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..............................*** LESSON NUMBER 21 ***..........................

.....
Lessons 12-15 gave recommended DVD's and CD's for wise purchasing.
Lessons 16-20 gave enough information on chords to last you a full year.
Now we will return to basic instruction going along with the book again.
In Lesson 9, we studied some basic scale patterns that can be used for
playing along with the first few tracks on the CD. These patterns aren't
exactly "licks" and should simply be thought of as patterns that will help
you get used to the scales, and offer a starting point for improvization.
The basic patterns and some helpful tips for practice are given on pages
9-19, but we have just used the first seven patterns so far (pages 9-13).
Now it's time to go ahead and look at the rest of the patterns (20 in all),
so review pages 9-13 now, then continue reading all the way to page 19.
When you're finished with the reading, turn back to page 78 in the book,
and you will remember that all the suggested patterns are written out in
the key of Bb here, for trumpeters to use with track 2. You can play the
patterns with track 2 by simply reading them all right off the page!
Some super organized people will have the urge to systematically learn
all 20 patterns, in every possible key and mode there is before going on.
There is no need for this. I would probably only play paterns 3, 7, 11, 12,
13, 19 and 20, and only over the minor scales given on pages 78 thru 82.
This will give you a great start without repeating alot of material in whole
notes, half notes, and quarter notes, etc. You should go ahead and mark
those recommended patterns on pages 78-82, and then you're all set.
You can practice these patterns away from the CD, or along with it. Try to
vary the rhythms a bit, which will bring you a little closer to improvization
already. When playing them along with the tracks, you should not feel that
you must play them exactly as written. Remember they are a springboard
to launch improvization from. If you feel inspired to experiment, go ahead
and have some fun. Experimentation is exactly what you need.
Experiment all the time, but take it slowly... always trying to prehear each
idea in your mind. Do not just play a bunch of random notes. If all you can
hear is just a note or two, then that's what you should play... Later you will
hear 3 or 4 notes, and then more. You crawl, then you walk, then you run!!
Do experiment by improvizing without the CD tracks too. Trying to keep up
with the count, and the chord changes can hamper the creative process.
You can improvize some on all 12 major scales as you're working on them.
Spend the most time with the "newer, harder ones". Do improvize a little on
every scale as you practice it. This will help you to learn them even faster.
Be sure to practice your seven minor (dorian) scales this way too, as well
as your four minor blues scales. You will find those scales are just begging
to be played. Don't worry about these scale patterns too much, they're just
there to help get you started...

................................*** LESSON NUMBER 22 ***........................


.........

"FOUR MEASURE CADENCES" ...or... "THE II/V7/I CHORD PROGRESSION"


This lesson represents a big and very important step in the improvization
student's developement. You should re-read Lesson 16 "the 7 modes" and
Lesson 17 "the 7 diatonic chords" at this point before going on...
You'll recall that the major scales can be played starting on each of their
seven tones, making seven "modes". You'll also recall that all the major
scales have seven different "diatonic chords" associated with them, each
starting on a different scale step (just like the modes). So each of the 12
major scales have seven modes, and seven diatonic chords.
Also recall that each of the seven diatonic chords is labelled with a roman
numeral, depending on which step of the scale it is built from, and each of
the seven modes has a special name (Ionian, Dorian, Mixolydian, etc...).
Now turn to page 74 of the play-along section in your book, and look at the
Track 6 "FOUR MEASURE CADENCES" section. The first line has the chords
G-, C7, and F Maj. This would be the II chord, the V chord, and the I chord
in the key of F major. Some are triads, and some are seventh chords, but
this makes no difference to us right now. The only thing that matters is that
they are built on the 2nd step, the 5th step and the 1st step of the F major
scale, and therefore they are the "II, V and I chords in the key of F".
It's probably better to point out that the V chord is really a V7 chord, but as
soloists, it won't matter to us if the piano player is using a triad, a 7th chor
d,
or even a 9th chord, since it won't effect what scale we will use to improvize
with anyway. I'll talk about this more later. The main thing is just to see that
we're using the II, V7, and I chord in F major.
Now let's look at the scales that are recommended for use with each of these
chords. LOOK! They're all modes of the F major scale. Notice the II chord
uses the 2nd mode, the V chord uses the 5th mode, and the I chord uses the
first mode (Dorian, Mixolydian, and Ionian).
The notes of the F major scale will sound good over every chord on that
whole first line! This is some very important stuff here folks. It's now time
to really make sure you get this!! I know we're using different modes with
each chord, but they are all modes of the same F major scale. They all use
the exact same notes. All the chords are built from the tones of the F major
scale, and all the notes of the F major scale sound good when played over
all of these chords. When you think about it, it all makes perfect sense!
And... it all works in every key! Let's check it out:
First line ........... II/ V7/ I in F ............ F major scale works throughou
t!
Second line........ II/ V7/ I in G .......... G major scale works throughout!
Third line........... II/ V7/ I in A ........... A major scale works throughout!
Fourth line......... II/ V7/ I in Bb ........ Bb major scale works throughout!
Fifth line............ II/ V7/ I in C ........... C major scale works throughout
!
Sixth line .......... II/ V7/ I in D ........... D major scale works throughout!
Feeling brave??? You know what to do! Review this lesson a little, then...
GO FOR IT!!! Put that CD in the player and advance it to Track 6. Notice
each line repeats so you don't get lost. Now, jump right in!! You'll most

likely want to listen to the track a bit first, then play along.
You could try just playing the first five tones under each chord symbol as
eighth notes to get you rolling... then, gradually begin improvizing freely,
bravely, without the slightest sadness that you miss some notes now and
then. Keep it simple, simple, SIMPLE, but don't worry about mistakes!!
Experiment... and make lots of mistakes! Who cares? It's your first time...
Stop occasionally just to listen. Hum, and count measures. Begin to feel the
chord changes just like you did on the earlier tracks, then play some more.
It'll feel a bit awkward at first! How could it be any other way? But it DOES
get better and better, day by day, week by week... until it's so easy you'll
look back and wonder how it ever felt so odd at first!! HAVE FUN!

..................................*** LESSON NUMBER 23 ***......................


............
..."THAT TRICKY FOURTH STEP OF THE MIXOLYDIAN AND IONIAN MODES"...
When we played along with Tracks 2 thru 5, we were using one minor scale
over one minor chord for several measures at a time. We were able to hold
any of the scale tones at any moment and it would sound pretty good. If you
have already begun playing along with Track 6, presented just above in our
Lesson 22, you might have already noticed that there are a couple notes in
the scales, that if held at certain times can sound "wrong or bad". You might
have wondered how there could be any "clinkers" in these suggested scales.
While we notice that the first line on Track 6 can be played using only one
major scale all the way through, for this discussion I'd prefer to refer to the
scales used for each chord by their "modal names". In other words the scale
under the G- symbol would be G dorian, the scale under the C7 symbol will
be C mixolydian, and we'll call the scale under the F Maj symbol F ionian.
The problem lies with the fourth steps of the mixolydian and ionian modes...
Look at the material for Track 6 again on page 74 in the book. During the C7
chord, the fourth step of its corresponding mixolydian mode can sound wrong
if held for a couple of beats or more. Similarly, during the F Major chord, the
fourth step of its corresponding ionian mode will also sound wrong if held for
any length of time.
During the C7 chord the "problem note" would be F, and during the F Major
chord the "problem note" would be Bb... If you have not yet noticed this on
your own, go now to the CD player and put on Track #6. Do remember that
we are using the first line as our example here, but this problem exists with
the fourth step of all the mixolydian and ionian modes. Play along now with
Track 6 and intentionally hold out the note F during the C7 chord, and also
hold the note Bb during the F Major chord. Not very pretty, are they?!
If you just play them for a short time, passing through on the way to other
notes of the scale, there's no problem. It's when you hold those notes out for
a couple of beats or more that the problem arises. The fourth step in each of
these two scales "clash" with the third step, which exist in the chords.
There is no problem with the fourth step of the minor/dorian scale we used
with the G- chord (for example) and its fourth step can be held anytime w/o
sounding bad. It is just the fourth step of the mixolydian and ionian modes

that we have to be careful with.


It's not a very big issue if one is playing notes that they've "pre-heard" as pa
rt
of a melodic idea. Your mind won't tell you to hold that "problem note" anyway,
since you instinctively know it would sound bad. Just go slowly and pass through
it on the way to other "good sounding" notes. If you always play what you 'hear'
you won't have any problems. There is an old saying in jazz that I once heard
(and later originated) that goes something like this: "If you hear it, it can't
be
wrong!" There is alot of truth to that statement...
Just go slowly and be careful with that fourth step, and later you won't have
problems with this tricky note at all. Soon you won't even notice it anymore.
Keep practicing, and do give yourself a break. Don't be so hard on yourself.
Remember that trial and error is a great teacher. We learn as much from all
the mistakes as we do from the successes. If you never make mistakes then
something is terribly wrong. So, don't be shy, and don't worry about making
a few mistakes! Our mistakes teach us what doesn't work!!

................................*** LESSON NUMBER 24 ***........................


.........
"MORE TIPS ON PLAYING THE II/ V7/ I CHORD PROGRESSION, TRACK 6"
So, now you're playing along with Track 6 over the II/V7/I chord changes.
Here are some tips that will help you to improve your playing on this track.
(1) Try starting each line on the first note of the minor/dorian scale shown
under each II chord. Example: First line, start on G. Second line, start on
A. Third line, start on B, etc... Beginning your ideas on the root of each II
chord will help get you oriented, and help you to hear the chords, and feel
the rhythm.
(2) Try to land on the chord tones of the I chord in the third measure each
time. Example: On the F Major chord, land on the notes F, A, C, E and G...
Doing this will also help keep you oriented, and help you to hear and feel
the resolution of the chords. Land mostly on F, A and C at first. Later you'll
find that the upper chord tones E and G sound very nice as well, having a
certain bitter-sweet quality to them. (Notice that the chord tones for each
measure have been darkened in to make it easier for you to see and use.)
(3) After landing on a chord tone, perhaps in the third measure, rest a few
beats to make sure you can start the next II chord on its root once again.
Keep repeating this proceedure many times (suggestions 1-3). Later you'll
be able to improvize more freely without these rules, making connections
more smoothly, but for now these tips will help you to "get the feel of it".
Later on we will begin learning "licks" that will take you on to another level.
Right now you should just continue with "free" improvization, having no licks
at all. This will force you to play what you hear in your mind, and begins the
process of "ear training". I feel that a person should go at least three months
before learning any licks whatsoever. Too many people learn a few licks way
too soon, and then just start mindlessly "plugging them in" every time they

get a chance.
If the truth were told, too many "pros" are simply plugging in licks all over
the place, and not really creating music, not really making any art. Too many
sound like computers with all their licks, and some just seem to be trying to
play as many notes as possible. That's not art, and not what jazz is supposed
to be. We will learn many licks in the future, but we will only use them when
we hear them as part of a melodic developement, not just because we "know
they will fit" with certain chords. Hope that all makes sense... sermon over.
Ooops... just one more semonette. If anyone ever asks you who are some
of the most influential people in jazz today, when you tell them about artists
such as Wynton Marsalis, or Arturo Sandoval, etc... Be sure to also mention
Jamey Aebersold. I think he has had perhaps the largest hand in the rebirth
of jazz in this country... I'd say 90% of my own education came through his
materials, and the jam sessions I shared with many jazz playing friends and
the Aebersold play-along sets. I started wearing out his records abouth 30
years ago, and now have about 85 of his book/cd sets (there are now well
over 100)! THANKYOU JAMEY AEBERSOLD!! History will count you as one of
the greatest for all your contributions to our art!

.................................*** LESSON NUMBER 25 ***.......................


.........
I'd say there are three various groups of people who are using this thread:
(1) People who are just starting out, and now working on the early lessons.
(2) People who started in the past. I'm just catching up to where they were.
(3) People who are ahead and waiting for me to catch up to where they are.
I hope everyone benefits at their own level, and at their own pace. Perhaps
even the advanced players get something too, if only a thorough review. By
this time the novice should have learned his 12 major scales, and he should
keep on working on them daily, spending most of his practice on the newer
ones, until they are all nearly equally mastered.
By this time you should have those first seven minor/dorian scales used in
Tracks 2-5 well under control, as well as the four minor/blues scales I have
assigned too. Make sure you know those four, starting on G, F, E and C! If
you are unsure about any of the scales I just mentioned, go no further with
the lessons until you really have all these firmly under your control...
On page 19, there are some excellent recommendations for other method
books, jazz patterns books, and videos. Let me give some suggestions too.
(1) "Anyone Can Improvize" .................... by Jamey Aebersold (video set)
(2) "Jazz Ear Training" ............................. by Jamey Aebersold (book/c
ds)
(3) "Patterns for Jazz" .............................. by Jerry Coker (licks, pa
tterns)
(4) "Improvizing Jazz" .............................. by Jerry Coker (method boo
k)
(5) "Jazz Improvization" ........................... by David Baker (method book
)
(6) "The Jazz Language" ........................... by Dan Haerle (method book)
(7) "28 Modern Jazz Trumpet Solos" .......... by Ken Slone (volumes 1 & 2)

I believe all these are probably for sale on Jamey Aebersold's website (not
too sure about that), but I would recommend getting at least the two Jerry
Coker books (#3 and #4 above) as I will start refering to them pretty soon.
If you can go ahead and purchase them all at one time, you'll have a library
that will satisfy all your jazz study needs for a VERY long time! At any rate,
do get the two Jerry Coker items because we will be using them soon!
Now it is time to read on in the book. Some of the material will be familiar
to you already from these lessons. Read pages 20-26 now. You should not
have any problem at all with the concepts given there. If needed just back
up and re-read any section that doesn't sink in right away. Jamey's writing
is very clear, and also very thorough. Just take your time, and I'll be back
later with a short review. See you later, and do read those pages (20-26)!

.................................*** LESSON NUMBER 26 ***.......................


.........
I have only a short assignment to make today. Up until now we have only
worked on four of the blues scales. Please turn now to page 40 and begin
by reading it one more time. Notice that the minor/blues scales are to be
used with minor chords that last for at least two measures or more.
These scales would not work well on the minor II chord of a II/V7/I chord
progression for instance. They do work well with extended minor chords...
(like the ones we see on tracks 2-5). I want you now to go ahead and learn
the rest of the minor/blues scales you'll need for those tracks. So, that is a
total of seven to go along with the seven minor/dorian scales you already
know (7 minor/dorian scales, and 7 minor/blues scales).
The seven total blues scales you should now know are C, D, E, F, G, A & B.
Mark them on page 40, then write them in on page 73 to use along with the
CD. Just write in the letter names of each note under the "8 bar symbols"
on track 4 or 5. Be sure you experiment with all these scales as you play
along with tracks 2 through 5. Use the minor/dorian scales for awhile, and
then the minor/blues scales.
Do notice the difference in sound these scales have. On track 4 you might
try playing the minor/dorian for four bars, then the minor/blues for four...
Also work on those scales away from the CD player as well, and get them
down as good as you possibly can. Well that's the lesson for this time. Be
sure to learn all these 7 minor/blues scale now as soon as possible!

...............................*** LESSON NUMBER 27 ***.........................


.........
Another short lesson: "THE MINOR/PENTATONIC" scales, are yet another
choice for use with the minor type chords... They represent a new color to
add to your palate of scale choices, and they are very easy to learn!
"Pentatonic" means "five tones". There are two types of pentatonic scales,

the major/pentatonic and the minor/pentatonic. For now


the minor version. If you took the 1st, 3rd, 4th, 5th,
of a minor/dorian scale, you'd have a minor/pentatonic
this would give you the notes G, Bb, C, D, F and G. In
this would give you the notes D, F, G, A, C and D.

I will discuss only


7th and 8th tones out
scale. In G minor...
the key of D minor...

Another way to vizualize the minor/pentatonic scales is to think of them as


minor/blues scales but without the fourth tone. This would probably be more
useful for now, so here are two more examples:
G minor/blues................... G, Bb, C, C#, D, F, G
G minor/pentatonic............ G, Bb. C, D, F, G................. (see, no C#)
D minor/blues................... D, F, G, G#, A, C, D
D minor/pentatonic............ D, F, G, A, C, D................... (see, no G#)
I want you to go now to page 73 in the book again, where you should have
written in the notes for the seven minor/blues scales underneath the "8 bar
symbols" for track 4 or 5. Use a highlighting marker or ( ) marks to indicate
the fourth tone of each of the seven minor/blues scales you wrote in there.
Now add this variation of the minor/blues scale to your list... Whenever you
practice the seven minor/blues scales, also practic the minor/pentatonics as
well. Whenever you play tracks 2, 3, 4 or 5, try using the minor/ dorian, the
minor/blues, and now the minor/pentatonic scales as well. That makes three
different scales you now have for use with the minor type chords.
I'm only asking you to learn and use these minor type scales in the seven
keys (C-, D-, E-, F-, G-, A- and B-) for use with tracks 2 through 4 for now,
but all 12 of the major scales must be thoroughly mastered as soon as you
possibly can! Keep on working the less familiar ones the most, until they are
all nearly equally learned, then start practicing them over a wider and wider
range on your instrument. In other words, play down below the root... then
go on up above the top note of each scale as well. You should do this with
all your scales. We don't just improvize in one octave at a time!
Well that's it for this time. Each lesson is one significant bite to digest. Kee
p
reviewing earlier lessons, since you want to thoroughly master every single
bit of this knowledge, and keep playing along with the CD and practicing the
scales... The next lesson will cover the "major/pentatonic" scales... They are
even easier to learn! This variety of scales is what wiil give you a broad and
beautiful variety of colors to choose from in the future! Learn to love them...
they are your friends. Practice scales at least a little bit every single day!

...............................*** LESSON NUMBER 28 ***.........................


......
Another short lesson: "THE MAJOR/PENTATONIC" scales, are yet another
choice for use with the major type chords... They represent another color
to add to your palate of scale choices as well. Each scale I am presenting
has it's own unique sound. You've heard all of them a million times... and
they're all in your head already. You just didn't have names for them all,
or realize you knew them before now.
OK, take the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 5th, 6th and 8th tones out of a major scale and
you have the major/pentatonic scale. We use it primarily with major chords

(such as the I chord at the end of the II/ V7/ I progressions in track 6). Go
ahead and write them in real small under the third measure of each line for
track 6 on page 74. Experiment by playing them right there for now. There
is no real need to learn all 12 yet, but I bet you can imagine how easy that
project will be when you do eventually tackle them all. For now just pencil
them in on page 74 and have some fun experimenting with them... As you
begin trying out each new scale you'll probably feel you've heard them all
before, and you have... literally thousands of times!!!
You should also go ahead and read pages 30 and 31 in the book about the
two kinds of pentatonic scales. You will notice that much other information
and useage suggestions are given there for these scales. For now, all you'll
really need to do is use the minor/pentatonic scales on tracks 2 through 5,
and the major/pentatonic scales on track 6 as I've suggested.
Don't worry if you don't understand everything on pages 30 and 31, just
know that in the future there are other great ways to use these scales as
well and we'll eventually get to those too! You should notice that each new
scale I'm presenting is simply a slight variation of some scale you learned
before. It keeps getting easier and easier the farther along you get. Master
each step as well as possible before going on. You'll thank yourself later as
you progress. It'll be less frustrating this way, and you'll be building a very
solid foundation on which you can build for as long as you like!
Here are the six MAJOR/PENTATONIC SCALES for you to use with track 6:
F, G, A, C, D, F .............. G, A, B, D, E, G ........... A, B, C#, E, F#, A
......
Bb, C, D, F, G, Bb .......... C, D, E, G, A, C ........... D, E, F#, A, B, D ...
.....

................................*** LESSON NUMBER 29 ***........................


.........
Another short lesson: "THE MAJOR/BLUES SCALES" are the last of several
scales I'm presenting all at once. These scales are similar in construction,
so it makes sense to group them this way. This will also be the last scale I
will present for quite some time, so you'll now have all the scales, chords,
and music theory needed for the Aebersold Volume 1 book/cd set. You will
also have about 95% of all the theory needed for a whole year of study!
The major/pentatonic scales presented just above in Lesson 28 were made
by extracting the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 5th, 6th & 8th tones from each major scale.
In the key of C this would be C, D, E, G, A and C. If you added the one note
D# to this scale you would then have the new scale "C MAJOR/BLUES". This
would be C, D, D#, E, G, A & C. Here are a few more examples given in the
same keys as in the lesson above:
F, G, G#, A, C, D, F ........ G, A, A#, B, D, E, G ....... A, B, C, C#, E, F#, A
Bb, C, C#, D, F, G, Bb..... C, D, D#, E, G, A, C ....... D, E, F, F#, A, B, D
We refer to the added note in this new scale as "the raised second" since it
is a half step higher than the usual 2nd step. We often write this as "+2", so
the formula for building this scale would be "1, 2, +2, 3, 5, 6, 8". Do review
this new notation system as we will begin using it more in the near future!

Well, that is pretty much it for this lesson! This new "major/blues" scale
is also used with major type chords, the same as the "major/pentatonic"
scales above, so you can pencil in the extra note with each of the scales
you wrote in to play with Track 6. The "+2" should be used for now as a
"passing tone", slipped in between the 2nd and 3rd scale steps. It should
not be held out, but simply "passed through" for now.
Experiment with this new sound... It will grow on you, as you learn just how
to handle that raised second step. There's no need to try memorizing all 12
yet, just experiment with the six I listed above along with track 6! So, do be
sure to write in those extra (+2) notes as suggested.

................................*** LESSON NUMBER 30 ***........................


........
Seems like a good time for a "BIG REVIEW" so here is a review of the stuff
we've covered so far, and just a few more suggestions for practice, then I'll
start teaching how to play the 12 Bar blues as seen in Tracks 7 and 8... This
will also be a very good time to pause after this lesson, to really make sure
you've digested all the material presented up to this point, and that you've
also memorized ALL THE SCALES given so far.
(1) THE MAJOR SCALES AND THE MODES... By now you should have the 12
major scales VERY MUCH under control. You should also go ahead now and
learn the 12 dorian and 12 mixolydian modes as well. Once the major scales
are mastered, the dorian and mixolydian modes will follow quite easily. The
dorian (minor/dorian) is simply a major scale played from the 2nd step up
to the ninth. Learn all 12 now. The mixolydian (dominant/mixolydian) is just
a major scale played starting on the 5th step. Learn all 12 of them now too.
Just a brief note about mixolydian. While it is true that it is like a major sca
le
starting on the fifth step, there is an easier way of to think of it that will h
elp
you to learn all 12. You may have noticed that the mixolydian scales are just
the same as major scales starting on the first note, with one exception... The
7th tone has been lowered a half step. I want you to think of the mixolydian
scale as a major scale with a lowerer 7th step as you now learn all 12.
(2) THE MINOR/PENTATONIC AND MINOR/BLUES SCALES... By now you
need to have these two very similar scales thoroughly memorized in the
seven keys given for use along with minor/dorian on Tracks 2 through 5.
(3) THE MAJOR/PENTATONIC AND MAJOR/BLUES SCALES... By now you
need to have these two very similar scales thoroughly memorized in the
six keys given for use on the major I chords found on Track 6, that is all.
(4) THE VARIOUS TYPES OF CHORDS... At this point you should go ahead
and memorize the diatonic chord types given in lesson 20. You should also
be very familiar with the different types of chord symbols listed there too.
You should know that the chords we are presently working with are all built
using "thirds". It's not necessary for you to memorize each of the formulas
given for the chords, just that they are built in thirds, and that the scales
used with each of them contain the "chord tones".

(5) PLAYING ALONG WITH THE TRACKS ON THE CD... We have not yet tried
to learn a single "lick", and it will still be a little while before we do... So
, you
should just continue playing fairly short melodic ideas using all the scales we
have studied with those first six tracks. Keep going slow and pause between
each idea to reflect, and also to try to "hear" the next short idea. Later, your
ideas will get better, and longer, and begin to flow much more smoothly!
Use all the scales you have learned so far when playing along with the tracks.
Just let all of them sink in very, very deeply!! This is what you need more than
anything else in the world. Just be patient, and keep experimenting... and also
do improvize away from the CD player as well. Every single scale you practice
should be improvized on WITHOUT the CD, as well as with!
(6) LISTENNING TO JAZZ SOLOISTS... One of the most important parts of any
jazz study, and often one of the most neglected, is LISTENNING... I hope you
are able to buy some of the DVDs and CDs I recommended for you. The Chet
Baker and Miles Davis things I pushed really are fantastic. If you only had the
Chet, Wynton, and Freddy DVDs I recommended in Lesson 12, you'd be very
happy. Also the one CD with Miles and Charlie Parker called "My Old Flame" is
so beautiful you will be in jazz heaven. It is also marketed as "Bird and Miles"
,
and also sold under the Charlie Parker titles as "The Best of the Dial Years"...
(7) REVIEW THE MATERIAL ON SCHEDULE... One of the very best things you
can do is to practice and review using a schedule. Make a list of all the scales
you need to master, then start checking them off... Make sure you improvize
on all of them regularly with and without the CD... The most important thing
I would want you to do is to constantly go back and review the material I've
presented in these lessons, and the material we've covered in the book.
Make a schedule listing all the scales, and all the lessons, and start checking
them off. I will try to hold off posting any more lesson for a while. If you hav
e
any questions at all do feel free to post them right here on this thread... I am
sure the answers will benefit everyone, so don't be shy... I will just be waitin
g
right here... patiently rolling my eyes.

................................*** LESSON NUMBER 31 ***........................


.......
NO QUESTIONS, ALRIGHT THEN, GET READY TO ADVANCE MUCH FASTER!
One more thing I'd like to mention: If you have everything learned, up to
this point, you are now ready to go the rest of the way through Volume 1.
You have all the theory and scales needed, and you also have about 95%
of everything you'll need to go all the way through volumes 2, 3 and 5!! If
that's a surprize, then I'm sure it's a good one! You're now about to really
start moving and advancing much more quickly. Very soon we'll begin the
next leg of the journey, the 12 bar blues. Now, you will actually be playing

real songs. The hardest part is over, and you'll begin using all the material
you've learned in real musical contexts now, so get ready to really move!!
I'll give you a little more time to make sure everthing's in order, then we'll
begin playing some real jazz. This is where it really starts to get fun!!!

................................*** LESSON NUMBER 32 ***........................


........
TRACK SEVEN ...... BLUES IN THE KEY OF Bb CONCERT ...... LET'S BEGIN!
First of all, let me say a few things... All advanced improvizers understand
that there are infinite possibilities when it comes to playing 12 Bar Blues...
(or any other jazz soloing for that matter). We have many various ways to
approach a solo. In reality, they truly are infinite!! Right now we are at the
beginner level, so I will keep it all very simple. Later, we will come back to
the Blues and add more information and possibilities when you are ready.
Please open your book to page 74 where you will see Track 7 "Blues in the
key of Bb Concert". For trumpet players, this would be the key of C. Notice
that there are scales written below the chord symbols as usual, but also at
the bottom of the page there are two more listed... These two scales would
be the C minor/blues scale, and the C minor/pentatonic.
Now flip to page 77, and see the "Bb Instrument Blues Melodies". The first
three are for use with Track 7; the last two will be used later with Track 8.
These melodies are actual songs that use the 12 bar blues chord changes.
Count the measures in these short songs, and you'll see that each of them
are 12 measures long, just like the song form for Track 7. These melodies
will all fit with Track 7... There have been many thousands of songs written
to fit with these particular chords, and these three are all great examples.
Jazz players have a special name for the melody in each song. They call it
"the head". We generally play the head a time or two... then we take turns
playing improvized solos... then we play the head again to end the song. It
is a time honored format that is used all over the world. Obviously, we will
be using the scales listed with Track 7 to improvize with... but I'll leave the
discussion of the scales for the next lesson. The only thing I want you to do
right now is to learn the three heads, "Tenor Madness", "Pentatonic Blues",
and "The Roving Third".
You may want to review the information given on page 15 about playing in
"swing". I haven't really talked about this yet, but basically in swing rhythm
the eighth notes are played with roughly a 2/3 and 1/3 division of the beat
instead of the usual 1/2 and 1/2 that we're all familiar with... I want you to
learn these three heads as thoroughly as possible, using the swing rhythm
as described on page 15. So review and make sure you understand swing.
As you learn each of these three heads, you should practice playing them
along with the recorded track as well... You should learn them so well that
you can even change the rhythms a bit just for fun, or perhaps even add a
few notes here and there. Experiment! Play with these melodies! The early
blues players did just that, and for now that's all I want from you. Don't try
using any of the scales just yet. Play the heads only, and just a few simple
variations, and that's all. Memorize all three heads so well that you can just
close your eyes and experiment. Learn them very thoroughly and this'll get

you used to the 12 bar form. When you begin to improvize freely using the
scales it will be much, much easier. So... MASTER THESE THREE HEADS!
PLAY THEM, SING THEM, VARY THE RHYTHMS A BIT, TRY ADDING JUST A
FEW NOTES HERE AND THERE, AND PLAY ALL THREE WITH AND WITHOUT
THE CD TRACKS. NOW, BECOME OBSESSED WITH THOSE THREE HEADS!
I'll be back shortly, so start now on this project, and you'll be ready! This'll
really make
three tunes
you are now
it's one of

the improvizing go so much easier, so don't delay. BTW, these


are full of great "licks" that you can use when improvizing, so...
learning your first licks as well. Get obsessed with this lesson;
the most important ones so far!

................................*** LESSON NUMBER 33 ***........................


.........
Now, it is time for "MORE INFORMATION ON 12 BAR BLUES" as I promised.
By this point you should know the first three blues heads given on page 77
so well that they are completely memorized, and you are able to play them
in swing rhythm, and with slight variations as well. You must be able to vary
the rhythms a bit, as well as add a few notes here and there on the spur of
the moment. This is, of course, exactly how jazz improvization began!
One thing you should have noticed is how the third tone of the C scale kept
going back and forth from E to Eb... Look again now at "Tenor Madness" and
"The Roving Third". See how the E in the melody over the C7 chord changes
each time to Eb over the F7 chord. In fact, the title "The Roving Third" refers
to this. The third step of the scale keeps roving from E to Eb and back again.
As you play these heads you should continue to experiment with this as well.
Now turn to page 74 where the chords and scales are presented for Track 7.
Look at the scales under each chord symbol and you will notice that the note
E is used with the C7 chord in its dominant/mixolydian scale, and the note Eb
is used with the F7 chord in its dominant/mixolydian scale. This is exactly how
they were used in the heads as well. It's a very good idea to emphasize these
"roving third" tones when improvizing over these chords too!
You should now begin to improvize using the suggested scales. All of those
dominant 7th chords use their corresponding dominant/mixolydian scales. I
told you that these could be thought of as a major scale starting on the fifth
tone, but that it is actually easier to think of them as major scales where the
7th tones have been lowered by a half step. If you are unsure about this, go
review the third paragraph of lesson 30 right now, since almost every single
chord in this 12 Bar Blues uses this scale.
There is one chord here that will use a minor/dorian scale... and it is that Dchord which you see in the 9th measure. You've played it in Tracks 4 and 5,
but you've also played it in Track 6 as part of the II/V7/I progression... That
is actually how it is being used here... Notice that the D- chord is followed by
the G7 chord, and they both use basically the same scale. Remember this as
you begin to improvize using these scales.
Now here is how you can put it all together: Start by simply playing the scales
without the CD background. Ignore the beats and measures for now. Just play

the scale in the first measure up and down, then the next scale up and down,
then the third, and so on. Don't try to play them "in time" at all. Just play ve
ry
slowly, listenning to how each scale sounds. You'll probably feel as though you
can almost hear the chords changing in your head!
Next begin improvizing on each of the scales in the same manner, still without
using the CD backgrounds. Continue to ignore trying to play the scales in time.
Very gradually... perhaps over the course of a week or so, you will continue to
improve to the point where you can put on the CD and play along with Track 7.
Be patient! Allow yourself time to get to this point little by little... You'll
spend
alot of time working towards this goal without the CD. But when you do get to
playing with the CD... you can now feel that you have definitely made it to the
"next level". Go ahead and try playing any of the heads along with the CD and
then go directly into an solo. Now you're really getting the feel of it!
You're playing your first real jazz tunes and improvizing with them!! This is
really a major milestone in the path to becoming a true jazz musician! Take
at least a week or two with this. Go back to playing the heads. Then go back
to just playing the scales. CRAWL, THEN WALK, THEN RUN. Take all the time
you need! It's all fun, so don't rush it! Many people break down at this point
because the transition from playing simple exercises to playing a real song,
where the scales change so quickly, simply overwhelms them, and they give
up. DON'T GIVE UP! JUST TAKE IT SLOWLY, PIECE BY PIECE!
One last thing, but it's a goodie!!! The two scales listed at the bottom of the
page, the C minor/blues scale and the C minor/pentatonic can both actually
be used all the way throught the whole song. Go ahead and try it... Yes, you
can use one or the other or both all the way through the whole song. It is a
good idea to try playing an occasional E natural with those C7 chords so you
can hear that too, but this is why those two scales are at the bottom of that
page. All jazz players use those scales but it's important not to overuse them.
Think of them as a spice to sprinkle into your solos, and continue working the
most on getting to the point where you can play using the scales suggested
under each individual chord. Also experiment with putting bits and pieces of
the heads (licks) into your solos as well. These are the kinds of things that
seperate a simple "blues player" from a real jazz musician!!
No need to go beyond this point for at least a few weeks!!! Just be patient and
keep reviewing earlier material, and the earlier tracks... Now you'll be playing
more and more, and studying less and less. Remember, I said you have all the
scales and theory needed for the rest of Volume 1, and about 95% of all you'll
need for a whole year! Play more, study less... Cool, huh?
Now, do take alot of time with this phase. Absolutely don't rush through this!!!
You'll fly right through the next three book/CD sets! The hardest part is alread
y
over. When you've finished this set, you won't be a beginner anymore! I am...

................................*** LESSON NUMBER 34 ***........................


.......

This lesson could be called "A BLUES REVIEW". So let's review the blues!
Below is a summary of the steps I suggested in the previous two lessons
to work gradually towards playing along with Track 7, the 12 bar blues...
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Start by thoroughly memorizing the first three heads given on page77.


Next, try varying the rhythms, and adding a few notes to the melodies.
Then start playing the suggested scales out of time, without the tracks.
Now start improvizing on the scales, still out of time and without the cd.
When you can do all that, begin playing along with the cd backgrounds.
The chords & scales change rapidly, so keep it quite simple for a while.
Play very few notes at first, so you can really nail those chord changes.
Experiment by adding some licks from the heads into your improvizing.
Be sure to try playing the note E with the C7 chord, and Eb with the F7.

And finally suggestion #10..... Try using the C minor/blues scale, and also
the C minor/pentatonic scale all the way through all twelve measures. You
now have a recap of all the steps I've given so far on playing 12 bar blues.
All the material I've suggested can now be used freely in your soloing. You
would start Track 7 rolling and then begin by playing one of the heads once
or twice. Feel free to vary the rhythms and add notes if you feel like it!
Then begin to improvize a solo. Start slow to get your bearings and use just
the suggested scales under the chords at first. Keep it very simple! Next, try
using a lick or two borrowed from the heads you learnd so thoroughly... Play
with those licks, and repeat them a time or two using slight variations. This is
your solo and you can do almost anything you want with it! HAVE SOME FUN!
Try using those minor/blues and minor/pentatonic scales exclusively a while,
and then go back to the scales listed under each chord, along with some licks
you particularly like from those heads. To end the song, you simply play the
head again a time or two, and you're done!
Once you can do this, even just playing very short simple ideas, you are no
longer a "beginner" anymore. You are playing exactly the same way as real
jazz musicians do everyday. They mix playing a few licks and material from
the melody, along with freely improvized material using all the scales, into a
spontaneous solo on the spur of the moment. You are now a jazz player!
Remember that it is a good idea to go no further than this for at least a few
weeks... Keep playing all the tracks up to this point, and reviewing all of the
material I've presented here as well. If you will be patient, and let all of thi
s
sink in very deeply, it will make everything that follows much easier!

.................................*** LESSON NUMBER 34 ***.......................


...........
Now for some more... "ANOTHER BLUES, TRACK 8" ... for trumpeters, it is a
blues in G. Everything that applied in the previous lesson for blues in C, also
applies to this blues in G. First, go to page 77 again. There you'll see the two
heads, "Blues By Five" and "Slippery Blues". These two heads will fit with the
12 bar blues in Track 8, just as the others fit with Track 7.

Apply all the suggestions in Lesson 33 to this Track too. It should go much
easier this time, as you've already done it all with the C blues on Track 7...
Everything is just the same as before except that this time the song is in G.
Even the minor/blues and minor/pentatonic scales are given just as before,
except this time in the key of G. Apply everything suggested in lesson 33 to
this track as well.
It's very important to go slow and let everything sink in deeply. The longer
you take with all this the better. We're building a foundation... we're building
YOUR FOUNDATION. Don't cheat yourself. Practice consistently. Go back and
review often. Now that you have all the basic theory, it is pretty much all fun
now. All the pieces of the puzzle are beginning to fall into place already.
Again, DON'T BE IN ANY RUSH! I'm continuing to post each day for mid-level
and advancing players, so beginners should not try to keep up. Just go slow,
at YOUR OWN pace! These lessons will all be waiting right here for you when
you're ready for them. Above all else, take your time, and HAVE FUN!

...............................*** LESSON NUMBER 35 ***.........................


.....
Time to play, "TRACK 9, CYCLE OF DOMINANT 7th CHORDS"... Let's go!!!
The dominant 7th chord has a special quality to its sound. It usually has a
kind of unsettled feeling, that needs to "resolve" to the next chord... Many
of you have probably played this game. You sing a song but then you stop
and hold the next-to-the-last-note without progressing to the final tone. It
sounds so unfinished that we cringe until we hear that final note. The relief
we feel upon hearing that final tone is called "resolution".
How chords move from one to the next is called chord progression. Track 9
is all about the progression and resolution of the dominant 7th chords. When
you play this track you will feel how each chord seems to 'need' to progress
and resolve to the next. There are two tones in the each dominant 7th chord
that create this "unresolved" quality the most... the 3rd and 7th tones.
Now look at the first D7 chord in Track 9. Under the D7 chord symbol you'll
see the expected scale that goes with it, the D dominant/mixolydian scale...
The 3rd and 7th tones in this case are the notes F# and C. These two notes,
more than any others, have a need to 'resolve' or 'progress' to the tones of
the next chord.
If you were to hold
the need to resolve
third". If you held
to the B in the new

the note F#, when the chord changes to G7, you'd hear
it to the G in the new chord... We call this "resoving the
onto the note C, you'd strongly feel the need to resolve it
chord. We call that "resolving the 7th".

If you play with that first dominant/mixolydian scale, even without that CD
background, you'll hear and feel the need these tones have to resolve as I
described. Go ahead and play with this effect right now. Play and improvize
on that first scale a bit, and you'll find that holding the F# creates the need
to resolve to G, and holding the C creates the need to resolve to B.... Take
your time with this and just experiment a while without the CD. Then put on
Track 9 and experiment with this same thing, WITH the CD background.

Go ahead and play the whole track. You'll notice that the chord tones have
been darkened in the corresponding scales, so this will make it easier to be
aware of which tones are the 3rds and 7ths in each scale. If you improvize
freely on each scale without regard for keeping track of those chord tones,
you will still sense the need to resolve them carefully each time the chords
change. Go slowly so you can really hear this "resolution" effect each time.
Well, that's really about all there is to it. Dominant seventh chords feel like
they need to "move onward" to the next chord. Just play this track using the
dominant/mixolydian scales given below each chord symbol, and listen how
they resolve. If you feel as though you've hit a "clinker", it's likely that you
held one of those 3rds or 7ths too long. It's no crisis when this happens!
Actually it's kind of good to make these mistakes many times, as it will teach
your subconscious mind "what not to do"... The mistakes teach us even more
than our successes sometimes. Just go ahead and play, and don't be timid!
One more thing... I've told you that the mixolydian scale is the fifth mode of
a major scale. Please notice that it is also just like a major scale starting on
the first step, but with the one exception that the 7th tone has been lowered
one half step. This is how I want you to learn them and think of them... as a
"major scale with a lowered 7th".

.................................*** LESSON NUMBER 36 ***.......................


........
It is time to review a good "NOTATION SYSTEM" that I introduced earlier.
I just reminded you, in the last paragraph of the last lesson, about another
way to think of the dominant/mixolydian scale. While it's true that the scale
is basically the fifth mode of the major scale, there's an easier way to think
of it. It can be thought of as a major scale with a lowered 7th step. When I
say lowered, I mean that is has been moved down by one half step.
To see this, simply look at the C7 chord, and the mixolydian scale beneath
it on Track 9 once again. It's easy to see that the C mixolydian scale would
compare quite closely with the C major scale.... We could say that it has the
following formula: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, -7, 8. This uses the "notation system" I've
refered to above. The system shows how this particular scale compares with
a major scale starting on the same note.
Here is another example, using this system to describe the dorian scale.
To see this, simply look at the C- chord, and the dorian scale beneath it,
on Track 5 once again. It's easy to see that the C dorian scale compares
closely with the C major scale as well..... This time the formula would be
this: 1, 2, -3, 4, 5, 6, -7, 8. In other words, the dorian scale is also like a
major scale, but with a lowered 3rd step and a lowered 7th step.
Any scale or chord can be compared to its own major scale, and a formula
such as this could be used to describe it. Here are some more examples:
(1) Major scale.................................... 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8
(2) Dorian scale................................... 1, 2, -3, 4, 5, 6, -7, 8

(3) Mixolydian scale.............................. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, -7, 8


(4) Major pentatonic............................. 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 8
(5) Minor pentatonic............................. 1, -3, 4, 5, -7, 8
In every case... the formula is merely a comparison with the major scale!!
And here are examples using this notation system with a variety of chords:
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)

Major 7th chord............................... 1,


Minor 7th chord............................... 1,
Dominant 7th chord......................... 1, 3,
Augmented chord............................ 1, 3,
Half diminished 7th chord................. 1, -3,

3, 5, 7
-3, 5, -7
5, -7
+5
-5, -7

The key to understanding how to use this notation system, is to understand


that in each case we are comparing a scale or chord to the major scale that
is built starting on the same note. Here is another way to look at it:
The C major 7th chord has the notes 1, 3, 5, 7 from the C major scale.
The D major 7th chord has the notes 1, 3, 5, 7 from the D major scale.
The E major 7th chord has the notes 1, 3, 5, 7 from the E major scale.
C mixolydian has the notes 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, -7, 8 from the C major scale.
D mixolydian has the notes 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, -7, 8 from the D major scale.
E mixolydian has the notes 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, -7, 8 from the E major scale.
Jazz players use this formula type notation all the time. It's much easier
than other systems in certain circumstances. Make sure you understand
this system of formulas, since I will begin using it more often in the near
future. It has many advantages as you will come to see. The main thing
you should remember, is that we are comparing the various chords and
scales to "their own major scales".... This system will make many things
easier to understand. A good example: mixolydian 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, -7, 8.
That was easier than thinking of it as the fifth mode of some other scale!

.................................*** LESSON NUMBER 37 ***.......................


..........
It's time to clear up "SOME CONFUSING TERMINOLOGY" that we're using...
Jamey Aebersold uses the name of each chord type (minor, dominant, etc.)
in the terminology he uses for the scales that are most often used with each.
Since I'm using his system as a reference, I am doing the same thing. There
is some possibility of confusion arrising from this practice, so I want to take
a moment to try and make things more clear.
Minor chords generally use the dorian mode as their first choice of scales...
Really, the term "dorian mode" is the most correct, but you'll see it refered
to by other names as well. Here are some examples. Do remember that all
of these names refer to the exact same scale.
(1) The "C dorian mode".................................. (The most correct)
(2) The "C dorian scale"................................... (A bit less correct)
(3) The "C minor scale".................................... (Jamey's invention)
(4) The "C minor/dorian scale".......................... (Tom's compromise)

Next, a few example of names you'll see for the "mixolydian mode"...
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)

The
The
The
The

"C
"C
"C
"C

mixolydian mode"............................ (The most correct)


mixolydian scale"............................. (A bit less correct)
dominant scale"............................... (Jamey's invention)
dominant/mixolydian scale".............. (Tom's compromise)

These are all names of scales, NOT CHORDS! Jamey's use of the names for
the various types of chords in his terminology for scales is intended to make
things easier for the beginner. It would help them to connect the chord name
directly to the scale name, thereby removing a step in the process of trying
to figure out which scales to use with the various types of chords. It would
go something like this:
For a minor chord, use "the minor scale". (That is Jamey's term for dorian.)
For a dominant chord, use "the dominant scale". (JA's term for mixolydian.)
Jamey will sometimes use one set of terminology and then later use another.
This is really helpful as it gets the student used to seeing all the various way
s
the chords and scales are refered to.... Jazz is such a new art form that there
are no real conventions established yet. That's why so many different versions
exist for the various chord symbols as well... Jazz musicians try to be familiar
with as much of the terminology as they can. Hope this helps, and do be sure
to review all this stuff about notation systems, and terminology, some more!!

.................................*** LESSON NUMBER 38 ***.......................


...........
Now for "MORE INFORMATION ON THOSE DOMINANT 7th CHORDS" Track 9.
This will be a fairly short lesson, but a really good one. Remember how the
minor/blues and minor/pentatonic scales worked well with the longer minor
chords (like those found in Track 2-5) but not with the shorter ones (like the
ones in Track 6)?
There are also some scales that similarly work well with longer dominant type
chords (such as the ones found in Track 9) but not as well with shorter ones...
Here are the four scales I'm refering to:
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)

Major/blues
Major/pentatonic
Minor/blues
Minor/pentatonic

You've learned 6 of the major/blues and 6 of the major /pentatonic scales.


