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pg 229

Pg 228

Pg 230

Pg 234

y in the
Pg 236

Whats the issue?


USSR Nuclear missiles

within striking range of the
US asks Canada to be on
Red alert USSR vessels en


Opposing Points of

Didnt want to commit

Canadian military
point of view (acts,
goes to red alert) in
opposition to Dief
Most Canadians
wanted Canada to
US wants Canada to
Pro Bomarc missiles
Within Canada most
Canadians came to be
comfortable with
nuclear capabilities

Afraid of hosting US
atomic weapons on
Canadian soil

Canadas chance for
expertise in
Relations with the US opting
to go with the Bomarc

Costly to create
The US is not going to
buy it
Really you want please
the US
No to the nuclear



Canada not officially


US fear domino effect

with the spread of


More modern and less

dependent on the US
(consciously so)

US very upset with

Trudeaus tack

Trudeau &

Canada wants to
maintain sovereignty

US wants oils, ore,

resources (access and

Soviets backing Communist

US backing south
Draft not popular
Draft resisters came to

Steps back from nuclear

arms race and cold war
Cuts funding for military
Recognizes PRC officially

Resources in the arctic are

up for grabs
US initiates shipping through
Canadian waters
Ecosystem devastation
fragile ecosystem

Canadian Perspective

John Diefenbaker
PM from 1957 to
Didnt drink or smoke
Stubborn, holds on to
Doesnt trust

Lester B. Pearson
PM from 1963 to
conciliatory (remember

Pierre Elliot Trudeau

PM 1967 to 1979 & 1980 to

Defining Policies
Passionate about
Human rights
enfranchisement of FN
without removing
FN in Senate, female

Defining Policies
National Medicare,
Pension Plan,
Guaranteed income for
seniors Bilingualism
and biculturalism
Social Safety net/Social

Defining Policies

Approach to
Domestic Identity
Idea of National
identity is more
inclusive of minorities

Approach to
Domestic Identity
Embracing our


Personal Characteristics
Polarizing (perceived to
favour the East)
+socially what people need
Eastern focused

Official Languages Act

(protect French)
Govt needs to be protecting
individual rights and
freedoms not infringing on
Approach to Domestic
Federalism and the just
society Assimilation of First

but did not see

Quebecers as distinct
British influence is

Looked at Canada in
terms of two founding
peoples (Anglos and

Economic Policies

Economic Policies

Economic Policies

The Diefenbaker Vision

The Diefenbaker era featured the personality and the style of the "man
from Prince Albert"; several things now taken for granted were initiated
during his administration. Wheat sales to China and agricultural reform
revitalized western agriculture.
His determination to guarantee civil rights for all led in 1960 to the Canadian
Bill of Rights and to extending the federal vote to First Nations peoples in
Canada (prior to that point, the Indian Act generally required First Nations to
give up their treaty rights in order to be enfranchised). Diefenbaker also
nominated James Gladstone, a member of the Blood nation in Alberta, who
became the first Aboriginal member of the Senate. In addition, he appointed
Canadas first female Cabinet minister, Ellen Fairclough.
Under the philosophical umbrella of "social justice," the Diefenbaker
government restructured programs to provide aid to those in need. In
addition to the Agricultural Rehabilitation and Development Act(1961), his
government also established a Royal Commission on Health Services (1961)
as well as the National Productivity Council (1963) later named
the Economic Council of Canada. The "northern vision" that figured so
prominently in the rhetoric of the 1957 and 1958 elections increased public
awareness of the Far North and led to some economic development in that
A tour of the Commonwealth in 1958 reinforced Diefenbaker's belief in the
value of that organization and other international bodies. It also helped to
define his role as a supporter of the non-white Commonwealth; Diefenbaker

played a key role in the 1961 anti-apartheid statement that contributed to

South Africa's withdrawal from the Commonwealth.
From The Canadian Encyclopedia ARTICLE BYPATRICIA WILLIAMS
PUBLISHED 02/21/08 LAST EDITE 03/04/15

His eyes blazing and his finger stabbing the air, John George Diefenbaker set
1950s Canada alight with his vision of a bountiful land on the threshold of
greatness. Yet many feel the Saskatchewan lawyer's promise as prime
minister exceeded his deeds. His own party eventually turned against him.
But nobody can deny that "Dief the Chief" forged an intense bond with his
beloved "average Canadians."

Did You Know?

