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AIRCOM LTE Webinar Series:

What affects LTE Cell throughput


2013 AIRCOM International Ltd

About the Presenters


Graham Whyley Lead Technical Trainer

AIRCOM Technical Master Trainer since 2005

Currently responsible for all LTE training


course creation and delivery

Over 20 years of training experience at


companies including British Telecom and
Fujitsu

Adam Moore Learning & Development


Manager

With AIRCOM since 2006

Member of CIPD

Contact us at training@aircominternational.com
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About AIRCOM
AIRCOM is the leading provider of mobile network planning,
optimisation and management software and consultancy services.
Advise

Manage

Audit
Network

Optimise

Founded in 1995
14 offices worldwide
Over 150 LTE customers
Acquired Symena in 2012
Products deployed in 159 countries
Comprehensive Tool and technology
training portfolio

Plan

TEOCO offer very complimentary assurance an optimisation solutions as


well as an excellent analytics portfolio.
Significantly stronger combined offering for customers
Find out more at www.aircominternational.com
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LTE PORTFOLIO

ACCREDITATION
COURSES
A202 AIRCOM Accredited
LTE Planning and
Optimisation Engineer
(5 days inc exam)

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Agenda-What affects LTE Cell throughput

Maximizing the data rate and spectral


efficiency are the main targets in LTE
cellular systems.
Transport Block Size
Codewords
LTE UE categories
What effects Cell throughput
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What affects Cell throughput


DATA

Relay
Application
DATA

TCP/UDP

DATA

IP

PDCP

GTP-U

RLC

UDP

MAC

IP

L1

L1/L2

PDCP
DATA

RLC

DATA

MAC
L1

DATA

UE

eNode B

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User Plane
Application Rate

Application

Non Real
Time

overhead

Non Real
Time

Real Time

TCP

overhead

Application

UDP

overhead

IP

overhead

RLC

TCP

overhead

PDCP

Real Time
UDP

IP

PDCP
overhead

RLC

RLC layer will concatenate or segment the data coming


from PDCP layer into correct block size
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WHAT IS A TRANSPORT BLOCK


RLC

MAC

TCP
IP
/UDP

RLC
HEADER

RLC

RLC
HEADER

MAC HEADER

MAC

TRANSPORT BLOCK

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User Plane
Application Rate

Application

Non Real
Time

overhead

Non Real
Time

Real Time

TCP

overhead

Application

UDP

overhead

IP

PDCP

16QAM
4 bits

64QAM
6bits

RLC

overhead

RLC

overhead

MAC

overhead

MAC

L1
UE

Different coding Rates

UDP

IP

PDCP

overhead

overhead

TCP

overhead

QPSK
2 bits

Real Time

overhead

L1
UE

MAC layer selects the modulation and coding scheme


configures the physical layer
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Normal Cyclic Prefix

12 subcarriers = 180 kHz

Frequency Domain

LTE UE categories

Resource Element
2 bits
4 bits
6 bits

7 symbols = 0.5 ms
Time Domain

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Now how many bits are


transferred in this 1ms
transport block size?
Modulation and coding scheme (MCS): The
MCS index (031) is used by the base station
to signal to the terminal the modulation and
coding scheme to use for receiving or
transmitting a certain transport block. Each
MCS index stands for a certain modulation
order and transport block size index

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RRC Connection Reconfiguration


Message
|UE ID/RNTI Type |C-RNTI |
|Subframe Number |2 |
|UE ID/RNTI Value |'8627'H ||
|Transport Block Indicator |single TB info |
|Modulation Order DL 1 |QAM64 |
|New Data Indicator DL 1 |new data |
|Redundancy Version DL 1 |0 |
|Reserved |0 |
|Modulation Scheme Index DL |24 |

Since the size of


transport block is
not fixed
MCS Index

RRC Connection Reconfiguration Message


Modulation Scheme Index DL 24
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How much bits are transferred in this


1ms transport block size?
It depends on:
The MCS (modulation and coding scheme)
The number of resource blocks assigned to the
UE

7 symbols = 0.5 ms
Time Domain
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Extended Cyclic Prefix

