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B) to identify the enzymes outside the organelles. C) to determine the size of various organelles. D) to separate the major organelles so their particular functions can be determined. E) to crack the cell wall so the cytoplasmic contents can be released. 90) Which of the following are prokaryotic cells? A) plants B) fungi C) bacteria D) animals E) both B and C SHORT ANSWER. Write the word or phrase that best completes each statement or answers the question. For the following questions, use the lettered answers to match the structure to its proper cell type. Choose the most inclusive category. Each answer may be used once, more than once, or not at all. A. B. C. D. E. a feature of all cells found in prokaryotic cells only found in eukaryotic cells only found in plant cells only found in animal cells only
91) plasma membrane 92) tonoplast 93) nucleoid MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 94) Large numbers of ribosomes are present in cells that specialize in producing which of the following molecules? A) lipids B) starches C) proteins D) steroids E) glucose 95) Which of the following does not contain functional ribosomes? A) a prokaryotic cell B) a plant mitochondrion C) a chloroplast D) an animal mitochondrion E) a nucleolus 96) Which structure is the site of the synthesis of proteins that may be exported from the cell? A) rough ER B) lysosomes C) plasmodesmata D) Golgi vesicles E) tight junctions 97) Which of the following pairs is mismatched? A) nucleolusπribosomal RNA B) nucleusπDNA replication C) lysosomeπprotein synthesis D) cell membraneπlipid bilayer
E) cytoskeletonπmicrotubules SHORT ANSWER. Write the word or phrase that best completes each statement or answers the question. Refer to the following five terms to answer the following questions. Choose the most appropriate term for each phrase. Each term may be used once, more than once, or not at all. A. B. C. D. E. lysosome tonoplast mitochondrion Golgi apparatus peroxisome
98) secretes many polysaccharides 99) contains hydrolytic enzymes 100) helps to recycle the cell's organic material 101) one of the main energy transformers of cells 102) involved in Pompe's disease, in which the liver is damaged by an accumulation of glycogen due to the absence of an enzyme needed to break down glycogen 103) contains its own DNA and ribosomes 104) detoxifies alcohol in the liver 105) contains enzymes that transfer hydrogen from various substrates to oxygen, producing H2O2 106) a membrane that encloses a versatile plant compartment that may hold reserves of organic compounds or inorganic ions MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 107) Of the following, what do both mitochondria and chloroplasts have in common? A) ATP is produced. B) DNA is present. C) Ribosomes are present. D) Only B and C are correct. E) A, B, and C are correct. 108) An animal secretory cell and a photosynthetic leaf cell are similar in all of the following ways except: A) They both have a Golgi apparatus. B) They both have mitochondria. C) They both have transport proteins for active transport of ions. D) They both have chloroplasts. E) They both have a cell membrane. 109) Which of the following possesses a microtubular structure similar in form to a basal body? A) centriole B) lysosome C) nucleolus D) peroxisome E) ribosome
110) Which of the following is not a known function of the cytoskeleton? A) to maintain a critical limit on cell size B) to provide mechanical support to the cell C) to maintain characteristic shape of the cell D) to hold mitochondria and other organelles in place within the cytosol E) to assist in cell motility by interacting with specialized motor proteins MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) Recent research has indicated that cancer cells A) transform normal cells by altering genes involved in the control of mitosis. B) always develop into a tumor. C) contain more than the normal number of chromosomes. D) are unable to complete the cell cycle after the S phase. E) enter and exit the G0 phase three times before they divide. 2) The MPF protein complex turns itself off by A) activating an enzyme that destroys cyclin. B) activating an enzyme that stimulates cyclin. C) binding to chromatin. D) exiting the cell. E) activating the anaphase-promoting complex. 3) Proteins that are involved in the regulation of the cell cycle, and that show fluctuations in concentration during the cell cycle, are called A) ATPases. B) kinetochores. C) centrioles. D) proton pumps. E) cyclins. 4) As the cell progresses through prophase and into metaphase, what happens to the active anaphase-promoting complex proteins? A) They increase gradually during telophase. B) They decrease gradually until it is depleted at metaphase. C) They increase sharply once all the chromosomes are lined up in metaphase. D) They are initially high, but drop precipitously when all the chromosomes are lined up in metaphase. E) They remain constant from prophase through metaphase. SHORT ANSWER. Write the word or phrase that best completes each statement or answers the question. The following questions consist of five phrases or sentences related to the control of cell division. For each one, select the term from below that is most closely related to it. Each term may be used once, more than once, or not at all. A. B. C. D. E. PDGF MPF protein kinase cyclin Cdk
