Vertical slab eigenvalues
can be avoided with MASS FACT.
If dead loads should be used from the program SOFiLOAD, then only the load
case number NO has to be input for LC. If factors of the structural dead weight
or other loading are defined after a LC record, all loading data for that load case
will be deleted, to allow the redefinition of loading for a given load case.
If no designation was input, the program generates automatically a title from the
dead load factors as well as from the support sum.
The action type and the corresponding safety factors and combination coefficients may be defined already here for a later superposition with program MAXIMA. Several literals which are described in detail in the record ACT of the program SOFILOAD are possible for TYPE. If safety factors and combination coefficients which are different from the default should be used, these can be input
here. If the superposition factors are defined with the program SOFiLOAD or
MAXIMA, nothing is to be input here for TYPE to PS1S.
Values CRI1 to CRI3 are very general parameters of the load case. They may
be used freely for postprocessing. You may specify them in advance or set them
after the analysis by reading some results from the database. (e.g. a system
dimension, a strength reduction etc.) TALPA uses CRI1 for the safety factor
of the material needed by analysis according to Fellenius. The criteria are set
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3.26
Item
Description
NO
T1
T2
NOG
TEMP
Unit
Default
sec
sec
T1
1.0
LT
YES
LT
NO
1/2
EMOD
Stiffness modification of the elastic modulus for BRIC elements with HYDRA temperature fields, see also GRP2 ALP0
YES
Consideration of the stiffness
modification
OFF
No consideration of the stiffness
modification
value Development of elastic modulus
according to Wesche
Consideration of the relaxation via a reduced E modulus according to Technischen
Empfehlungen Bautechnick BAW / Wesche
YES
Consideration
RELA
NO
EXPO
No consideration
After a transient temperature calculation with the program HYDRA the element
group NOG with the temperature differences of the time T2T1 from the HYDRA
load case NO can be loaded with this record. With that changing material properties or support conditions can be examined in the course of the temperature
development (e.g. variable elastic modulus during setting of the green concrete).
The time values T1 and T2 are arbitrary. For missing exact time values from the
program HYDRA the temperature is interpolated linearly between two available
time values or an end temperature is used. For T1=T2 the temperature is used
to this time.
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E = E28
EXPO
1 0
(3.1)
The input is done with TEMP ... EMOD YES EXPO ...
For BRIC elements the HYDRA temperature fields are implemented by varying
material stiffness according to Wesche: With input TEMP ... EMOD=value the
development of elastic modulus is activated according to Wesche. The value
has to be be input as aw/z , e.g. for Z25 value=7.10.4 = 2.84.
The development of Emodulus can now be switched off per group with TEMP...EMOD OFF.
Example see: bric_hydra_dt2h.dat
BAW / Wesche: ripe_creep_comparision.dat
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3.27
Item
Description
LCNO
FACT
TYPE
Unit
Default
1.0
LT
PZ
0.1
LT
PZ
Z
TOL
PROJ
LAG
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of a plate which was analysed as SYST GIRD to a higher storey of a threedimensional structure.
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3.28
PEXT
Item
Description
Unit
Default
NOG
Group number or
NOEL
P0
kN
SIDE
Prestressing side
BETA
deg/ m
MUE
SS
mm
Cable groups or single cables can be selected with the record PEXT for prestressing. The cable side which is prestressed is defined with SIDE. For example POSX defines the cable side with the larger X coordinate.
For external tendons see also CTRL QTYP V2.
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3.29
Item
Description
NO
LCC
Unit
Default
FACT
Load factor
1.0
ULTI
YES
NEW
OFF
ALL
see record ULTI
PLC
Prestress, temperature loads and settlements will only be increased on ALL see
record LC FACT
Temperature and strain loads for primary
load cases
YES
no use of temperature and strain
loads automatically LC had been
active in PLC
NEW use of all loads (Load acts for the
first time)
LCC can be used to copy loads from other load cases into the current load
case. Inputs for prestress loads from the program TENDON are accepted as
well. However, here the user must pay attention to the settings in the GRP CS
record. Dead weight loads DLX, DLY, DLZ are not transferred.
If a load cases was already considered in the primary load case, only real loads
have to be defined again when using the primary load case. Temperature or
strain loads must not be defined again, because they act additive. These loads
are extracted now automatically with PLC = YES. If for instance the load factor
LC ... FACT is increased during a limit load iteration, the difference temperature
is used additionally. Default is PLC NEW, all loads are used.
In a dynamic time step analysis a SOFILOAD FUNC time funktion will be used.
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The factor FACT will be multiplied with the time function using the time at the
end of the actual time interval (time of PLC + dt/2).
Base point accelerations from SOFILOAD (Effective force method und Large
Mass Method) can also be used in LCC.