12 subcarriers = 180 kHz

12 subcarriers = 180 kHz

Frequency Domain

Normal Cyclic Prefix

Resource Element
2 bits
6 symbols = 0.5 ms
4 bits
Time Domain
6 bits
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Transport Block Size Tables

Look-up table is referenced by the TBS Index and the number of


allocated Resource Blocks

RRC Connection Reconfiguration Message


Modulation Scheme Index DL 24

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POLL

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eNB assigns MCS index 12 and 2 resource blocks


(RBs). What is the transport block size?
1. 56
2. 144
3. 616
4. 376
5. 440

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POLL

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eNB assigns MCS index 12 and 2 resource blocks


(RBs). What is the transport block size?
1. 56
2. 144
3. 616
4. 376
5. 440

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Table
7.1.7.2.1-1

Look-up table is referenced by the TBS Index and the number of


allocated Resource Blocks

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What affects LTE Cell throughput

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Coding Rate

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Coding rate
overhead
overhead

MAC
L1

overhead
overhead

MAC
L1

MAC layer selects the modulation and coding scheme


configures the physical layer
Code rate: The code rate is defined as the ratio between the transport block size
and the total number of physical layer bits per subframe that are available for
transmission of that transport block. The code rate is an indication for the
redundancy that has been added due to the channel coding process

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Coding Rate

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CQI

Modulation

Efficiency

Actual
coding rate

Required
SINR

QPSK

0.1523

0.07618

-4.46

QPSK

0.2344

0.11719

-3.75

QPSK

0.3770

0.18848

-2.55

QPSK

0.6016

308/1024

-1.15

QPSK

0.8770

449/1024

1.75

QPSK

1.1758

602/1024

3.65

16QAM

1.4766

378/1024

5.2

16QAM

1.9141

490/1024

6.1

16QAM

2.4063

616/1024

7.55

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64QAM

2.7305

466/1024

10.85

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64QAM

3.3223

567/1024

11.55

12

64QAM

3.9023

666/1024

12.75

13

64QAM

4.5234

772/1024

14.55

14

64QAM

5.1152

873/1024

18.15

15

64QAM

5.5547

948/1024

19.25

The coding rate indicates


how many real data bits
are present out of 1024
while the efficiency
provides the number of
information bits per
modulation symbol.
602/1024 = 0.5879
QPSK = 2bits
Efficiency=
2x0.5879=1.1758 data
bits per symbol

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Coding Rate

602/1024 = 0.5879
QPSK = 2bits
Efficiency=
2x0.5879=1.1758 data
bits per symbol

SINR +19,25

High cell throughput

DL BEARER 64QAM, Efficiency 5.5

SINR -4.46

Low cell throughput


DL BEARER QPSK Efficiency 0.1523

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Coding Rate

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Coding Rate
CQI

Modulation

Efficiency

Actual
coding rate

Required
SINR

QPSK

0.1523

0.07618

-4.46

QPSK

0.2344

0.11719

-3.75

QPSK

0.3770

0.18848

-2.55

QPSK

0.6016

308/1024

-1.15

QPSK

0.8770

449/1024

1.75

QPSK

1.1758

602/1024

3.65

16QAM

1.4766

378/1024

5.2

16QAM

1.9141

490/1024

6.1

16QAM

2.4063

616/1024

7.55

10

64QAM

2.7305

466/1024

10.85

11

64QAM

3.3223

567/1024

11.55

12

64QAM

3.9023

666/1024

12.75

13

64QAM

4.5234

772/1024

14.55

14

64QAM

5.1152

873/1024

18.15

15

64QAM

5.5547

948/1024

19.25

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CQI = 15

High
throughput

Terminal
Density
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Code word
overhead

MAC

24 bit checksum (CRC) to the transport block


This CRC is used to determine whether the
transmission was successful or not, and triggers
Hybrid ARQ to send an ACK or NACK
Receiver

Transmitter
Transport Block

TRANSPORT BLOCK

Error detection

Compute CRC
Transport Block

overhead

CRC

Demodulation

Modulation

L1

Re-transmissions will reduce throughput


Transport Block

codeword
L1 converts the transport
block into a code-word
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CRC

