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Carbon and Its Compounds

Carbon and Its Compounds

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CARBON AND ITS COMPOUNDS
CARBON is an element, non metal, and present in very small amount in atmosphere. In Atmosphere 0.02% and in Air - 0.03% as CO 2 gas. All living things plants and animals are made up of carbon compounds called organic compounds. Bonding in carbon its electronic configuration is K L. it is not possible to remove 4 electrons 2 4 From its outermost shell, also not possible to gain 4 electrons to complete its octet. Therefore it shares 4 electrons with others. Therefore bond formed is c ovalent. 

Self combination (catenation) carbon can link or combine with one another by means of covalent bonds to form long chains of carbon atom. This property is also called Catenation .-C-C-C-C-C-c-C-C-C-C-C-C-C-C Tetravalency - tetra means 4 and valency refers to valency. Valency of carbon is four(which is quite large). Due to this a carbon atom can form large number of carbon atoms with a num ber of carbon atoms as well as with a large number of other elements.
Types of hydrocarbons 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Hydrocarbons Haloalkanes Alcohols Aldehydes Ketones Carboxylic acids 1. Hydrocarbons Compounds made of hydrogen and carbon mainly are called Hydrocarbons.( Hydrogen + Carbon). Methane (CH ), 4 Ethane(C2H6) etc. it is of two types.

1.

Saturated Htdrocarbons a hydrocarbon which is connected by only single bond.it is further divided into one part. i. Alkanes a hydrocarbon in which the carbon atoms are connected by only by single covalent bond. Methane (CH4),ethane (C2H6)

By VIVEK MISHRA compounds

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Saturated

HYDROCARBON
Unsaturated

ALKA ES a hydrocarbon in which the carbon atoms are connected by only by single covalent bond. Methane ( H4 ethane C (C2H6 .It s general formula is CnH2n+2 .
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NUMBER OF CARBON ATOMS 1 2 3 4 5 6

PREF X METH ETH PROP BUT PENT HEX  

   

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Unsat rated Hydr ar ns the hy carbon in which two carbon atoms are connecte by Double bond or Triple bond . it is further divided into two parts. ii. Al enes a hydrocarbon in which the two carbon atom are connected by a double bond. H2 C=CH2 called ethane. CH3-CH=CH2 called as propane. iii. Al ynes- a hydrocarbon in which the two carbon atoms are connected by a triple bond. HC CH as ethyne.

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date____________ MOL CULAR FORMULA CH4 C2H6 C3H8 C4H10

A hydrocarbon in which the two carbon atom are connected by a double bond. H2 C=CH2 called ethane. CH3-CH=CH2 called as propane. It s general formula is CnH2n .

AL YN S A hydrocarbon in which the two carbon atoms are connected by a triple bond. HC CH is known as ethyne. Its general formula is CnH2n-2 .

Homologous series a group of organic compounds having similar structures and similar chemical properties in which the every successive compound differ by CH2.. example Homologous series of alkane

ISOM RS :-the organic compounds having same molecular formula but structures are known as Isomers.Isomers are possible for 4 or more than four carbon atoms. Isomers of compound Butane are possible.

Functional Groups
Alkanes, Alkenes, and Alkynes are already discussed above. They are also the types of functional group.
By VIVEK MISHRA compounds
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AL AN S(number of carbon) Methane(1) Ethane(2) Propane(3) Butane(4)

MOL CULAR FORMULA CH4 C2H6 C3H8 C4H10

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AL YN S (NUMB R OF CARBON ATOMS) Ethyne Propyne Butyne Pentyne Hexyne

MOL CULAR FORMULA C2H2 C3H4 C4H6 C5H8 C6H10

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AL N S (NUMB R OF CARBON ATOM) Ethene Propene Butene Pentene Hexene

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MOL CULAR FORMULA C2H4 C3H6 C4H8 C5H10 C6H12

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AL AN S(number of carbon) Methane(1) Ethane(2) Propane(3) Butane(4)

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1. Halogen Group (X-Cl, Br, F, I) Prefixes for Cl Chloro Br- Bromo F- Fluro I-Iodo Halogen are written as R- (Where are is alkyl group and can be halogen ) Example- CH3-Cl chloromethane,C 2H5-Br bromoethane, C 2H5-F fluroethane etc. 2. Alcohol group ( -OH) Suffix for Alcohol ol (R-OH) No of C Molecular formula of alcohol group 1 Methanol 2 Ethanol 3 Propanal 4 Butanal
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Structural formula CH3-OH C2H5-OH C3H7-OH C3H7-CHO

CH3-OH methan+ol ( e is removed from all alkane names) and becomes Methanol C 2H5-OH ethanol, C3H7-OH propanal, C 4H9-OH Butanol etc. 3. Aldehyde Group (-CHO) Suffix for aldehyde is al (R-CHO) HCHO methan+al written as Methanal CH3-CHO Ethanal, C 2H5-CHO propanal, C3H7-CHO Butanal etc. No of C Molecular formula of Aldehyde group Structural formula 1 Methanal HCHO 2 Ethanal CH3-CHO 3 propanal C 2H5-CHO 4 Butanal C 3H7-CHO

4. Ketone group ( -CO- ) Suffix for ketone- one Ketone consists of one carbon and one oxygen atom. It starts from the three carbon atom. No of C Molecular formula of ketone group Structural formula 1 Propanone CH3-CO-CH3 2 Butanone CH3-CH2-CO-CH3 3 Propanone CH3-CH2- CH2-CO-CH3 4 Hexanone CH3-CH2- CH2-CH2-CO-CH3 5. Carboxylic Acid (-COOH) Suffix for carboxylic acid oic acid No of C Molecular formula of carboxylic acid group 1 Methanoic acid
By VIVEK MISHRA compounds