Examples to LCC
Input file
ase6_two_span_girder_construction_stages.dat
push_over_quad_beam_frame.dat
Loadfunction SOFILOAD
a1_dynamic_overview.dat
Earthquake
a2_introduction_earthquake.dat
a3_introduction_base_acceleration.dat
excavator.dat
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3.30
Item
Description
NEIG
ETYP
EIGE
Unit
Default
LT
LANC
Method of Lanczos
LANC
Method of Lanczos
RAYL
Method of Rayleigh
REST
NITE
MITE
LMIN
Eigenvalue shift
or
1/ sec
SAVE
LC
0
2
< 10
2001
The input of EIGE causes the use and possibly the determination of eigenvalues
and eigenmode shapes. If eigenvectors have already been calculated, ETYP =
REST as well as the load case number LC have to be input. This is planned for
the subsequent calculation of modal damping values or loads.
The masses from dead load are used always. All further masses (record
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MASS) from the generation program and ASE are considered additionally. Vertical slab eigenvalues can be avoided with MASS FACT.
If loads are defined additionally to EIGE, the modal loads are determined and
saved in the database. A further analysis does not occur.
The mode shapes are saved completely in the database in a compact form. This
is sufficient for a regular dynamic analysis. They can be saved as regular load
cases too. The latter form is to be selected, if a graphic representation of the
eigenvectors with the program WinGRAF or evaluations of element stresses in
the program DYNA should occur.
Eigenvalue determinations are not possible with the basic program version.
Explanations:
Using the input LMIN (Unit 1/sec2 for dynamic eigenvalues, factor for buckling
eigenvalues, taken from the result table Eigenfrequencies) the results can be
shifted. The number of excluded Eigenvalues are shown in the printout. Example see ase4_eigenfrequency_shift.dat
In a buckling eigenvalue analysis often only negative eigenvalues appear. They
represent failure under a negative load factor. In this case with LMIN AUTO
automatically an eigenvalueshift can be determined and applied to avoid the
negative eigenvalues and find the first positive one.
Example see buckling_eigenvalue_shift.dat
The choice of method for the eigenvalue analysis depends on the number of the
sought eigenvalues. The simultaneous vector iteration can be used in the case
of few eigenvalues. The number of iterations may be reduced, if a somewhat
expanded subspace for the eigenvalue iteration is used. Therefore the default
value for NITE is here the minimum between NEIG+2 and the number of the
unknowns. The iteration is interrupted, if the number of the maximum iterations
(default max (15,2NITE)) is reached or if the maximum eigenvalue has changed
only by the factor less than 0.00001 opposite to the previous iteration.
The method according to Lanczos is significantly quicker than the vector iteration, if a large number of eigenvalues is sought. A good accuracy is achieved, if
the number of the vectors NITE is at least the double one of the sought eigenvalues (default). Unlike the vector iteration the larger eigenvalues are usually
worthless for NITE=NEIG.
The modal damping is calculated from the defined dampings of the groups after
the determination of the eigenvalues.
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The vibration mode shapes are stored as load cases with ascending load case
numbers beginning with LC. Since the eigenvectors in certain cases may have
large amplitudes, the output of element stresses or support reactions is not usually desirable. It should be turned off with the record ECHO.
See also chapter theoretical orinciples eigenvalues (incl. examples).
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3.31
MASS
Item
Description
Unit
Default
NO
Node number
MX
Translational mass
0.
MY
Translational mass
MX
MZ
Translational mass
MX
MXX
Rotational mass
tm2
0.
MYY
Rotational mass
tm2
0.
MZZ
Rotational mass
tm2
0.
LC
PRZ
Factor in percent
LT
PG
Examples to MASS
Input file
LC mass conversion
ase4_eigenfrequencies.dat
Earthquake
a1_dynamic_overview.dat
The masses are additional to those defined in the program SOFIMSH*. They
are maintained over several input sets until they are redefined. Please notice
that only SOFIMSH* masses also produce dead load in a static analysis! ASE
additional masses dont act as dead load e.g. dlz in a static load cases [ except
in a time step analysis where they act as dead load and dynamic mass} ! MASS
0 can be used to delete all additional masses from ASE+DYNA. With MASS LC
0 additional masses defined in a previous run are applied.
A mass acts usually the same in all three coordinate directions and thus, it need
to be defined independently only for special cases. Rotational masses with inclined axis are not used in ASE.
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The dead weight of the entire structure is always applied in the form of translational masses. If necessary, rotational masses must be defined separately with
MASS. If the dead weight of a structure is not to be applied, the dead weight of
the material or the cross section should be input as zero.