5) released by platelets in the vicinity of an injury 6) enzymes that activate or inactivate other proteins by phosphorylating them 7) fibroblasts have receptors for this substance on their plasma membranes 8) a protein synthesized through the cell cycle that associates with a kinase to form
active enzymes MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 9) Which of the following would likely move through the lipid bilayer of a plasma membrane most rapidly? A) CO2 B) an amino acid C) glucose D) K+ E) starch 17) Which of the following adheres to the extracellular surface of animal cell plasma membranes? A) fibers of the extracellular matrix B) fibers of the cytoskeleton C) the phospholipid bilayer D) cholesterol E) carrier proteins 18) Integral proteins A) lack tertiary structure. B) are loosely bound to the bilayer. C) are usually transmembrane proteins. D) are not mobile within the bilayer. E) have no known functions in membranes. 19) All of the following statements about membrane structure and function are true except: A) Diffusion of gases is faster in air than across membranes. B) Diffusion, osmosis, and facilitated diffusion do not require any energy input from the cell. C) Both sides of a membrane are identical in structure and function. D) Voltage across the membrane depends on an unequal distribution of ions across the plasma membrane. E) Special membrane proteins can cotransport two solutes by coupling diffusion with active transport. 20) What is one of the ways that the membranes of winter wheat are able to remain fluid when it is extremely cold? A) by increasing the percentage of unsaturated phospholipids in the membrane B) by increasing the percentage of cholesterol molecules in the membrane C) by decreasing the number of hydrophobic proteins in the membrane D) A and B E) A, B, and C 21) According to the fluid mosaic model of cell membranes, which of the following is a true statement about membrane phospholipids? A) They can move laterally along the plane of the membrane. B) They frequently flip-flop from one side of the membrane to the other. C) They occur in an uninterrupted bilayer, with membrane proteins restricted to the surface of the membrane. D) They are free to depart from the membrane and dissolve in the surrounding solution. E) They have hydrophilic tails in the interior of the membrane. 22) The presence of cholesterol in the plasma membranes of some animals A) enables the membrane to stay fluid more easily when cell temperature drops.
B) enables the animal to remove hydrogen atoms from saturated phospholipids. C) enables the animal to add hydrogen atoms to unsaturated phospholipids. D) makes the membrane less flexible, so it can sustain greater pressure from within the cell. E) makes the animal more susceptible to circulatory disorders. 23) Mutant cells lacking coated pits would most likely be A) deficient in receptor-mediated endocytosis. B) unable to adapt to the cold. C) characterized by a smooth surface on both sides of the bilayer. D) unable to actively transport ions into the cell. E) involved in steroid synthesis. 24) Water passes quickly through cell membranes because A) the bilayer is hydrophilic. B) it moves through hydrophobic channels. C) water movement is tied to ATP hydrolysis. D) it is a small, polar, charged molecule. E) it moves through aquaporins in the membrane. 25) Glucose diffuses slowly through artificial phospholipid bilayers. The cells lining the small intestine, however, rapidly move large quantities of glucose from the glucose-rich food into their glucose-poor cytoplasm. Using this information, which transport mechanism is most probably functioning in the intestinal cells? A) simple diffusion B) phagocytosis C) active transport pumps D) exocytosis E) facilitated diffusion 26) Carrier molecules in the membrane and metabolic energy are required for A) osmosis. B) facilitated diffusion. C) active transport. D) B and C. E) A, B, and C. 27) All of the following molecules are part of the cell membrane except A) lipid. B) nucleic acids. C) protein. D) phosphate group. E) steroid. 28) A cell with an internal concentration of 0.02 molar glucose is placed in a test tube containing 0.02 molar glucose solution. Assuming that glucose is not actively transported into the cell, which of the following terms describes the internal concentration of the cell relative to its environment? A) isotonic B) hypertonic C) hypotonic D) flaccid E) A or B, depending on the temperature 29) During aerobic respiration, electrons travel downhill in which sequence?
