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Practice Activities
A resource book for teaching
English pronunciation
Martin Hewings


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Whatis pronunciation?


Keyissuesin pronunciationteachingandlearning




Developingawarenessof Englishpronunciation
Introducing features of pronunciation
Getting you thinking: a pronunciation questionnaire
Making vowel sounds
Consonant clusters: English and first language


Comparing slow and quick speech
Sounding English
Pronouncing names in English
Pronouncing places, products and planets
Intonation in print


2 Sounds:vowels,consonantsand consonantclusters
Vowels:correcting particularvowels
2.1 Matching vowel sounds: a family tree
2.2 Finding words including the same vowel sound: word
2. 3 Hearing and saying differences between vowels and between
consonants: minimal pairs
2.4 Communicating with single vowel sounds
2. 5 Classifying words according to their first vowel




6 Talking aboutfamilies 3.IO Demonstrating syllable length Matching words with their stress patterns Group the words Country names At the supermarket Stress patterns in -ty and -teen numbers (I): Bingo Stress patterns in -ty and -teen numbers (2): talking about accommodation 4.13 4.3 Eliminating words VI 63 65 68 101 I03 Wordstress 4. II Stress in noun-verb pairs 4. II Leaving out consonants: ItI and Id/ in clusters 3.12 Leaving out vowels in words 99 99 4 Syllables.7 Comparing speech and writing 69 71 73 73 74 77 79 79 79 80 82 85 87 87 89 91 Weakandstrongforms of grammarwords 3.7 2.15 4.4 4.8 Comparing weak and strong forms 3. 17 Rules of word stress: prefixes and suffixes Suffixes and word stress: words ending -ian Suffixes and word stress: words ending -ic and -ical Stress in phrasal verbs and related nouns Rules of stress in compound nouns 4.9 Predicting weak and strong forms 3.12 Rules of word stress in two-syllable nouns.2 Hearing and saying prominent words: 'They're on the table' 144 5.19 4.6 2. II 2. IO Listening to weak forms 94 94 96 98 Leavingout sounds 3.7 4.5 +6 4. adjectives and verbs Stressandwordformation 4.4 Matching opposites and words that go together: vowels linked with /r/ Contractedforms 3.word stressand stressin phrases Syllables 4.3 Predict the linking sounds: vowels linked with Ij/ (y) and Iwl 3. I Introducing prominent and non-prominent words: 'J ames Bond' 5.20 4.5 Tonic word placement: 'At ten to seven. I How many syllables? 4.3 Prominence contrasts within words: stalactites and stalagmites 147 142 142 I03 I03 I04 I05 Toneunitsandtonic placement 5-4 Dividing speech into tone units 5.I Matching adjectives and nouns: consonant to vowel links 3.8 4.14 4.2 Changing sounds: consonant to consonant links 3.5 Dialogues 3. IO Word chains 2.16 4.21 Stressin phrases Same or different stress patterns? Find your partners Stress shift in nationality words Stress shift in compounds 5 Intonation I06 I06 I07 I08 I09 III II3 II5 II8 120 122 122 124 127 129 131 132 132 134 137 139 142 Prominence:highlightingwords andsyllables 5.18 4.2 The same or different number of syllables? 4.9 4.12 Definitions quiz Consonant cluster towers 3 Connected speech Linksbetweenwords 3.8 2.9 Consonants:correcting particularconsonants Who lives where? Minimal pair names Lip-reading Classifying words according to their first consonant Getting rid of unwanted vowels Consonant clusters 2.Contents Contents 2. or ten to eight?' 151 151 153 VB .

7 Vlll 154 154 155 160 161 187 193 199 2°4 206 2°9 213 213 213 215 IX .3 Finding out about sounds 8.7 Pronunciationandspelling Grouping English alphabet letters Pronouncing single vowel letters (I) Pronouncing single vowel letters (2) Pronouncing pairs of vowel letters: OU.2 6.9 Choosing tones: fall or rise? Tone choice in questions Falling and falling-rising tones: reservation 'News' and 'not news': correcting 6 Pronunciation and other parts of language: spelling.3 6. knock' jokes 8. 3 7 -4 7. verbs and possessives 6. grammar and vocabulary 6.8 Pronouncing -s in plurals. OE.5 Transcribing words 179 179 181 6.8 Limericks 217 218 Appendix 3 Initial consonant clusters in English Classifying words Usingphoneticsymbols 8.2 7.4 6. IO 7 7.8 5.6 5.12 Problem pronunciations 185 Testing pronunciation General evaluation of pronunciation Diagnosing particular problems Testing vowels and consonants Testing weak and contracted forms Testing word stress Testing prominence Testing tone 186 186 Usinga dictionary 8.2 Finding out about secondary stress: shifting stress 8.9 Poems with features of connected speech 8.1 Finding out about word stress 8.6 'Knock.Contents Contents Tones 5. CH.4 Relating sounds and symbols 8. 6 7.5 6.9 Pronouncing -ed in past tense verbs 165 165 165 166 168 17° 173 175 177 219 219 221 223 226 228 Web-basedresources 231 Appendix 1 Key to phonetic symbols 232 Appendix 2 Common pronunciation problems 233 Appendix 4 Some word stress rules 24° Bibliography 242 Index 244 184 184 6. TH and GH Homographs: a row about rowing? Pronunciationandgrammar 6.II Odd one out 184 6.7 Tongue twisters 8. 00 Pronouncing consonant letters: C and G Pronouncing consonant pairs: PH. 5 7.I 7. 01. I 6. OA. SH.7 5.6 6. IO Short texts showing features of pronunciation 218 218 239 Pronunciation and vocabulary 8 Resources for pronunciation teaching Usingauthenticmaterial 8.

It has not been possibleto identifythe sourcesof all the materialusedand in suchcasesthe publishers would welcome information from copyright owners. I hope. and I would like to thank them here. 3 from p. There are a number of books already available that do a very good job of presenting phonetics and phonology to English language teachers.6 (part). 57. 228: @2°°3 Kellogg Company. p. Most of the activities presented have been used in one form or another in the classroom with. The best it can hope to do is provide activities which are immediately usable. and I wish particularly to thank Richard Cauldwell.6. with kind permission of Sir Michael Caine and Jim White. 'Parents' Evening' from Heard it in the playground (Viking. Audio material: for the extract from the Radio 4 programme. 89. The authors andpublishersare gratefulto the authors. Organisation The Introduction provides a brief description of the elements that together make up English pronunciation. priorities for pronunciation teaching. Example L1O.publishersand otherswho have given permission for the use of copyright material identified in the text.2. and these are used I . published by Penguin. Special thanks to my colleague Philip King for his voice. 4 fromp. support and good humour. my thanks to Alison Sharpe for suggesting the project in the first place. By licence of BBC Worldwide Limited. for the following extracts from Pronunciation for Advanced Learners of English: Part A: I from p. Copyright @Allan Ahlberg. A number of people have commented on drafts of the material. Example 4. Suggestions are frequently given on how this might be done. pp. Iwanted to outline some of the current areas of debate on pronunciation teaching (issuessuch as what models to teach. published by Cambridge University Press. was to write a book which provides a minimum of information about the details of English pronunciation (on the basis that interested teachers can refer to other more detailed sources for further information) but sufficient to make the activities comprehensible. p. I9 89).. 23. My third aim. I. although many have been considerably revised for publication. My thanks to James Richardson and Studio AVPfor the CD recording. First. 78. Key terms are highlighted. I989. No single book of this type. some success. p. it is useful to provide some background to show the general thinking behind them and to give enough technical knowledge to make them comprehensible to the teacher. p. inspiration .7.I.and. Part B: I from p. I had three aims in mind. Copyright @ I990 Usborne Publishing Ltd. The series editor. I have judged. Example 8. Example 2.. has been an excellent source of advice and guidance through her detailed comments on versions of the manuscript. then. 23°: for the cartoon 'I think you misunderstood what I said'. Brazil.6. was to offer a collection of pronunciation teaching materials that would provide ideas . and to Yvonne Harmer for her care and attention to detail. Back Row. published by Red Fox. then. Iwanted to report some of the pronunciation teaching activities I have used in over 25years of English language teaching with students of many different nationalities and levels of ability. Example 5. 2fromp. At Cambridge University Press. knock' jokes extracted from The Funniest Joke Book in the World Ever. 35. to Frances Amrani for efficiently steering the work through its various stages. Bevery awake' are reproduced by kind permission of Kellogg Company. 2. Penny Ur. In addition. Example 3. Example 7.for teachers to go on to devise their own. 5. in the hope that other teachers might find some of them interesting and useful. 45. p. Used by permission of The Random House Group Limited. My second aim. 225:reproduced from Funny Poems by permission of Usborne Publishing. 2 from p. can be a comprehensive source for teaching all students all of the time. but also (and just as importantly) give suggestions and principles for teachers to go further. 2I4: extracts from entries in The Cambridge Learner's Dictionary (200I). Consequently. 2a. a short story by Roald Dahl. Example 3. edited by Elizabeth Walter. 4 from p. 83-85 Saffron Hill.4. by Dan Wasserman (I990). 3. The words 'Be awake. Reproduced with kind permission of TMS Reprints. With kind permission of David Higham Associates.Introduction Acknowledgements I have had considerable help from a number of people while I have been preparing this book. David and Ann for their interest. 3 fromp. 227:for the poem. broadcast 10 May 20°3. p. I. to give a broader context for the activities. At home. Reproduced by permission of Penguin Books Ltd. written by D. 2I9: 'Knock. London ECIN 8RT. x Aims In writing this book. I have tried to write the activities in such a way that teachers can develop them and devise related ones for subsequent use with students. published by Cambridge University Press (I994). which provides example teaching activities. my thanks as always to Suzanne. I3. and so on). As a preface to a set of teaching materials like this. 40-4I: extract from 'The Way up to Heaven'. 3I. and my colleagues at the English for International Students Unit of the University of Birmingham. I.