MASS can be used also to import nodal loads from the database as masses to
ASE. The load case number must be input in LC. The conversion factor has to
be defined in PRZ. PRZ = 100 means full mass conversion. Other loads then
loads in dead weight direction must be selected with SELE. Please check the
sum of masses in the output! The input
MASS LC 12 PRZ 100
creates translational masses from all loads of load case 12 in the direction of the
dead weight. By default the masses are applied as X, Y and Z mass. If this is
not desired, they can be factorized additionally with MX,MY and MZ, e.g. MASS
LC 12 PRZ 100 MX 1.0 MY 0.2 MZ 1.0.
With a negative node number MASS NO the old input for a loadcase mass
conversion can be used, but only up to 9999 see DYNA manual.
Masses can get also a factor with MASS. For this purpose the literal FACT has
to be input for NO. This can be reasonable particularly for larger systems, where
it is favourable to suppress many low frequencies which are not essential for the
analysis. With the input
MASS FACT MZ 0.01
The mass in global Z direction is reduced to one percent only. So vertical slab
eigenvalues of big buildings can be avoided. MASS FACT works additive to
MASS inputs and has an effect on the automatic element dead load mass. With
MASS FACT 1 1 1 0 0 0 rotational masses can be suppressed.
See also chapter theoretical orinciples masses (incl. examples).
390
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3.32
V0 Initial Velocity
Item
Description
NO
Node number
VX
VY
V0
Unit
Default
m/ sec
directions
m/ sec
m/sec
VZ
An initial velocity V0 in m/sec is defined for the node NO. To be used in a dynamic
time step analysis.
Example see: ase_nstr_pld_pile_crash.dat
Car collision: movs_car_collision.dat
Train interaction: movs_train_interaction.dat
Glass impact: pendulum_impact_test.dat
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391
3.33
REIN
Item
Description
Unit
Default
MOD
Design mode
LT
SECT
LT
SING
SECT
Reinforcement in cut
Reinforcement in span
Reinforcement mode
SING
Single calculation
SAVE
SUPE
NEW
LCR
ZGRP
SFAC
1.0
P6
P7
reinforcement
P8
(See notes)
P9
P10
P11
0.20
392
SOFiSTiK 2014
Item
Description
P12
TITL
Unit
Default
LT24
creates new LCR reinforcements using the given stored minimum reinforcement
SAVE
SUPE
ACCU
ACSA
ACSU
There is also a control flag CTRL REIN, defining if the reinforcements should be
increased or not. The latter to be used for the analysis of existing structures.
Mit BEW BMOD ACCU LFB nnn kann man bis zu 255 Bewehrungsflle als
vorhandene Bewehrung fr die aktuelle Berechnung aktivieren, gespeichert wird
unter der letzten angegeben LFBNummer.
With REIN RMOD ACCU LCR nnn it is possible to add up to 255 reinforcement
results as active reinforcement of this run. It will be saved with the last defined
LCR entry
SUPE cannot be used during an iteration, since then the maximum reinforcement for an iteration step will not be able to be reduced. STAR2 therefore ignores a specification of SUPE, as long as convergence has not been reached.
AQB can update or superpose the reinforcements at a later time: with REIN
RMOD SUPE but without any DESI input.
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393
A specification of BEAM, SPAN, GLOB or TOTL under MOD refers to interpolated sections or sections with the same section number. For all connected ranges
with the same section, the maximum for the range multiplied with SFAC is incorporated as the minimum reinforcement. The design is done separately in each
case for each load, however, so that the user can recognize the relevant load
cases.
Section 1
Sect. 2
Section 1
SECT
BEAM
SPAN
GLOB
394
Tendons are considered with both their area and their prestressing. Normal reinforcement is specified at the minimum
SOFiSTiK 2014
percentage.
The relative loading capacity is found.
ZGRP > 0
Tendons are specified with their full prestressing, but with their
area (stress increase) only specified in so far as necessary.
Normal reinforcement if installed only if the prestressing steel
alone is not sufficient.
A required area of prestressing steel is determined.
ZGRP < 0
If ZGRP < > 0 has been specified, the tendons are grouped into tendon groups.
The group is a whole number proportion which comes from dividing the identification number of the tendon by ZGRP. Group 0 is specified with its whole
area, the upper group as needed. Any group higher than 4 is assigned group
4. The group number of the tendons is independent of the group number of the
nonprestressed reinforcement.
Assume that tendons with the numbers 1, 21, 22 and 101 have been defined.
With the appropriate inputs for ZGRP, the following division is obtained:
ZGRP 0
ZGRP 10
ZGRP 100
Typical
0.5  50
2
2
When designing, the strain plane is iterated by the BFGS method. The
required reinforcement is determined in the innermost loop according to
the minimum of the squared errors.
MN((N N)2 + F1 (MY MY)2 + F2 (MZ MZ)2 )
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395
F1 = P7 (zm zmn)P8
F2 = P7 (ym ymn)P8
The default value for P8 leads to the same dimensions for the errors. The
value of P7 has been determined empirically. With symmetrical reinforcement and tension it is better to choose a smaller value, with multiple layers
and compression a larger one. For small maximum values of the reinforcement the value of P7 should be increased.