Structural formula HCHO
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2 3 4

Ethanoic acid Propanoic acid Butanoic acid

CH3-COOH CH3- CH2-COOH CH3- CH2- CH2-COOH

CH MICAL PROP RTY OF CARBON COMPOUND
1. Combustion:- (Burning) :- The process of burning of any carbon compounds in air to give carbon dioxide,
water, heat and light is known as combustion:

(a) Saturated hydrocarbons (alkanes) generally burn in air with a blue, now sooty flame. (b) Unsaturated hydrocarbons (alkenes, alkynes) are burned in pure oxygen, then they will burn completely producing a blue flame (without any smoke).

2. Substitution Reaction:- Reaction in which one or more hydrogen atoms of a hydrocarbon are replaced by
some other atoms( like chlorine). CH4 + CL2-----------sunlight----------CH3Cl + HCl

3. Addition Reaction:- It is a characteristic properly of unsaturated hydrocarbon.
CH2 = CH2 + Ethane (Unsaturated) (Saturated) H2 ---------- Ni catalyst, heat-----------CH3-CH3

i.

Hydrogenation of Oils:- Addition of hydrogen to an unsaturated hydrocarbon to obtain saturated hydrocarbon. Vegetables oils like ground nut oils, coconut oil, cotton seed oil and mustard oil are unsaturated oils they are in liquid state. They undergo addition reaction to form saturated compound.

By VIVEK MISHRA compounds

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CH4 + 2O2 ------COMB

STION

----------

CO2 + 2H2O + Heat + Light

carbon and its

6|Page CR2 = CR2 + H 2 -------------------

date____________ H- CR2--------CR2-H Vegetable Glee (Saturated fat) (Liquid state)

Vegetable oil (Unsaturated fat) (Liquid state)

Properties of ethanol (CH3CH2OH)
Common Name - ethyl alcohol

Physical p op ti s: (i) Colorless liquid having pleasant smell and burning taste. (ii) Lighter than water and miscible with liquid in all properties, because of presence of hydroxyl group in it. It is neutral.

Rectified Sp it:- Ethanol + 5 % water = Rectified Spirit Rectified spirit is commercial alcohol.

Absolve Alcohol :-. 100% pure alcohol.

Chemical Properties:(1)Combustion:- Burning in the presence of oxygen. Ethanol is highly inflammable. On burning gives blue flame. C2H5OH + 3O2----------------2CO2 + 3H2O +Heat +Light.

By VIVEK MISHRA compounds

1 01 0 0

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Ethanol as fuel:- Since ethanol burns with a clear flame giving a lot of heat, therefore, it is used as a fuel. It is also used as an additive in petrol in courtiers like Brazil.

(2) Oxidation: - Means controlled combustion. CH3CH2OH + 2{O} --------i or ii------ + heat -----------Ethanol nascent CH3COOH + H 2O

Ethanoic acid water

(Colorless) i. ii. Alkaline KmnO4 Acidified K2Cr2O7 = =

{Purple (5010)} KmnO 4 + NaOH K 2Cr2O7 + H2SO4

(3) Reaction with Sodium metal:2C2H5OH + 2Na ---------------2C2H5-O-Na+ + H 2.

(4) Dehydration:- (Removal of water molecule )
Conc.H2 SO4; 170 C
0

CH3CH2OH ---------------------

CH2 = CH2 +

H 2O

(5) Esterification (formation of ester):CH3-COOH + C2H5OH -----------------Ethanoic acid Ethanal CH3-COOC2H5 + H2O ethyl ethanol water

OTH R ALCOHOL COMPOUNDS
Methanol :- Is a poison. Methanol damages the optic nerve causing permanent blindness in a person. Methanol is oxidized to methanol in the liver of a person. Methanol reads rapidly with the components of cell causing coagulation of protoplasm. Cells stops functioning. This leads to death of person. Denatured Alcohol:- Ethyl alcohol which has been made unfit for drinking purposes by adding small amounts of poisonous substances like methanol, pyridine, copper sulphate etc. (CuSO imparts blue color when added with 4 ethanol.)

TESTS FOR ALCOHOL 1. Sodium metal test:- add a small piece of sodium to the organic liquid taken in a dry test tube. If the bubbles (or effervesces) of hydrogen gas are produced it indicates that the given liquid is Alcohol. By VIVEK MISHRA carbon and its
compounds

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8|Page 2C2H5OH + 2Na ---------------2C2H5-O-Na+ + H 2.

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2. Ester test for alcohol:- the organic compound is warmed with some glacial Ethanoic acid and a few drops of concentrated sulphuric acid. A sweet smell (due to the formation of ester) indicates that the organic compound is an alcohol.
CH3-COOH + C2H5OH -----------------USES OF ETHANOL 1. 2. 3. 4. In the manufacture of paints, varnishes, lacquers, medicines, perfumes, dyes, soaps and synthetic rubber. It is used as an organic solvent in laboratory. It is also used as a fuel in the cars. Ethyl alcohol is used in alcoholic beverages like wine, beer, whisky, and other liquors. Whisky (35%), wine (10-20%), beer (6%) of ethanol. 5. It is also used as an antiseptic to sterilize the wounds and syringes in hospitals. CH3-COOC2H5 + H2O

By VIVEK MISHRA compounds

carbon and its

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