Phonetic symbols are used to represent pronunciation throughout the book. I realise that not all teachers will feel confident in recognising these. and sometimes Y.) Many activities include material in Boxesthat you can photocopy for use inthe classroom. around 44 phonemes (20 vowels and 24 consonants) are generally recognised. E. and the remainder are consonants. The five letter vowels in the alphabet are A.(However. 2 Sounds The building blocks of pronunciation are the individual sounds. used in classrooms. In British English. are set in bold the first time they appear. Where the original source is lost from my memory or my notes. These separate sounds are often referred to as phonemes. bit/but) are referred to as minimal pairs. and the symbol is givenwhen there is a relevant section on the recording. Chapters 1-8 present a series ofteaching activities that are intended to be immediately usable bythe teacher. Where I have been able to trace the originator of an idea developed in activities. However. The Extension section givessuggestions onhowthe activity might be further developed. It is important to note that the recording is not essential for any ofthe activities in the book. Many of the activities included in the book have been inspired by exercises I have seen demonstrated.13. 0. II . for example.Introduction Pronunciation Practice Activities in the activities later in the book. I have not been able to give explicit acknowledgement. together with important differences between English and other languages. but it is not the intention that this variety should necessarily be the 'target model' for your students. The people on the recording are all speakers of southern British English. (Seethe discussion of models on pp. which are explained in this section and used in the activities in Chapters 1-8. if it is not obvious what is represented. a supporting example (a word or letter[ s])is included. This section introduces some of the main components of speech which together combine to form the pronunciation of a used to convey meaning. The aim is both to provide tentative answers to the questions posed and also to encourage readers to consider the relevance of these questions to their own teaching contexts. Key terms. I have acknowledged this. phonology. Those marked 'Elementary +' will be ofuse to students at all levels. an indication isgiven ofthe general levelof ability the activity isaimed at. Similarly. These figures are rather different from the 20 vowel sounds and 3 .) The appendices provide reference material that you might find useful. The particular characteristics of English pronunciation are highlighted. and displayed in boxes. in bit and pit. and these are referred to at various places in the activities. I apologise in advance for the resulting omissions. The Bibliography contains references from the text and suggests books for further reading which include additional pronunciation teaching activities and background on phonetics. we can gather some idea of the challenge facing Swahili speakers learning English when we note that Swahili has only 5 vowels. These components range from the individual sounds that make up speech. and there is a full list of these in Appendix 1. either immediately after using it or at a later stage inthe course. The recording (on CD) includes much of the text provided in the Boxes. but different languages use different ones. Soit is not necessary to be familiar with phonetic symbols to work with the activities. or have read in other sources. and pronunciation teaching. Undoubtedly. It is these differences which often result in difficulties for learners. and pairs of words which differ by only one vowel or consonant sound (bitlpit. with around 70 per cent of languages having between 20 and 37. you 0bviouslywill bethe best judge ofwhich are appropriate to the levelof ability ofyour own students. or simply to provide a different accent or voice for your students to listen to. For each. the vowels hi (as in it) and IAI(as in y:p)are separate because to interchange them gives us bit and but. many of the pronunciation problems faced by any learner of a new language relate to differences in the phonemes used in the first and the target language. For example. to the way in which pitch .the rise and fall of the voice . We think of consonants such as /bl and Ipl as separate in English because if we interchange them we can make new words. I. none of which is identical to any of the 20 vowels in British English! Key terms vowel consonant phoneme minimal pair It is important to remember that there is a difference between vowel and consonant letters and vowel and consonant sounds. the activities can all be based on your own reading aloud ofthe texts. and where they are used. The recording is intended to be used on those occasions when you perhaps lack confidence that you are pronouncing something in the way required in the exercise. the vowels and consonants that go together to make words. There is also a discussion of a number of What is pronunciation? important key issues. U.

Perhaps more problematic for language learners is the issue of what is possible in English in the 'consonant' elements of syllables. compound nouns usually have stress on their final syllable. each word has a fixed pattern of stress. This is sometimes referred to as stress shift. A wide variety of patterns of stress in words exists in English. cat. while at the end. in a) consonant + vowel (e. window.1 for an illustration).g. in Finnish most words are stressed on the first syllable. In some languages.}'bautlusing the symbol' before the syllable with primary stressl (see Activity 8.}'nerd!using the symbol. lemonade [three]. Compounds are combinations of words which function mainly as a single noun or adjective. particularly those with three or more syllables. as in glimpsed (/-mpst/) and texts (/-ksts/). It can be helpful to think of the structure of English syllables as: [consonant( s)] + vowel + [consonant( s)] This means that various combinations of vowels and consonants are possible: . For example. while in about the first syllable is unstressed and the second stressed. In other languages. about [two syllables]. chocolate biscuit and easy-going.}uland I.. When a word has more than one syllable.d. in bag).d. ea in head is pronounced lei.g. At the beginning of syllables. own) or a sequence of two or more syllables (e.ek'trrs. and there are many cases where two or more letters represent just one sound. in eat) consonant + vowel + consonant (e.g. and augh in daughter is pronounced h:/. up to three consonant sounds are possible.(/.chocolate' biscuit. it is said with relatively more force or heard as being more emphatic . main stress is likely to shift back to the first syllable in the word (/'tSar. the compounds which are exceptions to this general rule are different in Swedish and English.. most dictionaries will indicate both. CALD represents the words electricity and lemonade respectively as I. while in Turkish most words are stressed on the last. although with the exception of stress shift.g. vowel only (e. one pattern predominates. tape measure. in me) vowel + consonant (e. in the phrase a Chinese company. only syllables with vowel only and consonant + vowel are commonly used.g.easy-'going).while 4 other syllables are said to be unstressed. . For example.til and I.However. different patterns of stress in compounds are found.Introduction Pronunciation Practice Activities 24 consonant sounds in British English noted above. in Farsi (spoken in Iran and surrounding regions).. In Japanese. 5 . electricity [five]). These combinations of consonants are often referred to as consonant clusters. 'bookcase.r. 1 CALD also uses the symbol. . In other languages. For example. For example. ch in chemist is pronounced Ik/. the Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary (CALD) represents these words as I'wrn. Examples of compounds are bookcase. Swedish follows a similar pattern to English in that the majority of compound nouns are stressed in their first part. 'tape measure) some have primary stress in their second part and secondary stress in their first (e. not all of these combinations are possible or common. have an intermediate level of stress so that a distinction is made between primary stress.lem. to indicate secondary stress.g. Syllables Vowel and consonant sounds combine into syllables. For example.that is.g. to mark the boundary between syllables. If a word has primary and secondary stress. as occurs in English.tSar'ni:z/). secondary stress (on the syllable with the second most important emphasis) and unstressed syllables. as in string or mit. One interesting feature of stress in English words is that in certain contexts when some words with both primary and secondary stress are actually spoken it is the secondary stressed syllable that takes the main stress. Some words. For example. Key terms syllable consonant cluster Words A word can be either a single syllable (e. one of these syllables is stressed in relation to the other syllables in the word . Although it is most common for compounds to have main stress in their first part (e. a dictionary entry for the word Chinese will indicate primary stress on -ese and secondary stress on Chi. For example. for example. It is not very common in other major languages to have consonant clusters at the beginning of syllables and very rare to have more than two. .g. Dictionaries often show stress patterns in words. up to four consonants are possible. in window the first syllable is stressed and the second unstressed.

Changes such as these probably occur in some form in all languages and to some extent learners will make them automatically when they are speaking fluently. In its citation form. however. simplifying the consonant cluster I-ktb-I and pronounced closer to lIt lukbxd/. we have seen that different languages have different combinations of sounds in syllables and words and. most native speakers would run two consecutive It! sounds together as a single. influenced by the following Ipl sound. This may mean that some of the changes that are made automatically by native English speakers are problematic for learners. producing Imet rom!. when certain sounds come into contact at word boundaries. sounds may be missed out. longer It! sound so that I met Tom is pronounced something like Imerom!. These two forms are sometimes called the strong and weak forms of a word.4110? Key terms citation form Strong and weak forms In English many grammatical words have two forms: one its citation form. For example. This is often referred to as its citation form. A: ~! 6 Nice to hear from you. Intonation Essentially. it will be pronounced closer to Item!. strong forms often seem closer to their written form and there may be a temptation to produce these when reading aloud. The citation form of looked is pronounced Ilukt! but in It looked bad the ItI sound may be omitted completely. Third. First. Key terms strong form weak form Here are some examples: word strong form weak form( s) word strong form weak form(s) and but not could Ixnd/ /bAt! InDt! Ikud/ hmd/. one or both of the sounds may change. For example. when words come into contact in connected speech. used when the word is said in isolation and when it is highlighted or stressed in connected speech. the other when it is unstressed or used with no special emphasis. Second. in a telephone conversation we might hear: (Phone rings) A: . the citation form of for in accents where Irl is not normally pronounced at the end of a word (such as in south-east England) is Ib:/./kd/ from of to him Ifmm! IDVI Itu:1 Ihrm! Ifrm! Iv/. This may be a particular problem where the learning experience of students focuses on written text. consequently. the kinds of sounds that come into contact at word boundaries will differ from language to language. mainly as a consequence of the speed of speaking and in order to make the production of sequences of sounds easier. 7 . the word ten is pronounced ItenJ. However. intonation refers to the way the pitch of the voice falls or rises. However. in for example a Irl sound is inserted between the words. However./nJ. Tom./nl /btl Int! Ibd/. extra sounds are inserted. and there is a tendency for learners to produce strong forms in contexts where there is no reason for highlighting these words and weak forms would therefore be appropriate. it's Sue. tend to pronounce the two It! sounds separately. Russian speakers. Igl Itgl 11m! Many other languages either have fewer words that have a weak and strong form or do not have this kind of distinction at all. For example. in other cases. but in It's ten past. connected speech B: Hi.Introduction Pronunciation Practice Activities Key terms stress stressedsyllable unstressedsyllable primary stress secondarystress main stress stressshift compound Wordsin connected speech A dictionary gives the pronunciation of a word when it is said in isolation: as if in response to the word being written down and the question asked 'How is this word pronounced?'. certain common changes take place.

the sound ISIcan be represented by a variety of letters and letter combinations including s (sure). A: My brother is an accountant. This is clear if you think about how hello might be said in the 'Tom and Sue' example above. this tone is less common and when speakers of these languages use English they may use a rising tone where a British speaker uses a falling-rising tone. p. and how we might change the intonation of the second hello to express attitudes other than pleasure. For example.ent ways from English. In addition to choosing whether to make the pitch of our voice fall or rise. that is. the place at which we begin to fall or rise is also important. One of these is to indicate how information is structured. Key terms intonation tone unit tone tonic word prominent word Here is an extract2 from authentic speech marked with tone units (II). A single written letter might have a number of different pronunciations in different words. the letter f can be pronounced Ivl in of but IfI in roof. (1994. For example. a single sound might be represented by a number of letters or letter combinations in different words.1. use tones to distinguish between word meaning. For example. In many other languages. Intonation also contributes to the expression of a wide range of attitudes. Many other languages use intonation in very differ. If you listen to English speech. including loudness. Intonation is also used to show how discourse is divided up into sections. spelling will often have an influence on the learning of pronunciation as the majority of learners use written texts in their studies. in British English a falling-rising tone is very common and in conversations is often associated with politeness. Other words may also be highlighted (prominent words). and written letters may not have a directly corresponding pronunciation.tones ( ~ ~). whether something is 'new' or whether it is part of what is already known in the discourse. The relationship between them in English is often thought to be complex and chaotic. For example. For example. B: It's under the T~ with the fall beginning on the stressed syllable of the word under rather than table. D. the speaker will often begin new sections with a step up in pitch and end sections with a falling tone to a relatively low pitch.. pitch range (wide or narrow). it is important to remember that intonation works together with a wide range of other features of communication. so that a syllable will change in meaning depending on the pattern of pitch that is used with it. in the following conversation the first of the two responses is more likely: A: I thought I left my bag on the table. gesture and facial expression. if we listen to a monologue such as a lecture or a radio news report. such as Chinese and Vietnamese. B: It's ~ble. isn't he? B: Well in ~n. I25). what B says in the following conversation consists of something that is 'new' (but engineers) followed by something that is already being talked about (build bridges): Pronunciationandspelling Although pronunciation is a feature of speech and spelling a feature of writing. For example. l/is to GO to the~/and ASK ~I FIND ~lland A: Clarke's a great goalkeeper. 9 . you can often hear that it is divided into a sequence of units (referred to as tone units). Where we politely disagree with someone a falling-rising tone may well be used: with the voice rising on the first hello and falling on the second. B: Ilbut eng~// build~I 2 From Brazil. Even those languages which use intonation in broadly similar ways to English differ in the details of use. some languages. 8 he needs to get a lot fitter. to convey attitude. . and tonic and other prominent words (both in capitals): Iinow you KNOW where the~//WHAT i want you to D. He builds bridges.Introduction Pronunciation Practice Activities and this is indicated in the choice of falling tone (for 'new' material) and rising tone (for material already known). each of which has one main fall or rise in pitch (a tone) beginning on a word that is then heard as highlighted (the tonic word). Ilfor the ~/!to mY~1 A number of kinds of meaning are conveyed by intonation in English. However.