Default
Typical
1.0
1.0
1.0
0.21.0
396
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3.34
DESI
Item
Description
Unit
Default
STAT
LT
NO
SERV
Serviceability loads
ULTI
Ultimate loads
Accidental combination
KSV
KSB
AM1
AM2
AM3
Minimum reinforcement
%/ LT
SC1
SC2
SCS
SS1
SS2
C1
Maximum compression
o/ oo
C2
o/ oo
S1
o/ oo
o/ oo
Minimum reinforcement
depending on normal force
AMAX
Maximum reinforcement
FIX
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397
Item
Description
Unit
Default
Z1
o/ oo
o/ oo
LT
of prestressing steel
Z2
SMOD
No shear design
TVS
N/ mm2
MSCD
N/ mm2
KTAU
/ LT
K1
K2S
num
0.0
no shear check
K2
K1S
TTOL
0.02
TANA
TANB
SCL
398
Outmost
compressive
yield
stress is limited
Compressive stress is limited to
the yield value
Yield stress will be applied as limit in the tensile and compressive
region
SOFiSTiK 2014
Design may be performed for various safety concepts. When designing for ultimate load or combinations with divided safety factors, the load factor must be
contained in the internal forces and moments. One way to accomplish this is
with the COMB records.
With KSV and KSB will be controlled the material law. As the correct default is
taken from the INIfile selected with the design code NORM, it is only for very
special cases that you may enter:
EL
ELD
SL
SLD
UL
ULD
CAL
CALD
PL
PLD
The safety factors referenced above refer to the values defined with the material
in AQUA. Without D only the factors defined in the INI file or the explicitly defined values SC1 to SS2 of the DESI record are applied. However the additional
safety factor for high strength concrete of DIN will be applied additionally. The
printout will flag global safety factors
With Option D we have to distinguish between two different cases:
If the values defined in DESI are < 1.0 or negative or SC1 is not equal SC2
(e.g. ACI or odl DIN) or the design code has special provisions for that
(SNIP), the safety factors are multiplicative. Printed stresses contain only
the safety factors of the materials.
In all other cases the value from the material will be taken instead of the default value of DESI. However if the safety factor is explicitly defined with DESI
with a value > 1 the option D will be deactivated with a warning. (Attention:
has been changed Sept. 2008)
If a design without any safety factors is required, all saftey factors have to be
specified as 1.0 which will then change the default for KSV/B to UL.
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399
PL resp. PLD will modify for some design codes (DIN, EC, ACI) the stress strain
law to a constant equivalent stress block, i.e. the stress value and the strain
range will be modified according to the provisions of those codes.
With the special definition of SS1 NRIL the safety factors of the reinforcements will be set to 1.05 and 1.10 according to the provisions of the German
Nachrechnungsrichtlinie, also the ordinates of those reinforcements will be
reduced then by an offset of 20 resp. 10 mm.
The minimum reinforcements AM1 to AM4 are preset according to the design
code (INI file) and apply to all cross sections; they are input as a percentage of
the section area.
The relevant value is the maximum of the minimum reinforcements:

Note:
The statically determined portion of the forces and moments of prestressing
is always deducted when determining the external forces and moments. This
contribution is found from the location of the tendons and their tensile force.
AQB only: A specification of the bifurcation factor BETA in record BEAM is
changed to additional moments according to DIN 1045 17.4.3 resp. Eurocode
4.3.5.6. resp. DIN 1045 neu 5.6.4. resp. OeNORM B 4700 2.4.3. or other
design codes. The design will always generate both bending axis. The output of
the extra moments is given with the forces of the combinations.
Defaults for strain limits and safety coefficients depend on the selected design
code and the type of load combination. They may be specified in the INIfile of
the design code. If SC1 and SC2 are defined different (e.g. old DIN 1045, ACI),
then the safety factors of the reinforcements will be also interpolated if SS1 is
equal to SC1.
The maximum strain depends on the stressstrain curve. The value of 2.2 is
reduced for example at the old DIN or high strength concrete automatically. The
EN and the DIN suggest to limit the strain also for the midpoint of compressive
flanges. This option may be selected by defining a value of C2 as positive (select
teh control) or negative (disable the control).
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The values Z1 and Z2 do not limit the range of possible strains, but the maximum
corresponding values are used as strain increments for the tension members in
the section. This is necessary, for instance, when designing with partial prestressing under DIN 4227 Part 2.
According to DIN 10451 8.2 (3) some bending structures should have a height
of the compressive zone not larger than 0.45 d, or 0.35 d for high strength concrete. If this is not fulfilled a minimum shear link according to 13.1.1. (5) has to
be provided. As the maximum compressive strain is fixed (3.5 per mille), this is
equivalent to the request that the steel strain has at least a value of 4.278 or a
higher value for C55 on.
