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People and the Planet

Our Numbers are Growing Fast

1.1

A population rises when there are more births than deaths.


The worlds population is rising rapidly by about 150 people a minute!
The birth rate is the number of live births per thousand people in a year; the death rate is
the number of deaths per thousand people in a year. (The figures are usually converted to

percentages.)
Many different factors influence birth and death rates. For example, the quality of health

care is one factor.


Be able to give examples of factors that affect birth and death rates.

So where is everyone? 1.2


People are not spread evenly around the world. There are patterns of population

distribution.
These patterns are the result of several factors: climate, relief, access to water and other

resources, and to trade routes, security, job opportunities, and so on.


Be able to describe the pattern of population distribution around the world.
Be able to give two examples of densely populated and sparsely populated

countries.
Be able to give at least two factors that influence population distribution and
explain why they do.
Our impact on our planet

1.3

As the population rises, we use more and more of Earths resources: soil, water, metal ores

and so on.
We also produce more and more waste.
Be able to give at least three examples of the Earths resources that we depend

on.
Be able to give at least three ways in which we are shaping and changing the

Earths surfaces.
Be able to give at least two negative impacts of our activities.

Coasts

Coastlines are continually shaped and changed by physical and human processes.
The waves shape and change the coast by eroding, transporting and depositing material.

The result is special coastal landforms.


We humans also change it, through the way we use the land.
In many areas, erosion is threatening settlements.
The challenge is to defend the coasts against erosion in a sustainable way.

Waves and Tides

2.1

Waves are caused by wind dragging on the surface of the water.


The length of water the wind blows over is called the fetch. The stronger the wind, the

longer it blows and the longer the fetch, the larger the waves will be.
Waves break in shallow water. The water that rushes up the sand is the swash; it rolls

back into the sea as backwash.


When the swash is stronger than the backwash, material is added to the beach. If the

backwash is stronger than the swash, the beach is eroded.


Be able to explain how waves are caused and how wind, strength, duration and

fetch affect them.


Be able to explain how tides are caused.
The waves at work

2.2

Waves erode rock by hammering into the cracks at high pressure, dissolving any soluble
material; and flinging pebbles and sand at it, which scrape it away. They then knock rock

fragments together so that these get smoothed and worn away.


The end products of erosion are pebbles (shingle), sand and mud.
Be able to explain the processes of erosion, transport and deposition by the

waves.
Be able to explain how weather helps to make erosion easier.
Landforms created by the waves

Erosion and deposition by the waves result in different coastal landforms.


Be able to identify and sketch the coastal landforms covered in this unit.
Be able to explain how they are formed.
The coast and us

2.4

Coastal settlements are likely to have specific functions related to the sea and they bring

related employment.
Be able to give at least six examples of ways we use the coast.
Be able to explain what special function coastal towns can have.
Be able to explain how we humans shape and change the coast by the way we
use it.
Your holiday in Newquay 2.5

Be able to identify coastal landforms on an OS map.


Be able to compare a photo to an OS map to identify a place.

How long can Happisburgh hang on?

Erosion by waves can cause cliffs to collapse and home to fall into the sea.
Be able to explain why coastal erosion is happening to quickly at Happisburgh.
Be able to describe the effects of erosion at Happisburgh.
The war against the sea

2.6

2.7

Erosion is a big problem on stretches of coasts that have soft or fairly soft rock.
Be able to give at least four ways to protect coastal places from erosion.
Be able to explain the pros and cons of building and maintaining coastal
defenses.

Weather and Climate

Weather is the state f the atmosphere around us at a given point in time. Its different

components can be measured. (Temperature, for example.)


Climate is the average or usual weather in a place. It is the result of several factors:
the main one is latitude, or distance from the equator. As you move away from the
equator, temperatures fall. The next important factor is the tilt of the Earths axis as it

travels around the sun. This gives distinct season for mid latitude countries.
Be able to describe different types of weather.
Be able to explain what causes weather. Two key factors: the sun and water

vapor. 3.2
Be able to explain how weather is measured, in what units. Using what

equipment. 3.3
Be able to explain the three different kinds of rainfall. 3.4
Be able to explain at least three different types of clouds.
Be able to explain the weather associated with high and low pressures. 3.5
Air pressure is the force or pressure the air exerts on surfaces.
When warm air rises, pressure falls. But rising air mean water vapor condenses, giving
clouds and rain. At the same time, air rushes in from other places at higher pressure, as

wind. So low pressure means clouds, rain and wind.


Where cold heavy air sinks, air pressure rises. And this time no clouds form, because the

warms up as it sinks towards the Earth, so its water vapor does not condense.
So high pressure means clear skies (while low pressure means cloudy skies).
In summer, high pressure means bright sunshine and hot days since there are ot cloud to

keep heat in, evenings can be cool.


In winter, high pressure means bright clear days. Since there is no cloud to keep heat in, it
gets really cold when the sun goes down. You get ice and frost.

Be able to explain air masses and their effect in changing weather. 3.6
Air masses differ from each other in temperature and moisture content. They can be hot or
cold, damp or dry, depending on where they came from.

Because they have different characteristics, air masses can clash when they meet, leading

to rapid changes in the weather.


A depression is a weather system made up of a cold front chasing a warm one. If the air
masses are sufficiently different, the cold front will bring a big rise in air pressure as it
dives under the warm ai mass this gives rise to gale force winds, as well as heavy rain.

The result is a storm.


A cold air mass travels faster than a warm one. When a cold front catches up with a warm
front this is where the winds are the most violent. The cold front pushes the warm front off

the ground, creating an occluded front.


A depression dies away when all the warm air mass has been lifted off the ground. It cools

as it rises, and the two air masses eventually mix.


Overall, a depression acts like a big whisk, mixing warm and cold air masses together.
Be able to explain at least six different factors that influence climate. 3.9
Be able to explain how the world is divided into different regions because of
those factors influencing climate. 3.10