John Diefenbaker began drafting his Bill of Rights as early as 1936 four years before he was elected to Parliament. Diefenbaker said in a
1977 CBC Television interview that, as a young boy, he saw injustice
first-hand in the form of discrimination against French-Canadians,
natives, Mtis and European immigrants, I saw them ill-treated,
regarded by the people as a whole as intruders, not invaders, who
could never hope to become Canadians. They were second-class
citizens.," Diefenbaker told the interviewer.
Diefenbaker used the massive majority given to his Progressive
Conservatives in the 1958 election to push through the Canadian Bill of
Rights. It became law Aug. 10, 1960, and reflected the same values he
outlined in this clip a decade earlier.
The bill turned out to have limited scope. It was basically guidelines
for courts to interpret federal laws in a way that didn't infringe on
individual freedoms. The bill, however, didn't safeguard people's rights
from being trampled by provincial governments or private companies,
agencies or individuals.
Diefenbaker often called the Bill of Rights his proudest achievement.
When he spoke to the Conservative leadership convention in 1979, his
fellow Tories presented him with a brass copy of the bill. Diefenbaker
acknowledged over the years that the bill's practical effect was limited
but said the provinces weren't prepared to agree to constitutional
change to make the bill more robust.
The Bill of Rights wasn't the only display of Diefenbaker's
commitment to minority rights. He appointed Ellen Fairclough as

Canada's first woman cabinet minister and James Gladstone the first
native senator. In 1960, Diefenbaker gave natives the right to vote in
Canadian elections without losing their treaty rights.
From the CBC Digital Archives

United Nations peacekeeping. Canada's first Nobel Peace Prize. The Maple
Leaf flag. The Canada Pension Plan. These are a few of the achievements
that can be credited to Prime Minister Lester Bowles Pearson during his 40
years in public service. But the passionate and pragmatic Pearson was also a
sportsman, intellectual and war veteran who defied easy definition.

Lester B. Pearson was fourth in the ranking, up from sixth in 1997 and edging
toward the greats: Laurier, Macdonald, and King. Pearson was a
transformative leader, although he seemed anything but that to Canadians
at the time. When he left office in 1968, a poll had shown that 70 per cent of
Canadians could not name a single accomplishment of his government.
Yet it was Pearson who brought in the national medicare program, the
Canada Pension Plan, and the Guaranteed Income Supplement for seniors.
He gave Canada a distinctive flag and established the groundbreaking Royal
Commission on Bilingualism and Biculturalism. And he did all this in five
years and without ever holding a majority in the House of Commons.

The experts placed Pearson first in the domestic issues category. He was
especially astute on the national unity question, declared Donald Wright.
English Canada had to change, it had to stop being, well, so damn British.
After listing Pearsons contributions in modernizing Canada, York University
political scientist Miriam Smith concluded, Now that I think of it, perhaps I
should have rated him in the top group, rather than in the second tier!
Taken from Canadas Best Prime Ministers McCleans Magazine written by Norman Hillmer and
Stephen Azzi
June 10, 2011

The Story of Pierre Elliot Trudeau

In 1968, a swinger ran for prime minister. Canadians had never before seen
anyone like Pierre Elliott Trudeau in the House of Commons. He brought
youthfulness and a promise of change. He also brought a Mercedes-Benz.
Women and men were mesmerized by him. But Trudeau's appeal extended
beyond Parliament. He became a political pop star, attracting admirers
whose dedication rivaled that of Beatles fans. Canada called it
Trudeaumania, a phenomenon that lasted until his marriage in 1971.
Key Policies
Less dramatic, but of lasting significance, was the Official Languages Act of
1969, a central feature of Trudeau's new federalism. At the same time, he
began to improve the position of francophones in Ottawa. However, one
result of these policies was a growing anti-bilingual backlash in English
Canada. This was particularly the case in Western Canada, where Trudeaus
perceived lack of interest in western economic problems and in western
perspectives led to a growing sense of alienation.

An important initiative in government brought about under Trudeau's

direction was the attempt to centralize and nationalize decision making
under the Prime Minister's Office and by central agencies such as the Privy
Council Office and the Treasury Board.
Although very much along the lines of administrative reorganization in
Washington and in other Western capitals, these changes proved
controversial, leading critics to charge inefficiency and the undermining of
the role of Parliament and Cabinet. In the 1972 election, Trudeau came close
to losing office and was forced to form a minority government with the
support of the New Democratic Party.