Thus the control of this paragraph is easily performed via the steel strain. An
equivalent formulation is given in OENORM 4700, where it is requested that the
steel should reach the yield strength. As the old DIN 1045 had the more general
formulation for the same ductile request, that the compressive reinforcement is
not allowed to be considered with a larger value than the tensile reinforcement
Thus AQB provides symmetric reinforcements for all design codes when the
steel strain does not exceed the value of S1, fulfilling the request for ductility in
that way.
This design operation is also suitable for nonreinforced sections. In that case
the program produces internal forces and moments which are in the same proportion to each other as the external forces and moments. The safety factors
SC1 and SC2 have to be defined dependent on the design code. The program
then shows the relative load carrying capacity and prints a warning if this should
fall below 1.0.
The shear design finds the lever of internal forces for all load cases with compression and tension forces in the section, and finds the shear stress and shear
reinforcement resulting from shearing force and torsion. The shear stress limits
are set automatically depending on SMOD and the material. Deviating values
for the shear stress limits can be defined within AQB with a record STRE (under
4227 only) or TVS. Since in case of excess of the shear stress limits no design
more occurs, this can be exceeded onto own responsibility of the user with a
tolerance.
For the reduction of the shear capacity for tensile members the normal stress
pc is limited to the value MSCD. The default is selected with the mean tensile
strength fctm .
Consideration of the shift of the envelope line of the tensile force (shift rule)
depends upon the CTRL option VM. The ratio Ved/Vrd,max and the value of the
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3101
3102
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3.35
NSTR
Item
Description
Unit
Default
KMOD
LT
S0
LT
SL
LT
KSV
KSV
KSB
...
With NSTR the kind of investigated material limit state is specified, in particular,
serviceability and ultimate limit state are distinguished, here. Depending on the
choice, the appropriate material working law (cf. AQUA manual, input records
SSLA and SFLA) is processed for evaluation of the material response.
Possible specifications for KSV are:
EL
ELD
SL
SLD
UL
ULD
CAL
CALD
PL
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3103
PLD
Main usage without KMOD input (e.g. NSTR KSV SL) for:
nonlinear springs
Usage with KMOD input (e.g. NSTR KMOD K1 KSV ULD) for:
3104
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3.36
SOFiSTiK 2014
3105
material input
activated in ASE:
deactivated:
Beam elements
AQUACONC
= standard
AQUASTEE
(fullplastic:
 NSTR S0
AQUASSLA
 GRP LINE
Cables + truss
material stress
= standard
CONC/STEE/SSLA
 NSTR S1/SN
strain curves
 NSTR S0
 GRP LINE
Cables
compress.failure
= standard *2)
 GRP LINE
= standard
 GRP LINE
= standard
 GRP LINE
Springelements
gap,crac,yiel,mue
SPRI
AQUASARB and
spring stress
SPRIMNO
strain curves
implicit beam hing
AQUASARB
AQUASSLA and
material stress
SPRI+AR
= standard
 GRP LINE
AQUABMATCRAC
= standard *5)
 GRP LINE
= standard *6)
or
CRAC=9999
 GRP LINE
strain curves
QUAD bedding
tension cut off
friction
AQUABMATMUE
QUAD elements
AQUACONC
of concrete/steel
AQUASTEE
 SYST...NMAT YES
= standard
*9)
*7)
AQUASSLA *8)
*9)
 GRP LINE
Membrane elements
AQUAMAT
 SYST...NMAT YES
= standard
 GRP LINE
Volume elements
AQUAMAT...
 SYST...NMAT YES
= standard
BRIC
NMAT MOHR...
*11)
 GRP LINE
Halfspace contact
HASEPLAS PMAX
= standard *12)
only SYST
LINE
3106
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*1) Important is the input of the material safety factor with NSTR...KSV: Using
NSTR always the stressstrain curves of the program AQUA are taken into account. In this case the material safety factors are not used for KSV SL, UL, CAL.
On the other hand the AQUA material safety factors are multiplied for KSV SLD,
ULD, CALD. In the first part of the ASE output the maximum stresses for the
materials are printed.
Due to different defaults in the programs AQB / STAR2 / ASE the items KSV
and KSB should be input. The usage of material safety factors for the stiffness
determination (NSTR) is interpreted differently by the specialists. For a ultimate
limit check without further design the input ULD or CALD is reasonable (without
modifications of the material stressstrain curve in the program AQUA). SL has
to be used for calculations in the serviceability state.
Default for the material safety factors of nonlinear analyses:

Without an input of a record NSTR all elements are analyzed with the linear
E modulus. So a simple nonlinear analysis will give the same displacements
as a linear analysis (provided that nonlinear effects do not occur).
At the end of a nonlinear ASE calculation a statistics is printed with the available
nonlinear effects.