A further consideration is that pronunciation is something that students often feel is important to them in their language learning. his research work was highly regarded and he was being encouraged. to share his findings through seminar and conference presentations. when they hear a new word they can make an attempt to write it with its correct spelling. however. conversely. Although his written English was of a very high standard. there are almost as many ways of pronouncing English as there are English speakers. not/note and cut/cute (see Activity 6. rid/ (see Activity 6. Incidentally. the research student from Hong Kong worked hard on his pronunciation and. This example is perhaps an extreme case demonstrating the importance of pronunciation in effective communication. It soon became clear. !::. so we label varieties 'British'. i and y (e.ity. or they might fail to understand what is said to them. . 'Indian'. For most students. 'Malaysian' English. gem. English is perhaps particularly variable because of its use around the world as a first or second language. The growing II . we can also highlight certain regularities in spelling to sound correspondences that are reasonably easy to remember and have few exceptions. the suffixes -ic and -ity cause the stress to be placed on the syllable before the suffix (compare athlete/able ['<e8li:t/'eIbl]with stress on the first syllable. Naturally. p. When he was speaking to individuals. the addition of the letter e after a consonant lengthens the preceding vowel.Pronunciation Practice Activities Introduction sh (shop). and the letter e is not sounded in the word showed. in pairs such as at/ate. that in this formal setting. ch (machine) and sch (in the usual British pronunciation of schedule). It is important to help students develop their awareness of the relationships between spelling and pronunciation so that when they come across a written word that is new to them they can attempt to pronounce it correctly and.5) certain suffixes control where stress is placed in a word.I3). although his English is still heavily accented.g. !::. however.)lbIhti]with stress on the second) (see Activity 4. he was usually able to make himself understood. he now has a successful academic career and is a regular presenter at international conferences. This is perhaps especially true for those who have a good command of other aspects of language such as vocabulary and grammar.g. partly based on their differences in pronunciation. !::. there is a much closer connection between spelling and pronunciation with a near one-to-one correspondence between letters and sounds. features of his English pronunciation made his speech sometimes difficult to understand. he found this experience demoralising and he was concerned that it would have a major impact on his academic career. Difficulties with pronunciation might mean that students fail to get their message across. I recently worked with a IO research student from Hong Kong who was coming to the end of his PhD studies. and so on.and elsewhere they are pronounced /kl and Igl respectively (e.2) the letters c and g are pronounced Isl and Id31respectively before e. even when the correct words are being used.ycle). awareness undoubtedly increases with exposure to the language. Whatmodel of pronunciation should Iteach my students? As is true of any language. and athletic/ability [<e8'letIk/. However. 'American'. But if students give pronunciation a high priority in their learning. then we should recognise and respond to this in our teaching. Potentially even more confusing is the possibility that what students say might be understood to mean something they didn't intend. so that it 'says its alphabet name'. and pronunciation is treated as a low priority area of study.old. but no two individuals within a region will have exactly the same pronunciation. for example. audiences (usually a mix of native and non-native English speakers) were having considerable difficulties understanding him. David Crystal (I987. At the University of Birmingham. Key issues in pronunciation teaching and learning Why is it important to teach pronunciation? It can be frustrating and demotivating for students if they have repeated experiences where communication breaks down because of problems with their English pronunciation. and with fewer letters unsounded. most are among the most frequently used in the language! In many other languages. However. Most want their pronunciation to be easily understandable and are often prepared to work hard to achieve this. unfortunately. 2I4) reports the widely cited figure that around 75 per cent of English words are spelt according to a regular pattern. For example: . However. of the 400 or so words with irregular spellings. teaching doesn't always reflect this wish. such as Italian and Portuguese. . Not only do we find different accents in regions within a country. His first language was Cantonese and his second language English. Sometimes. 'Australian'. and was keen. But he also notes that.

However. Howgooddoes my students'pronunciationneed tobe? It is now generally accepted that the target of a 'native-speaker pronunciation' is unachievable for the vast majority of learners of a second or foreign language. . These include: . is likely to lead to the development of further varieties. . Some will use speakers sharing one variety of English. it might be a native-speaker variety. A target is some standard of pronunciation to which the students aspire or which the teacher selects as a goal for students. young students who enjoy pop music and TV programmes from North America might be motivated more by having North American models of pronunciation in the classroom. The aim of most is to achieve an easily understandable pronunciation in most situations with most people. Does one variety of pronunciation predominate in the teaching materials available to you? Published course books and supplementary textbooks will often have accompanying recordings. or that all varieties should have equal status. as a means of communication between non-native speakers with different first languages. Few teachers have the ability to change their usual English accent consistently so as to provide a model of another variety.Pronunciation Practice Activities use of English as an international language. even if a native-speaker variety is the target model chosen. if students are going on to study in the United States. with both native and non-native English speakers. Do your students show an inclination to speak English with a particular pronunciation? For example. this factor might influence your decision on what model to use. It is rare for a non-native to acquire a pronunciation of English that would be taken to be that of a native speaker unless they are brought up in an English-speaking environment. a model is presented as a guide to English pronunciation with the understanding that variation from this model is acceptable provided it does not get in the way of effective communication. of course. When these are used for listening activities or when students repeat after recordings these speakers are providing a model of pronunciation for students. It is also important to remember that a person's pronunciation (of both their first and other languages) contributes significantly to the impression of their identity 13 . and will probably be asked to imitate most frequently. it is important to distinguish between a model as a 'target' and as a 'point of reference'. For example. How you treat these differences depends on your view of models of pronunciation. Are there varieties that have a particularly high or low status in your teaching context? In some countries native-speaker varieties of English have a higher status than non-native varieties. with a number of questions you might consider. If. Using the same model inside the classroom is likely to produce the most efficient pronunciation improvement. you see a model as a point of reference then these differences can be treated simply as part of the natural variation found in pronunciation. however. If you see a model as a target then you will need to say that one or other accent (your own. If students are business people in Thailand. for the vast majority of learners. Introduction What accent of English do you have? In most classrooms the English pronunciation that students will hear most. . a student learning English in Australia will naturally be exposed to Australian accents outside the classroom. Whether you feel this is right. there may well be differences between the English pronunciation found on published recordings (often southern British English or general American) and your own pronunciation. Is there a variety that your students have particular exposure to outside the classroom? For example. who will mainly be using English to communicate with other business people in East Asia. As a point of reference. then it may be most appropriate to use a model of North American English. 12 In what contexts will your students mainly be using English after the course? For example. makes a decision on what model of English pronunciation to teach students a complex one. is that of the teacher. . a native-speaker pronunciation is neither necessary nor even desirable. then the model provided by a Thai national who speaks English fluently and in an easily intelligible way may be best. such as 'general American' or a second-language variety such as 'Singaporean English'. for example. or that found on recordings) has a greater value and should be the goal of your students (but see the discussion in the next section). This. Whether you use a model as a target or as a point of reference can have a significant impact on how you teach pronunciation. . Finally.

and perhaps the ideal 'target' in this respect is someone who shares their first language. we would expect B to say 'QUITE expensive' (with quite as the tonic word) rather than 'quite exPENsive' (with expensive as the tonic word). even when their English is very proficient. for example. substituting one consonant with another is more likely to lead to communication breakdown than when a wrong vowel is used. It is often said that people who begin to learn a second language when they are young have an advantage when it comes to pronunciation. To give a clear example: in a fast-food restaurant in Britain. S Tonic words In the exchange A: 'Was it expensive?' B: 'Quite expensive'. pice (/parsl) for price or sipot (/srpDtl)for spot. have sometimes found it difficult to make themselves understood. when 'eVENT' is said 'Event' or 'BABy-sit' said 'baby-SIT' . It is probably the case that most people would wish to retain identifiable traces of their national or first language identity when they speak English. on average. people may be less experienced. Suggested activities for this are given in Chapter I (Developing awareness). for example. Here is a suggested 'top five' of things it is important for students to get right in order to avoid being misunderstood: I Consonants In most circumstances. recognising that a native-speaker pronunciation is probably an unrealistic and not particularly desirable target. can seriously interfere with understanding. the ultimate goals you set may be different from those you have for adult beginners. and vice versa. So. 3 Vowel length Some vowels are. For most learners. A lot of international business and administration is conducted in contexts where English is the medium of communication. Hospital staff recruited from overseas to British hospitals. but retains unobtrusive features of a nonEnglish accent. the exact shape of vowels (for example. it is useful to know in general what kinds of errors are most likely to interfere with comm"unication. and what special problems particular first-language speakers will have with English pronunciation. compare the vowels in the words tins (short) and teens (long). These lower priority features include: . In other contexts. Misplacing the tonic word has the potential to cause difficulties in effective communication. Producing short vowels where long vowels are needed. Business people who often work in such contexts may well be used to hearing and understanding a wide variety of non-native pronunciations of English. but where the various people involved have different first languages. 14 Introduction What are the most important features of pronunciation to teach? When we are deciding on our priorities for pronunciation teaching. an Italian would prefer to be identified as 'an Italian who speaks English very well' rather than simply 'a non-native speaker of English' or even be taken for a native English speaker.for example. However. saying the vowel in c!1J1J5ht like the vowel in cart) 15 .Pronunciation Practice Activities that is conveyed to others. this is complicated by evidence to suggest that older learners may be able to compensate with a clearer wish to sound like others from a particular speech group. for example. then. They can be encouraged to consider who they want to sound like when they speak can be difficult for a listener to understand what is intended. 4 Word stress When primary stress in a word or compound is misplaced . longer than others. Getting other aspects of pronunciation wrong is less likely to cause a communication breakdown. Of course. one of my Japanese students asked for a banilla milkshake (intending vanilla) and was given a banana milkshake. 2 Consonant clusters Perhaps the biggest problems here are caused by missing out consonants from a cluster at the beginning of a word and adding unnecessary vowels. so if you are teaching young children. what is in fact achievable depends not only on these broad considerations. Perhaps the most important outcome of recognising the complexity in the setting of goals is that learners should think about what they would like to achieve in their English pronunciation. For example. this might be heard as these if a long vowel is used. for example. Another factor to be considered is the likely tolerance and experience of those people the students are going to communicate with. a more appropriate and reasonable goal is to achieve an English pronunciation which is usually understandable in international communication. but also on a number of more specific factors. by patients and other staff who are unused to having to understand nonnative-speaker accents.