A) food ¬ Krebs cycle ¬ ATP¬ NAD+ B) food ¬ NADH ¬ electron transport chain ¬ oxygen C) glucose ¬ ATP¬ oxygen D) glucose ¬ ATP ¬ electron transport chain ¬ NADH E) food ¬ glycolysis ¬ Krebs cycle ¬ NADH ¬ ATP 30) All of the following statements about glycolysis are true except: A) Glycolysis has steps involving oxidation-reduction reactions. B) The enzymes of glycolysis are located in the cytosol of the cell. C) Glycolysis can operate in the complete absence of O2. D) The end products of glycolysis are CO2 and H2O. E) Glycolysis makes ATP exclusively through substrate-level phosphorylation. 31) All of the following substances are produced in a muscle cell under anaerobic conditions except A) ATP. B) pyruvate. C) lactate. D) acetyl CoA. E) NADH. 32) A young relative of yours has never had much energy. He goes to a doctor for help and is sent to the hospital for some tests. There they discover his mitochondria can use only fatty acids and amino acids for respiration, and his cells produce more lactate than normal. Of the following, which is the best explanation of his condition? A) His mitochondria lack the transport protein that moves pyruvate across the outer mitochondrial membrane. B) His cells cannot move NADH from glycolysis into the mitochondria. C) His cells contain something that inhibits oxygen use in his mitochondria. D) His cells lack the enzyme in glycolysis that forms pyruvate. E) His cells have a defective electron transport chain, so glucose goes to lactate instead of to acetyl CoA. 33) Which of the following intermediary metabolites enters the Krebs cycle and is formed, in part, by the removal of CO2 from a molecule of pyruvate? A) lactate B) glyceraldehyde phosphate C) oxaloacetic acid D) acetyl CoA E) citric acid 34) All of the following are functions of the Krebs cycle except A) production of ATP. B) production of NADH. C) production of FADH2. D) release of carbon dioxide. E) adding electrons and protons to oxygen to form water. MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 49) The primary function of the mitochondrion is the production of ATP. To carry out this function, the mitochondrion must have all of the following except A) the membrane-bound electron transport chain. B) proton pumps embedded in the inner membrane. C) enzymes for glycolysis. D) enzymes for the Krebs cycle. E) mitochondrial ATP synthase.
53) A major function of the mitochondrial inner membrane is the conversion of energy from electrons to the stored energy of the phosphate bond in ATP. To accomplish this function, this membrane must have all of the following features except A) proteins to accept electrons from NADH. B) integral, transverse ATP synthase. C) proton pumps embedded in the membrane. D) the electron transport chain of proteins. E) high permeability to protons. 55) The general name for an enzyme that transfers phosphate groups from ATP to a protein is A) phosphorylase. B) phosphatase. C) protein kinase. D) ATPase. E) protease. 57) The plasma membrane receptor for a growth factor is often a A) ligand-gated ion channel. B) G-protein-linked receptor. C) cyclic AMP. D) tyrosine-kinase receptor. E) neurotransmitter. 58) All of the following are part of the phosphorylation cascade model except: A) A signal molecule binds to a membrane receptor protein. B) Protein kinase is activated. C) GTP donates a phosphate group to an inactive protein kinase. D) A specific protein is activated via phosphorylation. E) A cellular response is initiated. 59) The toxin of Vibrio cholerae causes profuse diarrhea because it A) modifies a G protein involved in regulating salt and water secretion. B) decreases the cytosolic concentration of calcium ions, which makes the cells hypotonic to the intestinal cells. C) binds with adenyl cyclase and triggers the formation of cAMP. D) signals inositol triphosphate to become a second messenger for the release of calcium. E) modifies calmodulin and activates a cascade of protein kinases. 60) All of the following are true of cell communication systems except: A) Cell signaling was an early event in the evolution of life. B) Communicating cells may be far apart or close together. C) Most signal receptors are bound to the outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. D) Protein phosphorylation is a major mechanism of signal transduction. E) In response to a signal, the cell may alter activities by changes in cytosol activity or in transcription of RNA. 61) The process of transduction usually begins A) when the chemical signal is released from the alpha cell.