*2) Cables which are loaded in the transverse direction (e.g. by dead load) never
fail due to compression in a geometrical nonlinear analysis TH3 with the default,
because the inner cable sag produces always a tensile force (see CTRL CABL).
For the input SYST PROB NONL or with CTRL CABL 0, cables cannot get an
inner cable sag and fail due to pressure load!
*3) Springs can be defined with a nonlinear spring stressstrain curve in the
program AQUA. Please refer to example a1_spring_overview.dat
*4) For soil analysis (e.g. tunnel calculations) springs can be defined also via
an effective area AR and a material number. Then ASE calculates a nonlinear
spring characteristic curve by using the material stressstrain curve SSLA of the
program AQUA.
*5) Without further input in program AQUA a QUAD bedding is preset with
CRAC=0, i.e. QUAD elements can have a tension cut off. See example
SOFiSTiK 2014
3107
ase_bed_uplift.dat
*6) Without further input in program AQUA no friction coefficient MUE is preset,
i.e. horizontal forces can be transferred without limitation, if the element is not
cracked (no tension cut off).
*7) QUAD elements with simple MAT input are analyzed linearly. Only QUAD
elements of CONCRETE or STEEL can be analyzed nonlinearly with the input
SYST...NMAT YES .
*8) Also for shell elements, ASE uses the concrete stressstrain curve of AQUA.
The concrete tensile strength can be changed temporarily with CTRL CONC V3
V4.
*9) Often only nonlinear springs or bedding should be taken into account in
a nonlinear analysis. Therefore the material nonlinear QUAD elements are
deactivated in the default (default SYST ... NMAT=NO). If required, they have to
be activated explicitly with SYST ... NMAT YES.
*10) A membrane failure due to pressure must be activated via AQUA... NMAT
MEMB and ASE...SYST NMAT YES.
*11) For volume elements (BRIC) various soilmechanical material rules can
be defined in AQUA...NMAT MOHR.... Example see ase14_tunnel_3d.dat.
BRIC elements with CONCRETE see bric_concrete.dat or STEEL see
bric_steel_van_mise.dat
*12) Details see program HASE.
3108
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3.37
ECHO
Item
Description
Unit
Default
OPT
LT
Group parameters
MAT
Material parameters
ELEM
Element values
LOAD
Loads
DISP
Displacements
Support reactions
LINE
PLAB
EIGE
Eigenvalues
RESI
ERIN
STAT
NNR
ENR
STOR
SOFiSTiK 2014
3109
Item
Description
FULL
VAL
3110
Unit
Default
/ LT
STRE, NSTR, DESI, REIN, SHEA, LC, BSEC, CRAC, B2T, USEP: See manual for
the program AQB
Output extent
OFF
No calculation / output
NO
No output
YES
Regular output
FULL
Extensive output
EXTR
Extreme output
07
SOFiSTiK 2014
Default:
ECHO LOAD
ECHO DISP,FORC,REAC,NOST,BEDD,BDEF
YES
NO
as well as NO for NODE and MAT and YES for all other
for small beam systems < 1000 nodes additionally:
ECHO LOAD
ECHO DISP,FORC,NOST,BEDD
ECHO REAC
FULL
NO
YES
YES
The record name ECHO should be repeated in every record to avoid confusion
with similar record names. See chapter 4 for the effect of ECHO.
ECHO SPRI activates only the result print of springs and cables. This is often
useful in nonlinear analysis to focus on these elements. ECHO FORC also
activates this print.
For the check of the iteration ECHO NNR xxx prints the node displacements of
the node xxx after each iteration (10 nodes maximum). Only the displacement
component of the current analysis step is output (without primary load case
component). ECHO ENR is implemented so far only for cables.
With ECHO BDEF EXTR a storage of the local beam deformations can be enforced for primary load case processing. An outprint in ASE is not implemented,
please use WINGRAF for this.
The strain energy of the groups is only printed and stored with both input ECHO
STAT FULL and ECHO GRP FULL.
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3111
3112
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Output Description
4.1
The table of nodal values is mostly identical to the table of the program
SOFIMSHA/SOFIMSHC and is output with ECHO NODE YES. For evaluation
of unstable systems the equation numbers may be printed with ECHO NODE
FULL as well.
ECHO MAT YES causes the output of the material parameters.
4.2
These are output with SYST NMAT=YES for nonlinear analyses with QUAD
shell elements only (concrete or steel material rule).
4.3
ELEMENT GROUPS
No
Group number
facS
FakB
facT
PLC
HW
T1
Group number
GamP
Specific weight
GamP
SOFiSTiK 2014
41
Type of analysis
Calculation with nonlinear (SYST PROB NONL)
material properties
Geometrically
analysis
4.4
The check lists of the loads are taken over from the program SOFiLOAD. Or
in the case of the load input in ASE they are generated in analog mode to the
SOFiLOAD output.