deciding the order of importance for pronunciation teaching is a matter of balancing general considerations and the particular difficulties of a group of students. However. For example. Very often in the rapid flow of speech. see Learner English. It is probably more important for less advanced students to recognise and understand such features than to produce them in their own speech. and this is discussed in the next section. To make sense of what we hear we need to be able to divide the stream of speech up into units (for example. This is intended to help them to improve their listening ability. in many of them there is a stage in which learners are encouraged to listen to features of pronunciation. for example. A further consideration is the emphasis we give to developing listening and speaking skills. while more advanced students could be encouraged to include them as part of their pronunciation in order to become more fluent. may help to make their speech more intelligible. For example. deletions. weak and strong forms (for example. etc. a number of particular problems face us when testing pronunciation that are not encountered in testing other areas of language such as vocabulary and grammar. I would go on to suggest. however. For both these reasons. using a narrower pitch range than would a native English speaker). and also to develop discrimination skills which provide a foundation for pronunciation improvement in their own speech. it is important to teach and test both receptive (listening) and productive (speaking) skills. It ma y also be appropria te for certain groups of learners that some of the generally lower priority features listed above should be given a higher priority. we find weak forms (/<'Inf for and. it is a useful assumption to make that for most learners for most of the time an ability to hear features of pronunciation will be at least a useful starting point for developing their ability to produce them in their own speech. We only think of them as 'careless' if we judge speech using the standards we apply to formal written language. and vice versa. tone units. for students who tend to 'clip' the ends of words by leaving out final consonants or shortening final long vowels.) were of a lower priority than others in that they were less likely to cause communication difficulties if students got them wrong.Pronunciation Practice Activities . where they need to improve. . (For more information. including weak forms and characteristics of connected speech (contractions. I suggested that certain features of I6 Introduction pronunciation. This connection is not always found. However. and other changes and deletions of individual sounds (/gDmb<'luhnf[gom bowlin] for gone bowling). . linking words with a r sound: saying far away as Ifa: <'IweIIrather than Ifa:r<'lWeII) tones (for example. though we might generally give work on consonants a high priority. However. it is also useful to know which consonants are problematic and which are not for the particular first-language groups we are teaching. If<'IIfor for). which can be motivating for teachers and students alike. and a series of tests can provide a sense of achievement (assuming progress has been made!). that they have to be able to hear a difference between IfI and Ivl before they can say correctly the words fan and van. Why and how shouldItest pronunciation? The reasons for testing pronunciation are similar to those for testing language more generally: tests can give teachers an idea of students' present ability. work on features of connected speech. such as linking the sounds at the end of a word and the beginning of the next. so that we can focus work accordingly. changes occur so that words can differ substantially from their citation forms. saying Ifmml rather than Ifr<'lmJ) using features of connected speech (for example. In teaching vocabulary.) What is the connection between listening and pronunciation? Pronunciation is an important aspect of both speaking and listening. using a falling-rising tone rather than a rising tone) the overall pitch range of the voice (for example. For example. It is often thought that learners need to be able to discriminate between features of pronunciation before they can produce them in their own speech. While the activities in this book focus on productive aspects of pronunciation.20or. Appendix 2 gives a list of common English pronunciation difficulties for speakers of some major languages. The information gathered can be used to help establish priorities for future work. In the previous section. we I7 . for example. . and how far they are away from their long-term target. contracted forms (mustn't've for must not have). words and individual sounds) and to interpret what they mean. that it is important to include work on these in a language course to help students decode rapid speech and develop their listening skills. and it sometimes happens that learners are able to produce a difference without being able to hear it. It is important to remember that such changes are not 'careless speech' but are natural features of educated English.

) will be present even in the very earliest lessons with beginner students.6 have two versions. where students are learning English primarily to read it. Consequently. The second versions could be used if your teaching situation permits this kind of assessment. or at least in sufficient numbers to make an assessment valid. however. the past tense -ed endings can have different pronunciations (/d/ e.1) or in a more systematic way. however. or what meaning is intended) and this can interfere with how the text is read. for example. and using words successfully aids memorisation. in teaching grammar. then.3 to 7. and also it may be time-consuming to gather and analyse. and more spontaneous speech gathered from sources such as interviews or stories told from a series of picture prompts. Perhaps the most practical answer is to use text read aloud as the primary source of information (trying to make the vocabulary used as simple as possible to avoid some reading aloud difficulties). There are good arguments for teaching the pronunciation of words (both the sounds and their stress) as they are introduced. played.3-7. impressionistic way (see Activity 7.). Clearly. it may be impracticable.) can be built into the text. working out how particular spellings should be said. to select. features of connected speech. there is no guarantee that the particular features of pronunciation that you wish to test will come up in what students say. they are more likely to use it as they speak. we can introduce grammatical forms and functions individually and then test students' understanding and production. pronunciation is given a lower priority than other components of language such as grammar and vocabulary. Although spontaneous speech avoids this text-to-sound problem. Both have advantages and disadvantages. This suggests that two types of assessment of pronunciation will be of value. using the same or similar material. so that particular features of pronunciation (sounds. This is clearly a much more time-consuming activity and in many teaching contexts. In one. and is sometimes relegated to an 'end-of-the-day' activity or a five-minute filler to give students some light relief from the 'real' work of language learning. or where an examination syllabus they are following emphasises reading and writing. both in what they hear and in what they are required to say. ete.g. This approach is adopted in some of the activities in Chapter 7 (Testing pronunciation). Similarly. and this justifies giving pronunciation a more central role in teaching by integrating it with other areas of language work. a particular feature of pronunciation can be assessed. This may be done in a general. grade and gradually introduce features of pronunciation. then. testing understanding along the way. for example with large classes. but have difficulties in decoding the written text (for example. This means that teachers have to listen to individuals speaking (or listen to a recording of them) and make an assessment of certain features on the basis of particular criteria. ete. It is not possible. In testing students' productive skills. In some situations this relative neglect might be justified. if the same text is given to a number of students. Perhaps the main reason for this is that such tests are usually quick and easy to administer even to large classes. Testing production. intonation. Activities 7. two main sources of information are generally used: text read aloud. a student may be able to pronounce a sound or word correctly. usually involves assessing some part of the pronunciation of individual students. Second. this kind of information can be incomplete. Also. Activities 7. This might be used after lessons in which such features have been the focus of teaching. a direct 18 Introduction comparison between their relative strengths and weaknesses can be made.Pronunciation Practice Activities can select a certain set of words or phrases to be taught over a period and. word stress. The main advantage of text read aloud is that the language can be tightly controlled. all features (individual sounds. It! 19 . and to supplement this with an assessment of spontaneous speech.6 are examples of what might be done. The second type of assessment is of overall ability. etc. test how many of these students remember and are able to use. Most pronunciation tests focus on testing pronunciation as a part of receptive skills (discriminating between sounds or minimal pairs of words. The main disadvantage is that writing may get in the way of pronunciation. we have seen that pronunciation has a role in both listening and speaking. one testing receptive skills and the other testing productive skills. at the end of this period. however. an understandable pronunciation will be an important part of their communication skills. How can Iintegrate pronunciation into a teaching programme? In some classes. Perhaps the most obvious area for useful integration is work that connects vocabulary and pronunciation. For most students. word stress. working with a checklist of pronunciation points that students get right or wrong (see Activity 7. If students have confidence that they can pronounce a word correctly. For example. There is also evidence that knowing the stress pattern of a word (where it has more than one syllable) helps us to mentally 'store' words and retrieve them more easily. With pronunciation. Other links exist between grammar and pronunciation. neither source is ideal. recognising placement of stress within words.2).

to revise and reinforce what has been learnt (e.9) reflection (e. . it may be useful to build up a set of OHTs of the photocopiable material which you can use as the need arises. The materials in this book try to demonstrate a wide range of activity types. and it can be useful to develop a set of short. Activity 5.l).6) games (e.l. Activity 3. Developgeneraltechniquesfor modellingandcorrecting pronunciation The basic cycle for presenting pronunciation used in many activities in this book is as follows: 20 .g. and this could be pointed out and practised when the going to-future is introduced. new 2l " I "']£1. . developing awareness (e. sorting. Activity 2.g.. Activity 6. . Some can be used unchanged after a reasonable period of time. word or phrase.r~"7 v . Suggested activities for integrating work on pronunciation with grammar and vocabulary (and a third area. if you are teaching word formation. so using an unvarying approach to pronunciation teaching (for example. Recycleactivities Many of the activities in this book can be used repeatedly with students. stopped. (Some course books will already have integrated pronunciation work. Activity 2. Activity 8. ..) For example.g.g. model the sound. include an activity that looks at the relationship between suffixes and word stress (e. however. Highlighting and practising this feature can usefully be done when the simple past tense is introduced.g. The student repeats after you. Activities 4. matching.. Reactto opportunitiesfor teachingpronunciation Not all pronunciation teaching needs to be planned ahead. If necessary. Look at the syllabus in the course book you are using and identify which parts lend themselves to work on particular areas of pronunciation. spelling) are given in Chapter 6. which you might want to supplement.g. Activity 2.5. In many. IO) information transfer (e. give a number of opportunities for practice. . working out rules.g..l3 to 4. Be aware of the likely pronunciation difficulties of students with particular first-language groups and prepare activities that will focus on these problems.5) prediction (e.l5). Look for opportunities to teach and practise pronunciation as they arise in the classroom. word or phrase. .12) analysis (e. Activity 6.g. to use when these arise. Activity 4. during a lesson in which you have introduced a lot of new vocabulary.. . Choral repetition. Individual repetition. diagnose your students' pronunciation weaknesses and plan activities that focus on these. For example. As you become£amiliarwith the activities in this book.. simple activities which don't require preparation. ask students to copy this into their books and mark stressed and unstressed syllables above each word.Introduction Pronunciation Practice Activities e. Developa set of activitiesfor recurringproblems Some pronunciation problems are likely to occur repeatedly. . Usea varietyof activities Different students learn things in different ways at different times. Suggestions for diagnostic tests are given in Chapter 7. If possible. For example.g. Here are some of them: . Activity Ll) using reference sources (e.5).4). Model (say or play the recording). What principles should Iadopt in teaching pronunciation? Planpronunciationteaching Here are three main ways in which you can plan ahead: . finding the words having the same stress pattern (e.g. I to I. The student says or repeats the sound. and lId! e. Monitor (you listen to a particular pronunciation focus). Some information about common problems is given in Appendix 2. The pronunciation of going is more frequently /g<Jum/(gain') than the citation form /g<JUIJ] / (going). If there are problems.g. focusing only on minimal pairs) is unlikely to provide a variety of learning opportunities to the maximum number of students.g. Activities I. The basic cycle for correcting an individual student's pronunciation used in many activities in this book is as follows: . wanted) depending on the sounds that come before them. some students have problems producing or discriminating between particular vowels or particular consonants (see Chapter 2 for suggested activities).

discuss the answers with the class as a whole.5). pronupciation terms lenta.ipg abojJtd~£ferepces between pronunciation in English and ir first langua.1 Introducingfeatures of pronunciation going to press.ry 20-3° minutes Prepar. and check that students have understood the key term (vowel) correctly.7. Activities 4. 4 Give students some time to think about the question in 3. Box! onto a handout. 6 Repeat the procedure for each of the key terms. Procedure I Give a copy of the handout to each student and ask them to look at the section on vowels. the four tones on No after you. However. word stress and intonation) and gets students . Note that in the section on intonation. Highlight similarities and differences between English and the students' first languages. 3 Students do the exercise in 2 and check the answers. rise. 22 23 . the publisher has no responsibility for the websites and can make no guarantee that a site will remain live or that the content is or will remain appropriate.16). you will need to demonstrate the tones (fall. 2 Present the examples in 1. Developing awareness of English pronunciation The publisher has used its best endeavours to ensure that the URLs for external websites referred to in this book are correct and active at the time of --- 1.) 5 Finally. Note Consonant clustersare dealt with in more detail in Activity1. ~onsonant clusters. They should talk about their answers to a partner or other students in a small group.15. (In a multilingual class.4. Say the words and explain that vowel sounds are underlined.5.4. and fall-rise) on the words in I or play the recording.g. rise-fall. differentlearning opportunities are created (e.< activityillttoduces some key terms (vowel. In the Extension section of some activities. You could add a step at this point where you get students to repeat. Then say (or play) No with each of the four tones.7. Activities 2. specific suggestions are given on how this might be done (e. students in each pair/group should have different first languages if possible. chorally and Practice Activities 1 language can be introduced so that while the same basic activity is used. consonant. --=.