You've learned 7 of the minor/blues and 7 of the minor/pentatonic scales...
Go ahead now, and try using some of these scales along with the dominant
7th chords in Track 9. Just go very slowly so you can hear how each scale
sounds and fits with each chord. Do remember that these scales would not
work well with short dominant type chords, such as those found in Track 6,
just with the longer ones!
A comment about the major/blues scale: Remember to use the raised 2nd

just as a "passing tone" when you play this scale. Don't hold it out, just pass
through it on the way to the 2nd or 3rd steps.
A comment about the minor/blues scale: Although the scale has the lowered
3rd step in it, which you'd normally expect might conflict with the "unaltered"
3rd step found in the dominant chord, it will still sound "right", at least on t
he
longer dominant chords like we're dealing with here. This has to do with the
"unsettled" or "unresolved" quality of those dominant chords. Don't worry if
it doesn't seem to make perfect sense, just go ahead and experiment with
it, and you'll see what I mean.
One last comment to everyone... If you just know a few (6 or 7) examples
of each of these scales that I assigned before, that's fine, just use those. If
you're more advanced, or just more ambitious, you can go ahead and learn
all twelve of each scale listed above now. Then you could try using any or all
of them with this track... In any event, I'd suggest learning all of these soon
anyway, thereby filling in all the gaps in your current "scale arsenol". You'd
then know all the major, dorian, and mixolydian scales, as well as all of the
major/blues, major/pentatonic, minor/blues and minor/pentatonic scales...
Don't let this scare you!
If you've been checking off scales one at a time, you're pretty close to knowing
all of these already. You are becoming a well equiped jazz improvizer, ready to
tackle anything that comes your way! Make that schedule I keep mentioning, and
check off scales, and other lessons and materials, in an organized manner.
Time WILL pass, and you WILL get them all. Just keep checking off each scale
one at a time, and then use them all with the recorded tracks. Also be sure to
improvize on each scale a bit, as you work on them without the CD as well.

................................*** LESSON NUMBER 39 ***........................


......
Now it's time for "TRACK 10, A GREAT 24 MEASURE SONG"... so let's go!
I'd like you to use a pencil to number the measures in this song.... In the
left margin, write "1-4" before the first line, then "5-8" before the second,
"9-12" before the third line, etc, etc... This'll make it easier for you to find
the measures I'll keep refering back to. Here are the suggested scales for
you to use:
Measures
Measures
Measures
Measures
Measures
Measures
Measures
Measures
Measures

1-2 .................. D major scale


3-4 .................. Bb mixolydian
5-8 .................. II/ V7/ I in D
9-10 ................ G major scale
11-12 ............... Eb mixolydian
13-14 ............... E mixolydian
15-18 ............... II/ V7/ I in D
19-20 ............... Bb mixolydian
21-24 ............... II/ V7/ I in D

The scales are also given there in the book, below the chord symbols. You
will also notice that no melody is given for this song... but I assure you that

this is not just another exercise. Like the 12 bar blues tracks, this should be
thought of as a "real jazz song". Although there is no key signature given at
the beginning, the song is in the key of D major, so you'd expect that much
of the song should use the D major scale, and you would be right!
This song would use a D major scale in those first two measures... then a
Bb mixolydian scale in measures 3-4... Then in measures 5 thru 8 we see
the II/V7/I chord progression. Let's talk about this II/V7/I for a moment.
First of all this II/V7/I chord progression is identical to the one in the last
line
of Track 6... It is in the key of D major, and it can be played using modes of
the D major scale exclusively, just exactly as we did in Track 6.
E minor chord............... uses E dorian.............. (the 2nd mode of D majo
r)
A dominant 7 chord....... uses A mixolydian....... (the 5th mode of D major)
D major chord.............. uses D ionian.............. (the 1st mode of D major
)
The main thing to remember is that every suggested scale is a mode of the
one "D major scale". They all start on various different steps of the D major
scale, but they all use the same notes. You will notice that I used all of their
"modal names"... dorian, mixolydian, and even ionian. But again, all of them
are made up of notes from the D major scale. If you have any doubts about
this concept.... go and review the info on the II/V7/I chord progression right
now in LESSON 22. Always learn all the info in each lesson before you go on!
So, now for the big picture... look at my list of suggested scales above, and
you'll see that this whole song can be improvized over using nothing but the
D and G major scales, and the Bb, Eb and E mixolydian scales.
The next part should come as no surprise... Open the book to page 76, look
at Track 10, and begin playing up and down the scales a bit without the CD.
Then improvise on each scale a while with no regard for beats, tempos, and
trying to "keep up" with the chord changes. Remember, when you get to the
II/V7/I chord progressions... just think of the whole four measure sequence
as simply using the D major scale all the way through. There is no need to
think about each individual mode for now...
Continue without the CD until you can play, improvizing pretty much in time,
hitting all the chord/scale changes with a steady but slow beat. Tap your foot
very slowly to force yourself to play in time, then very gradually pick up the
tempo until you feel you can "hang with those Aebersold boys".
Get brave... put on Track 10... and dive in! Play very, very, very few notes
at first! Yup, same advice I've given every single time! Use only a few notes
with lots of silence, so you can actually hit EVERY SINGLE CHORD CHANGE!
Later you'll gradually use more notes, and play more flowing lines... but for
now, KEEP IT REALLY SIMPLE and NAIL DOWN THOSE CHORD CHANGES!
Well, there it is. There is only one track left to finish Volume 1! If you're th
is
far along, it is definitely time to order Volume 2, 3 and 5. Yes, go ahead and
get all three right now. I'll jump around a bit from one to another, so get all
three right away. Most beginners should have taken 3-6 months to really get
everything I've presented and learn all the scales up to this point. I keep on
posting at this rate mainly for the intermediate level players. They can make
sure they're really up to speed, and keep up with me... but beginners should

take all this in quite slowly...


You also need to own Jerry Coker's books "Improvizing Jazz", and especially
"Patterns for Jazz". I'm pretty sure you can get both books along with all the
book/CD sets at the Aebersold website, or from Pender's Music in Denton, TX.
www.Aebersold.com
www.Penders.com
Just one
realize,
this one
your way
few jazz

more track to go. I've taught you much more theory than you might
and many more concepts than most people would cover going through
volume. If you really absorbed everything I've given... you're well on
to becomming a jazz improvizer. You are already improvizing with a
songs, and you are quickly becoming a true jazz musician!

................................*** LESSON NUMBER 40 ***........................


........
Time for the last track... "MINOR TO DOMINANT"... Aebersold Volume One!
Look at the title in the book for this "Track 11" and notice the (II/V7) there.
You've already seen the II/V7/I progression in Track 6 and also in Track 10.
This track is just about the II/V7 part of the II/V7/I progression. It's 24 bars
long, and it gives us the II/V7 progression in all 12 keys.
The first two measures are the II/V7 progression in C major......... D-, G7
The next two measures are the II/V7 progression in Bb major....... C-, F7
This continues through all twelve keys. It is very common to see this chord
progression, and it is handled the same way as the full II/V7/I progression
except that it doesn't resolve to the I chord, so the best way to conceive of
the scale we use with it is a little different.
Instead of thinking of it as one major scale through the two measures, it is
beneficial to think of it as one dorian scale this time. The reason for this has
to do with the fact that it doesn't resolve to the I chord as before. It may not
be clear to you why we should think of the same notes in two or even three
different ways at various times, but because the chords don't resolve in the
usual manner, you should think of all these scales as being DORIAN!
Think "D dorian" through measures 1+2......... (not C major)
Think "C dorian" through measures 3+4......... (not Bb major)
In fact, you should do this very intentionally. I don't want you to even think
of the "parent key" for each II/V7 at all. Just look at the dorian scales given
below each minor chord and play them for two measures at a time, then go
on to the next dorian scale and play IT for two measures, and so on...
This will be very much like playing Tracks 2-5, using only dorian scales... In
fact, you should simply ignore the dominant 7th chords altogether... In other
words, just pretend that measures 1+2 are both D-, and measures 3+4 are
both C-, and so forth all the way through the whole track. JUST IGNORE THE

DOMINANT 7th CHORDS AS IF THEY WEREN'T EVEN THERE. Anytime you see
the II/V7 progression it should be handled this manner.
Make sure you learn all 12 dorian scales so well that you never have to think
about how each one is really just "another major scale starting on the second
step". When you improvize, there's no time for that. You must simply think of
dorian as a scale unto itself... There is just not enough time to consider which
major scale each is built from, and there won't be any scales there below the
chord symbols to guide you. In a jazz group setting, the soloist's sheet music
will have the chord symbols printed out for him, but no suggested scales.
It's assumed that he knows what scales to use, and there's always more than
just one possible scale for an improvizer to choose from anyway, each having
its own special sound or flavor. So, the bottom line is... learn all of the scal
es
you'll use so well that you don't have to do any kind of thinking or calculating
whatsoever. In time, you'll become so familiar with them that you won't even
have to think about it!!! You'll also know exactly how each one sounds... and
when you "hear" various musical ideas in your head, you'll know which notes
and scales they're built from instantly! OH YEAH, IT WILL HAPPEN!!!
Go ahead and get Volumes 2, 3 and 5, and also Jerry Coker's book "Patterns
for Jazz" (and his paperback "Improvizing Jazz" if at all possible). This should
be enough material to last almost any improv student for a full year! I am...

.................................*** LESSON NUMBER 41 ***.......................


.........
Now it's time to "LOOK BACK AND REVIEW VOLUME ONE" so let's do that!!
Track 1 .......... The Tuning notes: for trumpeters, this would be our C & B
Tracks 2-5 ...... Long minor chords: using dorian, minor/blues, minor/pent
Track 6 .......... II/V7/I progression: using major scales for four bars each
Tracks 6-7....... 12 Bar Blues: uses all of the scales listed in Lessons 32-34
Track 9 .......... Cycle of Dominants: using all the scales listed in Lesson 35
Track 10 ......... 24 Measure Song: using 2 major scales, and 3 mixolydian
Track 11 ......... Minor to Dominant: use all 12 dorian scales two bars each
This list should be looking pretty simple by this point... Taking each lesson
one at a time, IS fairly simple. But we've covered alot of ground, and now
you are quickly becoming a real jazz improvizer.
I had you read pages 1 to 23 plus a few others, then pretty much supplied
all the rest of the info you need for the rest of the tracks my own way. The
book has alot of the same info that I presented with the appropriate tracks
but in a different order. You should read the whole book at your own pace.
You'll recognize most of the concepts from my lessons, and have an easier
time understanding it all now, since you're already familiar with most of it.
There are a many more scales and chords listed in the syllabus that you'll
not need yet... some scales there that you may never choose to include in
your own personal palette of colors and sounds, but all very good material.
If any of the information in Jamey's book seems hard to understand at this

point even with all my lessons... imagine what it would've been like to go it
alone without them. Even if you read nothing else in the book you're ready
to start Volume 2, "Nothin But Blues". But, do at least take this opportunity
to review a while and then we're moving on...

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.................................*** LESSON NUMBER 42 ***.......................


.........
The next volume is called "NOTHIN' BUT BLUES", and this pretty much says
it all. Most of the tracks in Volume 1 had a swing feel rhythm. More of these
tracks in Volume 2 have a rock feel to them... so do be ready to swing and
rock too! Go ahead and read the articles and introductory material. You will
notice that there is no new theoretical information given in this entire book!
Remember, I told you that we have 95% of all that stuff covered for quite a
while! I wasn't kidding, was I?!!!
The main thing I want you to notice is the licks that are presented on page 3.
You'll need to "transpose" these licks to be able to use them with all the blues
tracks in the various keys... Also, notice that all these blues tracks come with
melodies, each containing many short ideas that can also be used as licks. To
transpose a lick, you move it from one key into another... The "lick" C, Eb, F,
F#, G is built using the C minor/blues scale. Transposed into the key of G, for
instance (using the G minor/blues scale) it would be G, Bb, C, C#, D. This can
be done to use any lick in any key at all. Review this concept some more and
be certain you understand it. We will be doing this alot!
Feel free to start a notebook to write down your favorites. Also notice that all
the "blues licks" given on page 3 use the "minor/blues" scales as their basis!!
This will help you when you begin trying to play them in other keys. I will now
treat you as an intermediate level player, since that's exactly what you are. I
won't keep telling you how slowly you should go... or to keep reviewing all the
earlier material anymore although I certainly hope you'll continue to apply the
principles I've presented so far... WITH EVERY SINGLE THING YOU LEARN!
So make sure you're serious about this project, and get ready to be a bit more
self-reliant. I will continue pointing the way, but it's up to you to take each
step.
When I'm through, you'll be able to continue on your own without any need for
teachers at all. In my opinion, this should be the goal of all educators!

..................................*** LESSON NUMBER 43 ***......................


.........
We will now begin with, "TRACK 4, SLOW BLUES IN F". You may recall that I
said I'd be jumping around a bit, and taking things out of order... well here I
go! I start with this track because it is virtually identical to Track 8 in Volu

me
One. For trumpeters, this would be blues in the key of G, and it is located on
page 18 of your book.
A few comments: First of all, those "dotted eighth and sixteenth" rhythms are
meant to be played with a 2/3 and 1/3 division, not 3/4 and 1/4 as written!! It
is basically a slow swinging blues in a New Orleans kind of style. Not dixieland
,
but a very slow bump and grind kind of down and dirty feel. You can obviously
use the suggested scales, but you should especially experiment using your old
friend, the G minor/blues scale!
Also experiment by using the "roving third" concept we studied before, where
you'd emphasize the B natural in the G7 chord, and the B flat in the C7 chord.
Also try using a lick or two from the blues licks given on page 3, and the blues
licks you learned from the heads in Volume 1, and also try using some stylistic
phrasing like one might hear walking down Bourbon Street, at 11 PM on a hot
Saturday night!
Bending notes a little flat can get a very "bluesy sound", and flutter tonguing
or growling are also effective techniques here, but don't overdo them... They
should be thought of as spices that are sprinkled in here and there. And... as
you know... too much spice will ruin the gumbo!
Do you know what it means to miss New Orleans? If not, you better go and
order that Wynton Marsalis DVD I told you about, "Blues and Swing". If you
don't love it more than any DVD ever, then there's just something basically
wrong with that! Just kidding, but not about getting that DVD. Do it now!
Be sure you have all your Aebersold sets (Volumes 1, 2, 3 and 5) as well as
Jerry Cokers, "Patterns for Jazz" and "Improvizing Jazz". Ya gotta have 'em!

................................*** LESSON NUMBER 44 ***........................


.........
Now let's skip over to "TRACK 10, FAST BLUES IN F", again that would be in
the key of G for us trumpeters. Well, everything about the scales and chords
is exactly the same as the slow blues track in Lesson 43. The only difference
is the style and tempo.
So how do we handle it? Well, it's not "bumping and grinding", it's not "down
and dirty", and it's definitely not "Bourbon Street on a hot Saturday night"!!!
It's your first taste of "bebop"... just a taste, but enough to get the idea. Th
is
style is faster, and we try to play more smooth, flowing eighth note lines. It's
harder to play because of the speed, and it takes more time to get the hang
of it... but it's no more complex than the blues we just studied... only faster!

Play up and down the suggested scales without skipping notes very much.
In other words, you'll be playing the notes in consecutive order more, and
skipping around less. You'll find it's easier to play fast when you don't skip
notes as much. Spend a considerable amount of time with those suggested

dominant/mixolydian scales, and the G major scale too... gradually gaining


more and more speed. Play the heads for Track 4 and 10 with variations as
we did before, working for more and more speed. Use the two heads in this
key from Volume 1 at this faster tempo as well, again with the added notes
and rhythmic variations. All these heads can be used here, and they are all
perfect for the job. Mix and match phrases from all of the heads together in
order to create a solo... blending in purely improvized material using all the
suggested scales as well.
This is the time to really get some speed going. Play without the background
track at first, working with all the sources of licks and scales I just listed a
nd
just keep on speeding things up until you "break through to the bebop zone".
Give this track alot of your attention for a week or so, and you will really be
surprized. In two weeks you may be amazed, and in one month you will find
you are able to play much faster than you ever thought possible!! Start slow,
keep at it, and in a short time you'll be flying!
You will also notice something else happens as you learn to burn it up on this
track... All your playing, on all the tracks... will also become more connected,
smoother, and faster as well... Learning how to play fast on just one track will
carry over into all your other playing!!! May I be struck down by lightening if
I'm telling a lie... ... ...
It really does happen this way. It all "carries over". Your mind and body will
simply gain the "knack of it", and it's almost like magic! It'll blow you away!!
I've never urged you to go fast before, and even now you must start slowly,
but take a few weeks with this and YOU WILL BE PLAYING AT BEBOP SPEED!
You'll find some licks naturally suited to faster tempos, and you will probably
come up with a few original licks of your own along the way. Use these licks
when playing faster, that's only natural..... The faster you go, the more licks
you'll need to use. That's ok, and it works this way for everyone. This is your
first taste of bebop, and you will definitely need to rely on more licks now at
this faster pace! You MUST own Jerry Cokers "Patterns for Jazz" by this point,
and you'll have a goldmine of licks to draw from... Many of them are already
in your head... you just haven't seen them written down on paper before!

................................*** LESSON NUMBER 45 ***........................


.........
Now let's skip over to "TRACK 5, FAST BLUES IN Bb"... That's the key of C
for trumpet players. This is another fast, bebop type track, and it would be
logical to go ahead and address it now. Every bit of advice applying to that
fast blues in Lesson 44 also applies here so I will simply recap... This blues
is in the same key as the one on Track 5 of Volume 1. Again the only thing
different about the two tracks is the speed. Here are the same suggestions
I gave for learning the fast blues above... but now abbreviated and applied
to this key instead.
1.
2.
3.
4.

Learn and use all the material from this head in your improvized solos.
Use the first 3 heads from Vol. 1 page 77 in your improvized solos too.
Use the last 2 heads from Vol. 1 page 77 and transpose them to fit too.
Vary the rhythms and add notes to all these heads and speed them up.

5.
6.
7.
8.

Use the suggested scales using more consectutive steps and less skips.
Mix all these materials together freely, and play with that "roving third".
Take blues licks from page 3 and transpose them so they fit in this key.
Gradually increase the speed of all these materials over several weeks.

Well, as you can see, all the suggestion are the same as those in Lesson 44.
This should come as no surprize. You must go slow at first and be patient. It
will obviously take more time to reach these tempos. Again you must rely a
bit more on the licks you've learned from the heads and other sources since
the speeds are so fast. There's less time to pause and reflect or think ahead
in order to "pre-hear" the next idea. Even so, it still happens, just at a much
faster speed than before.
The main piece of advice I would stress is this: Reaching the faster tempos
will take more time, that is all. Don't try to just throw on the CD and expect
it to happen the first day. Plan ahead more than before. Gradually work the
materials you'll be using up to speed over a few weeks. Again, as you work
on these two faster blues tracks, all of your playing will accelerate from that
"carry over" effect I described before... In fact, everything you learn carries
over into all other areas of your playing. Time will pass, and you'll just keep
on getting better and better! Stick with it, be patient, and just try to cover a
little more ground each day.
Your progress will get a certain kind of momentum to it as all the pieces of
the puzzle fall into place. It is very satisfying watching this process, so just
enjoy the journey, and you'll go far! It just takes time... v

...................................*** LESSON NUMBER 46 ***.....................


.............
Jerry Coker's book entitled "PATTERNS FOR JAZZ" is the next topic to discuss.
Alright, I've been telling you to get this book... so if you still don't have it
, you
will want to get it right away! www.aebersold.com or www.penders.com
So far we have only used very few "patterns" or "licks". They are also often
refered to as "riffs" and "motiffs". Whatever you call them... they are simply
short fragments of melodic material that jazz players use in building solos. I
usually call them "licks". All jazz players use licks when they play, and there
are a variety of ways that one can get licks to use in their improvizations.
One way is to just buy a book of jazz patterns, such as the one that we'll be
discussing here, "Patterns for Jazz", by Jerry Coker.... There are many other
such collections on the market. Some are suggested in Volume 1 on page 19.
Another way to get licks is to take them from jazz tunes, as I have had you
doing in the last few lessons. This is a great idea. You'll simply extract ideas
you like from jazz heads, or any other songs for that matter, and weave the
best ones into your solos in appropriate places. It's a very good idea to start
and keep updating a notebook of your favorite jazz licks... This is something
that you really ought to do! Get a notebook of blank music manuscript paper
from your local music store and start collecting. I'd have different sections in
this notebook for various types of licks... You should be able to enter quite a

few 'Blues licks' into a notebook right now, after the recent work we've been
doing with all those blues tracks.
Another fantastic way to get licks it to extract them from transcription books..
.
These are books where actual famous jazz solos have been written out for use
by jazz musicians. "28 Modern Jazz Trumpet Solos" volumes 1 & 2 can both be
ordered from Jamey Aebersold's website www.aebersold.com and these are
two of the best collections ever assembled.
Another great way to aquire jazz licks is to extract them from jazz solos you
like, by simply listenning to them, and then figuring out how to play the best
ones on your own. Students often do this and even write out entire solos that
they really love. This is called transcribing, and is not only a good way to get
yourself some licks, but it is also very valuable in trainng the ear as well!
In my opinion... the very best way to get licks is to get them from yourself!!
Here is how this works: If you just sing along with a jazz tune or even some
play-along tracks, you will be improvizing using your own licks. Not all will be
jems, but a few definitely will be, especially for use by YOU!! The ideas you'd
sing are the ones that will keep coming out of you over and over again. In a
way, this could be considered "the real you". These ideas are your very own
personal licks, and they are a part of your very own personal style! ...
It's a great idea to put on some play-along tracks and just skat sing along with
them while recording yourself. Then later go back and write down the very best
stuff, the licks that seem the very best TO YOU! Write down those licks that you
already "hear" frequently in your head... I don't know why more people don't do
this or why I don't see others recommending this, but believe me... these would
be some of your very best licks, and it really is "the real you". If you learn h
ow
to play the licks that already come out of you then you'll actually be able to p
lay
what you "hear" all the time! What could be cooler than that?!!
Go ahead and read the introduction to "Patterns for Jazz" several times now...
I value this book even more for the theory instruction and playing philosophies
than for the patterns themselves! It is a great book, so start your reading now!

.................................*** LESSON NUMBER 47 ***.......................


.........
Now for some more from "PATTERNS FOR JAZZ" by Jerry Coker & friends.
You've now read the introduction. Some of the most important points are:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Jazz improvization is a craft... not some mysterious gift for only a few.
Jazz players use patterns from many sources in a spotaneous manner.
Jazz players pre-hear musical ideas in their minds before playing them.
The skills are all habitualized actions, requiring conditioning in advance.
Much theoretical information was put into this book along with patterns.
The patterns can be altered and transposed to fit any chord in any key.

7. Students should listen to great players & fill their minds w/ great ideas.
MAJOR TRIADS (pages 1-9)
Many of the patterns in the book are meant to be training exercises, leading
up to actual useable jazz licks. All of the patterns here fall into this categor
y.
You would not actually use these first few patterns as licks when improvizing
since they are merely meant as preperatory exercises. You'll notice the four
basic types of root movement here that are mentioned in the introduction:
(1) "cycle of fifths" ............ roots moving down by fifths........... C down
to F
(2) "chromatic" ................. roots moving up by 1/2 steps........... C up t
o Db
(3) "stepwise" ................... roots moving up by whole steps........ C up t
o D
(4) "minor thirds" .............. roots moving up by minor thirds....... C up to
Eb
These are considered to be the four most common types of root movement...
I would also include root movement downward by 1/2 steps to this list as well.
So, you should practice patterns using this "down by 1/2 steps" sequence too!
MAJOR SIXTH CHORDS (Pages 10-11)
I haven't introduced you to this "major type chord" yet. I'll do it using the
formula type notation I discussed in Lesson 36. The formula for the major
sixth chord is: 1, 3, 5, 6 (again, this means the 1st, 3rd, 5th and 6th tones
from a major scale) So as you can see starting on page 10 the CM6 chord
has the notes C, E, G, A... the DM6 chord has the notes D, F#, A, B, etc...
All these patterns are preperatory in nature as well, not really jazz licks.
They could be made to sound like "real" licks with a little improvement on
their rhythms though, and then they'd all work with "major sixth chords",
and with the other major type chords too, like M, M6, M7, M9, etc...
MAJOR 7TH AND 9TH CHORDS (pages 12-15)
Some of these patterns are much more melodic just as they are, and could
therefore be used as jazz licks without any modification at all... I see four of
them that would make good licks for use with M7 and M9 chords right now!
Patterns #18, 19, 24 and 26 are pretty good examples... Play through just
a few chords on each of the patterns in this section to see if you agree. You
may like some of those enough to want to put them into your personal bag
right now, or you may want to play with some rhythms a bit, or alter some
of them a little in other ways before you really like them. This is where you
really start to take control of your own destiny... If you don't like how a lick
sounds, ditch it and move on. If you feel it may have potential for you then
try some slight variations before you decide. If you positively love a pattern
then put it right straight into your notebook, and then you'll have it forever.
I hope all this makes sense to you. I will leave you now to read, study and
practice on your own. I'll also treat you as an intermediate level player and

I trust you completely to make all your own decisions about which licks you
like and which ones go into the scrap heap. Your eventual stylistic direction
is completely up to you! Perhaps you'll already love some of the patterns in
this section. If so you can go ahead and practice them and even try playing
them over any of the major chords with the Jamey Aebersold tracks too.
Even the preperatory patterns should at least be practiced some to help you
to get used to the chords. BTW, I'm sure you're noticing we're using chords
to build licks from (as well as the usual scales)... It makes perfect sense!

................................*** LESSON NUMBER 48 ***........................


........
Now for even more from "PATTERNS FOR JAZZ" by Jerry Coker & friends.
MAJOR SCALES ( pages 16-22 )
Notice on page 16 there is a paragraph of instructional notes, stating that the
major patterns presented in this book will work with all the major type chords.
These patterns will work with the major triad, M6, M7, and M9 chords whether
they're built primarily using chord tones or scale tones. For this reason I ofte
n
lump all these chords together into one group, and simply refer to them all as
"major type chords", and the corresponding patterns as "major type patterns".
Most of the patterns in this section are once again preliminary type patterns,
not intended to be used as jazz licks in solos, but a couple come pretty close.
Notice patterns #38 and 39 are similar to the Clarke studies most of us have
played. These, and a few others, may be adaptable a jazz licks. You can see
what you think. If your own Clarks studies patterns are pretty fast you might
consider some of these as good fast material for use with major type chords...
Again all of this is entirely up to you...
DIGITAL PATTERNS ON MAJOR ( pages 23-28 )
Look at the patterns presented starting on page 23. These patterns all have
an underlying repeated mathematical type sequence to each of them... Jazz
musicians refer to these as "digital patterns"... (Actually many of the earlier
patterns could be considered "digital" in nature as well.)
Again, most of these are meant to be thought as exercises to prepare players
for usable licks. When I was at this level in my playing, I prefered to play tha
t
type of pattern a time or two, and then go on to the ones that were alot more
musical or melodic in nature. I'd practice those much, much more, and I'd get
in all the chord and scale practice in a way that would benefit my jazz playing
even more.
I would concentrate on the licks that were worthy of going into my notebook
as actual "jazz licks" and give the others much less of my time... Why spend
hours and hours on scale and chord patterns I'd never be able to use as jazz
licks, when I could get all the same benefits from the ones I could really use?
So, I suggest the same to you. You should pick at least two or three patterns

from each section to put in your own notebook and practice, to at least make
sure you don't miss anything, but then just concentrate on the ones that are
the most melodic and useful. I hope all that makes sense to you.
MAJOR SCALE INTERVALS ( pages 28-31 )
The interval studies in thirds would probably be the most valuable to spend
some time with here, as most all chords are built using the third interval. I'd
definitely spend some time with those.
From pages 16-31, I personally find the patterns that follow to be some of the
most melodic and useful licks, or at lease very valuable to spend some of your
time with as preperatory material: Patterns #29, 33, 38, 39, 40, 41, 43, 46, 50,
58, 59, and 60. Again, some of these seem quite valuable as training exercises,
while others seem to be more useable licks. I especially like the last two (pret
ty
much the same, I know) and have incorporated a slightly extended variation of
that lick into my own arsenal of favorites. The Clarke-like patterns, adapted to
minor chords and scales, are also often heard coming out the end of my bell.
Some guys feel funny revealing their own frequently used licks... I don't think
that way... I'll share anything I know, but I've seen lots of guys clam up if yo
u
ask them, "Hey, what was that lick you just played?" Some feel they've worked
too hard on their own "arsenol of weapons" to share them so easily with others.
I've never felt that way. I'll give up all the secrets anytime!

.................................*** LESSON NUMBER 49 ***.......................


.........
Now back to "NOTHIN BUT BLUES, TRACK 2, MR. SUPER HIP". So, let's go!!
This is your first "rockin' blues" and also your first "minor blues"... The key
is G minor, and the rhythm has a rock feel, no swinging eighth notes here!!
First, let's study the form and the chords we will be using:
Bars
Bars
Bars
Bars

1-4................ G-7 chord


5-6................ C-7 chord
7-8................ G-7 chord
9-12.............. A-7/D in bass, G-7/C in bass

On the G-7 and C-7 chords, you can use any of the minor type scales we have
covered so far. (such as the dorian, minor/blues, and minor/pentatonic scales)
Let's discuss those other two new chords briefly... "D in bass" & "C in bass"
means that the rhythm section players will do something unusual. While the
piano and guitar players will play the A-7 and G-7 chords as usual, the bass
player will play the note D (with the A-7 chord) and C (with the G-7 chord).
Sometimes the pianist may even join in, by playing those "bass notes" with
his left hand as well. A creative guitarist may even do the same, by playing
the "bass notes" on his lowest strings. This is optional for them... but not for
the bass player. He will always play those special notes and it makes a very

deep, rich kind of sound. It's pretty cool!


Now, how does this unusual activity in the rhythm section effect the soloist?!!
It doesnt effect him at all. He can simply ignore those bass notes, and handle
the chords in the usual way. He just uses the usual minor type scales with the
minor type chords and it all works just the same as always... So, in bars 9-12
the solois would simply alternate between the A dorian and G dorian scales...
He could also use the corresponding minor/blues and minor/pentatonic scales
there as well, just as he did in the first eight measures.
Sooooo... You're an intermediate level player now, and you no longer need
me to tell you how to tackle this song. Simply apply the usual techniques of
breaking this project down into smaller parts, and then put them all together
to play the head and improvize, using all your scales, and licks, and even a
few parts of this and other heads to build your solos.

................................*** LESSON NUMBER 50 ***........................


.........
This is another blues track... "MODAL BLUES"... from JA Volume 2, Track 3.
This blues is also in a minor key, D
signature. If you haven't played any
hard. Just pretend that each measure
basically the same feel as any waltz
come on beats 1 and 4.
Bars
Bars
Bars
Bars
Bars

minor for us trumpeters, with a 6/4 time


songs in 6/4 before, it's really not very
is made from two bars of 3/4. So it is
you've played before, since the accents

1-4................. D-7 chord


5-6................. F-7 chord
7-8................. D-7 chord
9-10............... E7+9 and A7+9
11-12.............. D-7 chord

On all the minor 7th chords you would use any of the minor type scales you've
learned before (such as the minor/blues, the minor/pentatonic, and also all the
dorian scales) just exactly as you did in the blues above, with "Mr. Super Hip".
There are once again two new chords used in this blues, so let's discuss them.
The chords appearing in measures 9 and 10 are E7+9 and A7+9. These chords
are both dominant 7th chords with one exception... Each of them have had the
raised 9th tone stacked on top... I will use that "formula notation system" agai
n
to describe this. The formula for these two chords would be: 1, 3, 5, -7, +9. I'
ll
give you another example in the key of C... since that is often easier to grasp:
The chord C7+9 has the notes C, E, G, Bb, and D#.
Now, what scale should we use with these? The answer is "the diminished whole
tone scale"... The "d-w-t" scale for each of the chords E7+9 and A7+9 are there
on the page underneath the chord symbols. They're built using something called
a "diminished" scale, joined together with a "whole tone" scale... Fully describ
ing
these scales is a little complicated, and will happen in a future lesson, so for
now,
trust me and use the scales as they are printed underneath each of those chords.

Another way to handle these two new chords is by playind a D minor/blues scale
over both of them, and you could even experiment using that exact same scale
(D minor/blues) over this entire track!
You've now covered five of the tracks on "Nothin' but Blues" and, you've also
gotten a good start with the "Patterns for Jazz" collection by Jerry Coker too!!
Feel free to read onward in it, if you like. It is also a very good idea
ew
in all the books at this time... Go back to Volume 1, and read everthing
skipped over. Don't worry if it doesn't all make sense to you right now.
you're having fun. I'll just be waiting right here, patiently rolling my

to revi
we've
I hope
eyes.

..................................*** LESSON NUMBER 51 ***......................


.........
It's time for more blues "LONG METER JAZZ/ROCK" Track 6, 24 measures.
Here is another minor key blues that is 24 bars long. It has a jazz/rock feel
to the rhythm, and being 24 measures in length, you have probably already
thought to yourself that this is 12 X 2=24. This is a good way to think of this
track. It is still like a 12 bar blues in form, but everything has been doubled.
This is really a simple one:
Bars
Bars
Bars
Bars
Bars

1-8 .................... E-7


9-12 .................. A-7
13-16 ................ E-7
17-20 ................ C-7
21-24 ................ B-7

OK now, this blues is in the key of E minor... but I wouldn't try using that
E minor/blues scale over the whole thing this time. All the previous blues
tracks you've played were fairly suitable for use with one minor/blues or
one minor/pentatonic scale to be use for extended periods of time. Since
this one visits chords that aren't in the parent key (of E minor) for longer
than just one or two measures at a time, this easy way of improvizing on
the chord changes will not work. You'll have to change scales, every time
the chords change.
E-7.......................
A-7.......................
C-7.......................
B-7.......................

Uses
Uses
Uses
Uses

any
any
any
any

of
of
of
of

the
the
the
the

E
A
C
B

minor
minor
minor
minor

type
type
type
type

scales.
scales.
scales.
scales......HOWEVER...

I would really try to concentrate on using those dorian scales exclusively!


Play up and down the scales, and also try using third intervals to help you
break away from using too many consecutive scale tones.
Experiment with using rhythms similar to those found in the head!! Play long
continuous phrases on those dorian scales as well. Try to stretch out phrases
longer and longer without stopping. This is a very good track for this project.
Try using some digital type patterns. My message: Do everything you possibly
can with these four dorian scales!!! Then occasionally use minor/blues or even
minor/pentatonic to break up the monotony. Use the other scales emphasizing

their unique characteristic sounds for a while, then go straight back to dorian!
!
Well, this makes your sixth track from "Nothin' But Blues". Each time I strongly
recommend experimenting with a certain aspect of your playing on a particular
track, it is because that track is very well suited for it. In some styles, you
will
bump and grind, using just one "earthy" minor/blues scale for the whole song.
On some other modern tune you might experiment more with minor/pentatonic
scales, and on other songs (like this one) you should do everything you can with
the various dorian scales. Each scale has it's own sound, and each has different
strengths that are more suited to one style or another... That is what I'm helpi
ng
you to discover for yourself. You need to choose the right scale for the right j
ob,
so you need to become very familiar with what each one has to offer!

................................*** LESSON NUMBER 52 ***........................


.........
........"VOLUME THREE, TRACK 1, THE II/V7/I CHORD PROGRESSION........
Well, if you are up to this point, then you have finished all of Volume 1, and
about half of Volume 2 "Nothin' But Blues". It's now time to jump over to the
next book/CD, Volume 3... "The II/V7/I Progression". We have already seen
the II/V7/I and the II/V7 progressions in Volume 1, so you are already very
familiar with the basic concept here. Now we will expand on it. The "changes"
we've worked with so far have come from major keys. Now we will introduce
these progressions as they appear in minor keys as well... but not quite yet.
Open the book for volume 3 (to page 9).......... and look at track 1.
Open the book for volume 1 (to page 74)........ and look at track 6.
You should notice that they are identical exercises... exept that only six
keys are covered in Vol 1, while all 12 keys are covered in vol 3.... The
two tracks are handled exactly the same. Here's a review of how we've
dealt with them so far:
The II chords are minor................ and use the minor/dorian scales.
The V7 chords are dominant.......... use dominant/mixolydian scales.
The I chords are major................. and use major, or 'ionian' scales.
Notice once again I'll use the full names for each scale, including the modal
name, plus the chord types, etc. But, the main thing to grasp is that, though
each scale starts on a different tone, they all use the same notes. If you are
unsure about this stuff in any way, you must review Lessons 22 and 24 until
you fully grasp this. Simply put... one scale will work throught each four bar
cadence (chord progression), and this makes it all pretty easy. So review if
needed and ALWAYS try to master the knowledge presented in each lesson
before going on.
For now, simply play these II/V7/I progressions the same way as you did in

volume 1, except of course, be brave and take them on in all 12 keys. Folks
that don't have all their major scales thoroughly master by now... should not
be working on lessons this far along. By now you should know your 12 major
scales, the 12 dorian, and 12 mixolydian. You should also know many of the
major/blues and major/pentatonic scales, and also many of the minor/blues
and minor/pentatonic scales. Just keep checking them off one at a time. It'll
probably take 3-6 months, before you'll know all seven of these scales in all
of the keys, but these scale will be some of your very best friends for life!
Now, back to Track 1... Go especially slow at first... playing only a few notes
so that you can really nail it when the scales change each eight measures!! If
anything is just too hard, simply back up, slow it down, play simpler ideas and
work scales some more. The biggest stumbling block here is impatience. Don't
let it get you! Just take things a little at a time. It all kicks in after a whi
le, and
then it all moves forward much easier and with much less frustration. Go slow!
Very soon I will be introducing patterns, or 'licks' that fit with these changes
and also patterns that will work with Track 2 as well. But for now it is best to
simply continue experimenting with free improvization a while longer before
moving on. Trust me... I'm teaching in a way that will give you a foundation
on which you can build for as long as you want. OK, it's all your's!

................................*** LESSON NUMBER 53 ***........................


.......
......... "VOLUME THREE, TRACK 2, II/V7 RANDOM PROGRESSION" .........
Open the book for volume 3 (to page 10)........... and look at track 2.
Open the book for volume 1 (to page 76)........... and look at track 11.
Just as in the two tracks compared in the lesson above, you should notice
that these two tracks are identical as well, with the one exception that this
track repeats each two measures. Once again, we'll handle this new track
just the same as we did in volume one... and the full discussion of how we
deal with this particular progression is presented in Lesson 40... So please
go back and review as needed.
In this track, each two measure section repeats... so... each II/V7 change
lasts for a total of four measures. This will not effect how we handle them.
As before, we will use the scales printed below the chords, the dorian and
mixolydian, but we'll simply think of them as dorian only. Since they don't
finally resolve to a I chord they have the effect of sounding much more as
I and IV chords from a minor key. In a minor key the I chord is minor and
the IV chord is dominant... so our II/V7 progression now acts like a I/IV in
a minor key. It may help to read Davo's question to me and my answer at
the bottom of page 5 of this thread to help clarify this concept further.
The main thing I want you to do at this point is to notice that the scales on
the page are dorian and mixolydian (having exactly the same notes) but I
want you to think of them as simply being the one dorian scale, lasting for
four measures. It's still the same notes, just thought of a little differently.
As usual, go slowly at first, using only a few notes. That gives you enough

time to be able to really think and nail each chord/scale change. Later, you
will gradually pick up the pace and play longer, more flowing lines, that will
connect the changes more smoothly. Still... I don't want you to just run up
and down the scales mindlessly. Pause repeatedly to reflect on what you've
just played, and try to "pre-hear what ought to come next". This is so very
important, and so ofter overlooked. This is the key to making real creative
music, instead of just running up and down scales and plugging in licks!
Very soon, I will present patterns that will work with Tracks 1 and 2. We all
need to learn patterns or "licks", and we will indeed weave parts and pieces
of them into our solos, but mostly when they are HEARD as part of a bigger
musical idea. Occasionaly when one hears nothing, or the tempo is too fast
to allow for as much pre-hearing as we'd like, we'll actually resort to simply
plugging in a few licks that are understood to work in certain situations.
Don't get me wrong, I have nothing against the use of licks, and we'll learn
and use many for sure. I just hate to hear the kind of solos that aren't really
musical in any way... but merely a bunch of scales and licks strung together
without any real artistry to them. Perhaps you've heard some of that kind of
playing. That is the way to get started, but eventually we need to create art!

.................................*** LESSON NUMBER 54 ***.......................


.........
..........."VOLUME 5, TIME TO PLAY MUSIC, TRACK 1, GROOVITIS"............
I told you that you would need to own Volumes 1, 2, 3, and 5 from this JA
Improv series. Well, now you see I wasn't kidding. I will jump around from
Volumes 2, 3 and 5 quite a bit. This way you can play actual songs and get
everything you need in an appropriate manner. Volume 4 isn't in my group
as it is quite a bit more advanced, so we'll just ignore it for now.
TRACK 1, "GROOVITIS"
Turn to page 9 to see the song in the trumpet key of D minor... Like some
of the blues tracks you've played, this song is in a minor key. I haven't yet
explained minor keys fully, but I will definitely spend some time with this in
an upcoming lesson. For now all you need to know is that they a built using
minor type scales, and they have a certain sad or bluesy sound to them.
Similar to some of the blues tracks you've played before, this song can be
handled by playing all the way through using one scale, the (D minor/blues
scale) with one ecxeption. In the last two measures of the song, on the Bb7
chord, it is best to abandon that D minor/blues scale temporarily and use a
Bb dominant/mixolydian scale, just as it is written under the chord symbols.
It is possible to use the D minor/pentatonic over the majority of this song as
well, or even the D dorian scale... Feel free to experiment with these scales,
but always use the Bb mixolydian as suggested in the last two measures. If
you would like to try using all of the scales shown under the chord symbols,
that is fine too, but there is really no need to at this point. After I teach so
me
more about the various scales you see there... I will revisit several tracks to
apply new material when you are better equiped to handle it all. For now just
use the simpler methods I suggested earlier.

Just a couple more comments, and then I'll let you play. Although this song
is written using many dotted eighth and sixteenth rhythm patterns, they are
meant to be played with a 2/3 and 1/3 division of the beat, and not the 3/4
and 1/4 one would naturally expect. One last comment now, just to tease...
You will see the two chords "E half-diminished and A7+9" repeatedly during
this song. Those are the II and V chords in D minor. Perhaps you will be able
to see why the D minor/blues scale works so well through most of this song.
Just as a major scale works all the way through a II/V7/I chord progression
in a major key... one minor scale can similarly work all the way through the
II/V7+9/I chord progression in a minor key. Just something to think about...
I will come back to all this "minor key" stuff very soon!

................................*** LESSON NUMBER 55 ***........................


........
...................."VOLUME 5, TRACK 4, SNAP CRACKLE & POP"....................
This song is a pretty easy one. The rhythmic feel is rock, so there will be
no "swing feel" to it at all. Everything is played exactly as written, and the
song is found on page 11, in the key of C minor for trumpeters.
This song has only two chords in it, that constantly "rock" back and forth
from one to the other. The chords for trumpet players are C minor and F
dominant... While they might appear to be a II/V7 progression in the key
of Bb major, this is definitely NOT the case.
You should recall how I mentioned in earlier lessons how the II/V7 chords
could actually sound and function as the I/IV progression in a minor key...
Well, here it is in a way that can't possibly be mistaken for anything other
than that, a I chord and a IV chord in the key of C minor! So you will think
of using only one scale, just as you did in previous similar situations. That
is NOT a II/V7 in a major key... it's a I/IV in a MINOR KEY!!!
An alternate melody is provided at the bottom of the page in case the real
melody proves to be a little too difficult... You can use bits and pieces from
both of these melodies in your solos. This song should be improvized over
using the C minor/blues and the C minor/pentatonic scales suggested and
provided at the bottom of the page. You can also mix in some C dorian too.
This song is part rock and part funk, soooooooo... GET FUNKY!! OH YEAH!!
LET YOUR HAIR DOWN, AND FUNK! YOU DA FUNKMEISTER NOW BABY!

................................*** LESSON NUMBER 56 ***........................


.........
........................."VOLUME 5, TRACK 6, MODAL VOYAGE"......................
..
This song is very cool!! It's rhythm uses straight eighths (not swing) and the
chord changes are very straightforward. Though quite simple on the surface,
it lends itself to much experimentation and discovery if approached properly.

There are only four chords, and therefore only four basic scales are needed
to play the improvised solos. I will suggest a few others you may try as well.
The first thing you will notice is the unusual chord symbols... You'll probably
recall seeing chords such as "B-/E in bass"... which means that your rhythm
section players play a B minor chord, while the bass player plays the note E.
The 'B-/E' means the same thing. 'C-/F' means a C minor chord with F in the
bass. Then comes A-/D, and G-/C, etc. They all refer to a certain chord, but
with a note in the bass other than the usual root we'd normally expect.
So..... you will probably also recall that the unusual note in the bass has no
effect on which scale the improvizer uses in his solos. Under the B-/E chord
is the B dorian scale, just the same as you'd expect to see without any E in
the bass. Similarly, under the C-/F there is a C dorian scale. Again the F in
the bass has no effect on our choice of scales.
Basically, we will use four different dorian scales, for four measures each. It
is also possible to substitute the corresponding minor/blues scales, as well as
the minor/pentatonic scales in the same manner, four bars each. It's probably
more beneficial at this level to play one scale for four full four measures at a
time... just to continue drilling the sound of each scale into your head as much
as possible. Later we will come back to these simple tracks and do much more
with them as you learn more patterns, scales, and strategies, etc...
Actually, we'll be back to revisit some of these "easy tracks" again and again.
This one is particularly useful for introducing several new concept as we keep
progressing. Even the simplest music can have infinite possibilities!

.................................*** LESSON NUMBER 57 ***.......................