SUM OF LOADS CASE
LC
Load case
Load sums
RMX(tm2), RMY(tm2)
total
Total mass
active
Active part
The loads are stored in the database without load case factor. However, they
are output with this factor.
4.5
For nonlinear calculations the in each case maximum residual force is output
with the corresponding energy norm (sum from nodal forces nodal displace
42
SOFiSTiK 2014
ments of all nodes) in the list of the iterations. The residual force is printed firmly
in the dimension kN, the energy norm in kNm, however, multiplied by the factor
106 , 103 , 103 or 103 according to the size. For linear systems without primary
load case the system energy is equal to the printed energy norm/2. The e/f values indicate the correction factors of the Crisfield method (see chapter 3, record
SYST).
Example of a converging iteration:
Iteration 1 Residual
Iteration 2 Residual
Iteration 3 Residual
The user has to check for a nonlinear calculation whether the residual forces are
sufficiently small. In the case of calculations with nonlinear material properties
there is no error message, if the residual forces can not be counterbalanced
fully.
During ultimate load calculations the convergence is checked automatically and
a new calculation is generated with a new load step.
Example:
ULSiteration 1 loadcase 1 with loadfactor 1.000 was converged.
Node number
PX,PY,PZ,
MX,MY,MZ
A graphic control can occur in program WING with NODE SV, because unbalanced residual forces are saved as support reactions.
4.6
Eigenvalues
Provided that eigenvalues are calculated, they are output in a table with the corresponding frequencies and error limits. The errors of the eigenvalues constitute
a measure of the accuracy of the frequencies and, if their values are larger than
103 , they may indicate as well the presence of possible multiple eigenvalues
which could be overlooked.
SOFiSTiK 2014
43
EIGENFREQUENCIES
Using Lanczos method or
Using simultaneous vector iteration
Iteration vectors
Iterations
No.
LC
Eigenvalue (1/Sec2)
Relative error
Error limits
omega (1/sec)
Circular frequency
frequency (Hertz)
Period (sec)
activated mass *
modal damping
4.7
Element Results
Section identification
Mb, Mt2
PILE FORCES, MOMENTS AND REACTIONS
Pile No. x(m)
Section identification
Pa, Pt
Pty,Ptz
44
Element number
SOFiSTiK 2014
vx, vy
The internal forces and moments are output in the centre of gravity of the element for every QUAD element. The principal moments and the principal axial
forces are output with the option ECHO FORC FULL only. The input of ECHO
FORC EXTR causes the output of the internal forces and moments at the integration points of the elements as well.
The angles between the direction of mI or nI and the local x axis are output.
Positive moments produce tensile stresses at the bottom side of the plate.
ELASTIC SUPPORT OF QUADRILATERALS
Number
p(kN/m2)
pt(kN/m2)
P(kN)
Foundation stresses are output only with ECHO FORC FULL. ECHO FORC
EXTR results in the output of the foundation values at the corners too. The
value P represents the corner force resulting from the foundation stresses of
this element.
STRESSES IN 3D ELEMENTS
Element Number
Element number
IP
Shear stresses
Principal stresses
dx,dy,dz
45
ECHO FORC =
0
 no output (NO)
4 or 5
The same ECHO input values are also applicable in the case of ECHO NOST.
Plastification mark: If an element is plasticized, a P is printed behind the stress
values.
TRUSS ELEMENTS
Load case
ELNO
Element number
P (kN)
Axial force
u (mm)
Elongation l
Element number
P (kN)
Axial force
Pt (kN)
Lateral force
M (kNm)
Moment
u (mm)
ut (mm)
Lateral displacement
phi (mrad)
Rotation
46
Number
Element number
N (kN)
SOFiSTiK 2014
u (mm)
Elongation l
ut (m)
f0 (mm)
Nm (kN)
L_NO (mm)
1)
is calculated only for geometrically nonlinear analysis and CTRL CABL >0.
The program calculates the loading and the sag f0 in the direction of the load.
These can be output for all iterations with ECHO ENR CableNo.
4.8
Nonlinear Results
Element number
z ()
sigx,sigy,tau (MPa)
Stresses at side z
sigI,sigII (MPa)
sigv (MPa)
sigvlin (MPa)
depth (mm)
fy ()
Plastification number
sigvlin/sigzul1
with sigzul = tensile strength (MPa)
Element number
Rich
epso (o/oo)
epsu (o/oo)
x/d ()
sigbo (MPa)
sigbu (MPa)
SOFiSTiK 2014
47
sigso (MPa)
sigsu (MPa)
wcalo (mm)
wcalu (mm)
ECHO FORC YES prints out both reinforcement directions, while ECHO FORC FULL prints also the values in principal stress directions at the top and the
bottom side. Crack widths can be calculated only in the directions of the reinforcement.