. . . . . . . . .. .. . . .. . 1 Examples: bad(1 syllable) arrive(2) computer(3) supermarket(4) 2 Howmanysyllablesdo thesewords have? helicopter some trousers president 3 Doesyour languagehavewordswiththe samenumberof syllables? Giveexamplewords: . . . . . . ... .... .. . . . . and what their This can help students clarify their may not have considered where to aim in helping students es the basis for a discussion. ... . . . . ... . . .. .. "CAMB"DG' UmVCRmy Pms wo. 2 Underlinethe consonantsoundsinthesewords: shoe rob good leave 3 Doesyour languagehavethe sameconsonantsounds? Giveexamplewords: . Consonant clusters 1 Examples: black drop :trip illleen 2 Underlinethe consonantclusters inthesewords: space play climb strong 3 Doesyour languagehavethe sameconsonantclusters? Giveexamplewords: ... . . .... . . .. . .. . . . . . <>CAM"WG' Umvmm PRe" wo... . . 1 Examples: traffic about terrible tomorrow 2 Underlinethe stressedsyllableinthesewords: . .. . . Consonants Word stress 1 Examples:illY tOQ '. .. . . ..iglishptonunciation and particular tBI1g!ishPJ. ... . . . revise or 24 25 ...... .onuQciation is to them. . .. . .. . .. . . . . .s.. .. . .. . . . . . .. . .. . . ..York thi.. . . . . . .. . . No No No No 3 Whatarethewordsforyesandnoinyourlanguage? Isit usualto saythemwiththesamefourtones?. and how a. . .. . conversation banana teacher engineer alone chemistry 3 Doesyour languagehavewordswiththe samestress pattern? Giveexamplewords: .. ... ... . . . . . . .2 Getting you thinking: a pronunciation questionnaire encourage students to EJ. . . ... .. .. . .. . . . . . . . . . If the aren't familiar to students. . . .. 1... .. ....tyJndifferent contexts. . .... . . . . .Pronunciation Practice Activities Box 1 Developing awareness of English pronunciation Box 1 Student handout Vowels 1 Examples: jQb give good Cill 2 Underlinethe vowelsoundsinthesewords: fall learn way road 3 Doesyour languagehavethe samevowelsounds? Give example words: continued Syllables . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. Intonation 1 Examples: ~ ~ V vis 2 ListenandmarkthesametonesinthewordNo.. .. . . .. .. . .. . . . .. . .. ... . .. ... . ... .. . . . . . . . . .

. 4 Later in the course (if the course is of a reasonable length). pp.. : i~~~~'a'ti~~'(~:~. cl-.... talk about the relative difficulties of having one or the other as a 'target model'.....g...... Student handout Box 2 A How good is your English pronunciation? I Circle your answer: I =high....... ...... or they might have different priorities....... particularly in a multilingual class.. FOLLow) .. 2 Students report back their answers. 12345 12345 ~ ~ 2 Note any particular vowels.....'~'::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 1.... adapted). fr-) 12345 word stress (e. You could use the information about particular problems for prioritising teaching.. consonant clusters (e.. students might feel they have different problems with English pronunciation... You may also want to discuss which accents of English (again..g....5=low..........g..... vowel sounds B How important is it for you to have good English pronunciation? on all.. When you talk to your fellow students? 12345 When you talk to your teacher? I 234 5 When you talk to native speakers of English? When you talk to other non-native speakers in English? I 234 12345 5 C Who would you like to sound like when you speak English? Why? @ CAM>RmCC UN<VCRWY PRe" w04 1 Source: Underhill.. 27 ..........."...... (1994.. Talk to them about whether and why their answers have changed... for example......... someone who shares their first language.... fr-) ....... ... aGO... vowels consonants 12345 consonant clusters (e.. Give a copy of the handout to each student and give them some time to complete it. 5 = low. FOLLow) 12345 intonation (e.. (This might be best done as a homework activity...... who they have heard speaking English..3 Makingvowelsounds . ask students to repeat the exercise and compare their answers with those they gave earlier......g. 10 and 15.. Encourage comparison and discussion of differences...... 3 Keep a copy of the students' answers for your own records. Circle your answer: 1= high.... word stress (e. either native or non-native speaker) they find more or less attractive and why this might be..... For example..OHT or large piece of student.. aGO.... ... ...Pronunciation Practice Activities ing pronunciation Developing awareness of English pronunciation Procedure and identifying difficulties I Box 2 onto a handout..... and this might become apparent when talking about the answers to question B.. problems you have with English.. consonants.... If students have selected both native and non-native English speakers for question C....... ...) Point out that the person they think of in C doesn't have to be a native English speaker....g..... It could be...... 26 A. cl-.....

Itr/.4 ~ 3: a: u: B :): D ~ K [[] Lips spread and less forward § Lips rounded and slightly forward LOW Consonant clusters: Englishand first-language differences at the beginnings of words varies This exercise builds awareness of what is this may be different from what is students' first language Procedure I Write a list of consonant clusters (comprising two or three consonant sounds) on the board. (A full list of phonetic symbols is given in Appendix L) Box3 Student handout HIGH ~tl ~~ F~ [[] Lips spread and less forward § Lips rounded and slightly forward LOW @CAMBR. Imj/. mu-. and talk about differences of opinion and difficulties. elongating the vowel.scr-. randomly ordered. Igw/. that the tongue is pushed towards the 'front' of the mouth. fill in the rest of your chart. pw-. l'dlago. lu:1you. and the lips are spread and less forward. Ask students to say the vowel until they become aware of these three features in their own mouths. (See Appendix 3 for possible combinations. Note If students are not familiar with phonetic symbols. 2 Write on the board a list of the remaining simple vowels. and whether they are possible in their own first language. lei pen. thl-. vr-. gw-. The completed chart. They should say the wordslvowels to each other while they are doing this. and example words which include them: hi sit. Next. collect answers from the class."G' UmV"'>TY PR'" w04 28 Teacher reference HIGH Box4 I F R 0 N T 1: I e 'd er A !f8 1. spw. Ipw/. mr-. point to IDIand say the word stop a few times.(or Ipll.Isla/.(or Itl/. you could build up a list of possible and impossible combinations in different languages. 13:1bird. 29 . and to give an example word for each. When the pairslgroups have reached their decisions. If you have a multilingual group. that the tongue is pulled towards the 'back' of the mouth. 3 Write on the board the example English words for each cluster found by students. Ispwl) 2 Students work in pairs to decide whether the clusters are possible in English. Ask students to say the vowel until they become aware of these three features in their own mouths. You could write these either as letters or using phonetic symbols. Explain the chart by saying that when we say this vowel the tongue is 'high' in the mouth. h:1 more. la:1car 3 Students should work in pairs or small groups to try to fill in the remainder of the chart. for your reference. use example words in the chart rather than symbols. lul stood. Ispll) impossible: tl-.Developing awareness of English pronunciation Pronunciation Practice Activities Procedure Display the chart in Box 3. Imr/. Point to li:1and say the word me a few times. nl-. nearly touching the roof of the mouth. lerl hat. dw-. fr-. thr. Ifrl. fAlup. tr-. These should be a random mixture of possible and impossible combinations for the beginning of English words. Correct where necessary. Explain that when we say this vowel the tongue is 'low' in the mouth. Students repeat these after you. 1811. Idwl. 18r/. and the lips are rounded and slightly forward. elongating the vowel. spl.) For example: possible: pI-. is given in Box 4. Inll. During this time you should visit the pairslgroups and say the wordslvowels at the students' request. Ivr/.

0 ..1 (glottal srop (weak instead of IV) form) (linking sound between 'very' and 'interested') 10.6 SoundingEnglish get students thinking about how other nee English and what pronunciations 'priate.!parately onto another cassette.1 Id/ It.. Yes.g.. Ask students to say how the pronunciation on the recording differs from the pronunciation of the words said slowly and carefully. Use this activity as a diagnostic exercise to identify clusters that may need attention..E . The following examples are on the recording for this book: (glottalstop insteadof/V) Procedure 1 Organise the class into groups of five or six. Write on the board the letter vowels A .e.. 2 First demonstrate the activity with a group at the front of the class.Pronunciation Practice Activities Developing awareness of English pronunciation Extension (weakform) If you find clusters that are possible in English but not in a student's first language. Iw... trying to say it in exactly the same way..ce.ger Utteran.zl Erm....zl Ij/ on the whole subjects that I was very interested in doing I 1. to develop awareness of changes in pronunciation in connected speech. 2 Then ask 'What words did you say?' and write these on the board. because I was I was doing I (weak form) 10. play the first utterance a couple of times and ask students as a group and then individually to repeat.. you could make this more ty by asking why they have chosen better' English pronunciation.?1 Iw. 1.1 (weakform) Igt/ Did you enjoy your time at Exeter? I Iwen?1 and I'd made up my mind before I went I (weak form) (left out (weak or 'unreleased') form) Ij.... Erm. in teaching listening or as model dialogues). I did..1 (weakform) Ij. how they would be seconds or so should be native English ve the high-quality you could use the o£aboUtthree seconds) sections within <:omplete'.1. What is ciation they particularly like? Procedure 1 In the class.1 you know what it was I wanted to do I Extension Repeat the activity using short sections of recordings you use for other purposes (e. Explain that you are going to find people with the best English pronunciation.5 Comparing slow and quick speech (weak form) way words are said at (i. The student at the front of the line (51) should say these letters to the person behind (52). They should be said loudly 3° 31 . it may well be that these will cause them pronunciation difficulties.thatthey are either complete . with it easier to play and replay. who then says them in reply. but have a pause at the s\.in. A 'gapped' I..U..n/ ('Didy-' saidasIdsJ) Id3. and get students to stand in a line in their groups.

tree. too. food. .june.ilctivity is intended to raise awareness of pronunciation differences between English and students' first language by focusing on the students' first names. pure. ship. sweet. (5ee Appendix 2 for information about this. they should move to the front of the line. drip. go. 2 Focus on a few of the names and ask students to observe what is different about the first-language pronunciation and the English pronunciation. four. good. fit. . day. win. view.twist.spill. yes. scream (note that other consonant clusters are possible). start.Pronunciation Practice Activities enough for the other members of the group to hear. I 32 33 J . they should move up the line and then challenge 5r. Choose four or five from: my. sea. Elizabeth and Martin . run. do.quick. have names with an equivalent used in English-speaking countries (i. strain. but different pronunciation). You could take a vote among the class as a whole on which of these 'winners' has the best English pronunciation. put. blue.huge (notethat other consonant clusters are possible). If 52 'beats' 5r. or three consonant sounds. now. and ask students to focus their attention on these. If you know that students in your group have particular English pronunciation problems because of interference from their first language(s). talk. make sure that students can pronounce their own and other students' names in an English-sounding way. cheap. brush. bed. clock. sat. her. very. Box 5 gives some examples involving equivalent names. soon. 4 Do the same for a number of features of English pronunciation: 5imple vowels: give students a list of words including simple vowels and ask them to focus their attention on these. sure. snow. 52 is then 'challenged' by 53. lot. The rest of the group decides (perhaps by a vote) who has the best English pronunciation of these two students. ask students to repeat and correct where necessary.7 Pronouncing names. otherwise. spray. book. examples of names used in both English-speaking and other countries include David. For all of these groups. Tuesday. cat. hat. or (three consonant sounds) split. . Complex vowels (diphthongs): give students a list of words including complex vowels and ask them to focus their attention on these. as if they were English names. here. they could come to the front and perform. zoo. Demonstrate. Robert. Laura. Choose four or five from: (two consonant sounds) play. sin. thin. FocUsPronouncing first names in English level Elementary+ IS n::Jinutes ------- Procedure r Your students may: . Choose four or five from: but. Consonants: give students a list of words beginning with single consonant sounds and ask students to focus their attention on these. 3 When the person with the best English pronunciation has been found in each group. have names with no equivalent in English-speaking countries have chosen an English name to use as their name in class. lose. news. sun.) . the order stays the same. This should continue until everyone has had a chance to challenge for first position or it becomes clear that the person with the best English pronunciation in the group is in this position.grow. cube. but you could do a similar activity for names with no equivalent or chosen English names. cross. no. If 53 beats English I ~ This. Choose four or five from: car. You might want to encourage students to use their Englishsounding names in class. make these the focus of activities. . boy. few. with the same or nearly the same spelling. fill.e. then. glass. bear. Consonant clusters: give students a list of words beginning with two consonant sounds. throw. me. Developing awareness of English pronunciation 1. slip.