.........
............................"VOLUME 5, TRACK 8, BEAUTITUDE".....................
.....
This is another Latin sounding song with even, "straight eighth" notes. Once
again, no swing feel here. This time there are only five different chords, and
five suggested scales are given (although I'll suggest a couple of others too).
This song would probably fall into the category of what jazz players call a
ballad.... Some wouldn't call it that, but a jazzer's definitions tend to have
a little wider scope than others. The whole song is only eight bars long. It
may be the shortest song I know of... I'm pretty sure it is!
As you can see, JA suggests using the major scale with each of these major
chords. Then on the Ab major (+4) chord he suggests the use of lydian. You
should recall that lydian is the fourth mode of a major scale. In this case the
Ab lydian scale would be the fouth mode of the Eb major scale.
You'll also recall that I've told you to think of mixolydian simply as a major
scale with a lowered seventh tone 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, -7, 8. The lydian scale is
so similar to the major scale that I want you to think of it in a similar way...
as a major scale with a raised fourth tone 1, 2, 3, +4, 5, 6, 7, 8.
Make any comparisons you need to, and you'll find that the lydian scale is

just like a major scale with the fourth tone being raised a half step. I want
you to think of it that way when you use it. (This is much easier that trying
to visualize it as the fourth mode of some other scale.)
So use the major scales with the major chords, then use lydian with the Ab
major (+4) chord... Actually all of the major chords would sound nice using
lydian as well, so do experiment with that too. 1, 2, 3, +4, 5, 6, 7, 8... Some
other "major type scales" that you can use would be the major/blues and the
major/pentatonic scales. Try these out and you will find that some work well
in this particular style, and others don't. It's the kind of thing you should fi
nd
out for yourself. There is one other thing you ought to experiment with... We
have begun using a few patterns from the Coker book, 'Patterns For Jazz'. If
you have found a major type pattern there that appeals to you, it would now
be a good time to try transposing it into the keys for use with these chords.

..................................*** LESSON NUMBER 58 ***......................


...........
In this lesson we shall study "CHROMATICISM". So please open your book
for Volume 1 to page 32. I've asked you to read all of Volume 1 before, so
you have already seen this concept, but probably not fully understood it all.
Now we will give it much more attention. Go ahead and read the section on
chromaticism starting on page 32 once more right now... then return to this
lesson. It will only take a second, since there's not much to read. There are
some good jazz patterns presented there too, and I'll discuss them as well!
Alright, chromaticism simply refers to using notes of the chromatic scale but
in a special way. We don't just use any of the notes randomly. We use them
slipped in between the notes of the usual scales we play, as "passing tones",
and also placed just ahead of the usual notes of the scale as "leading tones".
These are the two most common ways jazz players use chromaticism.
In other words, we may be playing a C major scale, then slip in the note G#
between the G and the A. Typically the G and A come on downbeats, and the
G# comes on the upbeat. (I'm referring to the down and up part of a beat as
you learned to tap your foot as a beginner, 'down up down up'.) This way the
"chromatic note" is not emphasized, but merely connects the two scale tones
smoothly. Using this technique makes your sound immediately more complex
and mature at the same time. This is how chromatic notes are used as what I
refer to as "passing tones". When a chromatic note is simply placed before a
scale tone (a half step above or below it) this is what I will often refer to as
a
"leading tone".
The chromatic notes don't always have to come on the "upbeats", but they
usually do more often than not. Sometimes we can use large portions of a
chromatic scale... and it will sound good. It may feel as though it is right in
the key, or it may sound like a temporary departure from the key, but this
scales is so smooth sounding with all its half steps, that the sound is almost
always fairly acceptable to the ear (because of this "smoothness"). Several
of the patterns presented here (on pages 33-35) are especially nice. Some
of the ones I really like are:
page 33..... line 2, and line 6
page 34..... line 6, and line 7

page 35..... lines 1, 4, 5, 7, 9


These are some patterns you may want to add into your personal notebook.
When I built up my own notebook over many years I always included a few
good "preperatory type patterns" at first, followed by only the very best licks
I could find, that really appealed to me the most. I will talk some more about
getting your own notebook going the right way in upcoming lessons.
Well, that's about it for chromaticism... Slipping in a note between two scale
tones for a smooth connection is one common use. Another, seen in the licks
presented, is to use an extra note to "lead in" to a scale tone by a half step.
Another way to use chromaticism is to take large pieces of chromatic scales
and use them, which sounds right due to their smoothness... I will leave you
now to experiment some on your own... Put on some basic Aebersold tracks
and experiment. That will help you to understand it all more than a thousand
of my words. So, use fairly basic tracks and experiment for yourself.
Later on, you'll begin to hear those notes in your mind while improvizing... I
once heard an old jazzer say, "If you hear it, it can't be wrong". I think there
is a whole lot of truth to that old saying. Always feel free to post questions.
If
there is something you're wondering about, I'm sure many others will benefit
from the answers as well. Remember... have fun! NOW, GO EXPERIMENT!!

................................*** LESSON NUMBER 59 ***........................


.........
In this lesson we will study "ARTICULATION". So please open the book for
Volume 1 to page 48, and read the three page section on articulation right
now. Again, all this should be a review, as I've already asked you to read
all of Volume 1 in an earlier lesson.
Jamey Aebersold gives some very good advice on this subject. Study this
section thoroughly. He says that one should think of articulation as proper
enunciation. No one likes listenning to a speaker who cannot enunciate or
speak clearly. So it is with jazz, or any other style of music. Jazz has a bit
different style of articulation associated with it, though... and we need that
special, distinct style when playing jazz music.
Typical of much jazz... is the presence of that swing feel or rhythm. We all
know that we play "swing eighths" with a 2/3 and 1/3 division of the beat...
but that is not all there is to swing. Two other elements are crucial to being
able to get a good swing feel. These have to do with accents and slurring.
Most swinging eighths are accented in an unusual way. Instead of accenting
the downbeat, we accent the upbeats. Look at the first written examples on
page 49. You will notice that the accents fall on the upbeats. This is not only
common to swing style jazz, but it is the standard practice.
Also notice in these examples how these notes are slurred. The slurring and
tonguing patterns are also representative of the swing style as well. If you'd
try playing those three examples with or without the accents and articulation
patterns there, you will get some very different results. Without the patterns
of articulation and accents, the lines will lack the energy associated with this

style of music. It will also sound stiff or "square". By introducing the accents
as written, we get more "bounce" or "lilt"... and by using the slurred patterns
we get the "cool" element as well. Excitement, plus that cool feeling together
is what people associate with jazz... Even the tongued notes are often played
with a more legato style. Without these elements we might as well be playing
in a marching band. Correct articulation for the jazz style is so important.
Even when playing a rock/jazz or funk/jazz groove without swinging eighths...
we will still use a syncopated accenting format, and even a different aticulatio
n
as well. All jazz music has alot of expression in it, and it's our job to get al
l the
subtle nuances across so that the listener feels this cool excitement too. Make
sure to do your jazz listenning. That will help alot too. NOW GO EXPERIMENT!!!

..................................*** LESSON NUMBER 60 ***......................


.........
We'll discuss "YOUR PERSONAL JAZZ PATTERN NOTEBOOK" in this lesson.
I've been making reference to having your own personal collection of jazz
"patterns", "licks", "riffs" or "motiffs" in a notebook. Note that these are all
various names for the short melodic segments that jazz improvizors learn,
alter, and use by weaving them creatively into their improvized solos... I'll
just call them all "patterns" or "licks" for now.
You need to buy at least two books of blank music manuscript paper right
away if you haven't done so already. These are usually spiral bound books
of staff paper without music on them. I'd get at least two really big ones.
Now you will be entering jazz patterns into these notebooks. They'll mostly
be your absolute favorite patterns in the world, that you love the most and
want to incorporate into your own personal style for life. The other category
of patterns that will go into these notebooks will be of the preperatory type,
the kind that aren't intended to be actual licks you'd use when improvizing
a real solo... but you'll be needing those too.
I would divide the notebooks this way: First notebook: general patterns of
every kind, seperated into categories. Second notebook: transcribed solos
and song forms that you compose written solos for, like 12 bar blues... and
"rhythm changes". I'll explain more about this in another lesson very soon.
The first notebook could simply have all kinds of patterns stuck in it, in any
order you happen to run across them. This would not be as good as having
the notebook divided into sections, so you can easily organize them and be
more able to locate your favorite patterns when you need them.
My personal choice of categories could easily be debated. Some licks could
appear in more than one category, and some licks could need to be put into
seperate categories of their own. All this is true with any list of categories a
guy could come up with. I have a list of my own that I'll give as a suggested
guideline . I had previous notebooks that I consolidated after many years to
one big book, and I find that these categories seem to be quite workable.
1. Major Type Patterns

2. Major II/V7/I Patterns


3. One Bar Major II/V7/Is
4. Minor and Blues Patterns
5. Minor II/V7+9/I Patterns
6. One Bar Minor II/V7+9s
7. Altered V7/I Patterns
8. Turnaround Patterns
9. Pentatonic Patterns
10.
11.
12.
13.

Cycle of Dominants
Digital Scale Patterns
Digital Chord Patterns
Outside Type Patterns

OK, now where do we get these patterns from? Well, please read Lesson 46
again right away. It will explain how to get jazz patterns form "jazz patterns
books" that are commercialy available and how to extract nice melodic licks
out of jazz tunes or heads that you particularly like. One can also buy books
of "transcribed solos" and select appealing licks from there to enter into your
notebook, or you can simply transcribe solos yourself in order to get a bunch
of really great material that way. And, by the way, transcribing solos yourself
is extremely valuable to the "training of the ears" as well. There have already
been quite a few great licks presented right here in the Aebersold play-along
set books as well. There are many great patterns in Volumes 1, 2 and 3, both
of the preliminary type and the real useable jazz licks type too! And, as you'll
recall, I feel that the most valuable licks of all come right straight out of yo
ur
own head. These licks will keep coming around again and again. I feel they're
as close as you can get to expressing the real you, and that being able to play
what you hear, is the best thing you can play. You can sing along with various
basic Aebersold type tracks, or even jazz solos from CDs etc, and then simply
record yourself singing... Later, go back and figure out how to write down the
best stuff you sang. The further you go... the better your own ideas will get!
Well, this is it for Lesson 60... I will discuss this first notebook of jazz pat
terns
in the next lesson much more, as well as the second notebook that will contain
transcribed solos, and also your own composed solos to fit with standard song
forms such as 12 bar blues, and something called "rhythm changes". That 2nd
notebook is going to begin way off the in future still. I really just wanted you
to
start thinking about it a little... In Lesson 61 I'll give you the rest of what
you'll
need to get that first notebook of jazz patterns going... If you get some music
manuscript paper at the music store, be sure to get at least two of the biggest
spiral bound type books that you can find. www.penders.com

................................*** LESSON NUMBER 61 ***........................


.........
Now for more "YOUR PERSONAL JAZZ PATTERN NOTEBOOK"... So let's go!
OK, now I've given you the idea about this notebook... Let's get into all the
details now. First of all you'll need to write page numbers on every page of
this 'first notebook', front and back sides both. Then you should make your

'contents page' in the front of the book. We'll just be talking about the "first
notebook" for now, containing many general patterns.
The brand of notebook I used is the "Sightation" Manuscript Book. It is also
labeled "No.103-96 pages". This 96 pages is enough for most people. If you
ever run out of room with this, just start another and keep going. I feel sure
this will not likely happen to anyone for many years... especially if they limit
themselves to the licks they find to be appealing enough to keep for life... A
few people will write down every single pattern they come across, but there
just isn't enough time to learn every one of them in all 12 keys, so limit this
collection to the "REAL KEEPERS"... Only about 5% will fall into this category.
Transcriptions books yield even less. I only want the "best of the best" to go
into my personal bag. I would strongly advise you to do the same.
In Lesson 60 I listed the titles to the various sections or "chapters" in my own
personal notebook. I will give you an idea of about how many pages you can
allow for each section if you use the same kind of notebook and sections as I
did with mine. This is a very realistic outline, and it will work for you as wel
l!
1. Major Type Patterns....................10 pages
2. Major II/V7/I Patterns.................10 pages
3. One Bar Major II/V7/Is................ 6 pages
4. Minor and Blues Patterns.............10 pages
5. Minor II/V7+9/I Patterns...............6 pages
6. One Bar Minor II/V7+9/Is..............6 pages
7. Altered V7/I Patterns.....................6 pages
8. Turnaround Patterns....................10 pages
9. Pentatonic Patterns........................8 pages
10.
11.
12.
13.

Cycle of Dominants.....................6 pages


Digital Scale Patterns...................4 pages
Digital Chord Patterns..................4 pages
Outside Type Patterns..................8 pages

That makes 94 pages, plus a contents page and one blank page totals 96 in
all. That fits perfectly with this 96 page notebook... and it also gives a fairl
y
appropriate number of pages to each section. As you can tell, the categories
you'll use the most are the ones using 10 pages... The other categories are
equally important, but the licks are either shorter, or you probably wouldn't
need as many examples from those in your repetoir. At any rate this seems
to me to be very realistic if you only keep the "best of the best" licks, and I
doubt you'll ever run out of room with a notebook like this.
I am actually over estimating what I think the average improvizer would ever
need. I am in favor of learning fewer licks extremely well, instead of hundreds
and hundreds half way. When you learn fewer licks extremely well you'll easily
begin spontaneously improvizing variations of them in time... You'll branch out
more naturally from the foundation you've built, and also be more able to truly
"play what you hear"... I'll spend more time helping you to completely get your
patterns notebook together in the next lesson as well, so you may want to hold
off on actually entering licks into it at this time. After collecting licks for
a while,
players will often start over with a new notebook and re-enter licks into it mor

e
neatly, and more organized, and more useable, so don't worry about it at all.
If you aren't happy with your first draft, you can always redo it again later on
...
I treat my notebook with the highest repect. I wouldn't let it go for thousands
of
dollars $$$ (unless I had made a copy of it first, of course!)... ... I'll be ba
ck!

................................***LESSON NUMBER 62 ***.........................


.........
Last visit to "YOUR PERSONAL JAZZ PATTERN NOTEBOOK". So here we go!!
We have now set up the "first notebook" and are ready to begin putting jazz
patterns into it. But first, a few general statements and suggestions:
(1) Some patterns can easily go into more that one section of the notebook.
That's just fine. Feel free to enter them as you like. It's your notebook, and
its only purpose is to give you a permanent place to put those licks you want
to hang on to... (2) Each section should begin with preliminary type patterns
that just provide a foundation upon which to build future, more useable jazz
licks... (3) When adding new licks to your notebook, over the many months
and years to come, you should only add the licks you really love the most!
Sometimes you'll find a lick that needs a little altering, to be really appealin
g
to you. Do alter them in any way you like. Invent your own. Beg, borrow and
steal licks freely from any source you find. When I put a lick into my personal
notebook, I always write down a source for it if I have one. Even licks I think
I originated get marked as "original"... although I will almost alway find them
somewhere else later on. You can probably imagine how that goes...
OK, I am treating you as an intermediate level improvizor now... so a little
less spoon feeding, and a little more review and research on your own. So,
preliminary exersises that will go into the first part of each section... will b
e
simple chord and scale type patterns. They are not very melodic. They will
merely run up and down the chords and scales in a way that is meant for a
beginner to become familiar with the material that will be used to derive the
real jazz licks that will follow. Put them in first then leave some space for a
few more to come later as you find them. Many of you will simply be able to
make up some preliminary exercises as well.
1. Major Type Patterns... These are composed from major type scales such
as Major, Lydian, Major/blues, and Major/pentatonic. They can also be built
using any of the Major type chords such as CM, CM6, CM7, CM9. If you see
a pattern under a Major chord symbol, that is a "Major Type Pattern".
2. Major II/V7/I Patterns... These are the kind
They are designed to fit with the II/V7/I chord
chord lasts one measure, and the V7 chord lasts
the I chord will also have appropriate notes to

of Patterns found in JA Vol 3.


progression. On these, the II
for one bar as well. At times
go with it too, or this part may

simply be left up to the improvisor to put in his own resolving major type lick
at that point for the I chord. So... sometimes you just put in one of your own
major type licks at the I chord. One more thing about this category: You will

recall I told you that the II/V7 part of this progressin can sound and function
as I and IV chords from a minor key... when the progression doesn't resolve
to the final I chord. We handle it with just the dorian scale only to achieve th
e
proper sound, and not set up our listeners for a resolution that never comes.
Dorian is great to use through the two measures, and minor/pentatonic works
very well too. You can enter licks appropriate for this purpose here as well...
The same thing is suggested below for the "one Bar" versions also.
3. One Bar Major II/V7/Is... This is similar to the licks just above except that
the II chord lasts ony two beats, and the V7 chord lasts just two beats as well.
Again, the I chord may or may not have notes with it, leaving the resolution to
a major type lick up to the improvizer. That's why I call them "One Bar". That
II/V7 part lasts only one bar. This section should also include what we call One
Bar II/V7 licks as well (that never resolve to I, and usually sound and funtion
more like the I and IV chords from a minor key)... If any of this is losing you,
then you need more review of earlier lessons!!! Be patient and master all the
info in each lesson before moving on. Keep it slow and simple. It will be much
less frustating, and alot more fun!
4. Minor and Blues Patterns... These are the type of licks suggested in JA
Volume 2, and provided in the blues heads there... and available from the
Coker book, etc, etc.... They can be built from any of the minor and blues
type scales or minor chords, or any combination thereof.
5. Minor II/V7+9/I Patterns... Same situation as in #2 above except in a
minor key. The II and the V7+9 chords last one full measue each, and the
resolution to the I chord is often left to the improvizer. We haven't covered
these yet, so don't worry about this.
6. One Bar Minor II/V7+9/Is... Like #3
only two beats each and the resolution
the improvizer. That's why I call them
only one bar, and the final resolution

above, the II and V7+9 chords last


to the I chord is sometimes left for
"One Bar". The II/V7+9 part lasts for
is often left to the improv student. This

hasn't been covered yet either, so don't sweat it...


7. Altered V7/I Patterns... Haven't covered those yet, but will soon... This
refers to a V7 chord that has alterations like +9, -9, +5, -5, and +13, and
resolves down a fifth to a I chord. The V chord often has alterations, even
several at the same time.
8. Turnaround Patterns... Haven't covered those either,
very common chord progression used in jazz. One version
turnaround. We will spend some time with this in future
important and useful chord progression, just like those

but this refers to a


is the III/VI/II/V
lessons. It is a very
various II/V7/Is...

9. Pentatonic Patterns... You should feel free to enter basic preliminary type
major and minor pentatonic type licks, and even some real useable jazz licks
built from these scales too. Remember all the different sources you can draw
from... I listed them in Lessons 46 and 60... Use these sources to get licks to
put in all the categories covered so far. Some, like minor pentatonic patterns
from a blues head you learned, can be entered in category #4 and category
#8 as well. Some other licks can be entered in more than one category too!
10. Cycle of Dominants... Not really been covered yet, but we did play some

in Volume 1... We used mixolydian primarily, but several othe scales worked
there as well. You should probably hold off on making any entries here too.
11. Digital Scale Patterns... Please do remember that the word "digital" refers
to licks that have a kind of mathematical formula applied to a scale... or even
a chord. I seperate them into categories of their own, since these patterns can
usually be applied to a variety of different scale and chord types... You can li
st
them under a digital category... then when you find one that works particularly
well with a certain type of chord, then list the pattern within these appropriat
e
categories as well... like Major Patterns, or Minor and Blues, etc.
12. Digital Chord Patterns... These are simply digital type patterns applied
to chords. They are various forms of arpeggios that are also very useful to
jazz players. Just like the digital scale patterns above, they will go into this
category. Then later on, the ones that work especially well with certain types
of chords will go into those appropriate categories as well.
13. Outside type patterns... The most exotic of all licks in a sense, outside
patterns refer to licks that depart from the traditional harmony of a song...
They create a certain feeling of chaos by temporarily building lots of tension
but then they are eloquently resolved back smoothly into the key. This kind
of lick ventures "outside of the key"... but then hopefully resolves back into
the key in a way that creates a dramatic resolution. Many of them are built
using "pentatonis scales", and even "fouth intervals" in very unusual ways.
They will be left to lessons still far in the future... One needs to learn to pl
ay
solidly within the traditional harmony before venturing outside of it. We'll lea
d
up to the outside patterns in a logical fashion, covering intermediate steps to
get us to that point gradually, enabling us to use this type of pattern in a ver
y
artistic fashion. Too many players simply plug in these licks in a mindless and
random way. They should be used correctly, or not used at all...
Well as I said... I'm treating you as an intermediate player now. You can
start entering both the preliminary type patterns and exercises into your
new notebook, as well as the really good useable authentic jazz licks you
get from all the sources I mentiond in both lessons 46 and 60... Now is a
good time to thoroughly review all the lessons, and the sources, and then
get busy with this notebook. Later, I'll get you to start a second notebook
for transcription, as well as written solos for some common song forms...
By the time we get there, it will all make sense and be fairly easy as well.
One last point... I would go ahead and get the books, "Twenty Eight Modern
Trumpet Solos", (Volumes 1 and 2) and also purchase JA Volume 54... titled
"Maiden Voyage". We'll start playind some great songs from there very soon
too. You'll soon have enough repetoir to actual play three sets in public then,
using nothing but Aebersold tunes. Think about that for a minute!!!
Be sure and get the two books and JA's Maiden Voyage, and you're rolling!
Also go through every souce mentioned in Lessons 46 and 60 and get all the
possible preliminary and useable patterns that really appeal to you. Be very
methodical and go through each JA volume and the Coker Patterns book too.
Remember those heads, including all the blues heads, are great sources too,
and I bet you 'hear them all' already too! Take your time, this is just for you!

While I recomended allowing several pages for each of these categories of


licks, I'd like to repeat that I strongly advise learning fewer licks extremely
thoroughly rather than hundreds half way. I just don't wan't you to possibly
run out of room in a notebook that should last you for many years, or even
a lifetime, and most people will put many licks into their notebooks that will
not seem so great to them later on. I want you to have lots of extra room in
your notebook for both of these reasons, so don't panic... We won't learn
several hundred licks in all keys!! We'll master fewer.... and then branch out
naturally, with variations of our mastered material! Keep on practicing... and
just take everything one small piece at a time. Very soon you'll have enough
songs, just from your JA repetoir alone, to play three sets in a nightclub!!

..................................*** LESSON NUMBER 63 ***......................


........
A real short discussion of "THE OTHER NOTEBOOK" I keep on mentioning.
But first I want to repeat one thing about the first notebook, the "patterns
collection" we've been discussing... I don't advise trying to learn hundreds
and hundreds of licks. I advise collecting all the patterns you come across
that really appeal to you, and that's why I suggest using a notebook which
allows you so many pages that you may never run out of room. If you can
limit yourself to learning the very best licks only you'll learn them all much
more thoroughly, and be able to hear them too... Then later on, variations
will begin to form in your mind... that will take you onward to higher levels
and in a much more artistic way. Jazz is not a contest to see who can play
the most notes or patterns. We should try to play the most beautiful music
we possibly can. Limit yourself to learning only "the very best of the best".
The second notebook I keep refering to will be started later on. It'll serve
three purposes. (1) It will be your transcriptions notebook... You'll use it to
write down some of your favorite recorded solos. You memorize each part
of a solo and then write it down for future reference. You can take favorite
licks from solos for your own use, and the process of transcribing is really
good for your ear training. (2) You'll also compose melodies yourself, and
write them in this second notebook as well. There are a few very standard
song forms you'll use, such as the 12 bar blues and others... One common
form is called "Rhythm Changes". This refers to the chord changes to that
old song called "I Got Rhythm". If you don't know that song, it is the same
chord changes that go with the 'Flintstones' theme from the cartoon series.
(3) The third purpose of this other notebook will be to serve as a catch all
to the first notebook. If you feel that you need more categories of licks, or
you need anything else at all that didn't fit into the first notebook, then this
second notebook can handle that too. Between the two notebooks you may
just be all set, for a lifetime of jazz materials for improvization. I'm helping
you as much as possible to do just that!! These notebooks will become two
of your most valued possesions in time, and you'll thank me for getting you
started this way. They'll be full of your favorite material, not mine, and not
anyone else's. They will form the foundation, for all that your own personal
style will evolve into and it's all completely under your own control. You can
become a true artist... with your own distinct, personal sound and style with
an approach such as this... Treat your notebooks with respect, and you'll be
doing yourself the biggest favor possible. OK, sermon over...

You need to buy "Twenty Eight Modern Trumpet Solos" Volumes 1 & 2, and
also please get JA's Volume 54, "Maiden Voyage" right away. The two solos
books contain fifty six great and famous trumpet solos... They are a wealth
of patterns and ideas that are worth their weight in gold!!! Volume 54 is full
of great songs, that'll continue at the appropriate difficulty level from where
we are now in these lessons... Again, let me say that by the time you learn
the songs in it, along with all the others in your current JA collection, you'll
actually have enough JA repetoir to play an evening at a club!!

.................................*** LESSON NUMBER 64 ***.......................


..........
This lesson is about "MINOR KEYS & CHORD CHANGES"... We've discussed
major keys, and the diatonic chords and modes associated with them quite
a bit. Now it is time to discuss minor keys. Many of you already know some
things about minor keys, from classical music theory... I'll present this area
of music theory from this perspective then discuss how modern improvizers
deal with it in more detail later on.
The major scale has seven modes as you already know. The sixth of these
modes is called aeolian, but it also has another special name, "pure minor".
They're the same thing (AEOLIAN=PURE MINOR). If you wrote a song using
this scale as the basis, we would say that the song was in a "minor key". I'll
use the C major scale and its aeolian mode to illustrate this:
C Major scale............... "Ionian... or 1st mode" ........ C, D, E, F, G, A,
B, C
A 'Pure Minor'.............. "Aeolian... or 6th mode" ....... A, B, C, D, E, F,
G, A
C major is the "relative major" to the key of A minor, and is often refered
to as the "parent key" for A minor, and all the other modes built from that
C major scale as well. Similarly, A minor is called the "relative minor", for
the key of C major. Be sure to review all of this until you really get it!!
Each of the twelve major scales would have a corresponding relative minor
scale associated with it, so... this means there are 12 minor keys. All minor
scale have the same exact notes as their parent keys (relative major), and
each minor key uses the same key signature as its relative major too. So if
you see a key signature with no sharps or flats, the key could be C major...
or it might be the key of "A minor"... This works the same for all of the key
signatures. Each of them represents one major, and one minor key.
The pure minor scale has a kind of sad quality to its sound. Seven diatonic
chords can be constructed from its tones, just as with the major scale, but
in minor keys these seven diatonic chords are very frequently altered... so
often in fact... that we rarely, if ever, see them in their unaltered, diatonic
forms. Here is the way we'll see them most often. Again, I'll use A minor...
The I chord......... A minor 7.................... or A- with the major 7th adde
d
The II chord........ B half-diminished 7
The III chord....... C major 7................... or C+ the rare augmented triad
The IV chord....... D minor 7

The V chord......... E dominant 7............... often with +9, -9, +5, -5, or +
11
The VI chord........ F major 7
The VII chord...... G dominant 7............... or even G# fully-diminished 7th
As most advanced improvizers know, there is more to this subject that will
be covered later on, but for now you have all you need to cover the rest of
the JA volumes we are currently dealing with... Volumes 1, 2, 3, 5, and 54.
Just to give you something to chew on, that has only been briefly discussed
before, I want you to notice again that the II/V7/I progression that you will
often see in major keys, also has its counterpart in minor keys. For example
in the key of A minor, it would usually appear as:
B half-diminished 7, E dominant 7+9, and then A minor 7. (You've already
seen this type of chord progression in some Aebersold tracks. In the minor
keys, we refer to this as the II/V7+9/I progression.)
Well, now you have it. I may introduce a new scale or two along the way,
but if you fully comprehend all the information I've dished out so far, you
already have an extremely solid foundation for a lifetime of jazz playing!!
You have covered enough to last most serious students of improvization a
very long time. At minimum you are ready for at least a year or two. After
that you'll be an advanced player... studying advanced material. Review it
all until it gradually becomes part of you!! Just a little bit each day adds up
over long period of time, so don't stop! The time will pass, and you'll be so
glad you stuck with it!

................................*** LESSON NUMBER 65 ***........................


.........
It's a good time to discuss "HARMONIC MINOR" while we're on the subject
of minor scales... Sometimes it is possible to add or change only one note
in a scale in order to get a whole new scale. Example: Lower that 7th tone
of a major scale, and you get mixolydian. Another example: Add the +2 to
the major pentatonic scale, and you get the major blues scale. Add the +4
to the minor pentatonic scale, and you get the minor blues scale.
It sure is easy to learn the second scale in each of these three examples,
once you've learned the first. Now back to "harmonic minor". If you raise
the seventh tone of the pure minor scale, you get harmonic minor. That's
all there is to it. Of course there are 12 pure minor, and also 12 harmonic
minor scales. I will now show these two scales using "formula notation".
Pure minor scale..........................1, 2, -3, 4, 5, -6, -7, 8
Harmonic minor scale...................1, 2, -3, 4, 5, -6, 7, 8
(Please remember that this formula system is a way of describing a scale or
chord by comparing it to a major scale with the same starting note. This can
be a little confusing at first... but this system makes things much easier later
on. I just want you to get used to using it.) I also want you to notice that the
pure minor scale is like a major scale with lowered 3rd, 6th, and 7th steps...
and harmonic minor is like a major scale with the lowered 3rd and 6th steps.

The harmonic minor scale produces an unusual sound, that is very useful to
a jazz improvizer. It sounds a little Egytian, or Spanish, or Italian... or even
a little Jewish depending on how it is handled. In the key of A, this harmonic
minor scale would be the notes A, B, C, D, E, F, G#, A. You should play with
this scale just a bit right now to see what I mean about the different sounds.
Another interesting thing the more advanced players might notice, is the fact
that the "altered chords" mentioned in Lesson 64 above almost all come from
diatonic chords built and then "borrowed" from this harmonic minor scale!
I.............A, C, E, G#.............. the A- chord with a "major 7th"
II............B, D, F, A................. the B half-diminished 7th chord
III..........C, E, G#................... the "rare" C+ augmented chord
IV...........D, F, A, C................. the typical, unaltered IV chord
V............E, G#. B. D............... the V chord, now a dominant 7
VI...........F, A. C. E.................. the typical, unaltered VI chord
VII..........G#, B. D. F............... the fully-diminished, built on +7
Intermediate level students may compare these "altered chords"
to the chart in Lesson 64, and notice how they're all derived from
diatonic chords built from the example "A harmonic minor scale".
When you see some strange looking chords in minor keys... and
wonder where they came from, the answer is nearly always that
they were constructed using this harmonic minor scale.
Chords built strictly from the pure minor scale do not work well in
modern jazz, but those built from harmonic minor do. It would be
a little hard to explain it all, but trust me, this is why we see many
altered chords in minor keys, and this is the scale we get them all
from. And, one last point I'd like to make. When you see all these
chords being used, that harmonic minor scale is a great choice for
the improvizer to use over them.... I'll give just one example. The
II/V7+9/I progression can be handled well... using minor/ blues as
I told you before. But using the harmonic minor through the chord
progression will often sound even more "right".... In fact, you may
think of using the 2nd, 5th, and 1st "modes" of the harmonic minor
scale, just as you'd think dorian, mixolydian, and ionian in a major
key. It works exactly the same, just using harmonic minor instead.
This is a really great way to handle the II/V7+9/I progression, in a
minor key! You won't sound Egyptian in this context, but you might
want to "walk like an Egyptian" anyway. If you don't know the joke
I'm making, it's probably better. It's a pretty bad joke...

.................................*** LESSON NUMBER 66 ***.......................


.........
The third minor scale is the "MELODIC MINOR"... and it's another variation of
the pure minor scale. It is unusual in that the ascending form is different than
the descending. When ascending, the scale is like the pure minor, except that
the 6th and 7th steps have been raised by a 1/2 step... When descending, it's
identical to pure minor. This is how the classical musician learns about it in h
is
college training, and how he regularly sees it in classical compositions.

The jazz improvizer is only concerned with the ascending form. We refer to it
as the "ascending form of melodic minor". Perhaps you have seen this phrase
and wondered what it meant... This scale is often used over minor chords that
have the "major 7th" added, like the altered I chord often seen in minor keys.
It has other uses as well, which I will introduce you to at the appropriate time
.
For the sake of completeness... I'll summarize all three of the
minor scales we've covered, in "formula notation" once again:
Pure minor scale........................... 1, 2, -3, 4, 5, -6, -7, 8
Harmonic minor scale.................... 1, 2, -3, 4, 5, -6, 7, 8
Melodic minor scale....................... 1, 2, -3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8
Again, we are only concerned with the ascending form of melodic minor. So
there they are, all three of the classic "minor scales". They are variations of
the aeolian (or sixth) mode of the major scale... Pure minor is just the same
as aeolian. Harmonic minor is the same as pure minor... but with the "raised
7th step", and melodic minor has both the "raised 6th and 7th steps". As you
can see... all the scales we've ever talked about are simply variations of one
another. Once your major scales are utterly mastered, all the others fall into
place like a line of dominoes... Learning licks built from these scales will als
o
become very easy for you as well. You don't need to learn all these scales at
this time. Just review, and be sure you understand how each is constructed.

.........................*** LESSON NUMBER 67 ***..........................


Now it is time for... "TOM'S SERMONETTE"... This WILL be short.
If you just keep taking in a little more each day, you will cover
an incredible amount of ground... in a relatively short period of
time, and it will all begin to look very simple. In a glance, you'll
recognize chord symbols, know what scales and licks work with
them, and spontaneously form and perform musical ideas at an
amazing speed. You'll get to a point where almost no conscious
effort is required... You'll then close your eyes, and simply play
whatever your mind hears and tells you "ought to come next"!
Sometimes you will become completely lost in the process.... like
when you're reading a book and suddenly realize you're not even
thinking about the mechanics of reading anymore... It'll simply fly
out of your trumpet with almost no effort whatsoever.
Charlie Parker once said something to the effect that, "You should
master everything about your instrument and music theory... then
eventually you forget about it all and just play"!! There is really no
mystery to it at all, only routine practice, and some good listening!
Give this project 15 minutes a day, and you'll be very advanced in
just a few years. Give it 30 minutes a day, and you'll be playing as
a pro in two or three years. Give it an hour a day, and you'll be an
advanced player within a year. I kid you not!!! But, no matter what
pace you choose to go, if you stick with it, IT WILL HAPPEN!
My approach is like that of Charlie Parker. We'll learn everything so
well, so that later we don't even have to think about it!! Think about

THAT!! At that point you simply play what you hear. This is realistic,
and it cannot fail if you simply STICK WITH IT!

.................................*** LESSON NUMBER 68 ***.......................


.......
This lesson will be "SCALES, SCALES AND MORE SCALES".... I don't want
you to try to learn the minor scales from lessons 64-66 yet, nor do I want
you to begin learning the ones I'll present in this lesson either. I just want
to introduce them to you all at once, then later I'll have you begin playing
them in a special way.
I'll show you where you can use these various scales in some of the tunes
you're currently playing in your JA repetoir already... And, I won't ask you
to learn them in all 12 keys even then. I will only want you to play them in
certain songs, and only in the keys needed for each specific situation. You
may already know why too. I will want you to become accustomed to how
they are used, and how they sound very gradually first. I'll point out just a
few places where the new scales can be used... and I only want you to use
them in those spots and only in the keys needed to handle them there. For
now, all I want you to do is to read all these lessons on scales, and just be
sure you understand the construction of each one at this time.
1. The Whole Tone Scale: This is an unusual scale, built entirely
using nothing but whole steps. It is often used with dominant 7th
chords, with the #4 and/or #5 added. Two Examples:
C, D, E, F#, G#, A#, C.
Db, Eb, F, G, A, B, Db.
2. The W/H Diminished Scale: This is also an unusual scale built
from alternating whole steps and half steps. The 'W/T' stands for
the "whole steps and half steps". It is most often used with fully
diminished chords. Three Examples:
C, D, Eb, F, F#, G#, A, B, C.
Db, Eb, E, F#, G, A, Bb, C, Db.
D, E, F, G, G#, A#, B, C#, D.
3. The H/W Diminished Scale: This one is similar to that diminished
scale above, except that it begins with a half step then a whole step.
The 'H/W' signifies that it starts with the "half step then whole step".
It is most often used with a dominant 7th chord with a b9 and/or #9
added. Three Examples:
C, Db, D#, E, F#, G, A, Bb, C.
C#, D, E, F, G, G#, A#, B, C#.
D, Eb, F, F#, G#, A, B, C, D.
4. The Diminished/Whole Tone Scale: The first half of this scale is
just like the H/W diminished scale above, and the second half of the
scale is like a whole tone scale. It is most often used with dominant
7th chords with many altered tones added (like b9, #9, #4, and #5).
In fact, this scale contains all of those altered tones! One Example:
C, Db, Eb, E, F#, G#, A#, C.

5. The Locrian Scale (or mode): We have discussed this scale before.
It is the seventh mode of the major scale. It is most often used with a
half-diminished 7th chord. One Example:
B, C, D, E, F, G, A, B.
6. The Major Bebop Scale: This is the same thing as a major scale but
with a raised fifth step added... It is use with the common major type
chords. One Example:
C, D, E, F, G, G#, A, B, C.
7. The Dominant Bebop Scale: This is the same thing as a mixolydian
scale but with a raised seventh step added. It is most often used with
unaltered dominant type chords (with no #4, #5, b9, #9, etc...). One
Example:
C, D, E, F, G, A, Bb, B, C.
Now remember, I don't want you to start working on all these scales unless
you happen to be quite advanced already and determined to go all the way.
Most folks who have gotten this far need to clarify their personal jazz goals
just a bit... so the next lesson will be about that. Then we're moving on!!

..............................*** LESSON NUMBER 69 ***..........................


...
?????????? "WHAT ARE YOUR PERSONAL GOALS IN JAZZ" ???????????
SOME QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS:
1. Now, how many different types of scales has Tom presented?
..........nearly twenty
2. How many different types of scales does JA have in his syllabus?
..........nearly thirty
3. How many different types of scales are there around the world?
..........maybe hundreds
4. How many different types of scales should one realisticly eventually
try to master? Well, that's the real question, isn't it? And, the answer is
different for each jazz improvizer. If you want to eventually play on the
leading edge of experimental avant garde jazz...the total number you'd
learn might be very different than if you simply wanted to play beautiful
traditional standards and ballads. If you just want to play dixieland jazz
you'd probably need even less... and, if you just want to play in a blues
bar playing only the simplest blues solos, you'd hardly need any at all!
I like to play standards and ballads mostly. I also play some funk with an
electronic set up and effects rack. The scales I've presented form most of
my own regularly used repetoir of scales. My licks are built from about 20
or so scales... and it enables me to have more than enough choices for all
my modern jazz, funk, and traditional needs. I never find myself wishing I
had that Hindu scale, or phrigian mode, or another exotic Chinese scale in
my arsenal... What I use is appropriate for all the styles I play. Most folks
would never need any more than this. If you eventualy master this many
scales, you should be set for life.

I'd like to address one more thing... The way I've been teaching has been
simple and straightforward, but at the same time very complete. It is done
in a way that would take a total beginner, building a very broad foundation
of knowledge and skill... to the very advanced position of being able to play
the jazz improv spot in a professional big band or combo. He'd then be able
to take a chart he's never seen before, quickly analyze the chord changes,
and then immediately play a very artful solo the very first time through.
But what if your goal were more like this? You really just want to be able
to play in a high school or college big band, and be able to work on a solo
at home for a few days and then come back and play a decent solo. Well,
this is a goal that is much easier reached. If you're in this lesson because
you've already gone through the previous lessons, and have control over
that material, then you're already at a low college improv level right now.
Here's another thought. Suppose you're out of school, and you'd just like to
have a repetoir of 30 songs you can play and improvize nicely on in a small
combo... Maybe you just want enough skill to jam on thirty songs with some
friends in a club. Well this is very doable right now too! I'm about to analyze
another dozen standards and ballads very quickly for you that will bring you
to the level where you'd be able to do that yourself as well, and easily learn
to solo quite well on thirty intermediate difficulty songs very quickly!! If you
have followed me to this point, you're almost to that point riight now! What's
really nice about this approach is you only need to learn the scales & enough
licks to play "THOSE THIRTY SONGS"... and you only have to learn material
in the keys needed for those songs as well. This is about a tenth of the work
it would take to become a pro, playing every solo artfully the very first time
he sees a new chart. Perhaps your goal is somwhere in the middle... Decide
where your goals fall in this continuum. This will help more than anything.
Some folks out there just need to start getting their song lists together now,
and then just simply work on their 30 favorite standards, ballads, and blues,
and they're all ready to go. What are your goals? The answer to this is what
should dictate your own personal path... I will continue to write in a way that
will help people with goals anywhere along this spectrum, to achieve all they
desire from jazz improvization, from the hobbyist to the professional...

.................................*** LESSON NUMBER 70 ***.......................


.........
This lesson will be a "QUICK REVIEW, THEN ON WE GO". I've been dishing
out a lot of scales in the last few lessons (ten new scales to be exact) and I
have also been telling you not to try to learn them all at this time. Here's a
short recap of where we're going with all this.
Various people will follow this thread for different reasons. Some may want
to progress to an extremely advanced professional level where they can go
and play the jazz chair in any band, and play great solos the very first time
they lay eyes on a new chart... Others here have lesser goals in mind, such
as just being able to play solos in a high school or college band, after doing
some work on them at home... Others simply want to play with friends as a
hobby, and merely gain a thirty song repetoir that they could use to play in
a nightclub setting with a small combo. Those last two categories of players
are very quickly reaching their goals already. They are already getting very

close to having the ability to work up individual songs, in order to be able to


play and improvize on 'those songs'. These are really very different kinds of
goals, but up to this point they should both be approached in the same way.
I plan to continue teaching in a way that will get everyone to where they're
hoping to be, in the most efficient and effective way possible... Really, even
people with the highest aspirations need to apply all these various skills they
learn to actual songs, so the path I have in mind is really good for all groups
of players. Guys that want to form a combo and play with friends as quickly
as possible, and those who need to be competent in their school jazz bands,
and even those that plan to achieve the highest artistic levels, all need to go
down the same path, acquiring the same skills, and in the same order.
The only difference is that the "all out artist group" is going to start thinkin
g
about learning many more scales (and licks) in all the various keys.... while
the other players will probably only need to learn specific scales and licks as
they need them to solo on the specific tunes they plan to perform. I do hope
all this makes sense. Just relax and know that I've got it covered.

.................................*** LESSON NUMBER 71 ***.......................


........
It's now time to begin "USING THE TEN NEW SCALES", so let's jump on in!!
Remember that I want you to get used to the way each of these new scales
sound and the way they are used, very gradually. I will now suggest places
where each of them can be used in songs you've already learned... I'll only
want you to try them in the spots I suggest.
Write them into your JA books at the appropriate places, and each time you
play those songs, you should experiment with the new scales there (and only
there, just for now). Keep it very simple with each new scale, just as you did
in the early lessons... You should just play up and down each of them at first
without the background tracks, then slowly add them in while using the CDs.
Later, as you become familiar with each one, you can do more and more.
Take lots of time with each new scale, to really learn how each one sounds.
Using these new scales only in these spots for now (only in one or two keys)
will really help you to learn how they sound. These scales are quite unusual,
and they will all be less familiar to your ear... Some will sound quite strange
to you at first. Then later, as you get the feel for each one, you will come to
realize they were much better than you first thought... It's when we begin to
use licks built from these scales, that we truly realize their value. At first w
e
just need to run up and down a few, and simply get used to their sounds.
The first song we'll use is "Groovitis", from track 1 of JA Volume 5... This is
a
great jam in the key of D minor, and it will allow us to experiment with some
of these new scale sounds. You already know the D minor/blues scale can be
used all the way through this song except for the last two measures... where
we'd use a Bb mixolydian scale. This song is full of D- chords, and also many
E half-diminished and A7+9 chords. These are the II and V chords in D minor
and that's why that D minor/blues scale works almost all the way through.
Now let's take a closer look at the II/V7+9/I progression that occurs several
times in this song. First I want you to pencil in small measure numbers under

each bar line. Don't label the measure with the pickup notes. The first full bar
will be the whole note A, under the D- chord. Go ahead and label all 16 bars.
Now we'll start with measures 7-9, the II/V7+9/I progression in D minor. The
first scale to try using here, is the one printed below that "E half-diminished"
chord. It is the E locrian scale (or mode) mentioned in Lesson 68 as working
well with half-diminished chords. You'd use it only in measure 7 for now. The
next scale we will use will be the "diminished/whole tone", also mentioned in
Lesson 68 as working well with altered dominant chords... You'll use it only in
measure 8 for now. These are the two scales JA always suggests for use with
the II/V7+9/I progression in minor keys, and that is all the the scales we will
cover in this lesson, but I will discuss this progression a little more...
The II/V7+9/I seen in measures
II/V7+9/I" in earlier lessons.
nly
one measure (or one bar). BTW,
Just use the two new scales in
old friend, "the D minor/blues

2 and 3 is what I refer to as a "one bar minor


I call it that because the "II/V7+9" part lasts o
don't try using the new scales there just yet...
measures 7 and 8, and just continue using your
scale" over the rest...

The II/V7+9/I progression in measures 7-9, is what I call a "minor II/V7+9/I" in


my earlier lessons. The II/V7+9 part lasts for two whole measures. I just wanted
to make my own terminology for these progressions clear. That's how I label this
chord change in the 'patterns notebook' as well. One more thing you might notice
is that all the tracks I've skipped in Volumes 2, 3 and 5 have been because of t
he
presence of this particular chord progression... Now we'll cover almost all of t
hem
pretty soon as well, since you'll know how to deal with them now.
Alright, that is all for now, just these two new scales, used in this one sectio
n, of
only one song. It may not sound like much but it really is! You should be sure y
ou
practice these two scales a lot without the CD at first, I mean A LOT! Practice
them
one at a time, then hook the two together in order, then play them with a comple
te
resolution to the minor I chord using D minor/blues at the end. You will be play
ing
the entire minor II/V7+9/I chord progression this way without any CD background
at all... Keep it simple, and gradually work your way up to being able to "plug
it in"
with the background track playing... Keep it simple and really nail it. Do this
many,
many times so you'll begin to actually hear these scale sounds before playing th
em.
This is so very important! Go slow, and spend lots of time on these two scales!