In the element centre of gravity the maximum of the nonlinear effects of the four
Gauss points of an element is stored in order to show the in each case most
unfavourable value in the graphics.
In the graphical representation (program WinGRAF) with ISOL YIEL (FLIU,FLIL)
the plastification number is obtained as siglin/signl1 (siglin = concrete stress
computed linearly from the strain, signl = nonlinear stress). The most unfavourable value from the tensile or the compressive zone is used.
In the case of unreinforced concrete the crack width is set to 1 mm for the graphical representation of the crack pattern (a crack width can be computed only in
context with reinforcement).
Statistics of plastification:
For nonlinear calculations a statistics of the number and type of the plasticized
Gauss points is printed in the result file. For area elements of concrete the compressive stresses which are larger than the linearity limit of 1/3r are output as
a plastification, cracks as overflow of the tensile strength. For plates of massive steel an overflow of the linearity limit is calculated always as a plastification
independently of tension/pressure.
4.9
Node number
Constraint forces
48
SOFiSTiK 2014
NODAL DISPLACEMENTS
Node No
Node number
Displacement
Rotation
Node number
Support reaction
Restraint moment
Forces arise at all nodes with supports, kinematic constraints or elastic edges.
The output is controlled with ECHO REAC:
OFF Forces are not calculated. Thereby more main memory is available, what
may be favourable for large systems.
NO Forces are calculated and saved in the database. An output does not occur.
YES Forces are output for all nodes, if they exceed a certain tolerance or if a
support node is concerned. If forces appear at free nodes, then either a support
has been defined by mistake or the available machine precision is not sufficient
for the solution of the system. For nonlinear analyses the residual forces are a
direct measure of the quality of the iterative solution.
FULL The constraint forces are output too.
SUM OF REACTIONS AND LOADS
Load case
PX, PY, PZ, MX, MY, M 1st line= sum of the support reactions
Z
2nd line= sum of the loads
The output of the two lines serves as a check. The sum of the support reactions
has to be equal to the sum of the loads.
SOFiSTiK 2014
49
The sum of the support reactions and loads is an important index for the completeness of the loads and the accuracy of the entire analysis. In the case of
linear analysis an error message is issued, if there is a noteworthy deviation of
the two values.
4.10
Element group
node
Node number
vx, vy
Group
Element group
Node
Node number
Shear stresses
Principal stresses
dx,dy,dz
The output is controlled with ECHO NOST, which has the same effect as ECHO
FORC.
Determination of the results at the nodes:
The internal forces and moments and stresses of the adjacent elements
are averaged in groups for each node and they are stored or output. The output
is controlled with the ECHO option NOST.
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This averaging is not always allowed, e.g. in the case of jumps of the values
between elements and especially for bends in folded structures, where shear
forces change into axial forces. The program does not determinate the results
in following cases:
If the direction of the local coordinate system jumps more than 5 degrees.
Two or more results are output then at the very same node. In program BEMESS
the two results are calculated then with the relevant thickness and the relevant
material number.
At the group boundaries the results become also average provided that there
no jump in the material number, the thickness or the local coordinate system is
available.
Kinematic constraints are ignored for the averaging (except for INTE). If needed, a known point of discontinuity can be described with double coupled (KF)
nodes.
4.11
Error Estimates
Element number
vx, vy
Load case
type
dimension
maximum val
maximum error
element
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Element number
Load case
type
dimension
maximum val
maximum error
element
The averaging of the results at the nodes allows the estimation of the error in
individual elements. This error describes the average size of the jump in the
results from one element to the other. The average values as well as the values
at the element centre are usually considerably more precise.
With ECHO ERIN YES the maximum magnitude of the internal forces and moments and the presumed maximum error for every load case are printed in the
protocol file. With ECHO ERIN FULL the errors are output in all the elements.
The error estimates are stored in the database and can be represented graphically. The user should take a closer look and possibly refine regions with high
error estimates.
Additional instructions are to be found in the manual of the program TALPA.
4.12
The following result values are output for each boundary for which a designation
has been input:
DISTRIBUTED FORCES ALONG NODES
LC
Load case
No.
nodeno
Node number
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mn
mn
average
sum
length
The output can be controlled with ECHO LINE. With ECHO LINE YES only the
sums of the boundaries appear, with ECHO LINE FULL the individual values are
output too.
4.13
The strain energy of the groups is only printed and stored with both input ECHO
STAT FULL and ECHO GRP FULL:
Strain energy of groups
load case
group
Group number
Energy
Energy in kNm
=% of sum
Percentage part
4.14
With ECHO ELEM 4 an output of all QUAD elements with centre of gravity coordinates and normal direction can be requested. With that a further processing
can occur for load generation with a spreadsheet program (wind load on a cooling tower).
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