Iq. more general be highlighted. Microsoft. try to have different first-language students working together. Uranium. 2 Tell students to focus on those words that are written similarly or in the same way in English and their first language.You might note that the vowel sound /~u/ is not found in German or Spanish words. that are often pronounced similarly (and a similar way) in a number of (British) English pronunciation nts' language(s). 1. 2 Stress is different.Jrqls. Laura I'b:r~/ I'laurie/ The /:}:/vowel is different. the Pacific Ocean. . Rio de Janeiro.X. in German it is written Moskau and pronounced close to I'mDskau/and in Spanish it is written Moscu and pronounced close to /mDslku/. After each. Edinburgh..:Mercury. Moscow.kea. (Do most English names have stress on the first syllable? Is this different in names in the first language?) Elizabeth Nhz~b.the Sahara Desert. in British English Moscow is pronounced I'mDsbu/. :. 3 Work with the whole class: Ask elementary students to say the words that are different or very different in pronunciation in their first language and in English. Venus. Point to the list on the board/OHT. (Is this vowel used in the students' first language? Can they think of example words where it is?) 2 Stress is different. Xenon. 35 . ask students to note down whether the pronunciation in English and in their language is nearly the same. Saturn. talk about the differences in pronunciation in the words and whether these reflect more general differences between English and the first language. J{adium. You might also note that while stress is on the first syllable in English. Volvo.::!8/ /ehzie1bet/ I The /8/ consonant is different. Chlorine. it is on the second in Spanish (although this does not represent a general feature of English and Spanish). one at a time. For example. Arsenic. Johannesburg. Procedure I Students work in pairs or groups.prodtlcts/companies: Coca-Cola. Quebec. In a multilingual class. ~ril1. products.Qantas. different or very different for those words written the same or similarly.Developing awareness of English pronunciation Pronunciation Practice Activities Box 5 Teacher reference Name English pronunciation Example firstlanguage pronunciation What students might observe (and examples of questions you might ask to encourage more general awareness of English lfirst-language pronunciation) David I'dervrdl /dielvi:dI I The /er/ vowel is different. Mars.8 Pronouncingplaces. Jupiter. lji#g. Ask students to write down how each of the words are written in their first language and to note any differences.$eoul. IemeI1ts: Aluminium.while in French Himalaya is pronounced close to /rmielliejie/. In British English (the) Himalayas is pronounced /hrm~ller~z/. geographical features: the T. With more advanced students. Say (or play from the recording) words from the list. English and students' first 34 poatdordisplay on an OHT one of the following lists biitperecordiI1g): cities/states: Paris. . Asia. products and planets (of cities. Here you might note that the sound /hi is not used in French.

students should be encouraged to develop an awareness of how the general position of the speech organs (the 'articulatory setting') differs in the spoken English of native speakers and of learners. buruusu (= blues. a native-speaker-like pronunciation is an unachievable goal and. If this is the case. words in Japanese that have been borrowed from English include sukebo (skateboard). try to elicit differences in how they position their lips or tongue. And then I found out that I did know a lot of things that I could impart.) Rather. whether they are easy or difficult to understand. 3 Then ask students to reflect on any differences they perceived when imitating a native speaker compared to when they speak English with their usual accent. video is written video in Spanish and pronounced close to !'bloeI~u/. first one student and then the other. whether students like the way they speak. this can make the pronunciation of English easier. I don't know how I do it. i. ask students to list words from their first language that have been borrowed from English. well how do you do this? I say well I just do it. 1. find out what students know about the person and how they feel about the way the person speaks. The idea is that if learners can to some extent move towards the articulatory setting of native speakers. For example. Talk about any differences between English and Japanese pronunciation that have led to the different spellings. of course. 37 . (Seethe discussion in the Introduction.' Form pairs and ask them to say. Notes 1 It is not intended. that students should try permanently to sound like the well-known person used. pp. ask students to spend a little time at home imitating another native speaker that they see on television or have recordings of. a kind of music).perhaps students who are happy to 'throw themselves into the part' . some or all students could write these words on the board and give the first language pronunciation and the English pronunciation of the borrowed word (or you may need to give this). In other languages. 2 You would obviously need to conduct this activity with sensitivity. what was said. perhaps in front of a mirror. Play the recording a few times while students follow the written text. Before playing the recording. what country they are from.ask a few of them to perform their impersonation to the rest of the class. don mai (= 'don't mind' = don't worry). to follow up. Some students may be reluctant to imitate in this way in public. The following extract is on the recording for this book. They might also comment on other facial and body gestures: do they move the muscles around the eyes more or use greater hand movements when they imitate? 4 If appropriate. For the vast majority of learners. in any case. 2 Display the OHT or give out the handout. The speaker is the well-known British actor. Without being too technical. or words in English that have been borrowed from their first language. 36 Developing awareness of English pronunciation 'People say to you. For example. Michael Caine. and perhaps whether they can detect any regional accent. For example. words are borrowed from English and spelt the same but with different pronunciations. 13-14.9 Impersonations Procedure 1 Explain to students that they are going to see and listen to [name of wellknown person] and try to imitate their accent. or how rigidly they hold their jaw. to develop their awareness. poke beru (= 'pocket bell' = a pager).Pronunciation Practice Activities Extension For homework. as far as possible in exactly the same way as the person in the recording. few would aspire to this.e. encourage them to do the exercise at home. In class. If you have willing volunteers . including songs.

You might choose a number of students to contribute in a single readthrough. The latter would perhaps be most appropriate when you are working with students sharing a first language. 84. 7 = p. Copy the (from Goldilocks and the Three Bears) 2 Cinderella: 'Am I invited to the ball. Ask students to read the extract quietly.' Wolf: 'All the better to eat you with!' (from Little Red Riding Hood) 4 'It bit me!' he screamed.2 5 Then there was a click of the front door opening. Who would want to invite you?' (from Cinderella) Procedure I Introduce by presenting the material in Box 6 to students. (If this is difficult. the utterance in extract I might be said (among many ways of saying it): WHO'S been EATing my~ or WHO'S been EATing The first example might be said by the first bear when they find their porridge eaten. 3 LRRH: 'What big teeth you have. and adverbs (knowingly). reporting verbs (screamed. 72. knowingly. 4 Give out the handout (Box 7). Ask students to offer alternative readings of utterances and again talk about differences. Australian. students could work in pairs. Grandma. in this activity not to interpretations are activity are taken from are a good source of this kind of material. 6 'Are you going to stand around all day?' Kirsty demanded. Encourage them to say the utterances aloud to each other.' said Yo-less. Box 6 Student handout I Bear: 'Who's been eating my porridge?' an OHT. One student takes the role of the narrator. 2 Choose a few students to perform each extract aloud and point out (and perhaps talk about) differences. and the Bomb (Corgi. but the second example said by the second or third bear (porridge is no longer 'news' and so is not prominent). 1996): 4 = p. 6 = p. Ask them to work in pairs and decide how the utterances in quotation marks in extracts 1-3 might be said. For example. 39 . as if it were conversation rather than words read aloud) as they did with the material in Box 6. 133. with one taking the role of the narrator and Mr Foster. demanded). and the other Mrs Foster. and select individual students to take the parts of Mr and Mrs Foster.Johnny 5 = p. of course not. etc.10 Intonationinprint how speech represented The aim is to raise awareness emotion. attitude. and the other two take the roles of Mr and Mrs Foster (underlined in the extract). hissed.e. 7 'Ah. the recording could be of a non-native with the same first language as the student. 'It's like that. clues to how the reported speech might be said come from punctuation (! and f).Pronunciation Practice Activities Developing awareness of English pronunciation Extension This activity has suggested imitating just one native speaker. you take the role of narrator. etc. 1. and regional accents within countries) and also fluent non-native speakers of English. 'Your grandad?' hissed Kirsty. italics for emphasis (day).) They should act out the speech (i. n in conveying emotion and attitudes 3 Repeat the procedure for extracts 4-7. is it?' " CAM"WC'Umvmm PRe" w04 ~ 38 2 Extracts 4-7 all from Terry Pratchett. In these extracts. It is important to make it clear throughout this exercise that there is no correct answer. although an important loudness. 85. 5 Students then work in groups of three. 6 After they have worked through the text. too?' Stepmother: 'No. overall pitch level. North American. You could develop it by using recordings of more native speakers with a variety of accents (British. Answer any questions about vocabulary.

'No.' The man went back to his seat behind the wheel and started the engme.' he said. furious that she should have forgotten herself for once. dear. . 'What time is it? she asked him.' 'Be quick. while Mr Foster seems to enjoy seeing her become worried and irritated and finds ways to delay her. yes .smPms w04 3 Roald Dahl. I won't be a moment. 'Now. .' She turned and went out to where the chauffeur was standing.' They were standing in the hall. I'm sure. I'm late.' Mr Foster came out five minutes later. 'I never saw any little box!' She began hunting frantically in the back of the car. her husband appeared. I'm all ready to go. the plane was cancelled because of fog. It's only one of those silly combs anyway. Mrs Foster was up early. I thought you'd get a nice breakfast at the club. he in a curiously cut Edwardian jacket with high lapels.they always seemed to be meeting in the hall nowadays . dear. And if you're going to take me to the club first. It's been waiting. 'Of course. I'll be right with you. Next morning.' 'And what's wrong with combs.' 'I never saw you carrying anything. 'Don't bother about the rug. 'Oh. hadn't we?' 'Yes!' she cried. 'I had a little present I wanted you to take to Ellen. a short story by Roald DahP Mr and Mrs Foster are rich. What sort of present?' 'A little box wrapped up in white paper.please!' 'I'm just going to get a few cigars. Her husband continued searching through the pockets of his coat. 164-181). As on the day before. dear ?' She saw him searching the pockets of his overcoat. dear! Oh. will you?' 'What is it. elderly New Yorkers. 'Nothing. I don't want to forget it today. In The Great Automatic stories (Penguin.' 'Oh. waiting and waiting. The car is here. 'I'm going to get it. pp.' he said. . Mrs Foster has to catch a plane to take her to Paris to stay with her daughter and family. The Way up to Heaven. I forgot to give it to you yesterday.Umv".Developing awareness of English pronunciation Pronunciation Practice Activities Box 7 Box 7 Student handout From The Way up to Heaven. The day before.' 'A little box!' Mrs Foster cried. 'Hold it a moment. where on earth is it? I'm sure I had it in my hand as I came down.' he said as he settled himself beside her in the car. .' 'Stay here!' he commanded. I'll arrange the rug. Shortly after nine. chauffeur. 'We haven't got time! Please leave it! You can mail it. Now she is trying again to get to the airport. @CAMCRmG' Umvmm Pms w04 and other 41 . 'I must've left it in my bedroom.' 'Ah yes. 1996. please be quick!' She sat still. Please get going. please!' she cried. may I ask?' he said. You get in the car. 'About nine-fifteen. 'Confound it. I suppose we'd better get going fairly soon. Mrs Foster has a terrible fear of being late for appointments. but there was a wisp of sun coming through the mist. . Then he unbuttoned the coat and felt around in his jacket.' she said to the chauffeur. You're always giving her combs. But. 'Perhaps you'll be lucky this time. 'Did you make any coffee?' he asked. please. she noticed that his legs were like goat's @CAMmDG. . and he opened the car door for her as she approached.' he said. and watching him as he walked slowly down the steps. 'Your luggage?' 'It's at the airport. he paused half-way down to sniff the air and to examine the sky. 'Hurry.she with her hat and coat and purse. 'Just a moment!' Mr Foster said suddenly. 4° Gammatizator continued legs in those narrow stovepipe trousers that he wore. The weather was still not quite clear. and by eight-thirty she was downstairs and ready to leave.