................................*** LESSON NUMBER 72 ***........................


.........

"ANOTHER SCALE TO USE WITH MINOR II/V7+9/I CHORD PROGRESSION"


Let's continue with other scale choices for this progression, using Groovitis.
The first scale choice I presented for the minor II/V7+9/I in Groovitis, was
way back in Lesson 54, the D minor/blues scale. It could be used on nearly
the whole song... I also suggested the use of the D minor/pentatonic scale,
and the D minor/dorian as well. All these scales are what I call 'minor type'
scales... Experiment a bit more, using each of these three scales thoughout
the entire song, and think about how these minor scale work and sound.
In the lesson above we discussed using new scales over the minor II/V7+9/I
in measures 7 and 8. They were the locrian and diminished/whole tone scales
tha JA always prints out as his first choice of scales for this progression... Y
ou
will see them over and over again in the songs to come. I remember the first
time I tried using them almost 25 years ago... I felt the locrian scale seemed
reasonable enough, but it took me a long time to figure out how to make that
diminished/whole tone scale sound right. After spending lots of time with that
odd scale, it became one of my very favorit scale sounds. It just take quite a
while to get to know each scale... Some of you won't like certain scale sounds
and you will prefer others. That is completely up to you, and luckily there are
lots to choose from.
.........................USING HARMONIC MINOR WITH II/V7+9/I....................
.....
Here is another scale you can use for this progression... the Harmonic Minor.
I personally love to use this scale over the minor II/V7+9/I progression, and
here's how it works.... In the key of D minor, as we have here with Groovitis,
you would use the D harmonic minor all the way through the whole II/V7+9/I.
The D harmonic minor scale goes like this: D, E, F, G, A, Bb, C#, D. You might
recall me saying that this scale could sound Egyptian, Spanish, Italian, or even
a little Jewish. Try playing it now and you can see how it sounds. When used in
the jazz idiom it won't seem to have any ethnic sound to it at all. It'll just s
eem
to sound very right, especially with this chord progression.
When using it over the minor II/V7+9/I in Groovitis, you will want to start your
melodic idea on the second tone of the scale (E). This will coincide with the ro
ot
of the first chord in the progression (E half-diminished). You might even think
of
this as "the second mode of D harmonic minor". Anyway, you'll continue playing
this scale throughout both the II and the V7+9 chords, and then when you get to
the I chord (D-) you will resolve as usual... You can use that D minor/blues sca
le
here as you've done before, or you may just try continuing on D harmonic minor
scale right through the I chord as well. This works great too!
Well, now you know how to use the harmonic minor scale over a minor II/V7+9/I
chord progression. Apply all the same suggestions I keep giving you every time t
o
learn this. Go slow, start without the CD, etc... etc... You know what to do!!!
This is
the only place I want you to use this scale for now. Just take your time with it
and

each time you play Groovitis in the future, experiment with these new scales. Al
so,
do be sure to write in the D harmonic minor scale under measures 7-8 just so you
won't forget. If you'd like to use this scale just a bit more, I will tell you t
hat it can
be used throughout the whole song, just like the other 'minor type' scales befor
e...
(except for those last two measures) but just keep all these new scales I've giv
en
you for use with Groovitis only, at least for a while...

...............................*** LESSON NUMBER 73 ***.........................


.....
How to Improvize with "THE PURE MINOR SCALE" will be subject of this
lesson... The pure minor scale is not usually the first choice for modern
jazz players to use with minor chords... but they do work well in certain
situations... Pure minor is the foundation of minor keys used in classical
music. This scale has a kind of classical or baroque sound to it, and can
be used to good effect, especially over a tonic minor chord that's played
for an extended time in a minor key (tonic refers to the I chord).
There is a very good track for experimenting with this sound in Volume 2
"Nothin But Blues". It is the "Long-Meter Jazz/Rock" found on Track 6. I'll
want you to use the E pure minor scale over the entire first 16 measures.
This scale consists of the notes E, F#, G, A, B, C, D, E.
You will recall that pure minor is the same as 'aeolian', the sixth mode of
a major scale (in this case the G major scale). See how the notes are the
same for E pure minor, and G major.
You can compare E pure minor to the E dorian scale, suggested for use in
the book... There is only one note that's different between the two scales,
and it is not a chord tone (C and C#). Write the E pure minor scale, there
on page 19 of your book somewhere, along with a note that it can be used
throught the entire first 16 measures. You'll notice that the A dorian scale,
writen under the A- chord, is another mode of the same G major scale. It
has the same notes as E pure minor (AKA "E aeolian"), and this is why the
one scale can be used so well, right through all 16 measures. Take time to
make all the comparisons for yourself. This song is perfect for using the E
pure minor scale with. There is no C# anywhere in the melody for the first
16 measures either. This helps make pure minor a very good scale choice.
This is the only place I want you to use pure minor for now. You'll get used
to the sound this way, and not be ovewhelmed by any complexities. Simply
experiment with this scale each time you play this track. This lesson should
be pretty easy for you.

....................................*** LESSON NUMBER 74 ***....................


..........
Well here we have "ANOTHER GREAT MINOR BLUES TRACK" also in E minor.

The very next blues track in Volume 5, is also in E minor, and is also a very
suitable track for using the E pure minor scale with. Let's take a look!
............VOLUME 2, NOTHIN BUT BLUES, TRACK 7, HOME STRETCH............
This blues should be pretty easy to understand, especially now that we have
discussed the II/V7+9/I progression seen in the minor keys. This whole track
can be handled with the E minor/blues or the E minor/pentatonic scale. It can
also be handled using the various dorian (and other) scales JA suggests. The
only suggested scales I'd avoid... are in the "one bar minor II/V7+9/I" chord
progression in measure 10... It just goes by so fast, that I would simply keep
on using one of the "minor type scales" and just blow right through it!
This track,
nor
scale with.
the 9th bar
t
play the F#
.

like the one before it, is also a perfect track to use the E pure mi
The only measure this scale might not sound too good with would be
with the G7 chord, but even there it wouldn't sound bad... Just don'
in that measure, since it clashes with the F natural in the G7 chord

What elese is there to say? These tracks are stating to look pretty easy, aren't
they? Add this song to your repetoir, and do experiment with all the scales I've
mentioned, including the E pure minor. Well, that's it! You know what to do!

.................................*** LESSON NUMBER 75 ***.......................


.........
.............VOLUME 2, NOTHIN BUT BLUES, TRACK 8, HORIZONTAL.............
This will be a short lesson. I want you to use all the scales that JA suggests
with one exception. During the first four measures only, I want you to start
experimenting with the "Dominant Bebop Scale". The notes of this scale for
use with a D7 chord are: D, E, F#, G, A, B, C, C#, D.... Remember that this
scale has both the lowererd 7th (C) and the higher 7th (C#). This'll basically
form a short chromatic type section in the scale... and running up and down
a 'bebop scale' makes the chord tones land on the beats. Review page 28 in
Volume 1 again to refresh yourself on this scale and how it is used.
Once again... I only want you to use this 'D dominant bebop scale' in this one
song for now. Use it for the first for measures. Of course you should also use
the D dominant/mixolydian there sometimes, along with the other scales that
work well with longer dominant 7th chords.... such as the D major/pentatonic
and the D major/blues scales... All these are good to use, especially over the
first four measures. Write these suggested scales in, right there on the page!
The last six measures are a little unusual... Do use the suggested scale right
there on the page. You may need to practice running the scales for those six
bars a number of times without the CD before you will be comfortable there.
All this is gradually moving you forward, towards a more and more advanced
level of playing ability. Just continue moving forward at your own happy pace!
There is no need to rush anything at all. Hurrying through this material will ju

st
frustrate and even hurt you in the end, so just TAKE YOUR TIME, and digest all
the information fully and master all the skills thoroughly. You'll be glad you d
id!

.................................*** LESSON NUMBER 76 ***.......................


.........
..........VOLUME 2, NOTHIN BUT BLUES, TRACK 9, SLOW BLUES IN G.........
This is another slow blues in "Concert G", that's the key of A for trumpeters.
Well this will be another very short lesson. I want
scales JA has suggested in the book... I would also
attention to how the IV chord appears in the second
dominant scale there, but really make sure you nail
time just listening to the track without playing so
chord... Try singing along with the track, and make
nail that chord change later on when you're playing

you to once again use the


like you to pay particular
measure... Just use that
that chord. Spend some
you can really hear that IV
sure you really hear and
with the CD.

The lessons get shorter, the farther you progress... You are an intermediate
level player already. You're able to analyze basic songs now, and you should
even be able to know what scales work with each of the chords you now see.
In real jazz sheet music, one gets to see the chord symbols, but there are no
suggested scales beneath them. It is assumed that you will know what scales
work with the various chords and progressions... and all scale choices are left
up to you. Nobody tells the soloist what to play! The jazz improvizer is a very
respected member of any band, and he enjoys the right to play whatever he
chooses!! Lead players and jazz soloists are the most important guys around.
Being a jazz improvizer is an honor. We are continuing a truly noble tradition!
We should be proud of this. It sets us apart from all the rest!!

.................................** LESSON NUMBER 77 ***........................


.........
......."VOLUME 2, NOTHIN BUT BLUES, TRACK 11, MINOR BLUES IN C"......
This blues is in the 'trumpet key' of D minor. In classical music we'd expect
to see a key signature here with one flat. This would be the same signature
as you'd see for F major (the relative major) in this case. It's fairly common
for jazz compozers to write songs without using a key signature at all. Many
jazz compositions move about from one key center to another so frequently
that it can actually be difficult to say exactly what key a piece of music is in
.
This is not the case with these particular songs, but you might have noticed
that none of the songs in 'Nothin But Blues' have any key signature at all.
Well, as I said, this one is in D minor for us trumpet players. All of the chord
s
and progressions in this song are also found in the song, 'Groovitis', from JA's

Volume 5. It's even in the same key as "Groovitis" which is very convenient.
I gave my instructions for Groovitis in Lesson 54 and also gave tips on how to
handle the minor II/V7+9/I progression in Lesson 71 and Lesson 72..... These
three lessons should tell you everything you need to know in order to play this
minor blues. Review them if you need to. I'll now assume that you understand
all previously covered material, so be certain that you fully comprehend every
lesson before moving on. This is very important!
So here is how I start to help you the most, by not giving you any more help
with this song. It has chords and progressions that are all found in a song you
previously studied, and you'll simply review those lessons I cited above if you
aren't already able to start improvizing to this minor blues already. You must
gradually become more and more self-sufficient!
I'll continue providing all the guidence you need... and I'll even frquently ref
er
you back to earlier lessons that you might need to review, but you need to do
more and more for yourself. Look at this blues and realize that you don't need
any more help. All you need... is to apply all the things you already know!
You have all of JA's suggested scales written there for you right now, but in th
e
world of the jazz improvizer, there are no scales written in, only chord symbols
!
Bottom line is... I'll spend less and less time on the basics now and assume you
have that stuff covered. Any time you feel confused, it's because you're moving
too fast! Please go back and review earlier lessons, and only check them off the
review list (you have one of those, don't you ) when they are fully mastered.
I'll stop with the blues tracks now... and go back to finish up all the rest of
the
songs in Volume 5, "Time To Play Music"... Then after that we'll cover all of th
e
songs on Volume 54, "Maiden Voyage". Counting all the blues heads you have
learned, from Volumes 1 and 2, and all the songs from Volumes 5 and 54, you
will already have a repetoir of over 30 songs you could perform. That would be
enough material to play three or four full sets in a nightclub with a combo!

................................*** LESSON NUMBER 78 ***........................


.........
"ANOTHER QUICK REVIEW, ANOTHER SERMONETTE... THEN AWAY WE GO!"
We have covered every track on Volume 1... and every track on Volume 2...
except the last one, which we won't address for quite some time. So basically
we are done with those two sets, and within a short time you'll be able to play
every song on Volumes 5 and 54 as well... It would normally take a person at
least a year to cover this much ground through my tutelage... especially since
I dish out all the appropriate theory along the way. This builds a foundation on
which you can continue to grow for a lifetime with no limitations. GO SLOWLY!

As I mentioned in some recent lessons, this is the point at which you decide
if you just want to play as a hobby and only be able to work up the ability to
perform improvized solos on specific songs... or if you want to go all the way
to being able to play artistically on almost any song, the first time you see it
,
or even sometimes... simply hear it!! In any event, you all needed everthing
I've presented so far. Both groups of students can continue to progress with
this as far as they want to go. I will continue teaching all the more advanced
theory as it comes up while covering more and more advanced songs.
You need JA's Volume 54, "Maiden Voyage" next. You will be covering ground
more quickly now as each new song is built from the same building blocks you
are already familiar with. Like any other course of study, you'll be increasingl
y
able to learn more material all the time as you master the earlier material. All
the pieces of the puzzle just start falling into place faster and faster the clo
ser
you get to achieving "the big picture". And once you get there, everything will
start to look very simple! Your ability to improvize jazz is absolutely one of t
he
most valuable things you will ever learn... and once you have it, it will always
be there for you. I love jazz so much, I couldn't imagine a world without it!
GO ORDER VOLUME 54, MAIDEN VOYAGE!

..................................*** LESSON NUMBER 79 ***......................


......
Now we'll discuss... "BIRD BLUES, VOLUME 2, TRACK 12", for PRogers!!!
Hi "PR"...
I was planning on taking them directly to "Giant Steps", "Countdown" and
"Moments Notice", since Yardbird's blues just weren't challenging enough!
Just kidding. For those of you that don't know PRogers... he's actually one
of the most jazz literate high school trumpeters you would ever meet!! He
is a dedicated student of jazz improvization, and reminds me of myself at
that age. I began practicing obsesively at 16 and 17 years old... and I had
lots of people telling me a career in music was no good. Don't listen to the
nay sayers "PR". Stick to your dreams!
Perhaps you're right. Let's go ahead and talk about that last blues track on
Volume 5, "Bird Blues". I'm just kidding about this being for PRogers. I am
sure he's playing it in several keys already... I love to play this one myself
and I do agree... it IS probably the "funnest" blues of all time!
Now let's get serious. This blues is a real jump forward, not so much in the
difficulty department, but because of sheer speed. This is some really good
bebop, and Charly Parker gets the credit.... This particular blues transitions
from chord to chord in a most ingenius and eloquent way.... It will scramble
your mind at first, but you'll gradually come to realize that it's an amazingly
constructed piece of art!

Here is how to approach it. First of all, you must realize that this is a long
term project, that should be started VERY slowly... and gradually speeded
up over several weeks, or even months, before you'll be able to deal with
the very fast tempo. However, there is some good news!! The chords and
scales are made of the exact same material you've already been studying.
Also, once you do get this up to speed you'll know these tempos really are
attainable, and breaking into the "bebop zone" will carry over into all your
other playing as well. Other songs won't seem nearly so fast after you get
used to this!
I'll pause
project in
and it can
who really

now for a moment, and then post all the details regarding this big
the following lesson. Remember that this track is optional for now,
(and probably should) be returned to at a later date. But for those
love a challenge, here comes a good one!

.................................*** LESSON NUMBER 80 ***.......................


..........
VOLUME 2, NOTHIN BUT BLUES, TRACK 12, BIRD BLUES, ALL THE DETAILS
OK, this blues is in the key of G, but it's not one you'd use a G minor/blues
scale over. This isn't New Orleans bump and grind! This is pure bebop, and
you'll be using a very flowing eigth note style... so put your blues scales on
hold for now, and get ready to roll!
You should not even attempt to play along with the CD for quite a while, I'm
talking weeks here for intermediate students. Just play and nail every single
chord change in super slow motion many, many times... Keep it very simple
and just be patient. If you give it just a little time every day, it will gradua
lly
increase in speed, to the point where you can play along with the CD.
Bar 1 consists of a I chord in G major. You could simply use the G major
scale there or any of the other "major type" scales in G. I would strongly
suggest experimenting with the G major/blues scale there. The notes for
this G major/blues are: G, A, A#, B, D, E, G.
Bar 2 is a 'minor II/V7+9 progression' in E minor. While JA has suggested
scales for use there, the eventual tempo will make them impractical. What
we need there are licks that'll work with the one bar II/V7+9 progression.
These can be extracted from licks books, or heads (like Groovitis), but I'd
suggest using the lick that is right there in this head. In fact, that lick is s
o
good, it should immediately be entered into your patterns notebook as the
first "one bar II/V7+9/I pattern". More can be gotten from Groovitis that'll
also fit into this song nicely, and also into your notebook as well... For now
you should just use the riff in this measure as your own lick, every time it
comes around... Learning licks that fit with certain chords, will often unlock
the door to being able to "hear" that particular progression. The lick in this
head is ideal for this purpose as well. It's simple, and it's perfect... Use it!
!
Bar 3 is one of those 'one bar II/Vs' that really functions and sounds like a
I and a IV chord in E minor, and so you'll simply play (and think) 'E dorian'
through that measure. Remember that's how we think of it because it does
not resolve to a I chord in D major so we handle it like I and IV in E minor.

Bars 4 and 5 make a complete 'one bar II/V7/I chord progression' in the
key of C major. Some perfect licks for this short progression are located
in the Jerry Coker Patterns book on pages 91-93. You will of course need
to transpose them for use in this key. There are four great licks there, all
suitable for these measures... and all are good enough to be in a patterns
notebook as well. Put them in your notebook now!! You'll probably want to
transpose them all into the key of C before you do, which is just fine since
that's the key you need to plug them in for this song anyway!! Use all four
of those licks in these two measures. Again... it will help you to "hear" this
very important progression. Go ahead and plug those licks in at this point,
and it will connect everything smoothly and help train your ear at the very
same time!
Bar 6 is C-7...... Use that C dorian scale there, or a lick if you dare!
Bar 7 is B-7...... Use B dorian in bar 7, or a lick made in heaven!
Bar 8 is Bb-7.... Use Bb dorian, or some licks even morian!
I know... That was pretty bad. Sorry about that, but I'll make up for it now.
Here is something you can do in the last three measures... 6, 7 and 8, that
is just soooo cool, you'll forgive all my puns and poetry! If you use a short
minor type lick in bar 6, try repeating it in bar 7 exactly as before, but in B
minor, then again in bar 9 in Bb minor. Just transpose the same lick into all
three keys as you play over the three chords! You'll love this, I promise!
Bars 9 and 10 form a "two bar II/V7" that really sounds and functions more
like I and IV chords in A minor, so again you'll 'think dorian' as before, and
simply play the A dorian scale right through those two measures. There are
also some nice licks in the Coker book that would work well in these 2 bars.
They are 'two bar II/V7 licks' that do not resolve to a I chord, and therefore
are perfect for the job... They are on pages 97-100, and the very best ones,
in my humble opinion, are #144, #145, and #148. Again I'd transpose them
into C before entering them into your notebook, then transpose them into G
for use with the II/V7 progression in measures 9 and 10. Again, these don't
resolve to a I chord, which makes them ideal for this situation!
Bars 11 and 12 form a chord progression we haven't dealt with yet called a
turnaround. Perhaps you've heard of this before but didn't know what it was.
There are patterns designed for this two measure progression which we will
certainly study later, but for now we will handle it with a more basic method.
Each of these two measures is again a 'one bar II/V7 progression', and both
can be handled as before with one dorian scale for each bar. Measure 11 will
use the B dorian scale, and measure 12 will use the A dorian scale resolving
this time to the Major I chord in Bar 1... There are also some patterns in the
Coker book that can be played over these "one bar II/V7s" and they are on
pages 85-90. Some that seem appropriate for starting out would be patterns
#126, #131, and #134... It would again be a nice effect to use the same lick
on each of these last two measures... transposed to fit the two keys. (This is
how many turnaround patterns are actually constructed, and playing the two
measures this way will help you to "hear" this new 'turnaround' progression.)
That is the whole 12 bar blues "Bird Blues"... Now you can see why I was
reluctant to cover it so soon in your developement... If it seems too much
of a challenge at this time for you, feel free to just skip it. If you just love
a challenge and are VERY patient, then just go VERY slow and ignore time
and tempos for a while, to get comfortable with the scales and patterns.

Later, still going VERY slowly... you would begin keeping a strick beat, and
absolutely nail every single chord change. You'll probably need to do it this
way for weeks... then very gradually increase the speed, day by day, until
faster tempos are reached. It will probably take a couple of months before
you are able to play this up to speed with the CD background. It's all up to
you, but once you can play this one you are well on your way to becoming
an advanced level improvizer! Again, this track is entirely optional...
Well, whether you take on Charly Parker at this time, or just hold off a while,
at least we have covered every track on Volume 2 now... and you know how
to tackle a song such as this!

................................*** LESSON NUMBER 81 ***........................


.......
More discussion of "YOUR JAZZ PATTERNS NOTEBOOK", and Jerry Coker.
After covering that last "Bird Blues" above, I realize that it would be good
idea to spend time with the patterns notebook project some more, before
going further. Review Lesson 46, which thoroughly discusses sources that
can provide you with jazz patterns... Also please remember my advice on
how to get your own licks, from the riffs that already come from your own
mind. These licks will just keep getting better and better in the future, and
they'll be some of the very best ones for you! You'll keep hearing them all
the time in your mind, so learn those for sure. Learn how to play what you
hear! What could be better than that?!!
In Lesson 47 we put some "major type licks" into our notebooks that came
from the Coker Patterns book.... built using major triads, major 6th chords,
major 7th chords, and major ninth chords. Review that section and be sure
you got all the patterns from Coker into your notebook you want, both real
jazz licks... and the preliminary exercise type patterns as well.
In Lesson 48, we put more "major type licks" into our notebooks that came
from the Coker book... built using major scales, major digital patterns, and
major scale intervals. Please review those now as well and be sure you get
all of those you like too... Those preliminary patterns need not be beautiful,
just valuable to the process of building a solid foundation.
In Lesson 80 above, I had you get some more licks from the Jerry Coker
book as well. We took licks from pages 85-100 that fit with the II/V7, and
the II/V7/I progressions for major keys. These come in two varieties that
I refer to as the "one bar" and "two bar" versions... If the II/V7 part lasts
for one measure I call it a 'one bar', and if the II/V7 part lasts for two full
measures I call it a 'two bar'. I put the one bar II/V7s and II/V7/Is, in the
same section of the notebook together. Then I put the two bar II/V7s and
II/V7/Is together in a different section of the notebook. If you haven't set
up your notebook yet, look at Lessons 60-62 to see what I mean and also
to get your notebook started now... You'll definitely need this to be able to
go on with these lessons!
Do review Coker's patterns in pages 85-100 and put any usefull licks from
there into your notebook. You write them in one time each in the key of C,
and label each one above the lick with a number and sourse like #1 Coker,
#2 Aebersold, #3 Original, #4 Hubbard, etc. I hope that makes sense. You
should be able to write in about three to five licks per line.... depending on
their length. Write slow, and as neatly as possible. You'll be looking at this
notebook for many years!

Now you should have every pattern that interests you from Coker's pages
4-31, and 85-100 entered into your notebook. I've also suggested taking a
lick or two from "Bird Blues" and "Groovitis" to put in the notebook as well,
and also some minor blues type licks... from those suggested in Volume 2,
page 3, as well as all the various "blues heads" in both Volumes 1 and 2. It
would be a good idea to go through every single head you studied so far to
extract every pattern that appeals to you. Most won't seem so great, but a
few will really grab you. Get those into your notebook, in their appropriate
places, and then your notebook will already have a very good foundation!
It's a a good idea to write in your basic scales as preliminary patterns too!
After all, just playing up and down the scales with a little rhythm is a great
place to start!! Write in scales in their appropriate categories too... such as
major type patterns, minor type patterns, minor II/V7+9/I patterns, cycle
of dominants, altered V7/I patterns, and pentatonic patterns.
When you've absolutely exhausted all your current sources of licks, come
back and check out the next lesson for even more patterns and ideas...Do
be sure to get Volume 54, "Maiden Voyage", and the two solo transcription
books, "Twenty Eight Modern Trumpet Solos", Volumes 1 and 2. Then you
will have 56 great solos to extract licks from as well.

................................*** LESSON NUMBER 82 ***........................


.........
More on "JERRY COKER AND YOUR JAZZ PATTERNS NOTEBOOK", so read!
Read everything from the beginning of the book to page 100. Reading this
will only take about thirty minutes or so. There is really nothing new there,
so it will just be a review of the theory you are already familiar with... This
will also allow you to scan the patterns we are about to study in Lesson 83.
You'll notice that much of the book is filled with chord symbols. These chord
symbols are meant to suggest some good orders to practice the licks in. The
most common root movements are listed there as explained in the intro, but
without the very common root movement of downward by half steps... It's a
good idea to practice licks in these suggested orders. They'll help you to get
a feel for typical root movements.... My favorite sequences are down by half
steps, up by half steps, and up by fourths.
You've probably noticed that I still have not once asked you to learn a single
pattern in all twelve keys yet... Most jazz teachers would have had you learn
a bunch, and start plugging them in everywhere already... We'll do our share
of this for sure... I find it's very helpful to play for a while without this, t
o get
students to form a foundation based upon "hearing original ideas" first. If we
just start "plugging in a bunch of licks" right away many players will continue
with this kind of approach forever, never really getting to a point where they
play any kind of real art at all. I hear this kind of playing all the time.
I'm not against the use of patterns at all... I just play them when I hear them
as part of a bigger musical idea... Too many people simply plug in licks that'll
fit with the chords, but aren't really part of a creative musical idea. Some jus
t

sound like computers with no real creativity at all.


Read everything in the Coker book to page 100... Underline everything you
feel would be helpful to future reviews. Continue to experiment with the new
scales and licks we've covered just in the suggested places. We are going to
continue working through the songs in Volume 5, then Volume 54... learning
only what is needed along the way.
By that time, all should be able to analyze jazz tunes on their own, and know
what kinds of scales and licks can be used in almost any situation. I will go to
more advanced theory and technique after that, and then I'll expect students
to learn all kinds of scales and licks in every key... One can go as far as they
like with this art. The basic rules are fairly simple, however... the possibilit
ies
are virtually endless!

..................................*** LESSON NUMBER 83 ***......................


...........
And now "MORE OF COKER'S PATTERNS GO INTO YOUR NOTEBOOK" let's go!
OK, you've just finished Lesson 81 where we took licks from every source we
could find. Then, in Lesson 82 you read everything in the Coker book through
page 100... Now it is time to take many more good licks from the Coker book
and put them into your notebook too.... While it's true that over the years you
should fill your notebook with the very best licks you come across, during the
early stages, you just need to get only a few fundamental patterns into all the
categories, along with a few usable jazz licks, so that you'll have examples to
draw from as you need them. The first few licks in each category do not have
to be the greatest patterns. They should just be simple and sound fairly good.
Remember how I told you that knowing licks that fit with certain chords and
progresions can unlock the door to hearing those particular harmonies? Well,
you need at least one or two good licks in all categories, as soon as possible,
to help you improvize... but also to help unlock all those doors as well!
Let's take some more licks from the Coker book right now!! I hope you've
already been getting all the licks you possibly could, from the sources that
I mentioned in Lesson 46. There are many licks in the Aebersold books for
Volumes 1 and 3, as well as all the blues and other type heads in Volumes
3 and 5... We already extracted a few major type licks, digital major licks,
and various kinds of II/V7 and II/V7/I patterns from the Jerry Coker book.
Now, we will extract even more licks from the Coker book, from the pages
we skipped before (pages 31 to 85). Then we will have fully covered all the
theory, and grabbed all the good licks, all the way through page 100 in the
Jerry Coker "Patterns for Jazz" book.
Page 31, "Embellishing tones". I refered to these as leading tones in Lesson
Number 58 on 'chromaticism'. You'll notice that on page 32, patterns #68-71
are all the same... presented with different "root movement practice orders".
Pattern #68 is a good one!! You would just enter this into your notebook one
time, in the 'Major Patterns' section in the key of C only. Other good patterns
in this section INMO are #72, 73, and 78. I'll keep suggesting what strike me
as some of the "best" patterns. These are only my suggestions, and some of

the others may be the ones you prefer. My philosophy is to always let you be
the final judge of that.
Page36, "Diatonic Chords". I didn't use the same name for these as Coker...
and that's OK. I'd probably enter these into the "Digital Chord" section of the
notebook. If you like pattern #79 for instance, you can just enter the first six
or twelve notes into your notebook and that would be enough to give you the
idea. I only enter licks into my notebook one time, in one key, and that's all.
Pattern #81 is a nice one, also #84 and 85. Pages 41-49 just review theory.
Page 50, "Dominant Chords and Scales". I would enter these patterns into the
"Cycle of Dominants" section in the notebook. The patterns there are basically
used with unaltered dominant type chords... as they are built from mixolydian
scales and the unaltered dominant type chords themselves. I like pattern#88,
#95, and variations of #97. After you get used to seeing how the various licks
are constructed (using their corresponding scales and chord tones) you should
be able to create better, more interesting variations of them yourself... as wel
l
as compose new original licks too!! Pattern #99 is a good preliminary exercise
type lick, especially with the root movement suggested there... Most dominant
chords function as the V7 chord in a key, and resolve up a fourth to a I chord.
The phrase "cycle of dominants" refers to dominant chords that resolve up by
fourth intervals (same as down by fifths). Some people will call it the "cycle o
f
fifths" for this reason. When you practive dominant patterns it's best to use th
e
root movement suggested with pattern #99, up by fourths in order to get used
to hearing this common characteristic resolution. You'll also notice that on pag
e
61 it is suggested that many patterns can be altered to fit a variety of differe
nt
chord types... You might find some major typs licks that would work well along
with dominant chords, sometimes requiring just a little altering. All the patter
ns
that are digital in nature will fit into this category for sure... Feel free to
change
any lick to make it more appealing to you, or to make it fit with other types of
chords, etc. This is all up to you. Don't worry about the fact that there are on
ly
a few patterns in each section. We'll get many more patterns in the future from
many different souces... These are just meant to get you started, and they are
perfect for the job!
Page 62, "Minor Type Patterns". These are built from minor chords and scales.
I guess this comes as no surprise. Some good, but generally preliminary type
patterns, might be #106 and #111, and maybe variations of #113. Some licks
from the major category could easily be altered to fit minor chords too... but I
bet you already have quite a few good minor type licks taken from Aebersold
material already!
Pages 81 through 84 review some music theory you're already familiar with...
They discuss how chords can function within various keys. You will remember
the minor and dominant chords that appear in II/V7 progressions that can also
function as I and IV chords in minor keys... This is just one of many examples.
As you progress and begin analyzing jazz tunes on your own, you will have to
take into consideration what key the various chords are functioning in, before

you can know what scales and licks would work best with them... This is done
by considering the surrounding chords, as it's not as hard as it sounds. Just be
patient, you ARE getting there!
You should go back and read everything in the Coker patterns book through
page 100 one more time, being sure to spend lots of effort on anything that
still seems a little fuzzy. If this stuff is a bit confuzing even with my lesson
s,
just imagine how it would go without them!!! Just continue reviewing until
you're sure you have it all. You have now covered every track on Volume 1,
every track on Volume 2, half of Volume 5, some of Volume 3, half of Jerry
Coker's patterns/theory book, and a ton of theory and strategy from me!
Now is a good time to go back and review everything from this and all of the
previous lessons. Make certain you have your patterns notebook complete up
to this point, with everything I've been suggesting in it (quite a few licks, fr
om
every single source we've talked about), and make sure you continue playing
along with Jamey's boys regularly and keep working on those scales! (not the
recent seven "new scales" from Lesson 68, but all those from before). If you
are simply planning to play jazz improv just as a hobby, you're almost ready
to go already. If you want to become a true advanced level jazz artist... then
you have already built one heck of a good foundation to do it from!

................................*** LESSON NUMBER 84 ***........................


........
.........."VOLUME 5, TIME TO PLAY MUSIC, TRACK 3, FREDDIEISH"...........
Freddy Hubbard! So beautiful, lyrical, technical, imaginative and amazing!
One of my all time favorites. This song was written in a "Freddieish" style!
You will recall in the discussion of "Bird blues" in Lesson Number 80... I had
you use the riff in the second measure of the melody as a lick in the improv
soloing as well. That's a great lick... and I even asked you to put it into your
notebook as your first one bar minor II/V7+9/I lick. You need to get this lick
out and dust it off, because you are going to need it right now... You should
have transposed it to the key of C minor to enter it into your notebook, and
now you'll need it in the keys of A minor and E minor, for use with this tune.
It was already written in E minor in the 2nd measure of "Bird Blues" so this
will save you a little time. Now let's quickly analyze this song and you'll use
this lick there in two places. It will be somewhat contrived of course, but it's
exactly what you need to do at first. Later you'll branch out, and then you'll
fly... Right now, we'll just plug in a simple lick here and there to get the bal
l
rolling, and to help you to start hearing these new progressions as well.
Bar
Bar
Bar
Bar
Bar

1.....
2.....
3.....
4.....
5.....

Use any
Plug in
Resolve
Plug in
Resolve

C major type scale... (lydian is good)


your minor II/V7+9/I lick (in A minor)
to A minor (an A dorian scale is good)
your minor II/V7+9/I lick (in E minor)
to E major, yes E major (not E minor)

Bar 7..... Use D dorian for two bars, resolving back to C


.......................... Repeat First 8 Bars...........................
Bar
Bar
Bar
Bar

17.....
19.....
21.....
23.....

B dorian, minor/blues, minor/pentatonic, B- lick


C dorian, minor/blues, etc...
C# dorian, minor/blues, etc...
D dorian, minor/blues, etc...

The technique of repeating a lick in each different monor key


would be excellent here, but something even better would be
to play variations of that first B minor lick in the other keys!!!
You really have to try this here!!! Variations in each new key!
............................ Repeat First 8 Bars ...............................
There you have another song!! You should plug in that lick in
Bar 2 and Bar 4, and you should try the variation idea during
the "bridge". That's what we call the middle section of a song.
Now go slow, practice some without the CD first, and... well...
you know what to do!

..............................*** LESSON NUMBER 85 ***..........................


.........
.......... "VOLUME 5, TIME TO PLAY MUSIC, TRACK 5, KILLER PETE"...........
This song is roughly the same as an old standard called "Killer Joe". Notable
in this song is the way the two chords D7 and C7 alternate back and forth so
many times.
That's how the song starts. One can simply use the two Dominant/mixolydian
scales freely, but I'd suggest mixing in something else as well. Notice that the
C mixolydian scale would be the same notes as the D aeolian (or pure minor).
One could handle this section by thinking D mixolydian, then D pure minor. If
you do this, it just makes things a little easier.... Again, its all the same no
tes,
just a little different way of thinking of it. Try emphasizing the notes F#, G a
nd
A in the first chord (D7), then emphasize the notes G, A and Bb in the second
chord (C7). You'll like the effect this creates, and you should experiment with
this some throughout the song.
This song also has a bridge. It lasts from Bar 17 to Bar 32. You should simply
handle it using all the suggested dorian scales there, etc... But I have another
great suggestion for somethig to try there as well. Measures 17-20 would use
the B dorian scale basically (since the E mixolydian is the just the same notes)
.
So you'rs thinking B dorian through these four measures. Now here comes the
really cool part!!! Start using the A dorian scale you would normally use for
the next four bars, but begin it two or three beats too early... That's right, j
ust

go ahead and start using A dorian during Bar 20! It'll sound like it's 'outside'
of
the key for a moment, almost like some "wrong notes". Then when the chords
change to A minor the effect it like a very nice resolution! Tension was built u
p
by the use of notes outside the key you were in... then a release was felt when
the chords changed... and those odd sounding notes suddenly became the nice,
"good sounding" notes! Do this same thing again in measure 24. There you will
begin playing the next G dorian scale a bit early, creating the same effect!
This would be your first excursion "outside the changes". If you have heard the
expression, "playing outside the changes" before, or simply " playing outside",
this is the kind of thing this refers to. There are other ways to "go outside" t
oo,
but this is a good one. I call it "anticipating the next key" for obvious reason
s.
There are a few more measures in this song I could address (Bars 25-32), but
they are just so straightforward that I can't even bring myself to talk about an
y
of them with an intermediate level player like yourself.... If you aren't jammin
g
with friends yet, along with these Aebersold CDs, you need to go out and rustle
up some action. Drag some aspiring players over to the house!! It sure is more
fun with friends there. Have a jam party! You have to do this or else you're jus
t
playing with yourself! How much fun could that be?...
Now emphasize those notes I suggested over the D7 and C7 chords, and do try
this "anticipating the next key" business. This one tip alone is worth a thousan
d
bucks! So just make those checks payable to...

.................................*** LESSON NUMBER 86 ***.......................


.........
............."VOLUME 5, TIME TO PLAY MUSIC, TRACK 7, ESSENCE".............
This song is one of the simplest in the series, and this lesson will be one of
the shortest on the thread... Essence is a moderate tempo tune with a rock
feel. You can relax and enjoy yourself, since the changes are not difficult.
This tune is in the Key of F major... It has a bridge like the last two songs we
studied. The first section of songs with a bridge often repeats, then comes the
bridge, then the first section is repeated again... This is a very common form
for songs to take, and it is refered to as the AABA form. The A stands for the
first section, and the B stands for the bridge.
The first eight bars are basically in F major.
I would suggest using the following scales...
Bar 1..... F major/blues (F, G, G#, A, C, D, F)
Bar 3..... D minor/blues (D, F, G, G#, A, C, D)
Bar 5..... G minor/dorian

........Then repeat the "A section".........


........Then the bridge "B section".........
Bar
Bar
Bar
Bar

17.....
19.....
21.....
23.....

Bb minor/dorian
Ab major scale
Bb minor/dorian
G minor/dorian

Then repeat the "A section" once more...


My only departure from JA's suggested scales this time were in Bars 1-4.
The two blues type scales I advise there have the same notes, and each
is like a "mode" of the other. It would be good to hear how the very same
notes can "sound major" in bar 1&2, and then "sound minor" in bars 3&4.
I like to introduce you to certain techniques as they naturally come up in
the songs we are playing.
Another way to handle the entire "A section" is to simply play the F major
scale all the way through... Of course, it would be like using the modes of
F major (ionian, aeolian, dorian, and even mixolydian). Once again.... the
same notes are used with every chord, but they sound different with each.
One more song, and we're done with Volume 5. This is getting easier!!

................................*** LESSON NUMBER 87 ***........................


.........
.............VOLUME 5, TIME TO PLAY MUSIC, TRACK 9, BEBOPISH..............
I LOVE this song! This is one of my all-time favorite Aebersold heads. The
chord changes are quite unusual, as there are so few there actually in the
key (of D major). But this is definitely in D major, and it's a good one!
You will need to approach it much the same as you did with "Bird Blues".
It IS Bebop after all, so the chords change pretty fast. Practice it without
the CD background for quite a while, until you really get a feel for all the
unusual harmonies. Gradually work the speed up, and be sure to learn it
very thoroughly before you attemt it with the CD.
You should spend alot of time learning and mastering the melody... Later
you should take licks from it to use, along with variations, in your improv
solo as well. This head is so great you should absolutely memorize every
bit of it, and learn to put in your own variations too. Like I said, use these
melodic fragments and variations of them when you solo. You can use the
scales JA suggests, along with those licks from the melody, as your guide.
Bars 1 and 2........ Use
Bars 3 and 4........ Use
Bars 5 and 6........ Use
Bar 7...................
Bar 8...................
Bars
Bars
Bars
Bars

D major scale (experiment with intervals)


G minor/dorian through both measures
D major scale again, just as before
One bar II/V7 lick, perhaps repeat in next key
One bar II/V7 lick, resolve to Bb this time

9 and 10....... Use Bb major scale (use skips or intervals)


11 and 12..... Use B minor/dorian (functions like I and IV in B-)
13 and 14..... Use E minor/dorian (functions like I and IV in E-)
15 and 16..... Use the notes from the melody! (and variations!)

The riffs in the melody are so nice, you should use them with variations
in many places. I think the last four measures (Bars 13-16) are good to
use just as they are. This song should be memorized so thoroughly that
you can plug in bits and pieces of the melody all over the place. Its very
helpful to always keep the melody in mind. This technique works well for
all jazz tunes, and you should feel that it's OK to draw freely from heads
to get material. Let this song be the one you use to learn to do this with.
This completes Volume 5. Do get Volume 54 next, "Maiden Voyage", and
be sure to get "Twenty Eight Modern Trumpet Solos", Volumes 1 and 2!!!
We'll be working more in Volume 3, "The II/V7/I Progression" as well.

................................*** LESSON NUMBER 88 ***........................


.........
........................"VOLUME 3, THE II/V7/I PROGRESSION".....................
...
First, a short overview. Here we are at lesson number 88. Perhaps I could
have covered 88 tracks by now, maybe ten volumes of play-along sets....
I could have simply said, "use the suggested scales printed below each of
the chord symbols, and read in the books", and just left it at that. But this
would not be giving you what you really need!
Here's what's going on. I have given you everything you needed to build a
very broad foundation. We are covering all the relevant music theory, and
strategies that you would need for a lifetime hobby, or to continue to build
upon this foundation and reach extremely high artististis levels. How far to
go iS entirely up to you. But I'm supplying you with everything you'd need
for either goal. These next few lessons will be some of the most important
ones so far. They will take you on to the next level. Take your time, really
absorb all this, and all future lessons will go very smoothly!
The II/V7/I progression is the single most important chord sequence in all
of jazz, and there is much more to it than one would initially realize. I will
first discuss it in it's most basic forms:
(1) The major version of the II/V7/I progression can be handled with one
major scale, all the way through. We may call this scale by various modal
names but it is still simply one major scale. An example: The progression
D-, G7, C Major Could use the C major scale all the way through.
(2) The minor version of the II/V7+9/I can similarly be handled by using a
single minor scale throughout. I find that the harmonic minor version seems
to work the best. An example: D half-dim, G7+9, C- could use a C harmonic
minor scale all the way through. Other minor type scales can do the job too,
especially the C minor/blues scale.
........................"CHORD AND SCALE SUBSTITUTIONS"........................
Now I need to introduce the concept of "substitution" as it applies to jazz
improvization. There are two primary applications of "substitution" in the
jazz idiom. First, it applies to the substitution of certain chords in place of
other chords, and secondly, it applies to the substitution of certain scales

in place of other scales.


Sometimes rhythm section players will use substitute chords, to make the
harmonies more beautiful or interesting. Sometimes soloists will substitute
more beautiful or interesting scales into their improvizations. But the most
important way substitution is used by improvizors is this: They'll often just
pretend that the song uses some more beautiful or interesting chords, and
then use the scales that apply to those "imagined chords" in their solo. The
idea is to use more complex and beautiful sounds... and this is how soloists
accomplish this. I'll give some examples that will help make this clear:
1. It's possible in many situations to use II half-dim/V7+9, as one typically
sees in minor keys, in place of the usual II/V7 chord progression... A piano
player might play this substitution on his own, and the effect will often make
an improvement to the beauty of a song's original harmony... But here's the
really cool part. Even if the piano player doesn't do this, the jazz soloist can
simply "pretend that he did" and use scales or licks that'd be appropriate for
those "substitute chords", EVEN THOUGH THEY WEREN'T ACTUALLY PLAYED!
This won't work in every situation, but when it does, it can be very effective.
2. It's possible in many situations to use a V7+9, or even some other altered
dominant chord, in place of the usual dominant 7th chord without alterations...
Again a piano player might make this kind of substitution on his own, but even
if he doesn't, the soloist can simply pretend that he did, and use a scale that'
s
appropriate for this type of chord, such as the HW diminished scale, the whole
tone scale, or as JA usually suggests, the diminished-whole tone scale. Every
single one of these scales can work over a simple unaltered dominant chord!
3. It's possible in many situations to use a V7 chord... or especially an altere
d
type V7 chord, in place of the II and V7 chords in a II/V7/I chord progression
(starting on the same root as the original V7 chord). Therefore, one could use
any of the scales from example #2 above over an entire II/V7 progression, in
either a major or minor key as well!
.........................................."ANOTHER CODA"........................
..................
I know this is a lot to take in, but the II/V7/I and II/V7+9/I patterns we are
about to encounter in this volume frequently use these kinds of substitutions
and you need to be able to understand how and why this works. I'm sure you
will need to review this several times, so please do! You'll need to be as clear
on this as possible. It'll take you into a whole new dimention of jazz improv!
This is the beginning of "advanced theory" as it applies to jazz.... so it's a l
ittle
tricky to understand. Read this several times. And, by the way.... I picked the
three examples of substitution above because they're the three most common,
and they are possibly the three most important and beautiful ones! We may
not begin using all these scales freely over these various progressions just yet
,
but they are used in many of the best patterns you will soon see. You'll be glad
you learned all this, so you can understand the licks you're about to study!
In the next lesson we will dive into Volume 3 much more deeply than before,

so it would be a good idea to start studying the material presented there. It's
really pretty much just a one page intro, but read and study it none the less...
I'll be back with more soon, so review this lesson and also JA's intro!

................................*** LESSON NUMBER 89 ***........................