B) when the signal molecule changes the receptor protein in some way. C) after the target cell divides. D) after the third stage of cell signaling is completed. E) when the hormone is released from the gland into the blood. 62) A selective advantage of cell signaling is A) that it allowed some organisms to evolve without having a nervous system. B) to ensure proper timing of communication between cells in different parts of an organism. C) to ensure that crucial activities occur in the right cells at the right time. D) A and C. E) A, B, and C. 63) In chemiosmotic phosphorylation, what is the most direct source of energy that is used to convert ADP + Pi to ATP? A) energy released as electrons flow through the electron transport system B) energy released from substrate-level phosphorylation C) energy released from ATP synthase pumping hydrogen ions against their concentration gradient D) energy released from movement of protons through ATP synthase E) No external source of energy is required because the reaction is exergonic. 64) How many carbon atoms feed into the Krebs cycle? A) 2 B) 4 C) 6 D) 8 E) 10 65) Which of the following does not participate in glycolysis? A) fatty acids B) sucrose C) glucose D) glycerol E) starch 66) Testosterone functions inside a cell by A) acting as a signal receptor that activates ion-channel proteins. B) binding with a receptor protein that enters the nucleus and activates specific genes. C) acting as a steroid signal receptor that activates ion-channel proteins. D) becoming a second messenger that inhibits adenylyl cyclase. E) coordinating a phosphorylation cascade that increases glycogen metabolism. 67) Chemical signal pathways A) operate in animals, but not in plants. B) are absent in bacteria, but are plentiful in yeast. C) involve the release of hormones into the blood. D) usually involve signal molecules binding to a target cell surface protein. E) use hydrophilic molecules to activate enzymes. 69) Which of the following signal systems use(s) G-protein-linked receptors? A) yeast mating factors B) epinephrine C) neurotransmitters D) A and C E) A, B, and C 70) G proteins and G-protein receptors A) are found only in animal cells. B) are found only in bacterial cells. C) are thought to have evolved very early, possibly as sensory receptors in ancient
bacteria. D) probably evolved from an adaptation of the Krebs cycle. E) are not widespread in nature and were unimportant in the evolution of eukaryotes. 71) Most signal molecules A) bind to specific sites on receptor proteins in a membrane. B) are water soluble. C) are able to pass through the plasma membrane by active transport. D) A and B. E) A, B, and C. 72) Of the following, a receptor protein in a membrane that recognizes a chemical signal is most similar to A) a specific catalytic site of an enzyme binding to a substrate. B) DNA encoding a message into RNA. C) a particular metabolic pathway operating within a specific organelle. D) an enzyme with an optimum pH and temperature for activity. E) genes making up a chromosome. 74) What could happen to target cells in an animal that lack receptors for local regulators? A) They could compensate by receiving nutrients via an a factor. B) They could develop normally in response to neurotransmitters instead. C) They would divide but could never reach full size. D) They would not be expected to multiply in response to growth factors from nearby cells. E) Hormones would not be able to interact with target cells. 75) Ligand-gated ion channels A) are important in the nervous system. B) lead to changes in sodium and calcium concentrations in cells. C) open or close in response to a chemical signal. D) involve A and B. E) involve A, B, and C.
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