h:/ (more).lul (would) Vowels(2.lrel (gm)vs backvowels(madewiththe backof the tongue nearthebackpartofthemouth)lu:/ (you).lu:/ (you).lei (~nd). For example: 1i:1Vs/r/: eeee .lrel (gm).la:/ .I A/ (llP). Alternatively.~ . 43 .eeee . Focus on the position of the tongue.Sounds: vowels.5) . 1i:1vs lu:/: eeee . If possible. Focus on lip position..0000 AI (eat).0000 .i .0000 . Demonstrate .eeee . Students alternate sounds to become aware of lip position. (arm) 1i:1(eat) has lips 'smiling' lu:1 (you) has lips rounded and pushed forward lrel (am) has lips open /. I to 2. ask students to produce the sound that doctors ask you to make when they want to look at your throat. represent lip shape on the board: . 42 To practise la:/.h:/ (more). Draw head cross-sections lrel and show the position of the tongue in the vowels: C li:1 C lei C lrel k ~ hi For example: Frontvowels(madewiththefrontpartofthetonguenearthefrontofthemouth) that: ~ li:1 .0000 /.u . students try to guess which vowel you are 'saying' Cc:'c-' lu:1 I'J:I IDI from lip position. Gradually open arms wider as you say eeeeeeeeeeeat (eat) and contrast this with a much shorter. .i .0000 . la:1 Say the vowels silently. you may need to give some explicit guidance to help students form the vowel sounds correctly.lei (~nd).errrr Longvowelsli:/ (eat). rapid arm movement as you say it.5. IDI (stQp). students use mirrors to look at lipposition.eeee .:1(more) has lips rounded and more open than lu:1 /3:1(fur) has lips relaxed/neutral la:1 (arm) has lips rounded and wide open.errrr .1-2. consonants and consonant clusters Correcting particular vowels When you use Activities 2. Students could try this in pairs. lu:1 /3:1 Focus on vowel length and give a visual demonstration of this..orrrr .i .:1vs /3:/: orrrr . consonants and consonant clusters Sounds: vowels.h:/ (fur)vs short vowelsIII (it).eeee . Students alternate sounds to become aware of different length.eeee lu:1vs lu/: 0000 .errrr .u .h:/ (fur).h:/ (more).u .la:/ (arm). .IDI (stQp) . Here are some suggestions for teaching strategies to use when students have problems pronouncing particular vowels: li:/ (eat).lu:/ (you).orrrr .0000 .lrel (gm).

Students then write the names from the board on their handout. students say or repeat: aaaa .orrrr Diphthongslarl (~).) 2 Alternatively.eeee . For example.e . 4 Students report back their answers (e.Ask students to prepare a family tree on the same principles ./dul (Qpen).eeee . and write these on the board.aaee to produce lar! (~). students repeat after you. or provide names from those in Box IO.)1 (sure) .):I:!:! (more) and li:1 (eat) IU<JI(sure): lu:1 (you) and I<JI({]go) [or 13:1(fur)] For example. so the vowels given below are an approximation. Explain that in this family all brothers and sisters have the same first vowel sound in their name and that family members only get married to people with the same first vowel sound in their name.eeee .)1 (air). 3 Before starting. the names already in the family tree and then the names in the list. If there are gaps. (Note that the separate components are not exactly the simple vowels used in English. Then give out a handout based on Box IO. and also Box IO if you Procedure I 44 If necessary. try to elicit additional names.)1({]go) [or 13:1(fur)] Jr.orrrr . and then join them together. (Note that the names used in the main activity are included in Box IOand could be used again.)! (ear). laul (out).eeee lei vs 1::>:/:e . Jack is married to Carol. Separate the diphthong into its two parts.g. or the recording. and correct where necessary.)1(ear): li:1 (eat) and 1.)1({]gO)[or 13:1(fur)] l<Jul(QjJen): 1. There should be at least two male and two female names for each vowel sound. 2. draw on the board the following section from a family tree and explain that Ken is married to Becky. brothers and sisters. explain the idea of a family tree and the ways of showing children.Pronunciation Practice Activities . Sounds: vowels. practise these separately. Ask the name of David's wife (Answer: Rachel) to check that they have understood. They should work in pairs to use this information to complete the family tree with the names in the list at the bottom of the handout.0000 . Daniel and Jack are brothers).1 Matching vowelsounds:a familytree to construct a ea(:hstudent.leaving out all the names. Check that the vowel sounds in the names are pronounced correctly. ask students to give as many male and female names as they can think of. and use some of these with the class at a later Sam and Patrick: 2 Give out the handout (Box 8). consonants and consonant clusters Students alternate sounds to become aware of different tongue positions.orrrr .)1({]gO)and lu:1 (you) hrl (bQJ!. I:nl (bQy).for other students to complete. Extensions I Give out Box IO.) larl (~): la:1 (arm) and 1i:1(eat) laul (out): l-xl (4m) and/u:1 (you) lerl (d{1J!J:lei (find) and li:1 (eat) le<JI(air): lei (find) and 1. For example: 1i:1vs lu:/: eeee .Then follow the procedure in Extension I.aaaa .0000 . 45 .both a full version and a gapped version with the missing names underneath . and they have two children. The answers are in Box 9.e . and 'married to' (=).aaee .le.II.lerl (dQ}').

.j:..j:.. (I:> ~ . $::> ." .: ....::: $::> ..S (I:> p<:'\ 0 . ~" ~: ~" v. Norma.::: ...::: $::> . Jack.::: ~ <:: 0 . . Female: Box 9 Janet. 0\ Box 8 '"cI . (\" '" ~ <:'\ . '-..::: '"cI i::i <:'\ . Rachel @CAM"W.::: v.. Monica..::: <:'\ i:. Q" . Keith.: .. Male: Bert.m P"" W04 Teacher reference VJ 0 :.. 0 .. <:'\ i2" v.::: ~ <:'\ 0 ..::: :.... Tony Joan..] . Student handout 0 .. Paul. Homer....::: v....UN<v".::: . 0 .. Jean...

Daniel. Percy Judith. 4 Give a full demonstration. Student A should decide on a start word and an end word on Box II. Go from make to cat. If students go wrong. and correct and repeat vowel sounds if necessary. They should keep this hidden from Student B. north east. Olive Joan. 49 . From there. Edna. Ray Chris. Rachel. Paul Dawn. Tom l:'Iul(as in phone) Homer. And the aim of the game is to find the word in this final square. Maureen. They should then take Student B on a word route from the start word to the end.' Then give the route using words from Box 12: 'sure -+ know -+ but -+ scared -+ south east' Students move: make -+ poor (the same vowel sound as sure) -+ soap (the same vowel sound as know) -+ sun (the same vowel sound as but) -+ chair (the same vowel sound as scared) -+ cat (= the answer) Point to this word route on the OHT if available. north west. Patrick Barbara. Give Student A a copy of the Box 12 handout. As a reminder. Ursula lei (as in pen) leII (as in day) III (as in sit) Beverly. (Don't show this to students. Kay li:1(as in see) David. Stephen IDI(as in stop) Colin. Sophie @CAMRRWGR Umvmm Pms 00°4 2. Ruth Bernadette. Sheila Florence. Jean. You say: 'Start at make. After each word route. east. Guy Derek. and then swap roles. The final move is a compass direction. James. south. Get students to repeat problem words. Norma lu:1 (as in choose) 13:1(as in bird) Bruce. focusing on vowels and any difficulties in pronouncing or hearing them. ask if any students got 'lost' and find out where problems occurred. Richard. encourage them to talk about the route. south west. Clive. 3 Explain that in this game you move from one square to another depending on the vowel sound in each word. Hilda Celia. Begin by teaching or revising compass points: north.) The corresponding words in the two boxes have the same vowel sound. Gordon. For example. 6 After doing this a few times as a class activity. 2 Give out the Box II handout. Henry Di. Linda. (I995). Joseph. Monica. Martin lrel (as in black) Barry. Janet laII (as in drive) Nigel. keeping the list secret from Student B. Frances. Susan.Sounds: vowels. organise students into pairs. Point to this word route on the OHT if one is available. Gerald. Heather Bridget. Use the words in Box 12 as prompts for the word route. Gertrude. south east. 5 Make up some more word routes and at the end of each one students get a point for a correct answer. Mark. Vincent Keith. so from sort if you hear north east you move to paid because it is north east of sort. consonants and consonant clusters Pronunciation Practice Activities Procedure Box10 Student handout I First vowel sound Male names Female names la:1 (as in part) Charles. Herbert. Tony /J:I (as in more) George. west. as demonstrated in step 4 above.2 Findingwordsincludingthe samevowelsound: wordroutes1 the same vowel sound 12 onto separate handouts. Eileen. Hugh. John. focusing on the pronunciation of the vowels in words along the route. Irene Daisy. and write the prompt words down (from Box 12) for the route. 1 Based on ideas in Hancock. Students do this a few times. Rose. Luke Bert. draw a compass with these points on the board. Charlotte. They should put Box II in front of them (or this should be displayed on the OHT). Margaret Carol. 48 M. one for each be useful to copy Box II onto an OHT. if you start at the word black and hear the word go then you move to the word slow because go and slow have the same vowel. Peter. if you hear the word floor you move to sort because floor and sort have the same vowel.

. When you check the answers. Below are five different simple (}help st4dents discriminate between sounds in the activities have a stage of pairwork.m'" Umvmm Pm. showing the focus of the difference in each set.l2. 2. Student handout black slow room paid pure stop car wash sort bit chair horse leave dear spend sound sun cat bird high poor soap beach climb start make will book you well wood bear real drum first VOice @C".. >0°4 SI .3 Hearingand saying differences between vowels and between consonants: minimalpairs words which have a different meaning when g~d(se~ p. Say pairs of words. Box I3 includes some examples of minimal pairs that you could use in this activity. 3).mGEUmvmmPRm 5° Students write I to I 0 in their notebooks. students exchange roles.ear-tzear).g.Sounds: vowels. and they repeat the procedure in step I with their partner. Give a list of minimal pairs to one of the students in the pair. get students to repeat pairs of words after you if they have had difficulty... Students write S if the words are the same and D if the words are the or the pronunciation of repeat after you where >0°4 Procedure Sameor different? Box 12 Student handout I home blue take cruel watch half soft more still scared born cheap meal tell mouse but tap turn right sure know deep lie large way fill full who best push wear ear run girl boy fat @C".g. tree-tree) or minimal pairs (e.. consonants and consonant clusters Pronunciation Practice Activities Box11 Note You or the students can make the activity more demanding by having longer word routes. 2 Students work in pairs. tree-tr{lJ!.tsw discuss wrong answers . During s~tld«p. After a time. either the same word (e.