.........
....."A SMALL TREASURE CHEST OF II/V7/I AND II/V7+9/I PATTERNS"......
Lesson 88 primarily dealt with substitute scales. We talked about how the
improvizer can pretend that substitute chords are being used and then be
able to use scales that would be appropriate to those "imagined chords".
This is one good way to visualize the process, and learn what will actually
take place in a real jazz rhythm section. We also talked about some very
common substitutions and their usages. I wanted to introduce you to this
concept now, not because I want you to begin using these kinds of scales
right now in your own free improvizations... but because I want you to be
able understand their use when you see them in all the various II/V7 and
II/V7/I type patterns we are about to study.
You should have already read the intro to Jamey's Volume 3, "The II/V7/I
Progression"... and now I'd like you to read and study the info there, from
pages 33 through 44. I feel with all we've covered in previous lessons you
shouldn't have any problem with this material. You will definitely see those
substitute scales being used. Pay particular attention to the three examples
given in Lesson 88 on the common substitutions used with the II/V7/I type
progressions. The main thing you'll see is how we frequently borrow scales
normally used with the minor II/V7+9/I changes... for use with their major
key counterparts. So, let's dive in!
I always allow students to pick and choose the licks they like, and to grow
their own style along the way. But in the early stages of pattern collecting,
I would be remiss if I did not suggest which patterns were clearly valuable
to put into their notebooks at first. Don't take this as me dictating which of
them you must learn, but simply suggesting some that are obviously more
practical, simple, and beautiful all at the same time.
To start out I want you to follow with me in the pages of patterns in concert
key, beginning on page 34. This is because all the II/V7/I licks there are in
the key of C already, so no transposition will be needed before entering any
of them into your notebooks. Patterns #1-9 are training exercise type licks.
I'd say #3, #5, and #8 would be good for this purpose. Starting with pattern
#10 they become more melodic and useful in soloing. Of all the patterns on
page 35, I like #13, #15 (very nice use of HW dim scale over the G7 chord)
#16 (mainly for the riff over that last C major chord), #17 (one of the great
ones for begining, nice chromaticism), #18 (nice first measure, and nice use
of lydian over C major chord, I'd steal the 2nd bar from pattern #15 and put
it in over the G7 chord here), and I love #19 (more good chromaticism).
On page 36, the ones that grab me are #21 (awesome altered tones over G7,
and #24 (similar to #17). The other licks here are trainers starting on the 3rd
of the D- chord... Some extra good licks on page 37 are #33, #35, #37, and
pattern #42. Some great licks from page 38 include #45, #49, #50, #52 (this
has a particularly nice use of HW dim over the G7 chord), #53 (a nice rhythm
to use would be to start with an eighth rest followed by two sixteenths). All of

those licks at the top of page 39 (patterns #57-#64) are really nice. I guess I
just really love that HW diminished scale!! And, from the licks using the whole
tone scale (patterns #65-#72) I like #66, #71 and #72 the best.
We'll leave it there for now. I want you to notice my suggestions that a riff
from one lick might be combined with another lick to improve it.... and also
how you can change rhythms to suit yourself. I like to insert triplets making
some patterns more interesting, and delay them so they don't start right on
beat one all the time... You can change, alter, or make variations of them in
any way that sounds good. Adding chromaticism is very nice as well... Later
on, some of the licks you hate now could become some of your favorites, so
come back to them from time to time and see if more of them don't grow on
you as your palate develops. Some of these more complex scales are like an
aquired taste. Sometimes you have to hear them in context, with a harmonic
background in place before you really hear how they work. I often like much
of a certain pattern except for the final resolution. You can take some of your
favorite "major type patterns" and mix and match them with the II/Vs, if you
feel the same... You may just want to cut off the final resolutions from some
of these patterns, and just leave them open. I've been improvizing for about
thirty years, so my estimation of which licks are good ones (especially for us
trumpeters) should be pretty reliable but it's all up to you! So experiment by
playing these patterns to see which ones you like the best, and have fun!
Put any or all of these patterns into your notebook now. Feel free to make
alterations and do use a pencil so you can edit freely later on. There is one
more thing I'd like you to do, and that is to go back through those last four
songs we learned in Volume 5 (Lessons 84 through 87) and extract patterns
that appeal to you from those four heads, and put them into your notebook
in their appropriate categories as well!! I hope you've been taking all of my
suggestions to do this with every single head we've worked on so far!!! This
is very important and I don't want you to miss out. Since you have already
played them so many times they are firmly rooted in your mind, and they'll
will be good ones to put into your collection. Now get to work putting licks in
your notebook right now! Once they're in the notebook, you'll have them for
the rest of your life!

................................*** LESSON NUMBER 90 ***........................


.........
............."ANOTHER DISCUSSION OF PATTERNS AND THEIR USE"............
I would like to make just a few general comments about your jazz pattern
notebook. Each section will contain licks that are preperatory in nature, as
well as patterns that are more useful in actual soloing. One can very easily
make up their own preperatory type licks. In the major patterns category,
you should have basic patterns that run up and down the first five notes of
the major scale, the first seven notes... and a lick that goes up to the ninth
and back down again. You might want to simply list some other major type
scales such as lydian, major/pentatonic and major/blues too as preliminary
type material, just to remind you to practice those scales routinely as well.
I would list the basic chords as arpeggios, and the basic scales (often up to
their ninth steps) as preliminary material in every category in the notebook.
Put every single scale you've been introduced to in your notebook, each in
its own appropriate category, then practice each merely as a scale, but also
as a lick, by simply adding a basic rhythm to it to make it melodic sounding.

Do the same thing with all the chords as well... Just play them up and down,
but add a little rhythm to each, turning it into a lick. They would probably be
too boring to actually use as a lick in your improvizations right now but later
on you'll vary them even more, and then they WILL become very useful too!
If you have been following my instructions, you should have at least a few
licks now in almost every category of your notebook, and probably quite a
few in your "Major II/V7/Is" and "Minor and Blues" categories especially.
You need to be able to play all the basic scales and chords, in all 12 keys,
and you also need to be able to play at least one good jazz lick from each
of your notebook categories in all 12 keys as well... Don't worry about any
categories that are still vacant; we'll get to them soon. This is probably the
most important thing you can do to move on to the next level. LEARN ONE
REALLY GOOD PATTERN FROM EACH CATEGORY FOR USE IN REAL SOLOS!
We will start using them much more now that we have before. Pick one real
jazz lick from each group now for this purpose. Start with ones that are fairly
simple but that appeal to you musically. Practice them in the easier keys first
then start "plugging them into your solos", as you play with Jamey Aebersold
play-along tracks... You might just start going through the songs you've been
playing already, and use these licks in just the keys needed with these tunes
at first if you like... This'll help you get a feel of how each really sounds to
o!
So, make sure you have those "preliminary chord and scale type exercise
patterns" in each section, along with all the great real jazz licks we've been
collecting lately in that notebook of your's. By this point, if you don't have a
notebook like this going on, you're just kidding yourself, and further lessons
will be VERY difficult... Get this notebook "all the way up to speed" and start
picking out just a few perfect licks to start "plugging in" all over the place.
I
can't stress all this enough! I'll be back with more, and soon we'll blow right
through the rest of Volume 3, and then Volume 54 will be a breeze!

..................................*** LESSON NUMBER 91***.......................


...........
"THE PATTERNS FOR V7+9/I AND WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW ABOUT THEM"
We will return to the play-along tracks for Volume 3 later on. For now, I want
to continue studying the patterns in the book as well as the theory knowledge
that pertains to them. So let's continue now from where we left off in the last
lesson. We'll stay in the concert pitch section of the book, now on page 40.
All these licks would go in what I call the "altered dominants" category of your
notebook. You should read the info at the top of the page again... There you'll
be reminded that the three scales most often used with this type of chord are:
the HW diminished scale, the whole tone scale, and the diminished-whole tone
scale... The last one is almost always JA's first choice for any altered dominan
t
chord at all. If a scale works with the V7+9 chord, it will also work with alter
ed
dominants containing tones such as -9, +4, and +5. That's why I refer to these

as "altered dominant chords" without differentiating between them. The various


scales I mentioned can also be used with unaltered dominant chords, in certain
situations, as described there in the book, on page 40. When handled this way,
they fall under the heading of "substitute scales". Study that info on page 40!
So these licks are primarily for use with "altered dominant chords", and use the
three scale mentioned above as their basis... These three scales were explored
in Lesson 68, so refer back to that lesson if needed. These patterns are actuall
y
listed here in the key of F. They are built on the V chord (C7+9) and can resolv
e
to either F major or F minor. One could transpose them now to fit with the V7+9
chord in C before entering them into their notebook... but I don't think it'll r
eally
matter. You'll be transposing them into many other keys sooner or later... BTW,
This goes for any kind of pattern. I usually do transpose licks into C before I
put
them into my notebook, but not always. I do put chord symbols over all my licks
though, so I never get confused later on.
Jamey's suggestion to explore the diminished-whole tone sound by experimenting
with the patterns in the order they appear is a very good one. This is one of th
ose
scales you really have to get used to at first. I remember having a hard time wi
th
this scale at first, but it eventually became one of my favorites. The best lick
s for
getting used to this sound are probably #3, #6, and #9. Of course, you could jus
t
play the scale from root to root.... but the way Jamey has us explore up from th
at
root a bit, and then down a bit... is REALLY the way to go! Still, I'd simply wr
ite the
scale in the "altered dominant" section of the notebook, as one of your prelimin
ary
type exercises, as well as the HW diminished, and the whole tone scales... Notic
e I
still haven't asked you to learn those scales I presented in Lesson 68 in all 12
keys
yet, just the ones that were presented in the lessons before.
Licks #3, #6 and #9 are actually quite melodic... Others that seem especially go
od
include #13, #14, #15 and #20. Those last two will come pretty far off in the fu
ture
but they sure are sweet once you get them. And, when you begin playing your own
variations on these you will truly be in Heaven. Do play with all these a bit fo
r now,
but wait on learning the most advanced ones. Just work on the first few, and may
be
some slight variations of them as well.
Patterns #21 through #31 (on page 42) require a lesson or two in "advanced theor
y"
to understand. They will come later, and they will require some acclimation to s
ay the
least... However, if you'd like just a taste of what jazz players refer to as th
e "tri-tone
substitution", using the Gb major/pentatonic scale over the C7+9 chord, you migh

t try
playing licks #22, #24, #27 and #28. The intervals involved make most of these l
icks
quite difficult to perform (on the trumpet) but not impossible, as has been well
proven
by players such as Freddy Hubbard and Woody Shaw.
Patterns #29-31 are built using the two major triads that just happen to appear
within
the diminished-whole tone scale... When playing these kinds of patterns, think "
triads"
instead of "scale". This kind of playing is most often employed by sax players a
nd the
other musicians playing instruments less encombered with flexibility difficultie
s. Again,
they're deffinitely not impossible, but hold off on putting these in the noteboo
k for the
time being. Later, you can come back and revisit them, and snag 'em then if you
like!
Alright, patterns #3, 6, 9, 13, 14, 15 and 20 are the one's I'd start out with a
nd put in
my notebook. Experiment with others from patterns #1-20, but remember the others
on page 42 can definitely wait. If you're an advancing player, of course take an
ything
you like from there as well... ... Go ahead, take 'em... nobody's lookin'...

.................................*** LESSON NUMBER 92 ***.......................


.........
..."JAMEY AEBERSOLD'S PATTERNS FOR THE II/V7+9/I IN MINOR KEYS"...
Here we are now, dealing with the last group of patterns presented in JA's
Volume 3 set about the all important II/V7/I progression and its variations.
This section concerns the II/V7+9/I chord progression as it would typically
appear in a minor key. Please review that info given at the top of page 43.
We will continue working in the concert pitch section of the book, since the
patterns are presented there in the very convenient key of C minor.
The locrian mode is also refered to (in this series of play-along book sets) as
the "half-diminished scale". You probably recall that JA likes to refer to scale
s
by the same name as the chords they are most commonly used with... So, as
you can guess, the II "half-diminished chord" in this progression will be using
the locrian mode or "half-diminished scale" as JA calls it.
The altered dominant V7+9 chord in each pattern uses the diminished-whole
tone scale, just as you've seen before... I have personally never really liked
handling the progression this way... but the patterns I prefer from this group
would be #1, #2, and #4 (as training patterns), and #11, #12, and #15 (for
use as real jazz licks)... This now completes our study of all the patterns and
theory presented in Volume 3. Soon, we will go back and discuss each of the
play-along tracks one at a time. But...
As I said before... I prefer some other ways of dealing with this II/V7+9/I
progression.... Enter the ones above in your notebook just as they appear

here, in the key of C minor, and experiment with them some. These really
are good patterns using these two scales, but I'll be back in the next lesson
with three or four other great ways of dealing with this progression as well.

..................................*** LESSON NUMBER 93 ***......................


.............
"TOM'S ALTERNATE METHODS FOR HANDLING THE II/V7+9/I PROGRESSION"
I have three other ways of handling the II/V7+9/I that I'd stongly suggest
spending some serious time with. The first one is simple and obvious... It'll
use substitution... All the patterns from the previous Lesson Number 91 can
be used over this progression, and here is how this works: The V7+9 chord
can be substituted in place of the entire II/V7+9/I progression... Therefore,
any scale or pattern that works with V7+9/I will work with II/V7+9/I also.
Example: Think G7+9/C- instead of D half-dim/G7+9/C- and simply make
the substitution!! Just as in the substitutions we studied before, the rhythm
section players can actually use this chord substitution... or the improvizer
can just "pretend they did" and use any appropriate material that would fit
with these substitue chords. It is simply another substitution, that you may
add to your list... I like those V7+9/I patterns, using the diminished-whole
tone scale very much. Remember the V7+9 chord in the substitute pattern
would be the same as the V7+9 chord in the original progression. This is a
very useful technique, and very simple too!
Here is another interesting and simple way to handle this progression. You
can substitute a major type II/V7/I pattern for the minor II/V7+9/I pattern
in a special way. You would "borrow" the major II/V7/I lick from three half
steps up. This can also be thought of as borrowing the lick from the relative
major key. Example: substitute patterns that would fit with the major chord
progression "F-/ Bb7/ Eb Major" for the actual minor "D half-dim/G7+9/C-".
Once again... this amounts to using a lick that fits with the II/V7/I changes
from the relative major key (up three half steps) over the minor II/V7+9/I
progression actually in a song. This may be a surprise that this would work,
but it works VERY WELL!!! In some situations, a lick may need to be slightly
altered, just at the end for the final resolution to a minor chord, but most of
the time even this isn't necessary!!! This is another GREAT way to deal with
this minor II/V7+9/I chord progression... Again, you would simply "borrow"
a major II/V7/I lick from the relative major key, up three half steps!!
The third alternate way to handle this progression is one that I touched on in
an earlier lesson. Since the three chords in the minor II/V7+9/I progression
would all be considered "diatonic chords" in a minor key, one can simply use
any of the "minor type scales" from that key throughout the entire sequence,
just as we have been doing in major keys. Some of the best minor scales for
the job would be the minor/blues scale, minor/pentatonic scale, the harmonic
minor scale... and even the pure minor scale... (which could be thought of as
just using the locrian scale from the first half-dim chord) all the way through.
All of these scales are great choices, but my personal favorite is the harmonic
minor scale. I've composed quite a few licks using this scale for use with these
chords... Generally, I start the licks on the second note of the minor scale I'm

using, just as many major II/V7/I licks begin on the second tone of the major
scale being used with them. I also love to use the key's minor/blues scale with
these changes too. I will usually use it over the II/V7+9 part, but then resolve
to a dorian scale to help release the built up tension. Remember that this chord
sequence can resolve to major chords as well... or even substitute for an entire
major type II/V7/I progression! You always need to consider where and how a
progression is eventually going to resolve.
Well, there they are... three more excellent ways of dealling with the often ver
y
tricky minor II/V7+9/I chord progression. Many players think of this as difficul
t,
but using any of these three methods will really simplify things, and they will
all
sound great! This is another lesson worth a thousand dollars all by itself... so
be
sure to make those checks payable to...

.................................*** LESSON NUMBER 94 ***.......................


.........
........."VOLUME 3, THE II/V7/I PROGRESSION, FIRST TWO TRACKS"........
!!! NOW IT'S TIME TO START USING YOUR LICKS ALL OVER THE PLACE !!!
The first two play-along tracks were fully discussed in Lessons 52 and 53.
You were told the basics regarding scale usage in those lessons. As I said
recently, you need to learn at least one pattern from each category in the
patterns notebook you've created. Now's a good time to make certain you
are doing this, and you should begin playing your first "major II/V7/I lick"
along with these first two tracks, and continue to improvize freely with the
scales as before. Your first major II/V7/I pattern can be used with both of
these tracks.
With Track #1, you would simply "plug in" your first chosen pattern in each
of the 12 keys. Many patterns could be used but I strongly suggest you pick
one that is very simple. You must memorize it in every key before trying to
play it along with these tracks. Once you have this first step down pat, then
it's a good idea to use some slight variations of your pattern right away!
Vary only the rhythm at first. This will force you to continue the process of
"pre-hearing" the ideas, rather than plugging them in mindlessly, without a
sense of direction or purpose. Too many people forget to keep things fresh
and spontaneous. Later you can change a few notes, using those suggested
scales as your guide. The last tonic chord on each line is an especially good
place to vary the notes. You WILL want to take your first major pattern and
combine it with your first II/V7/I lick. Feel free to mix and match as you get
the feel of this. Stay with just these first two licks for quite some time, unti
l
it starts to feel very comfortable. Between using the scales freely, and your
licks, with just a few variations, you can really start to make things happen!

With Track 2, you'll need to handle things a bit differently... In lesson 53 I


told you to "think dorian" all the way through each line, since that II/V7 is
functioning more like a I/IV progression in a minor key. If you try playing
your first II/V7/I pattern with this track, you must not resolve to a I chord
in the middle of each line, because THERE IS NO I CHORD. You'll probably
find that you can still make the first two measures of your lick 'fit' to some
extent, but you will definitely hear how the chords sound much more like a
I/IV progression in minor keys. Try playing your first "minor lick" over this
track instead. The first chord in each line will act as the I chord, so this wil
l
be the tonic note each time. In the first line for example... you would use a
lick in D minor. In the second line, you will be in C minor, etc. Occasionally
try using parts of the first II/V7/I lick again, to see how it works. Generally
you can make it fit with some alteration... but some II/V7/I licks just won't
work at all... You'll just have to experiment with them, and you will find out
how all this goes for yourself.
So... make sure you have at least one major type lick, one minor lick, and
one major II/V7/I lick matered in each of the twelve keys... and these first
two tracks of Volume 3 should keep you busy for a while... This is one very
important stage right here. Absolutely master three licks as I just described
and work on these two tracks using the licks everywhere! There's no way to
overdo it here. If you'll do this, everything that's coming up will be so much
easier. If you don't do this, you might as well just resign yourself to staying
at your current level for a very long time... This is a hurdle you must tackle
in order to move on. Stick with it, and also begin using your first few licks in
every situation possible as you play along with all the tracks on every single
Aebersold CD you use. IT'S NOW TIME TO USE LICKS!! This is an important
bridge you must cross! You need to learn at least one lick in every category
in your notebook RIGHT NOW in all 12 keys! There's no other way!

.................................*** LESSON NUMBER 95 ***.......................


...........
..."VOLUME 3, THE II/V7/I PROGRESSION, THIRD AND FOURTH TRACKS"...
Track 3, as it's labeled in the book, concerns the V7+9/I progression. This
progression sometimes resolves to a major key, and other times to minor.
Since I've covered this progression recently in Lesson 91, there is not alot
to say except that you can use the scales listed in the book to solo with, or
plug in your first "altered dominant" lick from your notebook with each key.
You should do both. You will recall how Jamey's first few licks for this chord
progression simply venture up from the root a bit, and then down from the
root a bit, then resolve back to the original starting note again... Doing this
is a very good idea! This would get you used to the sound of the suggested
diminished-whole tone scale, and it also resolves perfectly to either a major
or minor chord this way. So improvize freely this way, and also plug in your
very first simple pattern for this progression. You should have some in your
notebook already, under the heading of "altered dominants".
It would also be a very good idea for you to experiment with the other two
scales commonly used with altered dominant chords too. This would be the
HW diminished scale and the whole tone scale. The F# HW diminished scale
is: F#, G, A, Bb, C, C#, D#, E, F#. The F# whole tone scale would have the
notes F#, G#, A#, C, D, E, F#. If you pencil in these two scales just for use

on the very first line, at least you can begin getting used to their sounds. Do
this right now and experiment with them just a little every time you practice
this track. Of course the main thing to do with this track is to plug in that li
ck
all over the place and experiment with the suggested diminished-whole tone
scale a little bit in the manner described above: Up and down from the root,
and then always resolving back again to the same starting note.
Track 4, as it's labeled in the book, concerns the entire II/V7+9/I sequence,
and you should certainly use it to play your first simple appropriate patterns
with it in each key. You may also experiment with each of the other ways of
handling this progression that I discussed in Lesson 93... These ways include
using a major II/V7/I pattern (borrowed from the relative major key... three
half steps above), substituting your first "altered dominant" lick that you just
used in the previous track, and the use of the various minor type scales that
work throughout the entire progression. I know I told you I personally prefer
these other ways of handling this progression. You might like them better too
or perhaps not... But do learn at least one of Jamey's II/V7+9/I patterns and
try it, as well as experiment with the other strategies I've suggested too.
A brief (but important) note... The scales used with these progressions take
some getting used to. I don't want you to get bogged down at this point. The
next Volume we'll cover after this will be quite simple, and you will not have
to master all this in order to cover it... These two tracks should be done littl
e
by little over a long period of time. These scales and licks require more time
to get used to than those we've used so far. Don't get hung up here and feel
you can go no further... Just keep coming back to visit these tracks with their
unusual sounds, and get used to their scales and patterns very gradually. It'll
often take months before you really feel you have them under control. This is
one time when I definitely won't say you have to master anything before you
move on to the lessons that follow.
Just keep coming back to these two tracks from time to time and experiment,
but do learn a very basic lick for each of these two sequences in all 12 keys...
I'm just asking for one lick each, for these two progressions, and they should
be very simple ones!! DO NOT GET BOGGED DOWN HERE. MOVE ON, BUT DO
COME BACK, AND CONTINUE EXPERIMENTING WITH ALL OF THIS FROM TIME
TO TIME. The last few lessons are fairly advanced in nature, and some people
flounder here, thinking it has to be mastered before going on, and then they'll
quickly become discouraged.
You can learn a hundred more songs without worrying about mastering all of
this more advanced material. I just cover things very completely while I'm on
a subject, so that you will have it all permanently in a very organized way. All
you really need to do for sure, is pick a very simple lick for each of these two
progressions, to learn and use in upcoming situations... Keep it simple, and do
come back periodically to review and experiment. It will keep sinking in more
and more each time you return. This recent theoretical material and just a bit
more about the 'turnaround patterns' I've mentioned, will take you all the way
through the second year of study, at which point you will truly be an advanced
level player. It just takes short but consistent daily practice and study to kee
p
your momentum going. And believe me, it WILL continue moving forward!

................................*** LESSON NUMBER 96 ***........................


...........
......."MORE FROM AEBERSOLD VOLUME 3, THE II/V7/I PROGRESSION".......
As with the last two tracks, it is not imperative that you master the next four
before moving on either. However, since we are currently studying Volume 3
I'll go ahead and discuss the rest of the tracks there now.
Track 5, as it's labeled in the book, is "G minor blues" (or A minor for trumpet
players). As you are advancing in knowledge, I'll give less information on each
new song. Jamey Arbersold's notes at the bottom of page 13 will certainly give
you enough info to guide you through this relatively simple song... He suggests
you try the lydian mode on the two major chords and I would also suggest you
try using the major bebop scale there as well 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, +5, 6, 7, 8. He the
n
suggests trying out the melodic minor scale over the A- chords... This song will
be perfect for that as well. Be sure to experiment with these two scales, on thi
s
particular song. I introduced 10 new scales in lessons 64-68 and told you that I
would give you specific places on the play-along tracks to experiment with each
one. Since then I have done this with nine of them. Now, I will tell you where t
o
put the tenth one, the WH diminished scale, but first a reminder of some theory.
You have recently learned that one alternate way to handle the II/V7+9/I chord
progression, is to substitute in material appropriate for the V7+9/I chord chang
e
over the entire progression... One good scale that can be used over your altered
dominant chords is the HW diminished scale. If you apply that scale here it coul
d
be thought of in two different ways. Obviously, it can be thought of as a "HW di
m
scale" built on the same root as the altered dominant chord being used... but th
is
scale can also be thought of as a "WH diminished scale" built on the same root a
s
the half-diminished II chord. It's all the same notes either way, but it can be
a bit
easier to think of the scale this way since you'd see the II chord before you'd
see
the altered V7+9 chord. Take your time and make any comparisons you need, to
see for yourself how this would work.
So in this track, in measures 9 and 10, you could use the B WH diminished scale
starting right there on the B half-diminished chord for the entire two measures.
..
Jamey also suggests using the locrian #2 scale at that spot. It can work over th
e
entire two bars as well. It is the same scale as locrian except that the 2nd ton
e is
raised by a half step. This also makes 11 total additional scales that you've be

en
given, along with places to try each one out in the play-along tracks. However,
do
notice that I still haven't asked you to learn any of these in all twelve keys!
I only
want you to learn and use them in the keys needed for those particular situation
s
to get you used to each of their sounds for now, and that is all.
You may want to go back through the lessons from time to time and make sure you
write in the scales I have suggested for practicing with each individual song su
ch as
this one right here. Three new scales fit well here... "major bebop", "melodic m
inor"
and "HW diminished". This song is perfect for this kind of experimentation... Le
t this
be the reason for practicing it, just getting used to the sound of these new sca
les!

...................................*** LESSON NUMBER 97 ***.....................


.............
"THE THREE REMAINING TRACKS ON VOLUME 3, THE II/V7/I PROGRESSION"
"Bebop Tune" is relatively simple theory-wise, and a bit difficult tempo-wise.
There is really nothing new there that you haven't seen before, nor any new
technique or strategy that seems particularly valuable to introduce using this
song, so I think I'll just leave it alone for now. It is a good one to come back
to in the future, but our time is better spent with other tracks right now.
"II/V7/I Three Keys" is basically exactly what the title suggests. It is entirel
y
composed of II/V7/I chord progressions in three different keys: Db, A, and F.
Some are "two bar" versions, and some are "one bar" versions. So you could
obviously plug in your very first pattern, from each of those two categories in
your patterns notebook here, as much as possible, as well as your first major
type lick as well. But there is one other strategy I'd like to suggest using her
e.
Along with using your "one bar" II/V7/I pattern, you could also use a "two bar"
pattern that has been speeded up to "double-time" tempo to fit in the space of
the "one bar" II/V7/I progression. This would be a great way to break into the
experience of double time playing. Practice your first "two bar" II/V7/I pattern
until you get it up to a very fast speed, and then just plug in at measures 2, 4
,
10, and 12. Again, this only involves three keys, so it shouldn't be too much of
a challenge but it's a great way to begin double time playing! Of course almost
any material can be speeded up this way to fit at double speed!! You can begin
experimenting with this strategy... whenever it seems appropriate to the style,
but don't worry too much about speed right now. It has a way of coming all by
itself when your materials are thoroughly mastered.
"F Blues With 8-Bar Bridge" is also exactly what the title suggests. It's in the

key
of G for trumpet players. It follows the "AABA" song form I've mentioned before,
with the A section repeating, followed by a B section (bridge) then a return to
the
A section once more. This is a VERY common format that many songs follow.
The blues sections are basically identical to Tracks 4 and 10 from Volume 2, tha
t
"Nothin But Blues" set, so there's not much to discuss there... except that I wo
uld
strongly suggest using the G minor/blues scale whenever you hear it... especiall
y
over measures 11 and 12. The bridge is a very common one, and can be handled
very simply as well. It is a series of II/V7 sequences, that function more like
I/IV
progressions in minor keys... so you'd use the "think dorian" method I often ref
er
to here. In other words you would use the F# dorian for two bars, then a B doria
n
scale for two, the E dorian for two, then A dorian for two.
There you have it! This completes our discussion of Volume 2!! This volume shoul
d
be returned to on a regular basis. It's a very good "workout" type session, and
it is
meant to be just that! The songs have no melodies with them, and are meant to be
exercises instead of real songs one would perform in public... Keep returning to
the
tracks here periodically and you'll reap huge benefits. Neglecting this volume w
ould
be a BIG mistake if you want to go far... So keep practicing, and do be patient!
!

................................*** LESSON NUMBER 98 ***........................


.........
.........."LET'S TAKE A LOOK AT YOUR DAILY PRACTICE ROUTINE"............
First, a few general concepts... Have you ever heard someone say that playing
jazz will ruin you for "legit" or classical playing? I don't agree with this at
all... I
have seen times when a guy might neglect his "legit technique", in favor of just
playing jazz only, but there is nothing keeping anyone from playing both. I feel
people sometimes think it's "one or the other". Some guys just decide to forget
about the legit part, and "go over to the dark side".
Here's what I think. One should continue their legit studies, but possibly blend
the
two activities into one. Anytime you practice a jazz scale you can use it to fur
ther
your technique as well as your improv. Simply practice everything you do with th
e
same quality as you normally would, if you'd never even heard of jazz. Go slowly

,
contiue to pace yourself and play everything as perfectly as possible. It's poss
ible
to work on all aspects of legit trumpet technique using only jazz materials. I'm
not
saying you should stop using any legit materials at all... but if one simply wan
ts to
maximize their efforts to benefit jazz they COULD take this kind of approach, wh
ile
continuing to work on their trumpet playing all at the same time! It just takes
a bit
of creativity. But hey, if you're a jazz player, you better be the creative type
!!
Here's another idea for you. Do you have to actually have a trumpet in your hand
s
to practice your jazz?? The answer is NO! There are alot of things you can do aw
ay
from the horn that will benefit your improv. First of all, you can practice your
scales
and other material mentally. I bet most of you already do a bit of this already.
You
can "finger your scales" without a trumpet. You could also mentally review patte
rns
this way, and even sing your jazz scales and licks away from the horn. In fact,
you
should do this all the time. Whenever I watch TV, I hum jazz ideas along with mu
sic
that's playing. Commercials are almost always accompanied with music, so use thi
s
to your advantage. Sing in the car, sing in the shower, sing to your dog!! You'l
l gain
from the ear training aspects almost as much without your trumpet as with it!!
You should try to do some work on your improv everyday! If you practiced jazz fo
r
two hours everyday, then obviously you could work on every single area of improv
each and every day... But regardless of how much time you devote to improv each
day, you need to be organized... to keep yourself on track and get the most bene
fit
from the time you do practice. You should make up a routine or schedule, that su
its
your personal goals and the amount of time you have for this... You need to work
in
certain areas on a regular basis no matter what. Here is a list you might want t
o use
as a guideline. Again, you will customize it to suit yourself. Begin by making a
list of
the scales and patterns you want to learn, and start checking them off one at a
time.
Then later... make a review schedule so you can keep your material until it beco
mes
a permanent part of you!!
Scales............. Not every scale everyday, just practice them in groups.
Patterns........... Same thing, work on just a few, and do work efficiently.
Improv Sets..... Pace yourself, take rests! Maybe just a few tracks daily.
Daily Study...... Study everyday as well... Study and review all the time.
Listenning......... Listen to some good jazz everyday, especially combos.

Live Jams......... Get with friends and jam, share ideas, and get inspired.
Repetoir........... Build up a list of "favorite songs" for live performances.
Remember to pace yourself when playing. Don't get so excited playing along with
a CD
that you forget to take breaks... and don't forget to use good technique with ev
erything
you play. There is no great hurry either. Go very slowly and let everything sink
in quite
deeply... Build a broad foundation that will provide you with a base big enough
to go as
far as you like... Master the fundamentals! Don't be in big a hurry to impress b
y playing
lots of notes. It's not how many notes you play, it's how beautiful the ideas ar
e!! Always
try to pre-hear your licks as part of a larger (and truly beautiful) musical ide
a!

.................................*** LESSON NUMBER 99 ***.......................


.........
.......... "A BRIEF LOOK BACK AT WHAT WE'VE COVERED SO FAR" ...........
One of my main philosophies is that jazz improvizers should not mindlessly
"plug in licks" just to fill up the space... Too many do just that. When I start
players off from the beginning, I try to make sure they don't begin this way.
I have them play without using any patterns at all for quite a while. This will
force them to improvize by "pre-hearing" as much as possible. Also, when I
get new students who have already played for some time I often have them
slow way down and prehear every single idea... I've actually helped quite a
few to transform themselves into real artist, instead of just "lick pluggers".
Eventually it becomes necessary for every improvizer to learn and use licks
in their solos. When licks are used they should be a part of a bigger musical
idea that is also pre-heard... This is the difference between just playing licks
one has memorized, and making some real art. Way too many players don't
make any real art at all, and many don't even seem to know the difference!!
I'd always rather touch a listener's heart with something beautiful... We hear
way too many who just want to dazzle, by playing as many notes as possible.
You have surely noticed my preference for beautiful playing over "high, loud,
fast and dumb". I hope you fully digest some of my other philosophies along
this same line. Another key issue with me, is that players should truly master
their basics. There is just no way to overdo it on the fundamentals of this art.
Lots of guys think they can just "fake it". This kind of approach won't get you
very far. Constantly go back and review all the basic theory and skills until it
all becomes a permanent part of you... Review everything. Achieve mastery!
At this point you have thoroughly covered four of the Jamey Aebersold sets,
along with all the theory needed to provide you with a very broad base, that
you can continue building upon for as long as you want... There are no holes
in this foundation. It is very, very complete! Rest assured that if you have all

the knowledge and skills presented so far, you're set to go as far as you like.
You have also created a "patterns notebook" that in time will be one of your
most valued possesions.... This notebook should have every lick from every
song you've learned, that really appeals TO YOU!!! You should also have the
best licks from each of the other sources of licks we've covered as well, such
as the patterns Jamey has provided along the way and the patterns from the
Jerry Coker patterns book. I strongly suggest that as you progress, you only
collect the very best patterns, again... FOR YOU! This patterns notebook is so
important. I cannot stress this enough!
You must be using some kind of schedule for your daily practice as described
in Lesson 98 above. You need a daily schedule... as well as a simple list of all
the scales and patterns you're learning. Use this list to check off each pattern
and scale as you go along. Don't kid yourself!!! Get completely organized and
work as efficiently as you possibly can. And once again, constantly go back to
review all your material. The use of a daily schedule, a scales and licks check
off list, and a constant review of theory and strategy... are the most important
bits of advice I can give. Continue playing all the tracks we've covered and be
sure to apply all that you've learned with those tracks... So keep reviewing all
the things you've learned, and get organized with the schedule and "check off"
lists. Don't be in any big hurry. Just make sure you MASTER all the basics!

.................................*** LESSON NUMBER 100 ***......................


...........
........"A BRIEF LOOK FORWARD AT WHERE WE'RE GOING WITH THIS".........
Let me first remind you that I'm teaching two kinds of players... "Group One"
are the very serious jazz musicians who want to continue moving forward for
many years to come. They plan to continue advancing little by little until they
reach true artistry. They'll eventually be able to play the "jazz chair" with an
y
professional type group and play very artistic solos to any piece of music the
very first time they see it or even just hear it! For these folks the road ahead
does not involve a huge amount of additional theory but it will involve a lot of
continued practice... The people in this group will gradually continue with thei
r
scale and pattern lists until they have about twenty scales thoroughly learned
in all 12 keys, and MANY MORE PATTERNS build from those scales... The main
thing improvizers use are these patterns! I'll keep introducing new theory and
strategies along the way, as we continue to cover songs on many more of the
Aebersold CD collections... As new situations arise I'll give out the new info a
t
that time. We'll cover material from other method books and other sources of
patterns, as well as do some transcribing of solos and even the composition of
entire "example type solos" as well... We'll study more alternate strategies for
handling situations you've already become familiar with, and you'll eventually

even learn how to play completely "outside the changes" as well.


"Group Two" are the hobbyists who just want to have fun with jazz improv, and
perhaps jam with friends, with or without play-along sets. Some of these people
will even want to have enough repetoir to actually play three or four sets of li
ve
music in public. Some of them just want to be able to competently "work up" the
ability to solo to songs with a high school or college jazz band.
This second group is fast reaching their goals. They surely won't wind up learni
ng
anywhere near as many scales and licks as a complete artist, and that's OK. They
will learn scales and licks as needed to play THEIR repetoir. One really good th
ing
about their path, is that they will gradually learn the sounds of the more advan
ced
scales and licks just like the "Group One" guys, simply using them in all the pl
aces
they need in order to perform their "hobby repetoir"... If "Group Two" players g
et
really hooked... they'll easily be able to join the more serious group, since th
ey've
built all the foundation they need. Some will definitely get more serious about
their
improv as they see their abilities steadily grow and grow!! These people will st
ill be
able to follow along with all the future lessons, but they just won't try to mem
orize
so many scales and patterns. So, again I'll ask that you make sure you're all up
to
speed on everything we've covered so far. The next material we'll cover is Volum
e
54 "Maiden Voyage", the two volumes of "Twenty Eight Modern Trumpet Solos" and
that other Jerry Coker book, "Improvizing Jazz". Do be sure to get them right aw
ay
and you'll be all set to continue!
One last reminder for those who want to go "all the way" with this. It is a fair
ly long
project, but just remember this... Taken one little step at a time, it's really
not very
hard. Just be patient, and stick to your schedule. The time WILL pass, and you W
ILL
reach your goals!

................................*** LESSON NUMBER 101 ***.......................


..........
............"MORE ABOUT ALL THESE PATTERNS AND SCALE SOUNDS"...........
One of the primary reasons we need at least a minimum number of patterns
in our vocabulary is that they "open the door" to hearing chord progressions.
Many types of more complex progressions have an unfamiliar sound to us at
first. When we learn our first really good lick that outlines the sound of some
progression very well, it serves to remind us of how that progression sounds,
or in other words, to begin "hearing these chords in our minds". To be able to
imagine the harmonies in our head is essential to this whole task!

Another thing these first few licks do for us is that they unlock the door for u
s
to be able to hear the new scale sounds. For instance: You might learn to play
a diminished scale, and even come to recognize its sound fairly well, but until
you actually begin using it properly (like a HW version used against an altered
dominnant chord, in an actual pattern that resolves eloquently) you'll not hear
how it actually works in a proper setting... You'd likely pass over several real
ly
good scales in your development, simply because you never really discovered
how to resolve them correctly! These scale sounds are the palate of colors you
have at your disposal, and they each deserve some very serious attention... If
you decide that some of these are not for you, then you are right to choose the
ones that sound better to you... To me, it would be silly for anyone to use scal
e
sounds that they themselves don't actually like... but some will "grow on you" i
f
given the chance. Their sounds mature and you will gradually find that they are
much better than you first thought, but that'll never happen unless you actually
use them a while, and probably in the form of some really good patterns!
Yet another reason that it is imperative to learn at least a few great patterns
in
each of your notebook's categories is that they will eventually become so much
a part of you that they will form the foundation of many variations that you wil
l
naturally evolve on your own. Once you have a lick or pattern fully internalized
,
it becomes very easy to make up variations of it, even right on the spot... Whil
e
the use of patterns may seem somewhat contradictory to the truly spontaneous
composition of melodies, they really are essential to the process itself. They w
ill
form the underlying skeletal structure of everything that truly IS composed righ
t
in front of your listeners very eyes (and ears)!
You will almost always be playing variations of your basic lick repetoir complet
ely
spontaneously AS YOU HEAR THEM RIGHT THEN AND THERE, and you will actually
hardly ever play these licks as originally learned... and the variational possib
ilities
are absolutely endless too. You NEED those licks! They form a well spring of ide
as
you'll be able to draw from, and the broader your palate of colors, the better!!
But
still, you should only collect the very best ones for you personally, and even t
hen,
they should only be used as a part of bigger beautiful musical ideas.
Your first patterns should be selected to simply get the basic scales and arpegg
ios
into your head, and under your fingers. The next ones should be more melodically
useful and beautiful at the same time. After that you need a few that use the mo
re
advanced scale sounds you need to allow to mature in your mind... Then after thi
s
it is all just completely up to you!

Once mastered, these licks and scale sounds will come pouring out spontaneously
in variations that require almost no conscious effort at all. You will be able t
o draw
upon this vocabulary for life. Do you want a large vocabulary? I do, but I do ag
ree
that we can become obsesed with this and miss out on the big picture... and that
is
all about creating some beautiful art... I've heard intellectuals speak who lose
their
audience with too much vocabulary, and this is often done by jazz players as wel
l!!
I've also seen beautiful paintings that were composed using only a very few colo
rs,
and this can also be accomplished by the jazz musician in a very similar fashion
!
These are artistic choices that each of us must make for ourselves, and they sur
ely
are very personal choices. But I do feel that having a small vocabulary can be v
ery
limiting, especially in certain styles, and having a large vocabulary is always
better.
It's all about how one uses this vocabulary. Do you simply try to impress by pla
ying
more notes than anyone else?! Should you simply plug in licks everywhere in publ
ic
performance in a way that is neither interesting nor artistic? Should you only p
lay in
a kind of "competition" with the musicians around you... or should you play in a
way
that even a layperson will find touches their heart?!! A little bit of dazzle sp
rinkled in
like spice is always effective. Too much of this, and we'll allienate our audien
ce!
Please read all of this again a time or too, and pause to reflect on each idea..
. We all
need the foundational collection of patterns I'm talking about. After that It's
up to you
how many more patterns you learn and master... Anytime I hear a lick in my head
or
through my ears that really appeals to me, I put it in my notebook. I may or may
not
eventually learn it in all keys, but at least I grab it and keep it this way. Ma
ny, I have
mastered in only a few keys each without ever putting them on any official "chec
k off
list" at all... I think it's pretty much the same for most improvizers. You will
decide for
yourself just how far to go with all this, and that is just exactly how it shoul
d be... but
building one's basic foundation of patterns should definitely NOT be optional.

...............................*** LESSON NUMBER 102 ***........................


........

........................"IMPROVISING JAZZ, BY JERRY COKER"......................


...
I've been telling you for some time to get this book. It has been standard
study material for jazz musicians since it was written in 1964... It contains
theory and strategy for all improvisers, as well as some excellent tidbits of
general history. You should read it, just a few pages at a time, and then go
back and review the material section by section. You could underline all of
the important material. That would help you in future reviews. I always do
that with books that are impotant to me, so that I may go back and simply
scan all of the important underlined material in one quick easy session.
This is a fairly short paperback, and is inexpensive. It does not go into alot
of detail about theory though, but it does address some of the stategy very
well. One glance at the table of contents will tell you that it is not a method
book in any way, but just a discussion of various aspects of improvisation.
The major concepts are addressed such as basic harmony and swing, but I
especially value this book for its treatment of the development of structure
in improvised solos, as well as the common characteristic chord changes we
run into all the time such as blues and swing and other common song forms.
These are addressed in the four appendixes. All the common song forms are
listed there with their many variations. It is surprising to see just how many
(or how few) different types of underlying song structures there really are!
Do read this book and digest the information presented there! It's fairly easy
to read. Pay particular attention to the section on how to develop an effective
solo that makes listeners feel involved with the process. You may find where
many of my key philosophies come from when reading this book as well. It's
eleven chapters cover only eighty pages, but they are full of good stuff. I will
come back to this book later to briefly touch on some of the highlights. Study
it at your own pace. I'm sure you'll have no problem with this.

................................*** LESSON NUMBER 103 ***.......................


........
..........."VOLUME 54, MAIDEN VOYAGE, TRACK 2, IMPRESSIONS".............
Volume 54 is a fantastic collection of songs. They are mostly quite simple
theorywise... but of course, even the simplest chord changes yield infinite
possibilities. John Coltrane could take the simplest chords, and play some
of the most amazing things you'd ever hear! This volume, Maiden Voyage,
is designed to provide you with a large number of songs, that anyone who
wants to establish a very basic repetoir could use immediately. Along with
the various songs you've already learned with the previous play-along CD
collections, you'll now have a repetoir of 38 songs!
Volume
Volume
Volume
Volume

1............... 5 twelve bar blues heads


2............... 11 more blues type tunes
5............... 8 more basic compositions
54............. 14 more for your repetoir

Thirty eight songs is easily enough to go into a club with and play all night.
You can now actually gig with some friends. Think about that! Some of you
may be reaching your jazz goals right now. If you've just wanted to play a
little jazz in school, or as a hobby, you're already reaching your goals! You

might simply want to keep on getting better at this collection of songs, and
add on a few more here and there as we go along, or after a while you can
come back and really get serious about becoming a complete artist. It's all
up to you!
"Impressions" uses only two basic chords, E- and F-. You can use any of the
minor type scales here (minor/blues, minor/pentatonic, minor/dorian, etc). I
would strongly suggest using a little of each, and let all of these scale sounds
sink in very deeply. Coltrane would sometimes play solos lasting 30 minutes
or more and never once repeat himself!! I would experiment paticularly with
the minor/pentatonic scales on this track, and begin using some of the minor
type licks from your notebook.
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! IT'S TIME TO START USING YOUR PATTERNS !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
This entire album is perfect for this, and this is exactly what you should do
at this point in your development. Just start plugging in those licks all over
the place. You could easily learn to play just about every minor type lick in
your notebook in these two keys right now!! Stretch out with this track and
experiment. Coltrane found it worthwhile to play to changes like these, and
you can be sure that this track is worthy of much of your attention as well!
This is the kind of tune you can really "stretch out" on... You can take your
time with it, and learn how to develop your ideas with repetition, variation,
and the other techniques Jerry Coker describes in his book... "Improvising
Jazz" that I introduced in the previous lesson. Study that section on how to
build your solos effectively, and experiment with each of his suggestions.
The main thing to start doing at this point in your path, is to begin mixing in
the licks you've been collecting, along with your usual free improvisation! It
is time to begin using those patterns!!! You can decide which ones you really
love, and which ones are just OK... The best should eventually be learned in
all keys. You will decide which ones are worthy, but for now use as many as
you possibly can! That is what you should do with this entire album. This will
be the real beginning of your experience with the jazz patterns, so go ahead
and jump in now, and start "plugging in those licks" everywhere possible! Of
course, this is done for practice sake only. In public performance those licks
should be used more sparingly and artistically. During practice, however, it's
useful at this point to begin using the patterns as much as you possibly can!!

................................*** LESSON NUMBER 104 ***.......................