NACK
Transport Block

CRC

NACK
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Adaptive re-transmission
If the base station receives the data with errors
Two ways for it to respond

1. The base station can trigger a


non adaptive re-transmission by sending the mobile a
negative acknowledgement on the PHICH.
The mobile then re-transmits the data with the same
parameters that it used first time around.
Scheduling grant maximum number of re-transmissions without receiving a positive response
Change parameters like uplink modulation scheme
QPSK for noisy channels
2. Alternatively, the base station can trigger an adaptive re-transmission by
explicitly sending the mobile another scheduling grant. It can do this to change the
parameters that the mobile uses for the re-transmission, such as the resource block
allocation or the modulation scheme.
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Code word
MAC

MAC

If the transport block is too small, it is padded up to


40 bits
If the Transport Block is too big, it is divided into
smaller pieces, each of which gets an additional 24 bit
CRC

TRANSPORT BLOCK TRANSPORT BLOCK

A codeword, then, is essentially a transport block with


error protection.
L1

L1

codeword

codeword

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Note that a UE may be configured to receive one or


two transport blocks (and hence one or two
codewords) in a single transmission interval
Maximum of 2 codewords used to limit signalling
requirement (CQI reporting, HARQ
acknowledgements, resource allocations)

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Codeword

Maximum of 2 codewords used to limit signalling


requirement (CQI reporting, HARQ acknowledgements,
resource allocations)

Transmit diversity provides the fallback when only a


codeword is transferred
Layer 1

Codeword 1
Layer 2

The number of layers is always less than or equal to the number of antenna ports
(transmit antennas).

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Transmit Diversity

Transmit diversity requires multiple antenna elements at the transmitter,


and one or more antenna elements at the receiver
3GPP has specified transmit diversity schemes based upon using either 2
or 4 antenna elements at the transmitter
Transmit diversity transfers a single code word during each 1 ms
subframe

Layer mapping for 4 layers


Layer 1

Layer mapping for 2 layers


Modulated
Codeword

Layer 1

Layer 2
Layer 3

Layer 2
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Modulated
Codeword

Layer 4
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4 Layers
Codewords

Layers

Mapping

The first codeword is split (odd/even) between the first


two layers , the second codeword is split between the
second two layers. Each codeword same length

4 layers 2 codewords
Codeword 1

Layer 1
Layer 2

Codeword 2

Layer 3
Layer 4

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Note that the number of layers is always


less than or equal to the number of
antenna ports (transmit antennas).

The number of layers used in any


particular transmission depends (at least
in part) on the Rank Indication (RI)
feedback from the UE

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MIMO

MIMO can transfer either 1 or 2 code words during each 1 ms sub-frame

CQI reporting, link adaptation and HARQ run independently for each
code word
DCI Format 2
Resource Allocation Type (0 or 1)
Resource Block Assignment
TPC Command for PUCCH
HARQ Process Number

The scheduling commands for downlink


transmissions are more complicated, and are handled
in Release 8 by DCI formats 1 to 1D and 2 to 2A

Modulation and Coding Scheme


New Data Indicator

Transport Block 1 information

Redundancy Version
Modulation and Coding Scheme
New Data Indicator

Transport Block 2 information

Redundancy Version
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Precoding Information

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Cell throughput
CQI

Modulation

Efficiency

Actual
coding rate

Required
SINR

QPSK

0.1523

0.07618

-4.46

QPSK

0.2344

0.11719

-3.75

QPSK

0.3770

0.18848

-2.55

QPSK

0.6016

308/1024

-1.15

QPSK

0.8770

449/1024

1.75

QPSK

1.1758

602/1024

3.65

16QAM

1.4766

378/1024

5.2

16QAM

1.9141

490/1024

6.1

16QAM

2.4063

616/1024

7.55

10

64QAM

2.7305

466/1024

10.85

11

64QAM

3.3223

567/1024

11.55

12

64QAM

3.9023

666/1024

12.75

13

64QAM

4.5234

772/1024

14.55

14

64QAM

5.1152

873/1024

18.15

15

64QAM

5.5547

948/1024

19.25

Maximizing the data rate


and spectral efficiency are
the main targets in LTE
10Mhz
cellular systems.