........
............................."VOLUME 54, TRACK 3, Bb BLUES".....................
.......
There's really nothing new here. We've covered many blues tracks on the
way to this point... so you shouldn't need much help. But I will make a few
suggestions:
......... THE TWO "TWENTY EIGHT MODERN TRUMPET SOLOS" BOOKS .........
This is a 'down home' type blues so it's appropriate to use the minor/ blues
scale and minor/pentatonic here, just as JA suggests. Borrow material from

any of the previous blues heads you've played too... If you have the books
I've been recommending "Twenty Eight Modern Trumpet Solos".... Volumes
1 and 2, you will find quite a few blues solos there as well that you can take
material from. Don't steal entire choruses to play verbatum, nor even large
sections... Just take the very best licks! You can go through several of those
blues solos in these books and put the best licks into your own notebook for
future reference.
............... "COMPOSED SOLOS, and YOUR OTHER NOTEBOOK" ................
As I was learning this beautiful art and craft, I used to compose entire solos
for practice purposes using material taken from many of these transcriptions.
I would put them into that "other notebook" I've mentioned a few times, and
give them titles like, "Me and Lee", and "Riffin with Clifford", etc... You migh
t
want to do the same. That is the purpose of the "other notebook", along with
with being a place to transcribe other great solos as well.... So, it would be a
good time to compose at least one "blues solo" of your own this way and put
it into your own "other notebook" too... The solos you make up and write out
are not for use in public performances. They're just for practice purposes!
So, hopefully I have now gotten you to begin taking material from some great
artists to enter as licks into your primary patterns notebook, and also to begin
writing out practice solos of your own and put them into your 'other notebook'.
These solos you write could even be used as jazz heads... I suspect that many
of the great "heads" that players have written, using the chord progressions of
famous standards, evolved in a similar fashion.... Anyway, once you've written
out one good "solo/head", you are now a composer too! Of course, we've been
composing all along, but just not writing any of it down!
I can only point the way... YOU must do all the work for yourself!!! I suppose
how much of this advice you'll actually apply will be dictated by your personal
goals in jazz. You'll know the blues progressions in the transcription books by
their 12 bar form and their chord progressions. So, go get some patterns and
do a little composing if you dare! Take your time, and use any material at
all to write out at least one practice blues solo!! Do remember that this will b
e
your first entry into your "other notebook"... So, now you're a composer!

...............................*** LESSON NUMBER 105 ***........................


........
............. "MORE ABOUT TRANSCRIPTION COLLECTION BOOKS"..............
Since I touched on this subject in the previous lesson above, it's probably
a good time to give that a little more attention now.... I've told you to get
the "Twenty Eight Modern Trumpet Solos" books, both Volumes 1 and 2. I
think these are two of the very best transcription collections out there.
Some improvizers would point out that doing your own transcribing would
be more beneficial that getting material from a book... but I would tell you
that both are very beneficial and that there is nothing about using material
that has already been transcribed for us that would prevent us from doing
some transcribing of our own. So, it's not a matter of "one or the other". I
think we have the luxury of having many more resources, than our earlier

jazz predecesors, so let's use everything we can! There are still a few folks
out there that would try to tell you otherwise, but I guess this is true about
almost anything.
The transcription books are
greats handle every kind of
their use of theory too. We
and learn a lot from all of

a great tool. We can see exactly how real jazz


situation. We can study all their strategies, and
can see how they build and organize their solos
this. There is much to gain from this kind of study.

One of the best things to be gained is a broad jazz vocabulary, AKA "licks".
As I mentioned in the previous lesson, one should extract only the very best
licks from transcribed solos... You will come across a few and say, "oh good,
I've been hearing that one in my head"... or "wow, that lick is fantastic". The
ones that really strike you as being fantastic really are fantastic... FOR YOU!
There are so many sources for gathering your personal collection of patterns
that there is no need to be greedy!! Just copy the "best of the best" into your
notebook. Later, you can reevaluate them and see if they still seem as good.
There is no hurry, but if you do learn the material that really appeals to you
the most, you'll really enjoy your own playing. Why learn anything else?!!! I
think the very best material to learn is the material that you keep hearing in
your head already... The stuff you'd sing without any regard for theory is the
"real you" in my opinion... I play what I hear now, but I spent many sessions
singing into a tape recorder with jazz tracks playing in the background. Then
I'd go back and transcribe just the very best of what I sang. This might be a
bit difficult for many of you right now... but you will definitely find a lot of
the
licks you've been hearing in your head (and in great players' solos) there in
those transcription books! Believe me... THEY ARE A GOLDMINE! So, go and
do some digging. You WILL reap MANY rewards!

................................*** LESSON NUMBER 106 ***.......................


........
.................."MORE ABOUT COMPOSING PRACTICE SOLOS"....................
Yup, you guessed it! Since I talked about this kind of project in Lesson 104,
I'll now continue with this theme a bit more... (while we're on the subject).
A practice solo is just exactly what it sounds like. One takes a group of the
very best possible licks, and strings them together in a manner that would
be appropriate for a certain song form. In lesson number 104, I suggested
building a "solo" using licks found in the transcribed solos books. When one
builds a solo such as this, they may use material from a variety of sources.
If you're building a blues "solo"... you'd use licks from certain measures in
the very same measures of your own solo. In other words, if a lick is found
in bars 3 and 4 in the original solo, use it in bars 3 and 4 of your "solo" too.
If you take a lick from bars 7 and 8, put them in your "solo" in bars 7 and 8
as well.... Continue in this manner until you have several great licks in their
appropriate places, then fill in the spaces with some original melodic pieces
of your own to smooth it all out... Change a transcribed lick in any way that
suits you best. Use material from an entirely different source if you like!!! It
doesn't really matter where all the material comes from. The only thing that

matters is that the resulting solo is packed with great stuff and is connected
in a fairly logically and smooth manner.
By doing this, not only will you get a broader vocabulary of jazz patterns up
and running, but you'll practice and hear them frequently, in the appropriate
places where they're meant to work best. This works for any kind of song. It
is extremely valuable to do this using the blues form, and also with "rhythm
changes" too! If you don't know what that means, you'll just have to wonder
about it for a while. We'll be back to this. It wouldn't hurt to get carried awa
y
with this project and write yourself several blues 'solo/heads'. You could play
all the blues solos in the two books, circling all the most interesting patterns
,
then go back and begin piecing them together like a puzzle. Remember, just
use the very best stuff, and don't be afraid to add in your own material or to
change licks to make them better!
You should also start thinking about composing a "practice solo" or two using
all original ideas of your own. Maybe you will find yourself singing into a tape
recorder very soon just like I did... I certainly hope so!!

..............................*** LESSON NUMBER 107 ***.........................


........
............."TRANSCRIBING SOLOS INTO YOUR OTHER NOTEBOOK"............
We've spent a little time talking about using solos of great artists that have
already been transcribed. Now let's discuss transcribing solos for ourselves.
I've told you that many people feel that the process of transcribing solos is
very beneficial to the developing jazz player, and this is true! It's one of the
best things you can do in order to train the ears. While it is true that one wil
l
get more patterns for his collection and acquire more solos for study, the big
benefits come from the development of the ear through the process itself. If
you spend time learning how to recognize what you hear through your ears,
you'll also gain the ability to recognize what you're hearing in your head!
The second notebook I've asked you to start, is for the purpose of composing
practice solos like we talked about in the previous lesson, but it's also for yo
ur
own transcription projects. The first solos you transcribe should be simple... I
f
you already know a solo so well (from hearing it many times) that you have it
memorized and can sing along with it already... then this particular solo would
be a great candidate to transcribe FOR YOU!!! It's already in your mind, and it
will be a very valuable solo for you to learn to play since it's already a part
of
you! It will also be easier to work with too, since you already know it so well.
Solos that you already know and love are always the best ones to transcribe!
It would be a good idea to pick something easy for your first attempt. Start by
writing the title and the artist's name at the top of a page, then just figure o

ut
the first few notes. You could just write out a few measures at first, then come
back to it periodically and write out a little more. Listen to it many times. Si
ng
it, play it, then write it down. Go back and listen to it one measure at a time
if
needed, but DO go ahead and get started on your first solo transcription now!
Your first transcription will be a project you'll never forget!! It may take dai
ly
work for a whole week or longer. It may seem difficult at first, but just take i
t
one small piece at a time. When you're finished with it, you'll immediately feel
the benefits. You will be much more familiar with all the material, and anytime
you hear any of it in the future (whether it's through your ears, or it's coming
to you from inside your own head) you'll instantly recognize what it is!

................................*** LESSON NUMBER 108 ***.......................


........
............"VOLUME 54, MAIDEN VOYAGE, TRACK 4, SOLAR FLAIR".............
Another song. Very simple theory. Infinite possibilities. Where do we begin?
A quick scan of these chords should remind you of our old friend "Groovitis".
The changes are very similar but the style is very different. It has a straight
eighth rythmic feel insted of swing. The feel is different and we shouldn't try
to use the same "down home" minor/blues scales and licks as we did before.
It would be more appropriate to use lots of dorian and minor/pentatonics for
this particular style. Experiment with these scales on the D- and G- chords.
With the minor II/V7+9/I in measures 5-6 you should try plugging in one of
your first patterns for this progression. You should also try out the alternate
methods I've suggested for handling this progression as well... You can play
right through those two bars using one D minor type scale, (especially the D
harmonic minor scale) or you can handle it all as an altered dominant chord
(think A7+9) all the way through and perhaps play licks from your notebook
appropriately transposed to fit with "A altered dominant", or you can borrow
a major II/V7/I lick from the relative major (F major). If you're not already
familiar with these three alternate methods for handling the II/V7+9/I chord
change, then you need to go back and master earlier lessons, befor working
on this material.... You need the material in lessons 91-93 to understand the
info I just discussed!! Use your first minor II/V7+9/I lick(s), and try using al
l
those alternate methods too. Figure out a way to use each of them with licks
that you know, and that D harmonic minor scale.
On the major II/V7/I in measures 9-10, use your first lick(s) and even a
simple variations... In measures !!-!2 try using appropriate major licks
very same manner. Remember, we are using 'Volume 54' to begin using the
licks you've been collecting. You wouldn't plug in licks everywhere in a
performance this blatantly, but for practice purposes you should do just
Plug in your new patterns everywhere you possibly can!

few
in the
public
that.

Measures 13-14 will be handled the same way as measures 5-6, and measure
16 is a simple "altered dominant chord". Plug in an appropriate pattern there.
Also spend some time improvizing freely on the diminished/whoe tone scale. I
hope you'll remember how to explore up from the root a little... and also down
from the root a lttle too. If you don't, then you're not fully digesting the ear
lier
material, and you are only kidding (and hurting) yourself. Don't move too fast!
I know the basic chords are easy, but use these "easy" songs to actually apply
all the stuff I've been teaching you. I know from experience that many will not
heed this advice. Don't let yourself miss out on all the good stuff!! A guy coul
d
blow all the way through this track... using nothing but one D minor type scale
and a II/V7/I lick in F major, but what would you learn? Some hobbyists might
go the simpler way and that is fine, but if you're really serious, you'll do eve
ry
single thing I'm suggesting. It never hurts anyone to go back and review to be
certain they are getting it all. Everyone needs to go slow, AND GET IT ALL!!

.................................*** LESSON NUMBER 109 ***......................


..........
............................"VOLUME 54, TRACK 5, SUMMERTIME"....................
......
This song definitely falls into the "down home, earthy, bluesy" category. You
can rely heavily on the E minor/blues scale with this one... Do notice that the
song goes from E minor to G major (the relative major key), and back again.
If you were to compare the E minor/blues scale with the G major/blues scale,
you would find that they both have the same notes. This comes in very handy
with a song like this!! For a while you're playing the E minor/blues scale in th
e
usual way... then you play the same scale in the G major section, but think of
it and handle it a different way. Because of the ease in the theory department
you can put all your attention on making music. You can use the E minor/blues
scale all the way through this entire song... Just think of it as G major/blues
in
bars 12 and 13.
That would be a very basic way to handle this song. A more sophisticated solo
would outline the various progressions in more detail. The A- chord in bars 5-6
should be differentiated with the use of A dorian. Minor II/V7+9/I material can
be used in bars 7-8. Bars 12-13 would need to be handled as a one bar II/V7/I
in G major. Measures 14-15 is a II/V7+9/I in E minor... and measure 16 is an
altered dominant chord that resolves back to the tonic chord in E minor.
You should try playing the entire song form using both of these methods... First
use just the E minor blues scale exclusively and really work on getting the most
bluesy feel you possibly can. Lay into that "flatted fifth" (Bb) and try growlin
g!!!
You can use any of the minor/blues type licks you've collected right here!

Then after a couple of choruses, try outlining all the progressions using all of
the
scales and licks suggested here in the third paragraph. After doing that for a f
ew
choruses come back to that E minor/blues sound again. Eventually you'll go back
and forth freely between the two strategies within choruses any way you like.
Mix and match. If you only play minor/blues scales and licks, you'll overdo it a
nd
wind up boring the listeners. If you only use the more sophisticated strategy, y
ou
will fall into the same trap again!! However, if you go back and forth between t
he
two approaches, the listener is drawn in as the contrast between the two styles
of
playing becomes very interesting. It's the contrast that makes each of these way
s
so effective! Experiment by alternating between "sophisticated" and "earthy".

.................................*** LESSON NUMBER 110 ***......................


..........
....."USING THE MELODY IN YOUR IMPROVIZATION WITH SUMMERTIME".....
The song "Summertime" is a very good tune to use for this purpose. I have
not discussed this concept before... so now would be a good time. Let's go!
I like to keep the melody in mind when I improvize. Many people forget all
about the melody when they solo. I feel that some songs are handled much
better when the soloist interjects bits and pieces of the original melody into
his solo from time to time... This isn't good for all songs, but it is for many!
This song is very good to introduce this concept with... because it uses short
melodic motifs followed by long notes and pauses. One nice way to handle it
would be to play those first three notes as written, then improvise with some
"fill type material" through the first measure... Then in the second bar, come
back to the original melody, etc. You may not want to just go back and forth
over and over again in such a strict fashion throughout the whole song... It's
often effective to just throw in pieces of the melody when you hear them, as
a part of your longer melodic ideas. This way, they simply sound like natural
parts of the solo, rather than being "stuck in" artificially.
It's possible to build an entire solo around a melody. You can just add a few
notes here and there to embellish the melody, and fill some of the spaces in
the song between the phrases... or you can weave the melody into your solo
in a more subtle way by merely hinting at it, reminding your listenner that it
is still present and an integral part of the improvization. Sometimes this kind
of strategy makes things easier, giving the soloist a very solid skeletal basis
to form his solo upon. At other times, this strategy requires more effort and
creativity from the performer, and thus demonstrates his musical ability!
Some songs just beg for this kind of treatment... and Summertime is one of
these! It can be overdone, or it can be done just right. Returning back to the
melody draws the listeners in!!! They begin anticipating what will come next,
and when they are right, it has a very pleasing effect!! It'll also help to keep

laypeople interested and listening. It is so very easy to lose them when they
can't understand the music. This gives them something to hold onto!
Begin experimenting with this strategy. Try keeping the melody in mind even
when you aren't quoting it. It'll help you maintain a good sense of structure!!
Go ahead and experiment with this technique on other songs too whenever it
seems appropriate to the style. Remember, this is all supposed to be fun!

.................................*** LESSON NUMBER 111 ***......................


............
........................"VOLUME 54, TRACK 6, WATERMELON MAN"....................
....
Herbie Hancock wrote this tune sometime in the early 60s. It's what we jazz
players call an "extended blues". It is basically a 12 bar blues that has been
lengthened by repeating bars 9 and 10 two extra times to make it last for 16
measures altogether. It is handled the same way as any other blues, and we
have studied so many blues by this point, that there's not much else to say.
...................... BUT HERE ARE A FEW SUGGESTIONS ANYWAY....................
..
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Experiment
Experiment
Experiment
Experiment
Experiment

by
by
by
by
by

using
using
using
using
using

the dominant/mixolydian scale listed under each chord.


major/blues scales on the dominant chords, this works.
G minor/blues and also G minor/pentatonic throughout.
G minor and G blues type licks from your notebook too.
"practice solos" materials... as suggested in Lesson 106.

6. Experiment by using material from the melody... as suggested in Lesson 110.


7. Experiment by using bluesy and sophisticated type material as in Lesson 109.
8. Experiment by using each of the strategies listed here, all combined together
.
In the future I'll discuss substitute chord progressions, and advanced scales th
at
can be used with the "simple" blues progressions... Many people think that blues
changes are the easiest to play, because it is possible for the beginner to hand
le
entire choruses with only one minor/blues scale... This is true in a sense. I wo
uld
suggest considering the fact that even with the simplest chords, there are infin
ite
possibilities!! There really are... Just listen to Charlie Parker, or Coltrane!
!

................................*** LESSON NUMBER 112 ***.......................


........
..........."MORE HERBIE HANCOCK, TRACK 11, CANTALOPE ISLAND".........
This is another "simple" song, relatively speaking... There are only three

chords in the whole song, each lasting four measures each. The G- chord
at the end continues into another four measures of G-, so I suppose you
could say it lasts for eight measures there.
One can use any of the minor type scales on the G- and E- chords. Dorian,
minor/blues and minor/pentatonic would be the three most obvious choices
for you to use, but it is good to experiment with the other possible types of
minor scales as well... such as aeolian (natural minor), harmonic minor and
melodic minor (ascending form). Here are their formulas. Putting them into
the keys of G minor and E minor is up to you.
1....... Natural Minor........................... 1, 2, -3, 4, 5, -6, -7, 8
2....... Harmonic Minor........................ 1, 2, -3, 4, 5, -6, 7, 8
3....... Melodic Minor........................... 1, 2, -3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8
The Eb7 chord would use the dominant/mixolydian of course, but you could
experiment with some other scales there too. Here are some suggestions. I
will only remind you of their formulas. Puting all these into Eb is your job...
1.......
2.......
3.......
4.......
5.......
6.......

Eb
Eb
Eb
Eb
Eb
Eb

"major/pentatonic"................. 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 8
"major/blues scale"................ 1, 2, +2, 3, 5, 6, 8
"dominant/blues"................... 1, 2, +2, 3, 5, 6, -7, 8
"minor/blues scale"................ 1, -3, 4, +4, 5, -7, 8
"lydian/dominant".................. 1, 2, 3, +4, 5, 6, -7, 8
"dominant/bebop".................. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, -7, 7, 8

The major pentatonic scale fits nicely with dominant chords, as does the
major/blues scale. Both of these have the unaltered 3rd step and no 7th
step at all, so they both work with either major or dominant chords. That
"dominant/blues" scale is a variation of the major/blues. It has the -7, so
it will work with the dominant chords. The minor/blues sounds pretty well
with dominant chords too even though it has the -3. Two more good ones
to explore are the lydian/dominant, and the dominant/bebop scales. They
are both variations of mixolydian. If you try out all these scales that work
with dominant chords, with and without the background CD, you'll be able
to see how each one sounds and start to become familiar with all of them.
Use all these scale choices on this tune. You will discover more sounds for
your personal palate of colors. Of course, you should also use the various
licks from your notebook as well.

...............................*** LESSON NUMBER 113 ***........................


........
..............."SOME MORE HANCOCK, TRACK 9, MAIDEN VOYAGE"..............
This is another Herbie Hancock composition. It also uses single chords for
several measures at a time. When we use one scale over long periods of
time, it is refered to as playing modally. This song and the one in the last
lesson are both good examples of this.
You've surely noticed that I use appropriate songs to introduce certain bits
of strategy and theory as they naturally arise in the course of studying the
various play-along tracks. This is an excellent way to present new material
as the student progresses (that would be you)! There is no new strategy in
this lesson, but I'd like to review strategy that we dabbled with before, in a

previous lesson. Please review Lesson 85. There I introduced a very useful
technique for use with the song "Killer Pete", which I hope you realized was
built on the chord changes to "killer Joe". (BTW, jazz composers often build
compositions using the chord progressions taken from other tunes. A chord
progression by itself cannot be copyrighted, so this is very common!)
The strategy I'm refering to, studied in lesson 85, is that of starting to play
on a new scale a little before a chord actually arrives. I had you start each
new scale in the bridge of "Killer Pete" a few beats early.... which produces
an effect similar to "playing outside the changes". Review Lesson #85 once
more to refresh your memory. I'd like you to experiment with this strategy
some more using this song... Maiden Voyage.
Just begin using each new scale a few beats before it's chord actually arrives.
You'll see how eloquently this works. It is one of my favorite techniques! You
will sound as though you have departed from the modality and then resolved
back into it with amazing skill, while it was really quite simple... This is one
of
those super tips worth a thousand bucks, so don't waste your opportunity!
One nice way to use this little trick is to play some bit of material repeatedly
in one key, then begin repeating the lick in the next key just a bit early. It i
s
a technique worthy of your full attention and its the main thing I want you to
get from this lesson.
You just use the scales suggested under each chord, or try some minor/blues
and minor/pentatonic type scales and licks. Keep it simple though, so you can
explore this technique of starting to play on the next scale early. You're going
to love this! So give it some SERIOUS EFFORT. You won't regret it!! I am...

...............................*** LESSON NUMBER 114 ***........................


........
........" A WAYNE SHORTER COMPOSITION, TRACK 12, FOOTPRINTS"........
I first heard this song as it was recorded on the Miles Davis album entitled
"Miles Smiles"... This is one of the most beautiful and startling recordings I
have ever heard. Each song is a "soundscape" of sorts.... splashes of color
and emotion, whirling in and about. It humbles me everytime I listen to it!!
What Wayne and Miles do on this album is simply incredible!
"Footprints" is another deceptively simple song at first glance!! It is another
example of music with infinite possibilities, using very few chords. If you go
to www.ejazzlines.com you'll find this recording... Buy it, and you'll see how t
hese
two masters handle it. You may not have ever heard anything like it. It's so
understated, yet so amazingly powerful at the same time!
This song is a twelve bar blues in 6/4 time. That is like two bars of 3/4 time
combined. The quintuplet figures are played over three beats... They sound
something like eighth notes that drag farther and farther behind the beat. If
you get the CD I recommended you won't regret it. You'd almost have to, in
order to get the real feeling of this particular song!! It is technically a 12 b

ar
blues, but it's not "bluesy" at all. It's hard for me to put into words, and I a
m
not the kind of guy who is usually at a loss for words!
Basically, the song can be handled using the dorian scales suggested, or the
minor/pentatonic, or minor/blues, with lots of chromaticism (especialy useful
in measures 9 and 10). The use of chromaticism will help to connect things in
a very smooth manner. Experiment with this!! Try using your chromatic scale
to explore outside of the key. This song is well suited to this kind of approach
because of it's "floating" quality. Just play with the chromatic scale, using it
to
take you outside of the key and then back in again... This, and that technique
stressed in Lessons 85 and 113 of 'starting a new scale a little early', are bot
h
excellent ways to begin your first explorations of playing "outside" of the key.
Do spend time with this. The most important part of any excursion 'outside' is
the resolution that brings you back inside... It must be handled eloquently. I'l
l
often hear players going on lengthy journeys, playing long "outside" patterns,
but they don't return to the key well. To me, nothing exposes one's weakness
in this area more than that.... You should always try to hear a good resolution
and then play what you hear. Experiment with this chromatic outside strategy,
and even the technique of "playing the next scale early" we've been dicussing.
Above all else, go to the hyperlink and order this CD now!!
In lessons 12 through 15 I've listed what I feel are some of the very best CDs
and DVDs ever recorded. If you don't yet have a real solid collection, you can
order almost every single thing I recommend in those lessons, on the website
hyperlinked here in this lesson. EJazzLines is the most complete source ever!!
They are fast, reliable, and almost always have everything they list in stock.
The DVDs I strongly recommended would be enough to keep a guy motivated
for years all by themselves.... Miles Davis' "My Old Flame" album is one of the
most beautiful ever recorded. I hope you revisit those earlier lessons (12-15)!
Beg, borrow, and steal if you have to... but do at least get My Old Flame, Miles
Smiles and any (or all) of the DVDs you possibly can! Hey, the improv lessons
are free, so you can rationalize this one shopping spree for sure!

................................*** LESSON NUMBER 115 ***.......................


........
................"MORE ABOUT MEASURES 9 AND 10, FOOTPRINTS".................
Let's talk just a bit more about these two measures... Advanced players will
already know that these two bars can be handled in quite a number of ways.
First, let me begin by saying that although this song is written in 6/4 time, it
really is fast enough to almost be considered 6/8... It has a rhythmic lilt that

nearly feels like two beats per measure, plus this song is usually performed
a little faster than it is here on this JA track. This is important when decidin
g
how to handle the chords in measures 9 and 10.
If the tempo was VERY SLOW, chords like these would require much more of
our attention... If they lasted for a couple of bars each we'd probably have to
deal with each one using a different scale. But as they go by so quickly, there
is not enough time for the harmony (of each chord) to really sink in. At times
like this it's often inappropriate to try to outline each and every chord. Tryin
g
to do so can actually interfere with a smooth flowing melodic developement.
These chords can be handled as what I'll call "passing chords"... Consider this:
If one were to simply ignore them altogether and just continue playing D minor
type material right through... the effect would be one of creating a little tens
ion
that resolves the moment we arrive at measure 11. In situations like this, most
improvisers would not try to outline each of those chords... Attempting to use a
different scale with each chord would be quite awkward, and would likely cause
a player to stumble all over himself at that point.
If you compare the notes in the melody with the notes in those chords (written
out near the bottom of the page) you'll see almost no correlation whatsoever!!
I know it's possible to analyze these notes, and come up with some way to say
that each one is actually an altered upper extension of the chords they're used
with, but this can be done (with enough effort) for any notes at all. Actually t
he
way the head is usually played, extra notes are used chromatically, connecting
the C# to the E, and the A to the C natural, in measure 9. If you get that Miles
Smiles CD you'll hear this too. As you can see, the melody uses the chromatic
scale freely right through these two measures, and so can you!!
Try using the chromatic scale and also the D minor/blues scale there. You could
try some other sounds there too, such as whole tone or diminished, built on any
starting notes you like. Experiment with "going outside" here. It is a perfect s
pot
to try almost anything with, but the key to doing this well has to do with a pro
per
resolution. Nearly anything will sound right here, as long as it is resolved wel
l. If
you aren't sure about this strategy try coming up with improvised material using
scales or licks with each chord, and you'll find it very difficult not to sound
stilted
this way. Even trying to use chord tones will prove to be very unsatisfactory. G
o
back to blowing right through those two measures using chromaticism and/or the
D minor/blues, and see for yourself what works best for you! "Trial and error" i
s
one of the jazz improviser's very best tools. Whatever one discovers themselves
has a way of sinking in quickly and deeply! So, always experiment!

...............................*** LESSON NUMBER 116 ***........................


........
............."VOLUME 54, TRACK 15, III/VI7/II/V7 TURNAROUNDS"..............
Track 15 introduces something called "the turnaround chord progression".
We barely discussed this progression in Lesson 80 on Bird Blues. You may
recall touching on this subject. Here is a more complete description of this
very important progression.
There are many types of turnarounds, but the most common one is called
the III/VI7/II/V7 turnaround... The symbols represent diatonic chords and
use the same type of nomenclature as any other progression. You'll notice
that the VI chord in this example has been changed to a dominant chord...
It is very common to see any or all of the chords in this useful progression
altered to become dominant chords in the same manner.
This progression is often found in the last two measures of many standard
song forms. Many standard type songs such as blues, end with two bars of
a I chord, leading into even more measures of a I chord at the start of the
song once again. The turnaround progression is often substituted for these
last two bars, in order to break up the monotony of having this many bars
of I chord in a row. It provides changing chords, that replace this stagnant
I chord, and brings more interest to the music. The turnaround chords can
be substituted by the rhythm section players... or written in by the original
composer.... or just imagined by a soloist, who basically pretends that this
progression is being played by the rhythm section, and plays patterns that
would fit with these chords. In other words, the soloist can play turnaround
patterns as substitute material in the appropriate places, without regard for
whether or not the rhythm section is doing this too!!! This is very much like
the way we've used 'substitue material' in earlier lessons when playing with
the minor II/V7+9/I progression and altered dominant chords. Soloists can
play material appropriate for substitute chord changes even when they are
not being used by the rhythm section players. Similarly, the rhythm section
players use substitute chords and progressions in the appropriate places, if
they feel it will improve the song! In a professional jazz group, this is done
all the time. Chord progressions are altered and substituted constantly!
Making the VI chord in this progression dominant basically creates two "one
bar II/V7" progressions, so we can now use two "one bar II/V7 licks"!! That
is how I had you handle the turnaround in Lesson 80 with "Bird Blues". Take
a look at the patterns that are presented in the book there on page 31. They
are all constructed using this method of combining two "one bar II/V7" licks.
Most turnaround patterns are built the same way, and they'll very often use
the same lick in both measures, just in different keys.
There are other types of turnarounds that use completely different changes,
but they all serve the same purpose and function in the same manner. We'll
study other variations of this device at a later time. For now you should just
play the seven patterns presented on page 31 with the CD background. You
only need to play them with this one track, in this one key for a while to get
used to them.
Later you can come back to enter the ones you like into your notebook, or
even make up some of your own using two "one bar II/V7" patterns. After
you start playing along with this track, you'll probably recognise the sound
of the progression and even start to hear a lick or two in your head that fit
with it. These would be the best licks to start figuring out on your own. This
might be the start of getting at the licks that are already in your own mind,
or perhaps just simply composing a few on your own (if you dare)!!

................................*** LESSON NUMBER 117 ***.......................


.......
........"VOLUME 54, TRACK 10, F BLUES, TOOTSIE, IN THREE PARTS"........
THE FIRST PART.............. "DOMINANT KEYS"
This track is another twelve bar blues. It's in the key of G for trumpeters. In
traditional music theory there are major keys and there are minor keys. We
have discussed these before, but I haven't really explained all the dominant
chords we keep seeing in these blues progressions... Well, in the jazz idiom,
there is one more kind of key. We could call it a dominant key. Basically it is
very similar to major, but the I, IV and V chords are typically all dominant.
I know many college trained musicians may be scratching their heads at this
point. In classical music theory dominant chords almost always function as V
chords in a key... In jazz, blues and rock styles conventions are not so rigid,
and chords can be of almost any quality at all, as long as it sounds right. This
blues and many others could be viewed as being in a dominant key. I've had
classical players explain to me that there is no such thing... but I didn't make
all this up. If all the I chords in a song are dominant, it's in a "dominant key
"!
So, here we have another "dominant blues" written by Jamey Aebersold, and
it's called "Tootsie". We'll handle it just like any other dominant type blues w
e
have covered before. There's a turnaround progression written in the changes
that we will address. I hope you notice how I always get you all set for what's
coming next, as I did again in the previous lesson... That is the reason I often
jump around from track to track. I try to lay things out in a very logical order
.
The next two lessons contiue with discussions of theory and strategy that are
very convenient to present with this track, so read on!

................................*** LESSON NUMBER 118 ***.......................


........
..........."MORE INFO FOR USE WITH TRACK 10, F BLUES, TOOTSIE"..........
THE SECOND PART............ "THE TURNAROUND"
You should recall from previous lessons that any or all of the chords in the
common "III/VI7/II/V7 turnaround" can be dominant. This won't effect the
way we handle it. We will still basically treat it as two 'one bar II/V7's' back

to back. Look at the last two measure of the head and you'll see that all of
the chords in the turnaround progression are dominant. You will also notice
suggestions for possible "chord substitutions" written above those chords. I
want you first to take note of the fact that JA suggests that a G7 chord may
be used in place of the B7. In other words, we could make this progression
into a "I/VI/II/V". That's a common variation which doesn't change how we
handle it either. The III chord is almost exactly the same as a I chord, so it
should not be surprising that these two chords can be used as substitutions
for each other. Even more substitution possibilites are given in the changes
at the bottom of the page, particularly the E7b9 in place of the usual E7. I'll
tell you that these variation make no difference in how that turnaround will
be handled, and this is true. It will still funtion the same way, even with the
alterations we see being suggested... Sometimes you may need to make a
slight alteration to a turnaround lick so that it fits a little better. In the E
7b9
chord, a b9th may need to be used in place of the usual unaltered 9th.
There is one more lesson after this that continues this discussion of theory
and strategy that can be applied to the 12 bar blues track, "Tootsie". Read
on! Betcha didn't expect to get all this with just a "plain old" blues track!

................................*** LESSON NUMBER 119 ***.......................


........
......."EVEN MORE INFO FOR USE WITH TRACK 10, F BLUES, TOOTSIE"......
THE THIRD PART............... "SUBSTITUTIONS"
Jazz rhythm section players often make substitutions for chord changes on
their own. They don't ask permission, nor do they consult each other about
it. The soloist does not know which substitute changes may be thrown in on
the spur of the moment!! Similarly the soloist may just "pretend" substitute
chords are being used and play material that would fit with them. But guess
what... It rarely makes any difference! The harmonies are usually going by
so fast that their exact sounds don't last long enough to matter. At a slower
tempo IT WOULD MATTER much more... and the soloist and rhythm section
players would try to coordinate with each other's substitutions much more!!
When either the soloist or rhythm section players use substitutions, they will
generally sound "right", even if others are playing the changes in their basic
format without any alterations or substitutions of any kind!
Players get to the point where they can almost instantly recognise any of the
substitutions that others may thrown in, and adjust what they play to fit with
that material more eloquently. At faster tempos it is more difficult to do, but
fortunately, it matters much less!! Some of this may be hard to comprehend
right now, but give it all some time... Let it sink in and just begin using all
of
these strategies, and you will come to understand it all. YOU WILL SEE!!
Anyway, what I want
type licks from the
appropriate key for
some licks for this
the best licks into

you to do right now is to learn a few of the turnaround


previous lesson (used with track 15), and try them in the
use with this song (G). Also, if you are able to compose
progression on your own, use those too! Be sure you put
your notebook. We've now entered licks into 11 of the 13

categories of patterns so far... Soon you'll have at least a few licks in every
single category! How many you eventually learn and/or master will be up to
you, but everyone needs to establish a solid foundation of jazz patterns! Do
not think they aren't important. They are absolutely essential. They'll unlock
many doors for you that you would never cross through otherwise!
Use licks from any and all sources. You are now a "turnaround progression
player". Even if you can only learn one single pattern for this progression to
try out with this track in G, use it over and over again. It's time to plug your
licks into the music everywhere possible! This is a good place to begin using
your first turnaround in an actual song for the first time. Be brave, go for it,
and don't be afraid to experiment and make mistakes!! Your mistakes often
teach as much as your successes... If you never make mistakes, you aren't
pushing back your boundaries!! Now, don't apologise. Blow that horn!! Make
mistakes, and be PROUD that you're moving forward!! Things like this might
seem nearly impossible at first, but just stick with it and be patient!! IT WILL
COME SOONER THAN YOU THINK, SO STICK WITH IT!!

...............................*** LESSON NUMBER 120 ***........................


........
......................"VOLUME 54, TRACK 14, AUTUMN LEAVES"......................
.
Anytime I work with students on a new song, I always try to focus on one
or two main areas where I can teach and reinforce important concepts. In
other words, I use songs as vehicles to introduce strategies and theory. I
will use this song to reinforce the concept of "substitution" once again.
I've told you in previous lessons that a major II/V7/I lick can be used in
place of a minor II/V7+9/I lick in the following manner. You can "borrow"
a major II/V7/I lick from the relative major key (three half steps up). In
A minor the II/V7+9/I progression will be the chords B half dim/E7+9/A-.
The relative major (to A minor) would be the key of C major, and II/V7/I
in C major would be the chords D-/G7/C major.
The substitution in question (which I'm presenting in the keys needed for
this song) would work like this: When you see the II/V7+9/I progression
in A minor, you can use a II/V7/I pattern from the key of C major. You'll
see this progression several times in Autumn Leaves, and this is what I'd
like you to experiment with here.
Even if you only know one single II/V7/I pattern for use in C major, you"ll
be able to do this. Look at the song now on page 30. It starts with a II/V7/I
in C major in bars 1-3. Use your first appropriate II/V7/I lick there. In bar
four you would continue using the C major scale (but as the fouth mode, or
F lydian). Now comes the II/V7+9/I progression in A minor in bars 5-8. For
these measures you can play the very same pattern as you did in bars 1-3!
I realise I'm not really giving you an explanation why this works. I WILL go
into this in detail in future lessons that will help you see the big picture lat
er
on. For now you just need to try this out, hear it for yourself, and start using

this common "lick substitution" in a few other songs as well.


We've discussed other ways of handling the minor II/V7+9/I progression in
earlier lessons. They include using a "minor II/V7+9/I lick" of course, using
material for an altered dominant chord (appropriate for E7+9 in this case),
and using one minor type scale (especially minor/blues or harmonic minor)
all the way through. We've discussed these methods twice before, so I will
just leave it at that.
You should try out all of these substitute methods for handling that "minor
II/V7+9/I progression" with this song, but do be certain to at least use the
first method outlined in the second and third paragraphs of this lesson. You
will find that this entire song can be played with almost nothing but II/V7/I
material from C major! Experiment with this, and the other methods too!!!
This song is absolutely perfect for this. Use all these strategies... and keep
practicing this particular song until it really starts to sing!!! You'll be able
to
close your eyes and simply "play what you hear" on this one in no time!

..................................*** LESSON NUMBER 121 ***.....................


............
......................"MORE INFORMATION ABOUT SUBSTITUTIONS"....................
We'll continue our discussion of substitution with this lesson... The terminolog
y
deserves a little clarifation before we proceed. In the jazz idiom, the common
term "substitution" really has two different (but related) meanings.
The first meaning applies to the simple substitution of one chord or progression
for another. This refers to the way rhythm section players will substitute chord
s
into their playing, creating new and improved harmonies. These harmonies will
function in the same way as the original harmonies written by the composer, or
at least resolve eventually in the same manner. These chord substitutions work
even when the soloist does not know they're being used.
If a soloist has developed his ear sufficiently... he can usually recognise when
a
substitution of this sort is being used, and alter his playing to "join in" with
it and
play material that outlines the new harmonies being introduced. This takes place
almost instantaneously. It would have to, wouldn't it? But even if he doesn't he
ar
the subsitution... the material he plays using the original chords as his roadma
p
would still sound just fine 99% of the time.
Now suppose the soloist palys material designed for optimum use with substitute
chords or progressions, but the rhythm section players use the original changes.
Well, this will sound very good as well. The substitutions are designed to work

in
this manner. I refer to the material the soloist is using as "substitute pattern
s" or
"substitute licks", or even just "substitute material"... You may need to read t
his
whole lesson four or five times for all this to fully sink in.
So here's a summary. Substitute harmonies work whether or not the soloist is
aware of them being used, and substitue licks work whether or not the rhythm
section players are using them too! The substitutions are designed to work this
way! They work even better, of course, when all the musicians hear what each
other is doing and join in with it. As a soloist you need to be aware of all of
the
common substitution possibilities so that you can either "join in" when you hear
them being used, or simply use them as a foundation for improvising your own
substitute material, whether or not the rhythm section players can quickly hear
what you are doing, and join in with you!!
Even the intermediate level players need to have some basic knowledge about
this subject. It will make many situations easier to understand, and many chord
progressions easier to deal with... So far, the main substitutions I've introduc
ed
were in regard to alternate methods of dealing with the minor II/V7+9/I, but I'l
l
now begin introducing more substitution possibilities as the opportunities arise
.
This'll all probably seem pretty mysterious when you first hear of it, but as we
go along, I will introduce more and more substitutions a little at a time... It
will
all become clearer... Do not get scared at this point and run screaming into the
night! I won't give you more than you can handle. This is the point at which one
crosses the bridge from intermediate level to advanced. Most of the new theory
you'll learn from here on, will have to do with substitutions and other strategi
es
for handling the changes. Some have already reached their goals, of being able
to play basic blues, ballads and standards. They'll have their 35 song repetoir
in
about three or four more lessons, when we finish Volume 54!!! They'll also have
the very broad foundation I promised them from the beginning. Those who plan
to go onward to the advanced level of the professional calibur jazz musician wil
l
need to buckle down and get ready for the long haul.
You could pause at this level and really master what we've covered and know
that you are a real jazz musician now, or you can continue on for just as long
as you like!! You'll always be able to imagine new horizons, no matter how far
you progress. In fact, the farther you go... the more you'll be able to percieve
how infinate the possibilities really are!

................................*** LESSON NUMBER 122 ***.......................


........

........................."SOME VERY COMMON SUBSTITUTIONS".......................


I'll continue giving out info on advanced substitutions as we move forward.
Now, I think it would be good to introduce a few of the most common ones.
I will present some of the simplest ones first.... These are very basic types
of substitution using the diatonic chords in major keys... Here's a reference
list for comparison purposes. I will use 9th chords in this example. Although
11th and 13th chords may make some substitutions more obvious, they will
also make some aspects of this topic more confusing. I'll be using numbers
from the lower octave to indicate the tones of the scale rather than using 9,
10, 11, 12 and 13.
I chord..............................
II chord.............................
III chord............................
IV chord.............................
V chord..............................
VI chord.............................
VII chord............................

1,
2,
3,
4,
5,
6,
7,

3,
4,
5,
6,
7,
1,
2,

5,
6,
7,
1,
2,
3,
4,

7,
1,
2,
3,
4,
5,
6,

2
3
4
5
6
7
1

Chords that are nearly identical to others have very similar sounds, and are
the most common substitutions. The III chord can be used in place of I. The
IV chord can be used in place of II. The VII chord can be used in place of V.
These would be some of the more obvious possibilities. Here are even more.
The VI chord can substitute for II, IV, or I... The V chord can be replaced by
VII as I said earlier, but it can also be replaced by a III chord or even a II!!
It all depends on the context the chords are used in, and how they sound or
funtion in that particular setting. There are many more possible substitutions
of one diatonic chord for another. Almost any diatonic chord could substitute
for any other, but the examples I've given so far cover about 95% of what a
person would typically encounter.
The basic idea is that the chords containing some tones in common with each
other can generally be substituted for each other... I should point out that the
examples listed above can be used in reverse. In other words a III chord and
a I chord can each substitute for the other. A II chord and IV chord may each
substitute for the other and so forth. These would represent the simplest kinds
of substitution, and also the most common. As a soloist you need to be able to
recognise that chords sometimes sound or function in different ways than you
would think after only viewing them on the page. When this is the case, they'll
need to be handled by the improvisor accordingly. The ear should be the final
judge... In the key of C, for example, an E- chord may sound and act like a C
major chord in certain situations and it would probably sound wrong to use an
E minor/dorian scale in that case.
These substitutions are presented here as simple chord substitutions, the kind
rhythm section players may thrown in here and there. Their real relevance to
the improviser, is that they form the basis by which he can substitute material
over certain chords and progressions. I've told you that II chords can be used
in place of the V chord earlier in this lesson... Similarly, material that can w
ork
with II chords can also work over V chords.... We will see many other types of
substitutions along the way, but several of these are coming up in the next few
lessons, so we needed to discuss some of this information in advance.

.................................*** LESSON NUMBER 123 ***......................


........
...................."VOLUME 54, TRACK 7, SONG FOR MY FATHER"...................
Here is another relatively simple tune for you to play. I've always liked this
one. It has a rock type feel with straight eighths. As you can see, JA tells us
that the G minor/blues and minor/pentatonic scales can be used liberally on
these changes. They could even be used over the entire song, although this
probably wouldn't be the best way to handle it.
I would use these scales over any of the G- chords, along with patterns that
fit with minor chords of course. In the 3rd measure we see an F7 chord. The
first choice for most players here, would be the simple dominant/mixolydian
scale. Let's consider using some "substitution material" over this chord. I will
tell you about a good possibility. It's possible to use minor type material with
a dominant chord in a number of ways. One way is to use a minor type scale
in the same key as this song is written (in G minor). It is also possible to use
a minor/blues or minor/pentatonic built on the chord root (F in this case), but
neither of these two possibilities seems satisfactory, at least not to my ear.
There is another way to use minor type material here on the F7 chord. I told
you in the last lesson that material that works over a II chord can be used on
a V7 chord as well. This F7 chord isn't really functioning as a V7 chord in this
particular case, but this type of "substitution material" still works well here.
Here's how we would approach it. If we pretend that F7 is indeed a V7 chord,
then its corresponding II chord would be C-. In other words C- and F7 would
be like II and V7 in Bb... The II chord would use C minor/dorian, so applying
the substitution here would mean using the C dorian scale over the F7 chord.
You'll probably notice that this scale is essentially the same as the F dom/mix
scale since it has all the same notes... The difference is really in how we thin
k
about it. In this case we would think "C dorian" instead... This is similar to t
he
way we would "think dorian" on II/V7 progressions that function more as I/IV
chord changes in a minor key. This might not seem like much of a substitution
right now, but most people already have a big repetoir of minor type material
in their arsenal than dominant material. So you can use C- material on the F7
chord... Since C is the fifth step of the F scale, jazz players would think of t
his
as "using the dorian scale, starting on the fifth of a dominant chord".
Take time to read all that again, and really get this. I want you to think of th
is
substitution this way too. You can play "minor/dorian type material starting on
the fifth of (unaltered) dominant chords".
So once again... on the F7 chord you'll use some minor/dorian material based
on the fifth of the chord (C). In other words, use "C dorian" over the F7 chord.
The next chord you'll see in the song is Eb7... Applying this same strategy you

will use Bb minor/dorian type material with the Eb7 chord... Most guys find this
to be a very helpful strategy! Give it some time. You may find that you have a
lot more material in the minor modes than in the dominant. Give this a try and
you may love it right away. If not, come back to this some more later on, and
it will probably grow on you.
One more suggestion for this song that JA makes as well, is to use the G minor/
blues or G minor/pentatonic scale over the "break" in bar 6. There is a silence
in
the rhythm section at that point, so even though the chord is technically an A-/
D,
this works very well. Even this would fall under the heading of "substitute lick
s".
We'll deal with this and many other substitution possibilities in the future.
If you will continue to experiment with new techniques and strategies, you will
continue to grow. It's just that simple. Take your time with all of this... It'l
l just
keep getting easier and easier! Just take it all in one small step at a time!!

................................*** LESSON NUMBER 124 ***.......................


........
............................"VOLUME 54, TRACK 8, SATIN DOLL"....................
.....
Satin Doll is a long time standard for jazz musicians. You shouldn't need
much help with this one. Just a few pointers come to mind...
As Jamey Aebersold suggests, it would be a good idea to try using some
repetition in the first six bars. The material you play in bars 1-2 could be
repeated in bars 3-4, verbatim or with variation. This is a very good way
to build a solo in a logical fashion, using repetition and variation! Bars
5 and 6 can be handled this same way. If you used a "one bar II/V7" lick
in measure 5, it would be interesting again to repeat it in measure 6, and
possibly with some variation once again. This helps to eliminate the sense
of randomness the layperson sometimes has when listenning to jazz. This
also draws the listenners in, making them pay attention and feel involved
in the process. They find themselves trying to predict what the soloist will
do next. This process is pleasing and it creates a sense of communication
between the player and the listenner.
You may want to continue this "theme and variations" approach during the
bridge. You can see this being done in the original melody throughout. You
might want to try playing variations of the original melody itself or at least
keep it in mind, quoting it or merely hinting at it from time to time. All this
strategy is effective in creating that sense of communication I mentioned!!
One last suggestion would be to employ the substitution I had you using in
the previous lesson with "Song for My Father". I had you use minor/dorian
material over dominant chords "starting on the fifth". The two measure A7
chord in the bridge is a good candidate for this treatment. You'd play some
E minor/dorian type material over it. (You really have to try this!)
My main advice is to use repetition here, and try to create a lyrical melody
as you play. You are a composer every single time you improvise. Think of

playing the most beautiful melody you possibly can. Take your time, pause,
and try to hear (and play) what "ought to come next".

................................*** LESSON NUMBER 125 ***.......................


........
..............................."VOLUME 54, TRACK 13, DOXY"......................
........
Start by reading Jamey Aebersold's strategy recommendations at the top of
page 29. There he mentions that the one single C minor/blues scale may be
used throughout the entire song... but that it would be best to mix this scale
in with others that outline the specific harmonies to add variety. This is very
solid advice.
Several things worth mentioning come to mind in no particular order. First I
want to remind people that when you hear someone refer to a "blues scale"
they are talking about the "minor/blues" scale. That is usually the very first
one people learn, and many are not even aware of the "major/blues" scale.
I just wanted to make sure that was clear for anyone that might have some
confusion about this. Someone asked me about that recently.
Here's something interesting for you all to notice. Every single chord in this
entire song is a dominant seventh chord. This probably won't sit well with a
few of our classical playing/studying cousins. Every chord is dominant!!!
This is yet another song in a "dominant key". Sometimes jazz composers do
not even bother with key signatures. This kind of convention is often limiting.
Sometimes their songs aren't really in any particular key at all, even though
they are definitely not atonal!! They just move so freely from one key center
to another that it is not appropriate to try to categorize them as being in just
one certain key!
This would not be acceptable in a college classical music theory class. If you
have learned theory the traditional way, you'll know exactly what I mean. If
you've learned modern music theory from someone like me, you won't have
any idea why a form of music could be considered unacceptable... Most guys
learn theory in college where an antique version is often taught. It's all about
the rules and regulations the old classical composers followed for writing and
arranging music. Many of you have studied how Bach arranged his "four part
chorals" for years under the heading of "music theory"... and not gotten a bit
of useful modern theory in the process, or almost none. Many guys just need
to abandon much of what they learned in college... and start at the beginning
with modern music theory if they want to play jazz improv! (I'm not kidding.)
Time for another substitution. Remember how I told you that any or all of the
chords in a turnaround progression could be dominant? Well, that goes for the
II/V7/I progression as well. Look at the chords in measures 3-4. This is really
a II/V7/I in C major (or C dominant). If you play a 'one bar II/V7/I' lick there
it will work perfectly. The only thing to be careful of, is to lower the seventh
in
the C7 chord. Try this out at that point. In bars 7-10 you can handle this again

using some "two bar II/V7/I" material from your notebook... Once more you'll
lower the seventh over the C7 chord.
The Bb7 chord can be handled as what I refer to as a "passing chord" , or you
can choose to bring out its sound by outlining it to some extent. Sax players'll
have an easier time with this approach because their flexibility is much easier.
They think nothing of running up and down arpeggios while trumpeters usually
play in a more horizontal fashion. Playing smoother lines lays well on trumpet.
One more chord to take notice of. The F# fully diminished chord in measure 12
would be the first fully diminished chord we've seen so far. The scale most ofte
n
used by improvisers with this chord is the WH diminished scale. Learn this scale
in F# now and do use it there. Also take some time to explore this scale without
any CD background playing. Experiment a lot with this scale! We're about to go
onward to advanced techniques and strategy now, so now's the time to be very
open to new scale/sounds if you plan on continuing down this path with me!
There's just one more thing I wanted to mention. In an earlier lesson, I told yo
u
that substitute chords and progressions could "work both ways"... In other words
,
I said they can each substitute for each of the others. That was true for all of
the
substitutions we'd covered up to that point... I'll also present a few more poss
ible
substitutions in future lessons that DO NOT "work both ways". I just got an emai
l
recently asking about that, so I just wanted to clarify. Now, I'll leave you to
your
own devices, and BTW... This concludes Volume 54!

...............................*** LESSON NUMBER 126 ***........................


........
................."TWO MORE REALLY GREAT WAYS TO PRACTICE"..................
Here are two more excellent ways to practice that'll greatly benefit your
jazz improv skills. These two strategies will help put things together in a
way that simply playing along with improv tracks and practicing patterns
won't accomplish as efficiently. These techniques are good for putting all
the pieces of the puzzle together for you, and should be added to the list
of things you practice on a regular basis.
(1) PLAYING SONGS IN ALL 12 KEYS. Here's what you do... Start out with
a fairly simple song at first that you really love, and that has a number of
very jazz-like melodic fragments in it that could be used well as jazz licks.
A great choice for this would be a 12 bar blues head that you really like...
If you have composed a 'practice solo' using licks from those transcription
books as I recommended, this would be a very good head to use as well.
Just make your first song a short and fairly simple one that you really like.
First learn it in it's original key, being aware of which steps of the scale are

being used. This will be extremely valuable to you and it will help you to be
able to transpose your song into each of the other keys. Continue until you
have learned the song in each of the 12 keys. You'll learn many patterns in
every key this way... with each one being used in an appropriate harmonic
setting. This project might take a week or more your first time, but if you'll
keep learning songs this way, you will eventually get to the point where it's
possible to play almost any song you know in any key on your first try! It'll
take time, of course, but this is one of the single best things you could ever
practice! Some people who reject all the theory and scales use this and the
next strategy as their entire system for playing exclusively "by ear"... Even
if you have the talent of a Chet Baker or a Bix Beiderbeck I wouldn't advise
turning your back on theory altogether... However, these two strategies can
really develop your ear like no others, and they are two of the best practice
techniques one could ever use to improve their skills with improvisation.
(2) PLAYING FOR EXTENDED PERIODS IN JUST ONE KEY. Here is how you
approach this one... Pick one key for the day, and start playing all kinds of
material just in that one key. You could play a variety of heads or "practice
solos" all in this one key. You could also just improvise freely in that key or
play all kinds of licks, again just in that one key... The idea is that by doing
this you will break through barriers you wouldn't have otherwise. You begin
playing in the less familiar keys (with many sharps or flats) in a much more
"fluent" manner. Gradually, you should play in the most difficult keys until it
becomes quite easy. There's really no such thing as "hard keys". Some are
just "less familiar" than others.
As I said earlier, these two practice strategies will help to put all the puzzle
pieces together for you. Everything really begins to click when you practice
these two ways. Spending even one day with either of these approaches is
enough to make a big impression on you. Their benefits are that dramatic!!
Some of the licks you find in those heads (with the first method above) will
be good enough to enter into your notebook along with patterns from many
other sources... You have only been formally asked to learn just a few licks
in every key so far. Be brave now, and start learning a lot more. Pick ones
you really love, and use them in practice anytime you can!!! Being creative
must sometimes take a back seat to simply cramming vocabulary into your
head. We do not solo every time we pick up the horn... Most of the time we
just practice, and this is where we learn. Later we'll perform!

...............................*** LESSON NUMBER 127 ***........................


........
......................"YET ANOTHER GREAT PRACTICE METHOD"......................
The previous lesson introduced two practice methods that yield some amazing
results. These methods are so strong that many players who approach improv
strickly "by ear" use them as their only real practice routines!! Here is anothe
r
practice strategy along these lines. This tip and the ones in the previous lesso
n
are priceless!

All three techniques will develop your ear in ways that may astound you. I will
never tell anyone to abandon theory... We should learn everything we possibly
can about theory, then practice all the appropriate materials to the point where
they come flowing out of us in a way that requires almost no conscious effort. I
promise you, this really IS possible. You've heard it done thousands of times!
"IMPROVISING ON TUNES STRICTLY BY EAR". This sounds like a strategy that's
too obvious to even mention, right? Yet it is often completely overlooked by too
many players. People get so immersed in stringing a bunch of material together
into contrived solos, that they forget what all of this is really about.
Jazz improv is supposed to be about spontaneously composing, and performing,
beautiful melodies on the spot. A computer could string a bunch of licks togethe
r
with no regard for beauty or communication with the audience. I'm sure it would
be a very simple matter to program a computer to do just that. I hate to say it.
..
but there are a lot of players out there who sound exactly like that.
Here is how to practice this: First, turn off the stereo and put away the play-a
long
CD sets. Second, just sit down and get ready to reach deep inside yourself. Thir
d,
begin playing the first phrase of any simple song that you know very well... You
'll
go very slowly, and pause a long time after this phrase. Wait as long as you nee
d
to allow your mind to form a musical idea that would logically and musically fol
low
this phrase, and then PLAY THAT IDEA, no matter how long it takes!! Do not try t
o
keep a beat. Tempos and rhythm have no purpose here and would just complicate
the process. Simply wait until an idea comes to mind... If no ideas come, then y
ou
just play that first phrase again and wait some more!! Concentrate only on sound
s
inside of your head. Have no concern whatsoever for theory and licks. It might b
e
best to choose a simple song for which you DO NOT know the chord changes. This
process might take a little time at first... but it'll open the door to true spo
ntaneous
creativity and it'll open the door to the musical ideas that are already inside
of you.
I think of this as the "real you"!! Now you're accessing the material you would
play
(or sing) with no theoretical constraints whatsoever.
After you play a phrase and follow it with original material, go to the next and
do it
all again and again... You might embellish some phrases with some extra notes, o
r
perhaps simply replace some notes with a few of your own. Keep using the melody
as your one and only roadmap, instead of the usual page full of chord symbols. G
o
one little phrase at a time, and just wait as long as you have to for ideas to c
ome!!
Keep at this until you can play the entire song with many embellishments, and th

en
continue in the same fashion until only the barest remnants of the melody remain
.
The first song I ever did this with was "Misty". I just kept at this for many da
ys until
I could play endless choruses with very little effort. The benefits to my playin
g were
staggering. The next song I did this with was "Over the Rainbow". I know now tha
t I
could hardly have picked two better songs for this purpose than these. The beaut
iful
melodies and the variations you learn using this approach will stay with you for
ever!
This is a great technique! I can't stress this one enough!!! If you hear an idea
in your
mind there is almost no way it can sound wrong. You will get better and better a
t this
and the ideas will come faster and faster all the time. The key is to go extreme
ly slow
and wait patiently for ideas to come ONE SINGLE PHRASE AT A TIME! This will grea
tly
benefit all your playing, as well as being a wonderful tool to work on individua
l songs.
Keep returning to the songs you've done this with and add a little more each tim
e.
Feel free to add the best material that comes out of you into your notebook, and
learn
it in other keys later on as well. Play the very best songs, with their embellis
hments in
all 12 keys as suggested in the previous lesson too! What could be better than l
earning
how to play the material that is already inside of you?! It's a part of you righ
t now, and
it wants to come out!! Being able to "play what you hear" is absolutely one of t
he most
satisfying and rewarding experiences a player can have!
All your original ideas, and the other material you learn along the way, mix tog
ether in
your mind. All this material becomes more and more familiar, until you'll eventu
ally be
able to play it all with very little effort!! Theory and licks are important...
but, you need
to concentrate on the process of "putting it all together" as well. You should d
evelop all
the skills in every area we've discussed, one at a time. Eventually it will all
become one
single activity in your mind... It all comes together piece by piece, and eventu
ally you'll
be doing things you never dreamed possible!! Just keep taking one step at a time
!!

................................*** LESSON NUMBER 128 ***.......................

........
......."PATTERNS ALREADY INSIDE OF YOU, SING AND TRANSCRIBE"........
I often find licks in jazz heads good enough to go into my notebook, but I
think the very best licks are the ones that I find myself singing along with
music without any regard for chords and theory at all. I've introduced this
idea to you several times now. A great way to get in touch with these licks
is to sing along with play-along tracks and record yourself. Later, you'll go
back and transcribe the best licks and put them in your notebook. It won't
matter if you're the greatest singer, or the worst... When you go back and
listen to yourself singing... you'll know what ideas you were going for, and
you'll be able to figure them out. Volumes 16, 21, and 26 are all especially
good for this purpose. They are all "workout" collections containning all the
common progressions (not songs), so they will be very valuable for this. I
would recommend getting all three if you plan to continue moving forward
in your improv studies. Consider these threee volumes to be essentials!
Another great way to get the licks inside of you to come out, is to just sing
and record yourself without play-along tracks... Sing songs just exactly the
same way as you played them in Lesson 127. Just pick a song you like and
sing it one phrase at a time, with embellishments... You'll follow exactly the
same type of procedure as when you played your horn this way... only this
time you'll do it with your voice. This should actually be easier for you than
with your instrument, because you won't even have to figure out any notes
until later when you do the transcribing.
Another good approach to this concept is to sing along with jazz soloists on
recordings. Each time you find another "killer lick" just stop there and work
on it until you have it figured out, then into the notebook it goes. There are
many ways to get your own ideas out into the open but the main thing is to
just do it!! Whatever works for you, whatever inspires and motivates you is
exactly what you should use. The best licks you can learn are the ones you
already hear inside your own head! Learn how to play WHAT YOU HEAR!!
This may be the last time I touch on this topic, but I would say it's probably
the single most valuable piece of advice I could give you. Keep returning to
this many times. Get the licks inside of you out into the open!! Record them
into your notebook. The farther you progress, the better your ideas will be!!

................................*** LESSON NUMBER 129 ***.......................


........
..............."PATTERNS FOR JAZZ, JERRY COKER AND FRIENDS"................
We've covered 17 chapters or sections of this book in earlier lessons. It's
been my experience, that when I've bought books containing patterns for
improv, that only about 5-10% of the patterns appealed to me!! I assume
that the other patterns must appeal to someone else or they would not be
there. If I find 5% of the licks to be good for me, I'm happy with that, and
I put them into my notebook. Even then, the number I eventually learn in
all 12 keys is considerably less than that.
Many of the patterns in the Jerry Coker "Patterns for Jazz" book are quite
rudimentary, and that is just fine. The first patterns in each the categories

in your notebook should be simple. They should simply outline the chords
and scales used in a very basic manner... I refer to them as "preliminary"
licks, as they are meant to prepare you for learning useable patterns that
are much more melodic in nature... I want to plow through the rest of this
book now, explain some more basic theory, and recommend licks to enter
into your notebook. I never tell students what licks they must learn, but at
this stage it's still quite helpful to continue to recommend licks, to help you
get each of the categories in your notebook started with valuable patterns.
You'd be well advised to enter all of the patterns I've recommended in your
notebook from previous lessons. If you haven't done this, go back now and
take care of that. There haven't been all that many, so it wouldn't take very
long at all. Here are some lessons listing some very good patterns...
Coker's Patterns.......... Lessons 46, 47, 48, 80, 82, 83
Jamey's Patterns.......... Lessons 21, 42, 89, 90, 91, 92
Of course I strongly recommend getting licks from your own inner mind as
in the previous lesson, and in other ways with and without using your horn.
Don't kid yourself about a patterns notebook, you have to have a collection
of basic vocabulary!! Do not rationalize skipping over it. This material must
be recorded and practiced. It won't do you any good just reading this!! Get
your own notebook up to speed now, and in the next lessons we'll move on
through Jerry Coker's "Patterns for Jazz".

................................*** LESSON NUMBER 130 ***.......................


.........
......................"ALTERED DOMINANT CHORDS REVISITED".......................
We'll cover more ground in the Jerry Coker patterns book as promised, but
first we need to discuss a little more theory so you'll understand what will be
presented there.
This discussion will start with the augmented triad. When a composer wants
a pure augmented triad (1, 3, +5) played by a rhythm section... he will write
the word "triad" in as part of the chord symbol. Otherwise the rhythm section
players will almost always add the -7 to the chord, making it 1, 3, +5, -7. We
should notice that this common addition places this chord into the "dominant"
family of chords. It then goes by several names, the most common of which
are the "augmented-dominant" and "dominant-augmented". There are a few
other possible names we could call this chord, but these are most common.
Jamey Aebersold usually suggests the "diminished-whole tone" scale for use
with any altered dominant type chord. It will work with any of them, but most
jazz players often use other choices as well. The most common choice for the
dominant-augmented is the whole tone scale. It has a unique sound, different
from all other scales, and it's a wonderful addition to your palette of colors.
By comparing it's formula with the dominant-augmented chord's formula, you
would see that the combination fits very nicely. This scale captures the sound
of the chord without any extra notes.... There is no -9 or +9 in the whole tone
scale, but there are both the +5 and the +4... The +4 helps give this scale it's
special sound, and does not conflict in any way with the chord tones... So, this

whole tone scale is a really good choice for dominant chords with a raised 5th.
The whole tone scale IS NOT a good choice for dominant chords with a +9 or
-9. Comparing formulas will make this clear as the 2nd step of the whole tone
scale would clash with any raised or lowered 9th in the chord... BTW, the very
common +11 (or#11) is actually the same note as the +4 (or#4), so there is
no conflict there either. The +4 is a very beneficial tone, as I'll explain late
r.
In the next lesson We'll cover the next section in the Coker patters book which
deals with the whole tone scale. One more thing I would like to point out is how
easy it will be to learn 12 whole tone scales... Notice the two whole tone scale
s
I've listed below:
C whole tone...............C, D, E, F#, G#, A#, C.
Db whole tone...............Db, Eb, F, G, A, B, Db.
Notice that the notes in the C whole tone scale also form the notes for the D,
E, F#, G# and A# whole tone scales (kind of like modes ). Similarly the notes
of the Db whole tone scale also form the notes for the Eb, F, G, A and B whole
tone scales as well... In other words, once you've learned the C and Db whole
tone scales, you'll already be able to play all 12!! If you didn't quite catch t
hat
read and study this again and you'll see that these would be the easiest twelve
scales you'll ever learn! You could learn all 12 in about one minute. Go ahead,
give it a try and see if I fibbed. Just learn those two and you'll have all twel
ve!
I'll be right back with Jerry Coker licks using whole tone scales, and then late
r
we'll learn about the two kinds of diminished scales and how to use them with
both fully diminished chords and more alterered dominant chords that contain
the +9 and/or the -9... Everything from here on should be thought of as being
"advanced material". Very few improvisers ever get this far, but this is exactly
where you need to be if you want to keep on growing for a long time!
Playing and mastering it all is another matter. You MUST keep reviewing the
old lessons until they are thoroughly understood, then you MUST practice the
materials until they are mastered too. This does take some work, but it's fun
and satisfying, and once it's done... you get to keep all the gains for the rest
of your life!!

.................................*** LESSON NUMBER 131 ***......................


........
...................."JERRY COKER WHOLE TONE SCALE PATTERNS".................
Shortest lesson yet... Jerry's section on the whole tone scale, augmented, and
dominant augmented chords, is from page 101 to 107 in the book. Read it and
study it. One misprint... The B in figure 29 on page 102 should be B#. The best
patterns are #149 and #151... just to learn the chords... #153 just to learn the

scales... and #156 and #157 are good useable jazz patterns. This scale should
be an easy one to create a few patterns of your own... Put all the patterns that
I suggested into your notebook (plus a few of your own). They'll all go into the
altered dominant section.
Remember that this scale is not suitable for dominant chord containing altered
9ths (+ or -), nor do they work with altered dominant chords without the raised
5th step. An unacceptable clash would exist between the 5ths. There will never
be a clash with the +4 though. It is not a chord tone, so it always sounds right
.
There is one exception. Don't use the whole tone scale over a chord containing
the "sus 4". That chord replaces the 3rd step with the unaltered 4th step... so
it
won't fit with the whole tone scale with it's +4 (#4th step). I probably should'
ve
mentioned this exception in the lesson above.

...............................*** LESSON NUMBER 132 ***........................


........
.............."DIMINISHED SCALES, CHORDS, AND JERRY COKER"...............
We'll start with a discussion of "the diminished scale". As you already know,
there are actually two kinds of diminished scales. They're both composed of
alternating whole steps and half steps... The first one we'll study begins with
a whole step. I call it a "whole-half" diminished scale, and I often abbreviate
it as a "WH". When jazzers simply refer to "the diminished scale", that is the
one they are refering to, not the one that begins with a half step!! I describe
them in detail all the time just to be certain not to create any confusion.
The other diminished scale starts with a half step, and I call it a "half-whole"
diminished scale, and I abbreviate it as a "HW"... So basically, there are two,
the "WH" and the "HW"... If it is not stipulated, then you can assume that the
"WH" is the one being discussed. I'll make this terminology as clear as I can
because you'll see variations so often.
The primary use of the WH diminished scale is with the diminished triad and
the fully-diminished seventh chord. It's also acceptable with half-diminished
chords, although the locrian mode is better suited for "half dim chords". You
should go ahead and study the WH diminished scale now on pages 108-115
in the Coker patterns book until you have it down pat.
One interesting thing you'll find is that it will be very easy to learn all 12 o
f
these scales, because once you learn this scale on the three starting notes
C, then C# and D, you'll already have all twelve... It works very much like
learning the whole tone scales. Once you've learned just three, you'll have
all twelve. Study those pages in the Coker book and it'll all become clear.
I recommend pattern #161 to learn the chords... #164 is obviously just the
WH dim scale up and down. #165 reminds us how nicely the chromatic scale
fits on top of the fully diminished seventh chord... My favorite practical licks

are #162, #166, and #167. As with the whole tone scales, it should be fairly
easy for you to compose a few licks of your own using this scale as well.
Start singing and playing this odd scale until you begin to get used to it's odd
sound. Come back to it regularly and you will like it more and more. As you'll
read in the book... this scale and chord do not really belong to any key at all.
It can resolve to any chord at all, but the best resolutions are usually upward
by a half step. The C WH dim scale seems to resolve best to Eb, Gb, A and C.
Because of the "keyless" nature of this scale, I record it's patterns in with th
e
"outside patterns" section of my patterns notebook. They're actually some of
the most useful scales for "outside" playing... so this section of your notebook
will make a good home for them. Just mark them as "WH diminished" licks as
a reminder that they can be used "inside" over the fully diminished chords, as
well as being useful "outside" material over almost any type of chord at all.
Patterns built from the whole tone scales, and the chromatic scales, can both
be used very well as "outside material" too. Experiment with these from time
to time and you'll see what I mean... They pretty much work with any type of
chord at all, and can resolve to any type of chord as well. This is a very good
introduction to "outside playing"!
Well, there you have the diminished triads, the full diminished seventh chords,
the WH diminished scale, along with some great ways to use it. Once you learn
just three, you'll have all twelve... and you have a great start at "outside" ty
pe
playing as well.
So you're studying advanced material now. I hope nobody thinks they'll learn
to do these things just by reading about them. Don't kid yourself. Practice the
material you should be mastering at your present level, review it many times,
then enjoy the fruits of your labor. It just takes time. There is no other way.

..............................*** LESSON NUMBER 133 ***.........................


......
"MORE ALTERED DOMINANT CHORDS, AND THE HW DIMINISHED SCALE"
Now we will discuss the other diminished scale, the "half-whole" diminished
scale. It's primary use is with the altered dominant chords, especially those
containing the -9 and/or +9, and possibly even the +11.
If you analyze the HW diminished scale you will see that it contains all of the
notes of the usual dominant 7th chord plus most of the alterations mentioned
above. That would be 1, 3, 5, -7 plus -9, +9 and +11 (and 6)... It is similar to
Aebersold's diminished-whole tone scale since it has so many of the dominant
7th chord's typical altered tones. It is very useful as well, working with almos
t
any altered (or even unaltered) dominant chord at all... but it works especially
well with dominant chords containing an altered 9th... and it works the least
well with dominant chords containing the +5.

I'd say this is a general guideline: If a dominant chord has just an altered 5th
step then the whole tone scale is your primary choice. If a dominant chord has
just an altered 9th step (and possibly a +11) then the HW diminished scale will
be your primary choice. If a dominant chord has a -9 and/or +9, as well as the
+5 (and possibly a +11) then JA's "diminished-whole tone scale" would be your
primary choice. Notice that Jamey's diminished-whole tone scale combines the
HW diminished scale (with both the -9 and +9) and the whole tone scale (with
both the +5 and +11).
The dominant chord has a strong characteristic "unresolved sound". Therefore
it can withstand the most alterations... It can withstand many alterations being
used by a soloist, even when they are not being played by the rhythm section.
Please keep in mind that we're discussing dominant chords that resolve in the
"regular" way, up a fourth as a V7-I chord progression.
The scales we discussed can work with any of the regularly resolving dominant
chords pretty well. Some capture the sound of certain altered dominant chords
better than others (as I just listed them above). In the end, though, you should
let your ear be the final judge. There's no rule that you must use any particula
r
scale in any given situation. As we discussed in the last lesson, sometimes jazz
players depart from the key entirely and play "outside"... If you hear it in you
r
head, and it sounds right, THEN IT IS RIGHT!
In this section of the Coker patterns book, pages 130 to 134, licks are presente
d
using the HW diminished scale... the chromatic scale... and even the "whole-half
"
diminished scale as well because of their similarities. This time I'll simply le
t you
pick your own favorites without any help. You are studying advanced jazz theory
now, and you must choose what to keep and what to discard for yourself. Return
to this material repeatedly as it'll take time to grow on you. It might be helpf
ul to
review some of the licks in the "minor II-V7+9-I" sections of your notebook that
use these scales to help you get used to their sounds and hear how they resolve.
I do hope you'll take the time to experiment with these new scale sounds.

...............................*** LESSON NUMBER 134 ***........................


.......
..............." A BIG DOMINANT CHORDS AND SCALES REVIEW".................
I have probably touched on dominant chords and their respective scales
in a dozen lessons so far. There is just so much that can be done with all
the various types of dominant chords. Now I would like to try to give you
an overview of all this dominant material.

First of all a glimpse at "the big picture" if you will.... There are two basic
categories of dominant chords, altered and unaltered. The unaltered type
will have formulas without alterations... such as 1, 3, 5, -7, 9, 11, and 13.
Then there are the altered dominant chords, that may contain tones such
as -5, +5, -9, +9, +11 (or possibly other altered tones as well).
Secondly, there are two ways dominant type chords can resolve. Regular
resolution refers to dominant chords resolving in the usual way... up by a
perfect fourth (same as down by a perfect fifth). This is how you'd expect
a dominant V7 chord to resolve to a tonic I chord. This works the same in
both major and minor keys. "Irregular resolution" refers to situations with
dominant chords progressing to any other destination than up by a fourth.
These four factors are the most important in determining which of the many
possible scales would be the most appropriate choices in any given scenario.
Here are a few general rules, then we'll get more specific later.
Dominant chords usually function as V7 chords in a given key, and as such
they have a very "unresolved" feeling and a strong need to progress in the
"regular" way to a I chord... Dominant chords often have a few extra notes
added (often altered tones) to enhance this tension. Altered tones make the
harmony more complex, imparting added depth and beauty to the sound.
If a dominant chord resolves in the regular way it'll often have altered tones
added to it for this reason. Scales containing those specific altered tones will
obviously "fit" the best and "sound" the best with those particular chords!! If
a dominant chord progresses in an "irregular" fashion, then it's less likely to
contain altered tones (though many do, especially the #9). Scales containing
several altered tones should not generally be used in this situation... Altered
tones must be handled very carefully.
The reason for this is that altered tones in a dominant chord make listenners
expect a regular resolution because of all the added tension. If an irregularly
resolving dominant chord is over-embellished with altered tones it can sound
wrong when the chord fails to resolve up a fourth as expected. Soloists must
be careful about how they handle altered tones because of this.
That's enough to absorb for now. Read this as many times as you need. The
altered dominant chords usually resolve up a 4th, and the best scales to use
over them contain the same alterations that appear in the chord. "Irregularly
resolving dominant chords" should generally not be embellished with altered
tones by the rhythm section players nor the soloist... because listenners then
expect a "regular" resolution, and what you played winds up sounding wrong.
Any dominant chord that resolves up a fourth (in the "regular" way) could be
soloed over using scales that contain embellishing altered tones... even when
the chord in question contains no altered tones at all. Take your time with all
this... It'll definitely sink in!
I'll be back with a fairly detailed list of scales for each situation, but if yo
u get
ahold of these general rules right now you'll be most of the way there already.

................................*** LESSON NUMBER 135 ***.......................


.........

..."SCALES PRIMARILY FOR USE WITH UNALTERED DOMINANT CHORDS"...


1. MIXOLYDIAN....................... The mixolydian mode is typically the first
scale improvisors learn to use with dominant seventh chords. It's suitable
for use with unaltered dominant type chords only, with either a regular or
irregular resolution.
2. LYDIAN DOMINANT............... This refers to the same scale as above,
but has the raised fouth step (+4 or #4). It's used exactly the same way
as the mixolydian scale, but is also suitable for use with dominant chords
containing the +11 as their only altered tone as well ( +11 = +4 ).
3. DOMINANT BEBOP................ ( 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, -7, 7, 8 ) This scale will
be used in the same manner as mixolydian also. The "natural 7th step" is
treated as a passing tone and is not emphasized (it is "passed" through).
4. MAJOR PENTATONIC............... ( 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 8 ) This scale is also used
in the same way as the first mixolydian scale listed above. It has no -7 but
it's still a very good scale choice.
5. MAJOR BLUES..................... ( 1, 2, +2, 3, 5, 6, 8 ) Also used the same
way as mixolydian, but the +2 is again used as a "passing tone". This one
has a unique and very useful sound for many styles.
6. DOMINANT BLUES................ ( 1, 2, +2, 3, 5, 6, -7, 8 ) Used the same
as the "MAJOR BLUES" listed just above, but it also contains the -7th step.
7. MINOR PENTATONIC............ ( 1, -3, 4, 5, -7, 8 ) Although the -3 might
appear not to fit with the unaltered dominant chord... it has a sound that's
quite acceptable here, and it works in the same way as each of the others
I've grouped together in this lesson, and also with those altered dominant
chords containing the +9 (same as -3).
8. MINOR BLUES SCALE............. ( 1, -3, 4, +4, 5, -7, 8 ) Like the scale just
above, the minor blues scale works best with the unaltered dominant chords
with either a regular or irregular resolution, but is also suitable for dominant
chords with the +9 and/or the +11 (the same tones as -3 and +4).
Think about how we used the last two scales on all those 12 bar blues tracks.
We should be careful not to overuse them, and not use them in styles where
they simply sound out of place... but the last two scales work in basically the
same manner as all the others I've grouped together in this lesson. Also, the
last five scales are most often used with dominant chords that are sustained
for a couple of measures or more, but the ear should be the final judge. If it
sounds right, it IS right! None of these are "rules" that are chiseled in stone!
!
They're all suggestions that a very reliable, most of the time.
I'll leave you for now with this group of scales. They are all primarily used
with unaltered dominant chords... though the last two scales can also work
with a few altered dominant chords as well. These all have the ability to be
used well with both the regularly and irregularly resolving versions. I have
grouped them together because of these similarities. In the next lesson I'll
present a group of scales designed primarily for use with altered dominant
chords (that resolve in the regular way, up a fourth)... These scales will be
the more "exotic" ones that contain the various altered tones. I will present
each one with the chords they're best suited for.

................................*** LESSON NUMBER 136 ***.......................


.......
...."SCALES PRIMARILY FOR USE WITH ALTERED DOMINANT CHORDS"....
When a dominant chord contains altered tones, the general rule is that the
scale an improvisor uses over it should contain those same altered tones.
The scale may have even more altered tones than the chord, but it should
at least contain the same altered tones as the chord it is being used with.
Another general rule of thumb is that unaltered dominant chords can also
be improvised over using these various scales containg altered tones, as
long as the dominant chord resolves in the "regular" way (up by a fourth).
Now here are some more scales.
1. HALF/WHOLE DIMINISHED.................. This is the most commonly used
scale for altered dominant chords. It has the intervals H/W/H/W/H/W/H/W.
It is often refered to as having a kind of "keyless sound", although it has a
very strong need to resolve. It contains the tones 1, -2, +2, 3, +4, 5, 6, -7
and 8. It fits best with Dom 7 chords with a -9 and/or +9 (especially the -9)
and perhaps a +11... A dominant chord to avoid using this scale with is one
that contains the +5, since a fairly unacceptable clash would occur between
the natural (or unaltered) fifth step, and the raised fifth step (+5).
2. WHOLE TONE SCALE................ This is another very popular scale that is
often used with altered dominant chords. It is primarily used over dominant
chords containing the +5, and possibly the +4 (same as +11) as well. It will
generally not work well over dominant chords containing an altered 9th step
as the natural 9th step that is in the scale (same as 2) would again create a
clash with either a +9 or a -9 that is unacceptable to the ear.
3. DIMINISHED-WHOLE TONE......... This is a scale that can be used quit well
over almost any regularly resolving altered dominant chord at all. It contains
all the common altered tones, -9, +9, +4, and +5. It works best with altered
dominant chords containing at least the +9 along with one or more additional
altered tones as well. Again, the ear is the final judge of when to use each of
these particular scales... I usually find that the notes contained in the origin
al
melody will help point to the way. If the melody contains certain tones at any
given point, these tones will always work during improvisation whether or not
they're found in the chords!! This should be pretty obvious, but many players
don't seem to take this into consideration... I almost always have the melody
in mind to some extent when I solo. This is a very helpful strategy.
The next two scales are fairly uncommon, and not in my personal bag... but
are included here since they're found in JA's scale syllabus. Some people will
surely love them, and I probably would too if I'd spent more time with them.
4. SPANISH/JEWISH SCALE............ This one is for use with a Dom 7-9 chord,
(maybe containing the -6 as well) and has the formula 1, -2, 3, 4, 5, -6, -7, 8.
5. THE HINDU SCALE...................... This one is for use with a Dom 7-6 chor
d,
(with no other alterations at all) and has the formula 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, -6, -7, 8.

There are more scales than these. I sometimes invent a scale for use with an
unusual chord from time to time. I'll take a typical scale, then simply alter it
to
contain any of the unusual chord tones. Sometimes I ignore theory completely
and use a group of tones that simply "sounds right". Other times I may simply
use a section of the original melody and embellish it a bit. All jazz soloists w
ill
employ these strategies at times. If it sounds right... IT IS RIGHT!!
There are more scales, and there are more strategies as well. One way to play
over altered dominant chords is to borrow material that is most commonly used
with minor II-V7 progressions!! "Tritone substitution" is another common device
that we'll explore in the future along with other similar substitute material.
As I write these lessons I'll assume that all who keep following are fully able
to
understand everything that has come before, but everyone should still feel free
to post questions about any area of improvisation they may be studying at their
current level. I would also strongly suggest that any advanced players who have
been waiting for me to catch up to their present level should go back and review
my earlier lessons to make sure they really have everything up to this point.

..................................*** LESSON NUMBER 137***......................


............
"COKER'S PATTERNS, PARALLEL PROGRESSIONS, DOWNSTEP MODULATION"
I returned to covering sections from the Jerry Coker book, Patterns for Jazz,
recently in Lessons 131-133. I promised to return to this after a few lessons
about the dominant chords and their respective scales (Lessons 134-136), so
now it's time for more material from Jerry.
We'll start on page 115. The table of contents refers to this section as "Parall
el
Progressions", while the heading on the page is "Downstep Modulation". Those
first five lines present the typical III-VI-II-V turnaround progression along wi
th
another typical turnaround, the III-bIII-II-bII progression. They are refered to
as parallel progressions since they both have the same basic harmonic function
and they can each be used as a substitute for the other. That's all there is her
e
about parallel progressions... just a definition, I suppose.
The rest of this section is about a very common type of chord progression we
often see. One chord will be followed by another, having the same root as the
first, but of a different quality. The most common example would be of a major
type chord follwed by a minor chord, again, built on the same root. The second
chord generally functions as the minor II chord in a II-V7-I progression that is
located one whole-step down, hence the term "downstep modulation".
Lines 6-12 of this section present examples of this. I personally didn't find an

y
of the patterns presented here all that interesting... When we play II-V7-I lick
s
in practice modulating down by whole steps, we'll get the sound of this kind of
progression into our heads. Example: D-, G7, C, then C-, F7, Bb, etc... You can
also make up some lines that outline this type of progression. Another example:
C, D, E, F, G... C, D, Eb, F, G, then play Bb, C, D, Eb, F... Bb, C, Db, Eb, F.
The
first example was of II-V7-I chord progressions decending downward by whole
steps, and the second example was of actual notes to play in order to get used
to the sound of this decending modulation. You should make up more examples
on your own and play them from time to time as exercises.
Well that's it for this lesson. I'll be back again with more and more until we'v
e
covered the rest of this book... I have always liked "Patterns for Jazz" at leas
t
as much for the theory as for the patterns. This is all VERY valuable theory!

...............................*** LESSON NUMBER 138 ***........................


........
..."COKER'S PATTERNS, TURNAROUNDS AND ALTERED NINTH CHORDS"...
The next section primarily deals with turnarounds. You should already be
fairly familiar with turnarounds as we have discussed them before, but we
will review now once again. This discussion will go from page 118 to 120.
Turnarounds (or turnbacks) are chord progressions that substitute for long
tonic chords that usually appear at the end of a song... They overcome the
monotony that often exists from having the tonic chord both in the last bars
of a song and then again at the beginning of each additional chorus... Some
common turnarounds include the I-VI-II-V, and a variation, the III-VI-II-V.
Others include the I-VI-#VI-VII and the I-bIII-II-bII, as well as its variation
III-bIII-II-bII. More are found in Jerry Coker's book 'Improvising Jazz'. The
chord progressions and song forms found in that book's appendices C and D
are worth the price of the book all by themselves. If you don't have either of
these two Jerry Coker books, you really should get them now. www.aebersold.com
This section of "Patterns for Jazz" also addresses adding the altered ninths to
dominant chords on page 119. Again you should be very familiar with this as
well, but do read everything from page 118 to 120 just to make sure. That is
it for this lesson, and I'll be back again soon with more. We'll just continue t
o
work through to the end of this book, and then it's back to Aebersold. Just
read the material in the book a time or two and I'm sure you'll have it.

.................................*** LESSON NUMBER 139 ***......................


........
..........."COKER'S PATTERNS, POLYCHORDS OR BITONAL TRIADS"...........

This lesson covers "polychords or bitonal triads" from page 121 to page 126.
A simple definition of polychords is when two or more chords are used at the
same time. The symbol on the page will look like a fraction in mathematics,
with one chord being stacked on top of the other.
In symphonic music composers choose any chords at all in order to achieve
the desired sound. The chords are also typically seperated by a large interval
so that the individual quality of each chord can be heard.
In the jazz idiom composers will generally choose the top chord so as not to
alter the harmonic function of the bottom chord... This is done in a couple of
ways. The chord on top may be composed of upper extentions of the bottom
chord (9ths, 11ths and 13ths, etc), or it may also be a possible substitute for
the bottom chord. Jazz composers rarely stack more than two chords in this
manner, and jazz rhythm section players do not seperate the chords to hear
their individual qualities. The chords are played together as "one big chord",
and the resulting sound is very rich and colorful.
The top chord is generally a triad, and the bottom chord is usually a seventh
chord... The most common type of chord found on the bottom of a polychord
is a dominant seventh chord. Since 9ths, 11ths and even 13ths can be altered
in so many ways with the dominant chords, often the top chord will be both a
substitute chord and also made of upper extentions at the same time. A good
example is presented in the book using a C7 chord as the foundation... with a
Gb7 chord stacked on top. Study the examples in the book now to see this for
yourself, then read all the printed material as many times as needed in order
to make certain you fully understand this device.
After you feel comfortable with this, play through the patterns listed on pages
122-126. You'll see how two chords can be used by a soloist to produce some
melodic material for use in improvisation. We'll return to this subject soon and
discuss how certain scales can be used over polychords as well.

....................................*** LESSON NUMBER 140 ***...................


................
"COKER'S PATTERNS, MORE ABOUT POLYCHORDS AND APPROPRIATE SCALES"
I will discuss the information presented in the Coker book in the section starti
ng
on page 127 in a moment, but first I need to give you some general guidelines in
choosing scales for use with polychords.
Since the top chord is often made up of upper extentions (9ths, 11ths & 13ths)
of the lower chord it's easy to find scales to fit many of them. If a D minor tr
iad
were stacked on top of a C Major 7th chord, then obviously we could use any of
the major type scales that normally fit with a C Maj chord (except for those tha
t
contain the raised 4th step, since it would clash with the F natural that is pre
sent
in the polychord). If a D Major triad is used as the top chord... then we could
use

any of the major type scales that either have no 4th step or any that would have
a raised 4th step (like lydian) to fit with the F# in the polychord. Simply put,
we'd
use a scale that will fit the bottom chord in the usual way, but it would be alt
ered
slightly to incorporate any unusual notes that exist in the top chord. This way
we
are able to play a scale that is suitable for both chords, and not change the ba
sic
function of the fundamental (bottom) chord. Almost any polychord may be dealt
in this manner. The use of "chordal patterns" that outline the individual chords
as
presented in the previous section is another excellent strategy.
Now let's discuss the concept presented on page 127 to the top of page 130. The
strategy here deals with the use of substitution. We are studying chords that ca
n
be used creating substitute material primarily for use over altered dominant typ
e
chords. A common substitute chord for this situation is located an augmented 4th
(or diminished 5th) away from the dominant chord in question. In classical music
theory it is known as a "Neopolitan chord"... If the dominant chord is the V cho
rd,
then the substitute chord will be built on the bII (lowered 2nd tone of the key)
. It
can be of either a major or dominant quality, and the substitution will work fin
e.
Major triads are used in the examples given in the Coker book in this section. I
t
is also possible to substitute major triads built a minor third above, or below,
the
dominant chord as well... A little study will reveal that we are now building ma
jor
triads at intervals of a minor third repeatedly, thus producing triads built on
each
tone of the fully diminished chord. Please review page 127 to get more details o
n
how this works. These substitute chords are very useful, and any advancing jazz
student should spend some serious time with these. They are much easier to use
than it would appear. Spend some time playing the patterns given in this section
.
Be sure to notice how these four triads combine to form a HW diminished scale.
This is perhaps the most commonly used scale for altered dominant chords and,
of course, regularly resolving unaltered dominant chords as well.... My personal
favorites from this group of patterns are #203, #204 and #205. At this level you
should rely on your own ear to decide which ones might make it into the altered
dominant section of your own patterns notebook. It's completely up to you now.
Since so many polychords are built with a dominant quality you should always
consider the possibility that what is needed is one of the scales you'd normally
use with an altered dominant chord... See if the top chord is made up of upper
extentions in order to determine if a whole-tone, HW diminished, or diminished

whole-tone, or other other similar scale should be used. Often the combination
of the two chords will actually form a dominant 13th chord with alterations.
We've already covered the material in the next section
in Lesson Number 133. The next lesson will cover pages
the "augmented scale", and we will soon be all the way
Jerry Coker's book "Patterns for Jazz". Take your time

(pages 130-134) before


134-138, a discussion of
through the 172 pages of
with this, review as many

times as needed, and don't hesitate to post any questions, or PM me anytime!

................................*** LESSON NUMBER 141 ***.......................


........
................."COKER'S PATTERNS, THE AUGMENTED SCALE".....................
This lesson covers the augmented scale as presented in Coker's Patterns for
Jazz book on pages 134-138. This is another symmetrical scale possesing an
interesting keyless type of sound. It's primary use is with augmented chords.
Jazz players generally turn augmented triads into seventh chords by adding a
lowered seventh, creating a dominant seventh chord with a raised 5th... When
this is done, the whole tone scale (with its raised 5th and lowered 7th) is ofte
n
used for improvisation.
When we improvise over an augmented chord that the composer marks as a
"C+ triad" or C+ Maj7", the whole tone scale is no longer appropriate since it
contains the lowered seventh. The augmented scale is better suited for these
chords. It has the formula 1, +2, 3, 5, +5, 7, 8. As you can see, it's a perfect
match for these particular augmented chords... The intervals in this scale are
m3, 1/2 step, m3, 1/2 step, m3, 1/2 step. These tones can also be thought of
as two augmented chords, with one built on the root and the other built on the
lowered third.
Patterns using this scale often begin on the "seventh" (which is, in this case,
actually the sixth step of the augmented scale). Here is an example for use on
a C+ chord. Played in eighth notes: B, C, D#, E, G, G#, B, C. The fisrt note B,
would be played on beat one. You may want to make up some patterns of your
own. The ones in the book are constructed using the two augmented chords in
the scale. Experiment with this unusual sound and you'll be prepared when the
situation arrises. The next lesson will cover patterns using the fourth interval
,
and a little more about harmonic minor and whole-tone scales.

................................*** LESSON NUMBER 142 ***.......................


........
"COKER'S PATTERNS, FOURTHS, HARMONIC MINOR & WHOLE TONE LICKS"
This lesson will cover the information presented in Coker's patterns book on
pages 139-144. I'm not too sure how these topics got grouped together but

I'll discuss them all in one lesson as well.