CQI = 15

CQI = 1
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Spectral efficiency
Different Coding Rates
64QAM
6bits/Hz

Efficiency
4.5234

64QAM
6bits/Hz

64QAM
6bits/Hz

Efficiency
5.5547

64QAM
6bits/Hz

modulation and coding scheme


Efficiency
3.9023

Efficiency
5.1152

Evolved
Node B
(eNB)

(Bit/s)/Hz per cell


It is a measure of the quantity
of users or services that can be
simultaneously supported by a
limited radio frequency
bandwidth

A 64 QAM the spectral efficiency cannot exceed N = 6 (bit/s)/Hz


If a forward error correction (FEC) code with code rate 1/2 is added, meaning
that the encoder input bit rate is one half the encoder output rate, the spectral
efficiency is 50% of the modulation efficiency

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Maximum data rate for CQI bearer 1


Assumptions:
10 Mz Bandwidth
Normal Prefix
Coding rate 0.07618
MIMO 1x1

Frequency Domain

12 subcarriers = 180 kHz

Normal Cyclic Prefix

Bandwidth 1.4
(MHz)

10

15

20

# of RBs

15

25

50

75

100

Subcarriers

72

180

300

600

900

1200

All 50 PRB
CQI bearer 1
MIMO 1x1
7 symbols = 0.5 ms
Time Domain

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Maximum data rate for CQI bearer 1


10 ms

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One Sub-frame = 1 mS

7x12

Number of Traffic symbols bits in a TTI = (4


x12) + (7x12)-6 =126
If QPSK bearer =126 x 2 =252 bits in 1ms

12 subcarriers = 180 kHz

4 x12

Frequency Domain

Normal Cyclic Prefix

7 symbols = 0.5 ms
Time Domain

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Maximum data rate for CQI bearer 1


10 ms

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In 10 Mhz you have 50 PRB in 1mS

One Sub-frame = 1 mS

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Number of Traffic symbols bits in a TTI = (4 x12) +


(7x12)-6 =126
If QPSK bearer =126 x 2 =252 bits in 1ms

In one TTI (1mS)you have


50 x 252 bits = 12600 bits
per 1mS
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Maximum data rate for CQI bearer 1


10 ms

Number of Traffic symbols bits in a TTI = (4 x12) +


(7x12)-6 =126

If QPSK bearer =126 x 2 =252 bits in 1ms

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One Sub-frame = 1 mS

In 10 Mhz you have 50 PRB in 1mS

In one TTI (1mS)you have


50 x 252 bits = 12600 bits per 1mS

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Coding Rate
12600 bits x 0.07618=959.104 bits in 1ms
Bits per second
=959.104 x 1000= 959104 kb/s
=0.975 Mb/s in 10Mhz
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What have we not taken into account?

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Each Bearer has a maximum data rate

Antenna 1

High throughput
1 ms
CQI 15

Low throughput
CQI 1

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Without MIMO

12 sub-carriers

Without MIMO

Bits per second


=959.104 x 1000= 959104 kb/s
=0.975 Mb/s in 10Mhz

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Without MIMO

Bearers

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Without MIMO

Physical Overhead

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Antenna 1

Antenna 2

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Coverage/Capacity
CQI 15
CQI 14
CQI 13
CQI 12
CQI 11
CQI 10
CQI 9
CQI 8
CQI 7
CQI 6

CQI 5
CQI 4
CQI 3

CQI 1
CQI 1

CQI 2

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Summary

(MCS) (031)

Cell throughput is dependant on:


Modulation and coding scheme (MCS) (031)
and Transport block size
Bandwidth
Normal / Extended Prefix
Transmission modes TX diversity, Su-MIMO etc.
LTE UE categories

CQI

12 subcarriers = 180 kHz

Frequency Domain

Normal Cyclic Prefix

7 symbols = 0.5 ms

Time Domain

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Next Topic

Comparison between GSM, UMTS & LTE

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In Closing
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