The first part of this section starting on page 139 deals with "natural fourth"
patterns. This refers to fourths as they naturally appear in major and minor
scales. Another popular type of fouth patterns are constructed using nothing
but perfect fourth intervals. They are popular in getting a very modern type
of sound, and are often used in "outside playing" and "free form" jazz.
The licks presented here under "Major Scales in Fourths" are all of the former
type, the "natural fourth" patterns. They also deliver a modern sound, and are
a pleasant departure from the usual harmonies we always hear built in thirds.
Natural fourths are also called "general fourths", and these will typically be o
f
a perfect, augmented or diminished quality (as they are found in the scales).
Begining on page 142 are a few patterns that were presented before, but this
time using the harmonic minor scale as the basis. Remember that any pattern
can be adapted for use with any kind of chord... Just because you find a lick in
one particular section or category does not mean that this would be its one and
only possible application. With just a little alteration, most licks may be used
in
almost any situation at all. Patterns #244, #245 and #246 are all interesting to
use with the harmonic minor scale. Try experimenting with other patterns and
other scales as well, and even make up a few licks of your own.
Patterns #247-250 all deal with the whole-tone scale. This type of pattern is ve
ry
nice for getting a modern sound, just like the patterns in fourths. The whole-to
ne
scale is often used over dominant chords with a raised fifth, but they're also v
ery
useful in outside and free form playing as well. You should experiment again wit
h
these and try creating a few yourself. There's not much more to say about these,
so you know what to do. Always feel free to alter patterns to suit your own tast
e.
We are almost all the way through the Coker "Patterns for Jazz" book... There ar
e
only three more sections to cover. I'll be back with more information on the lyd
ian
augmented scale in the next lesson... Keep experimenting with variations of all
the
patterns we've seen in the last few lessons. If you only like 10% or less, don't
feel
bad... I think only 5-10% of all the licks I've seen in patterns collections rea
lly had
much appeal for me personally. That's OK. I only want to play material that I lo
ve.
Only "the best of the best"... FOR ME! I hope you feel the same way too... There
is
just so much beautiful material around... and so much beautiful material inside
our
own heads... We should never settle for anything less than the very best!

...............................*** LESSON NUMBER 143 ***........................


........
............"COKER'S PATTERN'S, THE LYDIAN-AUGMENTED SCALE".............
Along with the "augmented scale" discussed in Lesson 141, another scale that
can be used with augmented triads and major seventh chords with raised 5ths
(such as C+ triad, or C+ Maj7) is the "lydian-augmented scale". Although this
is a perfectly fine usage of the scale... it usually gets more use with dominant
type chords. The formula for building this scale is: 1, 2, 3, +4, +5, 6, 7, 8.
When the lydian-augmented scale is applied to dominant chords it is played with
its starting note on either the third or seventh step of the chord. This section
on
lydian-augmented is covered on pages 145-154 of the Coker patterns book. The
example given on page 145 can be applied to either a D or G# (or Ab) dominant
chord. If played starting on the "seventh" of the D dominant chord, the resultin
g
scale is identical to a "lydian dominant" scale, and it contains the flatted 5th
step
(sometimes refered to as +4 or +11). If played starting on the "third" of the G#
dominant chord, the resulting scale is then identical to a "diminished whole ton
e"
scale, and now contains +5, -9, +9 and +11. Read all this again, and also study
the information on page 145 again, as well as the two examples given there (on
page 146).
This scale and the patterns built from it will take time to start "hearing" in y
our
head. You should just experiment with them for now, coming back occasionally
to review. Just like any other sound, it WILL gradually sink in. The patterns he
lp
to unlock the door to hearing this scale and its resolutions properly. Remember
that its main use is with the dominant chords, and when applied to them starting
on the seventh or third, it will turn into either a lydian dominant or a diminis
hed
whole tone scale. These wind up being like "modes" of lydian-augmented.
Now we are only one lesson away from completing the Coker patterns book. In
the next lesson we'll cover the last two sections on interval studies and the ve
ry
useful chromatic scale... After that we'll do a little review and discuss what I
like
to call "the big picture". Although we learn much theoretical material in a cont
ext
of which scales "fit" with the various kinds of chords, there are more variables
in
selecting scales that must be considered, particularly the "harmonic function" o
f
chords and groups of chords within a key center. This is when we really begin to
see how all the pieces actually fit together in a larger context.

..................................*** LESSON NUMBER 144 ***.....................


..............
..."LAST COKER LESSON, INTERVAL STUDIES AND THE CHROMATIC SCALE"...
The section on interval studies begins on page 155 of the Coker patterns book.
The exercises are presented using intervals as their basis. Most of the patterns
result in various symmetrical scales and chords, such as chromatic, diminished,
whole-tone and augmented scales as well as diminished and augmented chords.
Most of these patterns would probably be best thought of as training exercises.
The first half are more melodic and are a bit more useful as licks... The second
half involve larger intervals, and are probably most useful in ear training.
The last section of the book concerns the chromatic scale. Patterns #313, #314,
#315, #316, #322 and #323 have an appeal to me but they mostly just seem to
inspire me to come up with a few chromatic patterns of my own. This chromatic
material frequently winds up outlining the symmetrical scales and chords just as
the interval studies we just discussed. These patterns will usually have a kind
of
"keyless" sound to them, and are able to be resolved to almost anywhere... This
material is also very useful as a connecting device (refered to as chromaticism)
and it is also very useful as "outside material". There's not much else to say..
.
Well, that's it for the Coker patterns book. I wanted to go ahead and review all
of the remaining material in it, and now this project is complete... Anyone who'
s
not been following these lessons for quite some time could peek in on my recent
posts and get the impression that I see this book as an especially good collecti
on
of useful patterns for jazz trumpeters because of all the attention I have given
to
it lately. People who have been following along know that I value this book much
more as an organized presentation of jazz theory than for its patterns.
Below is a post I made recently on another thread that will give an idea of the
value I see in this book... The folks who are studying this thread as a guide fo
r
use with the Aebersold sets (along with a few other books) already know this.
For others, I wrote the following:
I like that Coker book primarily for the jazz theory. It's not a great
patterns collection for trumpeters... but there are some pretty good
preliminary type patterns. This is the kind of material that gets you
acquainted with the scales and arpeggios in an organized way. Only
about 5% of the licks would likely have a chance of actually making
it into most people's repetoirs, but that's about par for any patterns
collection. Great theory, great rudimentary patterns... but probably
not the greatest source of usable jazz trumpet improv material.
Best sources of patterns are typically transcription books and actual
jazz tunes as PH said. When one has the ability to "hear" licks in his

own mind, he should transcribe those. This is often overlooked. Just


sing, and record, and transcribe the material that comes out of you!
That is the real you... and learning this material will allow you to play
what you're really hearing. These ideas will always come to you over
and over again.
If you don't hear melodic ideas you should probably be listenning to
more jazz each day... The licks start to come bubbling up out of you
all by themselves!! Listen allot, then transcribe the material you sing
without any regard for theory whatsoever. Then you can really learn
how to play WHAT YOU HEAR! To me nothing could possibly be more
satisfying...
I strongly suggest that every serious student of jazz improv keep an ongoing
collection of jazz patterns in some type of notebook. In earlier lessons I have
provided much detail on how to start and organise such a notebook as well as
how to get melodic material from many different sources. I think each player
should determine his own eventual style through the selection of material that
he chooses to incorporate into his own personal "bag" or arsenal. I suggested
a number of licks earlier on to help the student to get started... but have sinc
e
left almost all the selection of material entirely up to the individual. I hope
that
players will pull materials from all kinds of sources... especially from their o
wn
minds as I described above, and then incorporate them into a notebook. I also
hope that they'll learn only what they themselves consider to be the very "best
of the best" for them personally.
OK... You can now put a big "mental check-mark" beside Jerry Coker's Patterns
for Jazz as we have now finished it. You will hopefully take my advice on gettin
g
melodic material from any source you like... and enter it permanently into some
kind of notebook. I'll be back soon to give you some more!

................................*** LESSON NUMBER 145 ***.......................


........
..........................."A LITTLE PEEK AT THE BIG PICTURE"...................
......
In the beginning stages of learning jazz improv we see the task of playing
as mainly about knowing which scales fit with each of the various chords...
We'll later become aware of larger structures called chord progressions in
which small groups of chords function together in one key. As we continue
to advance, we eventually become aware that chords, and even groups of
chords, can funtion in a variety of ways in more than one possible key.
Let's take a simple example to examine this. Consider a progression such
as "a D minor triad to a G major triad". These two chords could simply be
functioning as a II-V type progression in the key of C, or it could be a I-IV
type progression in the key of D minor, or it might be III-VI in Bb (as part
of a turnaround), or even IV-bVII in A minor.
How do we know for sure which key these chords are functioning in? Or is

it even possible to determine this in every single case? Well, the first thing
to consider are the chords following any particular progression. If the two
chords were followed by a C major chord, you'd feel pretty confidant that
the whole group was a II-V-I in C major. If the two chords were to repeat
over and over again they are most likely funtioning as the I and IV chords
in D minor. If the two chords are followed by a C minor chord, then the F7
chord, then a Bb major chord, then the whole group is almost undoubtedly
functioning as a III-VI-II-V-I turnaround type progression in the key of Bb
major. Lastly, if the two chords are followed by an A minor chord...not too
unlikely in a funk style perhaps, then this would probably be a IV-bVII-I in
the key of A minor.
Notice in each example that I used words such as "probably", "most likely",
"feel pretty confident that", and "almost undoubtedly". Even though it's very
likely in each case that the chords following such a progression would prove
to be reliable indicators of how the two chords function, it is still not certai
n.
So what else could we take into consideration? The answer to that question
is "the chords that come before a given progression". Now, we can see that
any chords that precede give even more confidance to our analysis... There
are even more keys that our little two-chord example could function in, but
I will leave that to your creative imagination for now.
The main point that I'm trying to make is that even considering all the chords
that surround a given chord or progression (which is generally very reliable)
there is still no absolute certainty gained from simply studying and analyzing
chords and progressions... The final judge in all this... yes, the real final fa
ct
of the matter is... the only real reliable judge for sure is ... YOUR EAR!
I remember early in my study of improv sometimes being astounded to see
what the chord progressions actually were for melodies that I had previously
learned to improvise over strictly by ear... I would hear them one way, then
later find out they weren't what I expected!! Usually I'd hear progressions in
my head that'd function as a substiution for what the composer had actually
written, or there would be a spot where I was using scales that were actually
modes of other scales one would normally use according to the conventions
of jazz theory... Occasionally, I could not find any theoretical justification f
or
what I heard fiting with the underlying chords. I came to realize that in some
contexts certain chords didn't function or sound at all as one would normally
expect!! I soon learned that what "sounded right" was much more important
than the symbols on the page, or the theory in my head!! If it sounds right...
then... IT IS RIGHT!!
If I have a chart in front of me and there are chords that just don't seem to
fit with the usual scales one would normally expect to use, then the thing to
do is to abandon your expectations. This happens much more often with just
a single chord at a time, or perhaps a short group of chords that don't seem
to function in the key center indicated by the surrounding chords. When what
you see on the page doesn't jive with what "sounds right" in your mind, you
should give more weigh to what you "hear" than to what you "see".
The main point of this whole lesson is... that in order to determine what key a
chord or progression is really in (in order to determine a good choice of scales
to use over it) one must consider all the chords surrounding them, but the final
determination should be left to your ear!!! If your knowledge of theory dictates

one scale choice, but your ear says "No, no, no..." go with your ear!! Anything
you will see on the page can be analyzed as being in one key or another, but
always trust your ear the most to tell you what's right!

................................*** LESSON NUMBER 146 ***.......................


..........
.........."APPROPRIATE MATERIAL AND PRACTICE/STUDY STRATEGY"..........
Players of each instrument tend to approach improv from a slightly different
perspective. Sax players, with their nearly limitless flexibility, often approac
h
improv from a more vertical orientation than trumpeters. They're more likely
to play in an arpeggiated fashion up and down the chords.
Trombone players learn improv using material that lays well on trombones,
while avoiding material that requires too much cumbersome slide movement.
Guitarists use material that lays well on their instruments too, especially stuf
f
that can be played with little horizontal movement of their left hand... and is
also convenient for picking!!
I chose these instruments as examples since their strengths and weaknesses
are easy to see. Actually, every instrument has certain things that are either
easier or harder to accomplish with compared to other instruments. This is all
certainly true of the trumpet as well.
Trumpeters tend to play material that is more linear in nature. Large skips and
leaps are typically avoided, at least at high speed, because of the limitations
in
flexibility. Not many trumpeters could play the same way as Coltrane did, just
because of the technique that would be required.
Is this a bad thing? NO! It's just a fact of life. Will some players have succes
s in
playing their trumpets more vertically than others? YES!!! Freddie Hubbard and
Woody Shaw exhibited amazing flexibility in this area! Most of us, however, will
at least begin our improv careers using a very horizontal approach. Personally,
I like to play in a melodic fashion that lends itself to a very horizontal appro
ach
anyway. Piano players, sax players, and a few others have a much easier time
of "dazzling with arpeggiated type material" than trumpeters. But to be honest,
trumpet players have some "dazzling effects" of our own that make up for any
trade-off in this area (and a little dazzle can be a good thing).
As you pick and choose which material goes into your personal "bag", be fairly
realistic about it. Start off with the kind of patterns that simply outline the
basic
chords and scales. Then move on to melodic material that is not too technically
demanding. As you progress in improv, hopefully you'll continue to progress in
your trumpet playing skills as well, and you'll gradually be able to handle more
complex material all the time. I always tell my students to be patient and let a

ll
the earlier material they've learned sink in very deeply, and then you'll be abl
e
to come up with more complex variations of the earlier material later on!
The main point here is not to put the most complex patterns into your notebook
to learn first, thinking it will make you "sound advanced" right away. Be patien
t,
and build a very broad foundation over a long period of time. The slower you go
with all this, the better you will eventually be. Learn the basic material extre
mely
well then progress to more advanced material only when you have really gained
proficiency with most of what has come before.
Don't try to impress anyone, not even yourself. Go slowly. A person beginning
a course of study with these lessons shouldn't expect to reach this point for at
least three years or more, and that's with very consistent daily practice. If yo
u
have everything we've discussed well under control, then you are definitely an
advanced level player already. If you're advanced enough to understand these
last twenty lessons, it is probably still a good idea to go back to earlier less
ons
for a "quick scan" just to make sure you're really up on everything so far. The
lesson are sequential, and I always assume you fully grasp everything that has
come before. Most people need to go back and review regularly anyway.
Take each lesson at your own pace. When you really have lessons fully learned,
you'll know exactly how to incorporate each new skill into your practice routine
.
I will hold off posting more new lessons for a little while. Now is a very good
time
for readers to post any questions at all, regardless of what level you're on. I'
ll
answer any questions, and then we'll continue on to the next phase.

................................*** LESSON NUMBER 147 ***.......................


........
...."A BASIC STRATEGY FOR HANDLING UP-TEMPO PASSING CHORDS"....
Beginning students of improv need to conceptualise the process as one of
matching the chord symbols on the page with scales that will "sound right"
over them. We generally improvise over the chords with these scales, and
patterns built using these scales. We later focus more on groups of chords
to help determine what scales and licks will work best. At this point, we try
to see and hear what general key center the chords are functioning in and
take this into consideration in making our scale choices. This was touched
on briefly in Lesson 145.
Let's look at this subject a bit more now. By the time you get this far along
in these lessons, you should realise that in order to make quality decisions
regarding scale choices, you must consider chords as they function in their
various key centers. We consider all the surrounding chords, and combine
our knowledge of theory with the direction given by our ears in order to be
able to do this. This is really a fairly simple process, especially when we're
flexible enough to allow our ears to guide us when the intelect alone is not

enough. Many players never make this leap, and they wind up sounding as
though they are simply plugging in licks, rather that creating any real art.
Many come to think of the chord symbols on the page as a kind of perfect
guide to determinig scale choices. They often outline every single chord as
they play, not realising that many are merely passing chords of such short
duration, that they should probably be handled with much less weight than
the surrounding chords. Sax players will often do this to excess... Trumpet
players are less likely to overdo this type of playing because of their usual
linear approach (again, as discussed in Lesson 145) but we all still need to
be careful about this.
Chords that come on beat one in "4/4" should generally carry more weight
than those that land on beat three. Similarly chords that come on beat one
or three should carry more weight than chords falling on beat two and four.
It's very similar to the way we accent the various beats in each measure.
It should be obvious that when there are four chords per measure it's very
likely that a soloist will sound quite stilted if he attempts to play a "correct
"
scale over each and every one of them. At times, especially at fast speeds,
even two chords per measure can be too much to try to outline... This is all
up to the player, of course, and it's something that is usually determined by
taking into account the speed, style, and one's own particular abilities. One
example might be as follows: We see the following chords lasting for only a
single beat each... C, C# half-dim, D-, D# full-dim, E-. In many instances a
good strategy would be to simply "ignore" the second and fourth chords of a
sequence such as this. We call them "passing chords" as they are brief, they
come on the weaker beats of the measure, and they don't change the basic
harmonic function of the progression. If the song is a ballad that's at a slow
tempo, we would probably consider addressing each chord individually, and
possibly use appropriate scales for each of them... and the style, tempo and
even the personal tastes and abilities of the individual soloist are all factors
in making these decisions.
At fast tempos some of the chords (as described above) may be ignored by
the soloist and the result can be more effective than trying to play the scales
that would technically fit with every single chord. As your abilities grow, and
you are increasingly able to play at faster tempos, then you will have more
flexibility in making these kinds of decisions. You'll eventually get more and
more velocity in your playing, and be able to outline more and more chords
in a musically pleasing manner. But until then, it is often wiser to recognise
that many "passing chords" can simply be "passed over".
Ironically this technique is often very effective in creating a sofisticated typ
e
sound, as the listener hears the alternating "tension and release" happening
quite rapidly... Of course there are times when weaving elegant lines in and
out of the key center, using all the chords as your guide, would be a much
more effective strategy as well.
I chose the chords in the example above for a reason. The passing chords
were all of a "leading tone" type construction. It is very common to see this
type of progression where the passing chords land on the weaker beats and
resolve up to diatonic chords by half steps. There are many other common
examples. Try this technique sometimes when the tempo is just too fast for
you to really nail each chord with a "correct" scale. It will often sound really
good and it allows you to think more horizontally and more melodically.

................................*** LESSON NUMBER 148 ***.......................


........
................"AN OVERVIEW OF THE THEORY/EARS APPROACH".................
I have known many people who improvise jazz over the years and seen an
amazingly broad range of approaches to this craft. There are quite a few to
consider. I've seen people who know absolutely nothing about theory try to
play soley by ear. Most play randomly, and don't make much real art. They
seem to wiggle their fingers a lot, hoping for the best... and are often heard
saying things like, "I just play what I hear man", not seeming to realise just
how obvious it is that they don't have the slightest idea what they're doing.
At the other end of the spectrum is what I sometimes call the "lick pluggers".
These guys often know lots of theory and way too many licks which they use
in a very "unmusical manner". They seem to think that jazz is some kind of a
contest in which players try to play more notes than anyone else on stage. It
is true that they play their material at very high speeds, dazzling uninformed
audience members at times, but they too make very little real art.
So, where does this leave us? Anyone who's followed these lessons closely
knows what I'm about to say. My philosophy is simple. We should learn lots
of theory first so that we aren't just "faking it" like the first group. We'll a
lso
need to learn many licks too, but not to plug them into solos in a way that is
contrived!! We should learn the theory and vocabulary so well that we won't
have to think about it anymore, and we should play our licks (and especially
variations of our licks) in a way that is part of truly beautiful musical ideas.
I can't stress all this enough! That is what I call the "theory & ears" approach
,
and that's what I consider to be "the big picture". A thorough understanding of
the theory combined with a large vocabulary of material (patterns or licks that
we have internalised so well that they are produced with very little effort when
they are heard in the mind) gives us a very broad palette of choices. Our well
developed ears then give us the ability to play very artistically.
I suppose this could be considered my "philosophy" on the subject. I learned
many scales and chords along the way... being sure to do all the ear training
as well. I'd constantly scat sing using arpeggios and scales, and the licks that
capture the characteristic sound of each one. This is a great way to get each
of the chord/scale sounds into your head.
Once you've learned the chord/scales and their sounds, you don't just noodle
around on them forever. Of course, you'd do that at first to help you get used
to them, but later you'd concentrate on learning patterns built from the scales
to the point where you can hear and play them (with variations) while soloing,
with almost no effort at all. In fact, you eventually get to the point where you
actually become unaware of the whole process at times!! That's when you are

"in the zone" so to speak, and then you really do "play what you hear". These
scales and chords, and the patterns built from them, are the theoretical basis
for all your musical ideas. They are the foundation for all improvisation.
You must learn scales, and you need those licks too, lots of them! You should
work everyday on these fundamentals with your instrument, and away from it
as well (through lots of singing and listening). Do not try to justify skipping
all
this stuff. The more advanced scales WILL sound the strangest to you at first.
Later, as time passes you'll learn to hear them and how they resolve. They'll
yield up the most beautiful melodic fragments of all, many with a certain kind
of bitter-sweet quality you'll find intoxicating. But like I said, at first you
might
wonder how you will ever make use of them. The first few licks you learn with
each scale usually help you "hear their characteristic sounds". If you've made
it this far, don't stop now! It is time to get really serious about learning sca
les
and their sounds, and to learn your own favorite licks constructed from them.
In the next lesson I will go into this much further. We will again explore the
best sources for getting musical fragments (licks or patterns) to add to your
personal collection. Many of the very best ones are inside of us already. The
only thing is how to get to them... Trust me, they're in there! There are a ton
of licks inside every one of us. Even a total layperson has a stockpile of jazz
licks somewhere inside!!

...............................*** LESSON NUMBER 149 ***........................


........
....."A PRIMER FOR COLLECTING PATTERNS THAT ARE BEST FOR YOU".....
Now's a very good time to review Lesson Number 46. It deals with sources
for obtaining licks or patterns for use in jazz improvisation. A recent phone
call from one of my students made me feel I should address this subject in
more detail... so let's get to it right now.
Every jazz improviser uses licks!! Even guys who have never sat down with
the goal of learning any specific pattern in all twelve keys use licks!!! It jus
t
can't be avoided. Even people who have only just begun noodling around on
their very first day of improvising will start to form licks that they will retu
rn
to again and again without even trying!!! It is only natural, and every single
player has a repetoir of licks in his vocabulary whether he intentionally tries
to collect and expand on them or not!! Even the most random approach will
involve experimentation and discovery... and a vocabulary of musical ideas
will evolve.
Also, a certain amount of theoretical knowledge will similarly be obtained in
the process as well through trial and error whether the information is sought
after or not!! How could a guy improvise for years and not eventually realise
that certain scales work with certain chords and in certain keys?! It is simply
not possible and it's not possible to play without eventually using licks either
.

I've heard some improvisers say that they use no licks or even scales at all,
and that they have absolutely no knowledge of music theory! But unless they
are truly genius savants, none of this is possible either. If we abandon ideas
about learning to improvise without theory, scales and patterns... then it just
makes perfect sense to learn all we can. The theory and scales are clearly a
part of your quest (if you are following these lessons) but we need to look at
collecting and developing patterns (or licks) in more detail now. I sure hope
you have created a patterns notebook by now with at least a few basic licks
in each category. If not... now is the time to back up and get your notebook
going as I've been saying. Go back to the "patterns notebook" lessons, and
make it happen right now!
So, again I ask you to at least review Lesson 46, and possibly other lessons
dealing with collecting patterns to enter into your notebook... and eventually
into your playing repetoir. I'll then discuss what I believe to be the merits of
these various sources in the next lesson, and how to get the absolute most
out of your efforts. I'll be back with this very valuable discussion.

................................*** LESSON NUMBER 150 ***.......................


.........
...."A STATEGY FOR COLLECTING THE VERY BEST PATTERNS FOR YOU" ....
In Lesson #46 I discussed a variety of excellent sources for obtaining jazz
patterns to put into your "patterns notebook". Now is a good time to speak
about this topic once more. My hope is to help you to collect the very best
patterns possible for your own individual use.
There are two main considerations in this process. The first is to make sure
you start with the type of patterns that will establish a strong foundation for
building upon in the future. This is very straightforward and will be the same
for everyone. These patterns are what I have refered to as the "preliminary
or rudimentary" type patterns.
These early patterns will be very basic in nature, and their purpose is to get
the sounds of the basic chords and scales into your head and also under the
fingers... The first patterns in each section of your notebook should basically
just outline the chords and scales for that particular category. In the "major
type patterns" section for example... you should begin with simple licks that
outline the various major type chords... like major triads, major 6th chords,
major 7th chords, major 9th chords, etc. Then you should enter licks which
simply run up and down major type scales, such as major and lydian, major
pentatonic and major blues scales, and major bebop, etc. This will help you
to make sure you establish a really strong foundation. (You shouldn't try to
study calculus before learning algebra!)
These earlier patterns are not meant to be particularly melodic or useful as
actual material for soloing, but with very slight alterations they definitely do
become useful. This brings up an extremely important concept. Once you've
mastered some preliminary type patterns, you can then begin varying them
slightly and come up with many wonderful and useful melodic patterns. The
possibilities are truly endless!! Simple variations of those first licks are wha
t
should probably come next in your notebook. Licks don't have to be entered

in any exact order of increasing complexity. The main thing is just to have a
place to keep licks catalogued for future use. Anytime you discover a great
new lick... whether it's and original idea or simply taken from any source at
all, just put it in your notebook and you'll have it for life!
Master the basic chords and scales, then learn simple licks built upon them,
and then start working on variations!! Soon you'll play variations of material
you previously mastered almost all the time. Rarely would you use a pattern
in it's basic form as it appears in your notebook... You will become so skilled
that this won't be necessary at all. You'll hear and play ideas that started out
as preliminary material then later evolved into beautiful variations that seem
to come gushing up and out of you with little or no no effort at all. That's the
REAL goal here! Just be patient and look forward to the future. It's coming!
OK, what comes next? Well that's for you to decide. Here's what I mean. You
are totally in charge of how you want to eventually be able to play. Whatever
your own preferences are will determine the kinds of patterns you will choose
to enter into your own notebook, and eventually into you playing repetoir. My
own personal preference is to play the old standards and ballads... but I also
love to play in a funk/jazz group occasionally with an electronic set-up. These
two styles definitely aren't very similar but they generally determine the kinds
of licks I gravitate towards. Your own preferences should be your main guide
for you as well. If you don't want to play bebop, don't spend too much of your
time collecting that kind of material. If you don't plan to play dixieland, do n
ot
collect that kind of material either. After learning your basics and building th
at
foundation, the sky is the limit!! You may have certain goals now, and change
them in the future. But whatever you do... start with the basics and build that
foundation I always talk about.
The sources for obtaining new licks are well discussed in Lesson #46, so do
review that lesson. I can't overemphasize the importance of getting material
from your own inner mind by recording yourself while singing or playing!! I'd
suggest taking the licks from patterns books that you already "hear" and the
ones that you feel are really the most beautiful of all. Only collect the best o
f
the best. Licks taken from transcription books usually need to be altered into
their more basic forms, since they are typically the soloist's variant forms of
standard licks he himself borrowed from somewhere else!!! Make the licks a
bit more basic by taking out the usual embellishments at first. You may want
to learn complete transcribed solos in order to help you get the nuances of a
particular player's style, but not to perform them verbatim in public!!! Really
great licks can often be extracted from heads that you love as well. Do feel
free to take licks from absolutely any source at all.
Many of your very best licks are already coming out of your horn now, but
perhaps only in just one or two keys. Try to take the best that is already in
you and expand upon that! You already hear that material and know how to
use it. Never be afraid to enter your own ideas into your notebook and then
expand upon them. This is possibly the very best strategy of all. You will be
playing what you actually hear all the time. You will be developing your own
personal sound, and you'll be "multiplying" your current repetoir instead of
merely "adding to it". I do hope all of this makes sense.
Please be sure to review Lesson #46, and also Lessons #60-63 as well. They
discuss your patterns notebook. Feel free to add to or change the categories

I've suggested as you see fit for your own personal use. Some people might
want seperate sections for diminished or augmented chords and material, for
example. I usually put these materials in with my "altered dominant" section
or with my "digital patterns". You may organise your own notebook any way
that seems appropriate for you. You will probably find that you want to use a
few more (or a few less) categories of patterns than I've suggested. That is
just fine! You should have enough theoretical knowledge by this point to be
making all these kinds of descisions for yourself.
Let your own personal goals dictate the path you will follow... Start thinking
about being self-sufficient in every way. After all... this projest is your's an
d
your's alone. It's my desire for you to eventually become your own teacher,
and to be able to plot your own future!! Keep taking those small steps each
day, then you will reach destinations you never though possible!!

................................*** LESSON NUMBER 151 ***.......................


.........
..."ANOTHER LOOK AT GETTING MATERIAL FROM TRANSCRIBED SOLOS"...
One very good source for getting patterns or licks is transcribed solos. Many
book/collections are now available on the market. Some good collections are
the two volumes of "28 Modern Trumpet Solos", and also the "Clifford Brown
Trumpet Solos" collection by Ken Sloan. Another is the "Miles Davis" trumpet
solos collection sold by Jamey Aebersold. Of course there are many more on
the market, but I mention these because they are particularly good, they are
readily available... and they are often sold with accompanying audio casette
tapes of the solos!
We are lucky to be living in an age where all kinds of materials are available
to help us learn to play jazz... In the old days it was one-on-one tutelage and
jam sessions only. Now it's hard to fail with all the books and cd's we have at
our disposal. Of course jam sessions are still as valuable as ever, just harder
to come by. Be sure to jam with live players every time you get the chance!
Many players know the value of transcribing solos, but studying solos that've
already been transcribed for us is very valuable too. I suggest listening to all
the solos you possibly can as well. If you listen to a solo, and absorb all of i
ts
nuances, and then study a transcription of it as well, it will open doors for yo
u
with very little effort. This also makes it very easy to learn the entire solo s
o
you can concentrate on getting useful material from it quickly and easily.
I will once again tell you that transcribing solos for yourself is very valuable
in other ways as well... but by just owning the four books mentioned above,
you would have 82 complete solos from world class jazz musicians!! I often
have people tell me that one should only transcribe solos for themselves, or
that we should only learn to play the solos and never write them down at all.
I find these ideas very odd to say the least.
All of these activities are very valuable and should be included in your study.
It's not a matter of doing "one or the other". Do them all. Use every kind of

learning strategy you possibly can. Listen, jam with friends, jam with JA play
along sets, learn all the theory... just do it all. Some people will benefit mor
e
than others from any particular activity. We all seem to learn best in slightly
different ways. Try everything and see what works best for you!! Combining
many strategies usually "puts it all together" for us very well. It's like putti
ng
a big puzzle together. You work on each section and eventually all the pieces
come together. You really don't have to worry about it all. Just keep putting
pieces together, a little each day... and you WILL reach your goals!
The material in a solo is often played in a way that is not very basic. You can
take the material and alter it (most of the time) before placing it into our own
notebooks for long term storage. Try playing an idea several times with slight
variations until you find a version that seems fairly basic to you... without an
y
embelishments, etc. Feel free to change any lick at all to suit your own tastes
as well. There are always an infinite number of possibilities with any lick, but
just start simple, then come up with your own variations and embellishments
to best suit your own individual style of playing.
Transcriptions often contain licks that you've been hearing in your mind but
didn't yet know what they were. Other times you'll discover something that's
brand new to you. Collect only the best of the best. There are so many licks!
Don't waste your time by trying to keep every lick you come in contact with.
I feel the best approach is to first learn the chords and scales that form the
foundations for all this material, then learn some very basic licks (especially
the ones you already "hear"), then begin learning your own variations of the
licks. This way you'll establish a very strong foundation first, then you'll gro
w
in a very logical manner by always expanding upon what you learned before.
Just keep branching out. This is a really effective approach that will help you
to develop your own personal style.
In the next lesson I will begin covering the JA Miles Davis play-along set. If
you don't already have it be sure to get it. The one I'm refering to is Volume
Seven. It's a good set with several more great tunes to add to your repetoir.
I have strongly recomended getting the two solo transcription books "Twenty
Eight Modern Trumpet Solos" Volumes 1 & 2 in previous lessons, and now you
should definitely get the Clifford Brown book mentioned above, and especially
the Miles Davis book. Six of the solos in that book are from tunes found in the
JA Miles Davis set that we're about to cover! Pretty sweet, huh?

................................*** LESSON NUMBER 152 ***.......................


........
......................... "MILES DAVIS, VOLUME SEVEN, FOUR" ....................
....
"Four" is a fairly simple tune to add to your repetoir. Let's first take a look
at the chord changes for a rudimentary analysis.
The song is 32 measures long, so I will refer to them as bars 1 through 32.

This tune is in the key of F major. Measures 1 and 2 can obviously be dealt
with as being the I chord in the key of F major. Bars 3 and 4 seem to be a
II-V7 progression in Eb, but since they don't resolve regularly it's probably
best to think of them as I and IV in F minor. The G min chord in bars 5 and
6 can be handled with a G minor scale very logically. The Bb to Eb7 chords
in bars 7 and 8 appears to be a II-V7 in Ab, but since they resolve again in
an irregular fashion it's probably best to handle them as I and IV chords in
the key of Bb minor (very similar to how we treated bars 3 and 4).
The next section (bars 9 through 16) is basically two turnarounds in F major.
You will recall turnaround progressions like "III-VI-II-V" and "III-bIII-II-bII"
.
You should also remember that we can do a kind of "mix and match" with the
two turnarounds creating progressions such as "III-VI- II-bII", and (as in this
particular case) "III-bIII-II-V7". So these turnarounds in measures 9 thru 16
are a combination of the first two mentioned above. The second ending starts
with a "one bar II-V-I" in D minor (bars 28 and 29), but you'll find that these
and other measures can be handled differently than I've just suggested.
One possibility is to handle bar 28 as another C7 chord, leading to a I chord
(just as you did for the first ending). Then pretend that measures 29 through
32 are actually two turnarounds like the previous ones, except double timed
(only two beats per chord instead of four). These four measure do sound and
function like a pair of quick turnarounds, so substituting in this manner would
be perfectly acceptable. I can easily give theoretical justification for each on
e
of these suggestions, but at this point we simply need to get used to the idea
that if it sounds right... IT IS RIGHT. Don't get too hung up on the theory. Try
this strategy for yourself and you'll see that it sounds very correct, and it wi
ll
also simplify things greatly. Too often people think of the chord changes as a
kind of strict roadmap that must be followed at all times. If you study famous
solos as suggested in the previous lesson you will find many examples where
soloists play material that sounds fantastic but does not conform to any strict
rules of music theory. You have likely heard that any note can sound correct
with any chord if it is handled and resolved properly. This is very true!!
I will give examples of other options that I presented in recent lessons along
with all of the Miles Davis tunes we'll cover here... Most of you already know
how I teach theory and strategy first, then show specific examples of how to
apply it all with actual tunes afterwards. I always feel that playing things tha
t
"sound right" is more important than playing things that are understood to be
theoretically "correct" according to a mere analysis of the chord changes.
It helps to learn to improvise on some tunes without knowing the changes at
all. This often leads to some surprising discoveries. The most important thing
to remember is to use your ears as well as your eyes. Try working on "Four"
and other tunes using only the melody (and some variations) as your guide!!
This will open doors for you that you may not have discovered otherwise!

......................................LESSON NUMBER 153.........................


.............
........................"MILES DAVIS, VOLUME SEVEN, TUNE UP"....................
..

This next tune by Miles Davis is very simple theory-wise, so my analysis of


it will be very simple as well. I do want to say something at this point that's
very important. Even the simplest song can have infinite possibilities. In my
future lessons I will be discussing more advanced theory, especially theory
involving advanced substitution. This opens the door to endless possibilities
that beginner or intermediate improvisors have likely never even dreamed
of. Even the simplest modal tunes that have only one or two chords will be
shown to have countless possibilities.
So the next song in the Miles Davis volume is called "Tune Up". It is a very
standard 32 bars long, divided into two sections of 16 measures each, that
are virtually identical (except for the first and second endings).
There is no key signature for this tune. Many modern jazz tunes are written
without key signatures. This does not necessarily mean that they should be
analyzed as being in the key of C Major, or even A Minor. Often times, jazz
heads go from one key center to another so frequently, and perhaps spend
only a short amount of time in each key center, that it's innapropriate to try
to assign a single key designation to the piece!! If we just had to pick a key
for this song it would likely be E Major, but sometimes composers don't feel
the need to pick a key at all. Often it's nearly impossible to designate a key.
I'll just let you think about that one for a while.
......................................The Harmony Analysis......................
..............
We start out with a ii-V7-I in E Major over the first four bars.
Then we have a ii-V7-I in D Major for the second four bars.
Then we have a ii-V7-I in C Major for next four bars.
Now we come to the first ending... F#- for one bar,
then V7 to I in C for the next two measures,
then V7 in E which leads us back to the beginning again.
The next 12 bars is a repeat of the first 12,
followed by the four measure second ending,
a ii-V7-I in the key of E Major again.
Well there it is. If you are up to speed on all the theory and strategy lessons
so far, then you know what to do. In fact, you didn't need me to analyze any
of this for you at all. Enough said about "Tune Up" for now.
................................................................................
..........................
I started home-schooling my 17 year old son a couple of months ago so he
can graduate from high school a year earlier to start college this fall. He's a
really great kid... He plays bass guitar (and classical too), flies radio contro
l
planes, and has black belts in five different styles of martial arts! Anyway, I
have been very busy lately.
I'm also preparing this thread to publish in book form... but I plan to leave it
here on TH from now on. I have about another fifty lessons planned so I will
be back with more.

................................***LESSON NUMBER 154***.........................


.......
....................THE VERY BEST SOURCE FOR GETTING LICKS....................
I have often delivered this message, but it is so important that I must visit
this subject one more time. If you're learning to improvise, then this is the
single most valuable piece of advice I can give you!! The very best source
for getting licks to learn...... is......from..... YOU! That's right..... from Y
OU!
You are already the very best source for getting licks. Now let me explain.
There are several real good ways to add to your repetoir of jazz licks, etc.
You can simply buy a book of licks (patterns, riffs, motiffs) and go through
each one, selecting the licks that are the most appealing to you... and add
your favorites into your personal licks notebook. Absolutely nothing wrong
with that. A great way to quickly (and easily) acquire materials that will be
satisfying and suitable for you.
Another great way to get licks is from transcribed solos. It's ok to grab the
most appealing licks you find in other artists' solos, whether or not you did
the actual transcribing yourself. (Of course it's more valuable to transcribe
solos yourself... especially to learn style and context.) Licks that come out
of your favorite solos will already appeal to you, and they're already there
inside your head. They're already familiar, and you can already hear them
in your mind! This brings us to what I think might possibly be the very best
source of licks for anyone.
..........................THE LICKS THAT WE ALREADY HEAR........................
....
It sounds so simple... but this is often overlooked. These licks come in two
categories:
(1) Licks that we hear in our mind but don't yet know what they are. These
licks are already inside us, bouncing around in our heads.... We might sing
them if we're scatting along with some music.... or they might just occur to
us while we're improvising on our instrument..... but..... WE DON'T REALLY
KNOW WHAT THOSE NOTES ARE YET.
The second category:
(2) Licks we hear in our heads and already know how to play, but perhaps
only in just one or a few keys. All of us have licks that we already use alot
but just haven't learned in very many keys!! It's just too easy to search all
over town for new material... when we haven't really spent that much time
mastering the stuff that we already know, and love, and ALREADY HEAR!
Again, I know this sounds so simple... and I know that this is way too often
overlooked. If we listen to lots of jazz... those licks (and even entire solos)
are going to sink in. The material that's most beautiful and appealing to us
is going to stick in our heads and eventually start coming back out!!!! That
is exactly what you keep hearing in your mind all the time. That's the stuff
you've probably heard others play that really meant something to you. It's
in your head already... AND IT WANTS TO COME OUT!
................................................................................

..........................
So... How do we get it out of there? Well, this is also quite simple. Perhaps
the simplicity of it all is the reason why this process is so often overlooked.
...........WE HAVE TO RECORD OURSELVES PLAYING AND SINGING!..........
Perhaps the best way to do this is with play along tracks. If you want some
blues licks... simply put on some blues tracks and start singing and playing
while recording yourself. Then come back later to the recordings and begin
transcribing the very best material that came out of you. If you want some
ii-V7-I material, then put on appropriate tracks and do the same thing, etc.
Think about this for a minute. You can really begin to learn all the material
you've been hearing in your mind already! When you sing... it might not be
perfectly in tune, but you can go back and figure out exactly what the ideas
were that you were trying to sing later on.
When you play in easier keys and record yourself, you will get at the exact
same kind of material again... This time it's the stuff you're already hearing
and using... but just not in all that many keys. If we learn how to play these
materials... then we'll truly be able to play what we hear, and THIS IS ONLY
JUST THE BEGINNING!
Later we branch out from here. We start to learn VARIATIONS on all of this
material. It's quite easy to learn variations and expand our boundaries very
quickly. This can lead to a virtual explosion in your growth, LEARNING HOW
TO PLAY THE MATERIAL WE ACTUALLY HEAR IN OUR HEADS ALREADY!
Of course, we need to expand our musical horizons by taking in all kinds of
material from purely external sources as well... (or we'd surely miss out on
a whole lot of great stuff...) but this concept of getting at the material that'
s
already waiting there inside our own heads is so productive... that it simply
cannot be overlooked!! This is easy to do... You sing and play... and simply
record it all, and then you transcribe. YOU'LL TRULY BE MINING FOR GOLD!
................................................................................
..........................
Please re-read this lesson a couple more times and really let it all sink in.
Take the time to truly grasp the weight of this!! I rarely hear anyone talk
about this, but I feel it may be the single most important thing I preach!
If we mearly plug in material that is understood to work, rather than play
material that we hear coming from our subcontious mind, then we're just
playing contrieved music. This is not real art! I'd rather play the stuff that
simply comes to me fully formed from my own inner mind. I hear it and I
play it. This is the most satistfying for me. This feels good and I know it's
really art. In the end it is largely made up of licks, but they are produced
spontaneously as part of a larger musical idea, and these ideas flow very
naturally, and from the heart!! It is also much more satisfying to play the
ideas I'm hearing than to think of licks that'll fit with some chord changes.
I'm not saying that licks we derive from purely external sources won't be
internalized eventually. These licks will become very familiar in time, and
they too will come bubbling up spontaeneously!! I'm just pointing out that
we all have alot of good material already inside of us, that needs to come
out and get used. One more side note: We will often find licks in books or
solos that happen to be material we like, and were already hearing in our

heads as well. This material is just the same... PURE GOLD!!!


Just think for a moment... What if you could play everything you hear??
Now that's a very worthy goal, to simply be able to play what you hear!
Please think about this one alot.

................................***LESSON NUMBER 155***.........................


........
..................HOW TO FILL YOUR MIND WITH MUSICAL IDEAS...................
Sometimes students will say "I'd love to be able to play what I hear but my
problem is that I don't really hear much of anything yet. What can I do?"
This is not an uncommon thing for students to express, and it can seem so
hard to overcome... Hearing musical ideas in one's head can sometimes be
quite elusive, but this can easily change.
As I mentioned in my last lesson, as we listen to lots of jazz, the licks and
other elements of this idiom gradually sink in very deeply. Later, we'll find
that we have become so familiar with this material, that it simply becomes
a part of us. The ideas are now so internalized that we begin to hear them
without any effort at all. The solution for most players who are not hearing
many musical ideas... is to pack ideas into their minds by listenning to alot
of jazz solos.
Pick out just a few of your favorite solos to listen to many times. Its really
valuable to listen late in the evenning before you go to bed. Listen in your
car. Listen while you are taking breaks during your practice time. You can
listen almost anytime at all... just listen alot!
Learn to sing along with these solos until you have them memorized, then
listen even more. Learn to copy all of the phrasing and other nuances too.
There's no way to learn this material too well. I promise that if you will do
this, you'll start hearing lots and lots of jazz phrases in your head, without
any effort at all. It's best to pick out just af few of your very favorite solos
at first to listen to many times over and over again. If you'll do it this way,
you will fill your mind with ideas that appeal to you personally... and you'll
learn them very quickly and thoroughly.
................................................................................
...........................
These activities will allow you to internalize these musical ideas, but they'll
also cause the ideas to come to you naturally when you are practicing and
improvising. In other words... you will begin to "hear" them in your head.
The only thing that can prevent these ideas from coming to you when you
play is over-thinking. We need to quiet the mind if this happens, and learn
to be patient and wait for the ideas to come. This usually involves pausing
longer between the phrases. It helps to simply slow down and play less.
I can't overemphasize the importance of this kind of pausing. We must try

to slow down, so that the ideas have time to develop inside our heads. It's
so common for players to try to fill up the space with notes. They're really
preventing the flow of ideas by trying to force the process! You have to be
patient with yourself and let it all take time. Soon, your ideas begin to flow
more easily and naturally... becomiing a more fluid and melodic stream of
ideas.
Even the most advanced player will benefit greatly from this strategy. I've
seen both beginners and advanced players amazed by how much they can
improve by just slowing down... pausing more between the phrases... and
patiently waiting for the ideas to come.
................................................................................
...........................
This approach will help you to play meaningful ideas which flow beautifully
and logically when you perform, but it is also what you need to be doing in
your practice time, when you're mining for those golden licks I was talking
about in the previous lesson. The goal here is to learn the music theory so
well that you no longer have to think about it, then you will be able to play
the ideas that you hear in your head. It may sound like two seperate ways
of playing, but it definitely is not!!! We need to unite the two approaches in
order to benefit from both... so that our playing will have the sophistication
afforded by mastering the music theory, and yet exhibit all the beauty and
lyricism that comes by playing the ideas that bubble up from the depths of
our own inner minds. This is the purest form of the art, and it's a beautiful
and satisfying way to play.
Gradually you find that the ideas come to you in a more continuous stream
and flow smoothly... Eventually you begin to hear the next idea before you
are done playing the last one. You'll stay a little ahead mentally so that the
flow becomes uninterrupted. Even when you play long phrases, many bars
long, you still prehear each idea as you go along. To get to this point... you
will first start slowly, and pause often, to allow the ideas to begin to flow on
their own. This is true art, and you'll know it when it really begins to click!