Correct pronunciation where necessary. Ask the 'winning' student to say their words aloud and to point to them on the board. Then. showing the focus of the difference in each set.JU/) Consonants (ltJIvs /S/) I neck/knock I come/come I chair/ share 2 trodltread 2 boat/boat 2 wish/witch 8 tenthltense 10 worth/worse Consonants leII vs IAI /II vs Irl A B A B A I spill spell I same sum 2 did dead 2 blade blood 3 days does Consonants Ipl vs /hI B A B I lane ram I pear bear 2 glass grass 2 simple symbol 3 collect correct 3 pie buy 4 bill 4 hate 4 climb crime 4 pack back 5 lift left 5 made mud 5 lead read 5 pat bat 6 disc desk 6 came come 6lane ram 6 cap cab I wipe/wife 7 wrist rest 7 place plus 7 light right 7 pride bride 2 four/pour 8 will well 8 rain run 8glow grow 8 rip rib ten 9 game gum 9 cloud crowd 9 played blade Consonants (lp/ vs Iff) 3 packed/fact 4 robe/robe 4 sheep/sheep 4 chieflchief 5 leg/log 5 cheat/sheet 5 prize/fries 6 get/got 5 home/home 6 bun/bone 6 cash/cash 6 past/past 7 stop/step 7 flood/flood 7 chew/shoe 7 leap/leap 8 pot/pot 8 most/most 8 watch/watch 8 fan/pan 9 she's/cheese 9 pool/fool 10 phrase/phrase ColumnA or columnB? 1 On the board or an OHT give a list of minimal pairs in two columns.Pronunciation Sounds: vowels. 53 . 9 tin 10 lid led 10 lake luck 10 lied ride 10 pea bee Minimalpair'Bingo!' 1 On the board or an OHT give a list of minimal pairs in columns. 52 Vowels III vs leI hut 4 loft/loft 10 shows/shows Vowels bell 3 chiplchip 9 fun/phone Teacher reference pen 3 none/known 10 note/nut Box 14 3pm 3 net/net 9 less/less 10 wreck/wreck Box 14 includes some examples of minimal pairs that you could use in this activity. Say the words at random and students cross words off their own lists as they hear them.) The winner is the one who crosses out all their words first and then shouts Bingo! Check the answers carefully. as in Box 14. 4 Organise the students into pairs and ask them to repeat the procedure in step 3 with first one student taking the teacher's role and then. consonants and consonant clusters Practice Activities Box13 Teacher reference Vowels (/r/ vs /i:/) Vowels Consonants Consonants (lell vs /<£/) (Ib/ vs /d/) (18/vs /s/) I bark/dark I thank/sank 2 chiplcheap I pad/pad 2 made/mad 2 door/door 2 sick/thick 3 seat/seat 3 bake/back 3 drain/brain 3 thing/sing 4 it/eat 4 snake/snake 4 big/big 4 sinklthink 5 list/list 5 plane/plane 5 thumb/some 6 sheep/ship 6 tapltape 5 buy/buy 6 bent/dent I bead/bid 7 fit/feet 8 still/still 9 leave/leave 10 wheel/will Vowels (Ie/ vs /u/) 7 dead/bed 8 brown/drown 7 mouse/mouse 9 rainlran 10 lack/lake 9 double/double 10 beside/decide 9 fourth/fourth (I AI vs /. students select a given number of words from the list at random (tell them how many they should choose) and write them down. Begin by asking students to repeat all the words after you. after a time. Correct any mistakes. Correct pronunciation where necessary. the other. 2 Say each word and students repeat after you. (Keep a note of which words you have said. headed A and B. 6 pass/path 7 ate/at 8 hat/hat Vowels 3 Say one of the words in a minimal pair and students say whether they hear the word from column A or B.

Students should say the number of the word which is different (Answer: 3/third). four words corresponding the numbers they have written. Ask students how many times they hear the word in the set of words they will .mine . Once Student A has worked through their list. For example: 3 I I leap/lip 0 4 2 met/meat 2 2 3 till/tell etc. They should take it in turns to be 'caller'. or more than three). or you could use a selection from Boxes I3 and I4. Student A should then say.lip =once).e. The lists in Box I5 focus on three sounds in each case (you could of course focus on only two. one of which is different from the others.. totalling 4 for each pair of words. Hiding their paper from their partner. Box15 Teacher reference Vowels (laul vs larl vs hr/) Vowels (he! vs hi vs lei) found sound loud crowd mouse find shall shell signed lied cried mICe gas sat than fat swam as thank guess set then buy tie owl boy toy point oil bow (=/bau/) boy pint sit fit sWIm IS think wrist litter mIss rest letter mess Consonants (lsi vs Izl vs IS/) Consonants (181vs ItJvs Id/) sour suit seat thin thaw thread threw SIp peace pnce loose place nce shower shoot sheet ship peas pnze lose plays nse zoo shoe ZIp zone ship shown thigh fourth thrill three both thinner worth tin tore tread true tie fought din door dread drew die ford drill tree boat Sameword or differentword? I On the board or an OHT write a numbered list of words that come from minimal pairs."y PRm '"°4 54 55 . students should write a number between 0 and 4 above each word. 2 Organise students into pairs and give each student a copy of the material in Box I6. For example. they should exchange roles. Student B should say how many times they heard the first word (Answer: 3).mine Answer: 2 You could use the following to practise a variety of simple vowels: Write on board/OHT: I leap 2 met 3 till 4 sit 5 love 6 men 7 many 8 wet 9 ran IOtop II not nluck I3 bus I4 books You say: I leap -lip -lip -lip Answer: I Continue in the same way using the words in Box I6. for each item. say four words. 3 As a variation on this activity. 3 I for I leap/lip they might say: to I leap -leap -lip -leap (i. consonants and consonant clusters Box I5 gives possible sets of words that you could select from. leap = three times. for example: I lip -lip -leap -lip.Pronunciation Practice Activities 2 Sounds: vowels. Students work in groups (three or more) and repeat the procedure in step I. dinner word Box16 Student handout I leap/lip 2 met/meat 5 love/live 6 men/man 3 tillitell 7 many/money 8 wet/what 4 sit/sat 9 ran/run IO top/tap II not/nut I3 bus/boss I4 books/box I2luckllook " CA>mmG'Umvn. For example: Write on board/OHT: man You say: man .

3 I'd like a . on the floor. 2 Read the sentences aloud (or play the recording). Check the answers... all over the floor.. (B) 6 I didn't like the wait. 5 The workers were very unhappy in the 6 I didn't like the . (B) 8 It covers a big area. . please. mam wait tame white time Lake like @CAMeRWG. 2 He me on the leg. Lake Washington.. 4 My house is at the end of the . 6 He couldn't sail the boat.. 3 There's nothing to .. (A) 3 I'd like a try. A lane lamb B rain ram list wrist long wrong 5 Don't walk on the .1t focuses on /er/ (as in m{!JIJvs /ar! (as in my. 4 I can't find the 5 He emptied the 6 I wanted 7 Peter had the 8 Don't anywhere....UN>vmmPRm 56 handout without it. The following examples are given on the recording: 1 She thinks she's going today. (B) 4 My house is at the end of the lane. (A) 7 I wasn't certain that it was time. 3 Ask one of the students to take your role and repeat the activity with the class. 7 I wasn't certain that it was 8 It covers a big area. (A) 2 I don't want to pay.. 4 I'm sure it won't fit. If you are using an OHT. completing them with the words/phrases in either column A or B.Sounds: vowels.. . A B today to die to pay tray lane a pre try line mme .)minimal pairs.. Boxes 18-20 provide similar materials to use in the same way. 2 There was a in the field. A B live bit leave it lid bins to sit Student beat eat lead beans list a seat least slip sleep @CAMeRWG' Box 19 Box17 Student UNmRsm PRe" w04 handout 11/(lose) vs Irl (run) 1 I went for a walk in the . Washington.. glass clue clown grass crew crown 8 Can you collect correct 3 She had a watch on her . consonants and consonant clusters Pronunciation Practice Activities Minimalpairsin context 1 Copy the material in Box 17 onto a handout for each student or put it on an OHT.. Then students work in pairs to do the activity again. He hadn't got a 7 She drew a picture of a .. (A) 5 The workers were very unhappy in the mine.. (A) Studenis tick a word/phrase in column A or B. Box 18 Ir/ (it) vs li:1 (eat) 1 I can't Student handout leII (m{!)!)vs laIl (m)l) 1 She thinks she's going 2 I don't want . @CAMmDG' UN>VeRsm PRm w04 w04 57 . in the garden.. please. they should write A or B in their notebooks. .. It looks the report for me? to me.

Give an example: try to turn on a piece of electrical equipment (a cassette recorder.4 Communicating with single vowel sounds2 . M. 'Oi! Get off my bike!' @ CAM"WG' UN>vmm P"" w04 122-123). bath PRO" handout Pronunciation la:1 (short. an overhead projector.Sounds: vowels. Discuss the answers with the whole class. @ CAMmDG' UN>VORmV bowl bees bet 3 When you have gone through all the items.' 'Oh.' Show item I of the OHT to illustrate the example. Jim's already left.M. laul (falling tone) ow 4 I'm disappointed. (Note that these sounds can be used to express other meanings. Brinton. give a copy of the material in Box 21 and Box 22 to the students. and as a py the material in Box 22 as a handout for Procedure I Explain that a number of vowel sounds can be used alone to give a particular meaning. D. mce. 2 Uncover the 'Common meaning' column of item 2.' 'And here's a photo of my baby daughter. I'm not sure. pp. it smells revolting.' 'This cheese has gone mouldy.' 'What do you want to do now?' 'Er. usually to stop them doing something they shouldn't. . preferably onto an OHT. . isn't she pretty.before the class. 2 Based on material in Celce-Murcia. I've cut myself. pole peas 7 I've never had a . Talk about differences between the use of the various sounds in British English and in the students' first language(s). Look!' 'Urgh. and Goodwin. I:ml (falling tone) oh 5 I'm thinking about what to say next.M.. keeping the other three columns covered. that would be .' 'Ah. what a pity. 58 59 . etc.' 'Sorry. consonants and consonant clusters Pronunciation Practice Activities Box 20 Student handout /p/ ([2ut)vs Ib/ (12ut) I There was a under the tree. falling tone) ahor aah 3 That hurts. 2 It was a really good . 13::1 or 1i::1 urgh ee 2. (1996. Box 21 Student Common meaning I Now I understand. 13:1(level tone) er 6 That's horriblel disgusting. ' 'Shall we go out for a meal?' 'Ooh.ofcourse. J. (both long. Ask students what single vowel sound can be used to express the idea that something is really pretty or nice.' 'Ow. 3 There was dirt all over the 4 I'll make sure they're in the A B pear bear pie buy beach back peach pack . lu:1(falling tone) ooh 8 Angrily getting someone's attention.) Students work in pairs to suggest which of the sounds in Box 21 is most likely to fill each gap in the dialogues in Box 22. falling tone) Written ah w04 2 That's really pretty or mce. falling tone) 7 I'm looking forward to something. too. make sure that it is unplugged! Say 'Ah (fa:/). usually said loudly) 01 Example 'It's not working because it's not plugged in!' 'Ah.) which doesn't work . I see what's wrong. Icnl(falling tone. Continue with the rest of the items. It's not plugged in.I. . la::1 (long. 8 There was a towel lying next to the pet path 5 Can you bring the 6 He had always hated over here? .

I 12 Q CAME"DGE 60 Classifying words according to their first vowel UmVERS<TY Pm' "0°4 lerl. you're hurting me. A: The children from next door are stealing apples again. Make sure that students understand that they are looking for words with the given vowel sound. yes. B: . I've no idea. B: . Sorry. lar/. B: . IAi and frl. A: Howald do you think Joan is? B: . Here are some other possible words for different sets of vowels and initial consonants: 16 A: Would you like some chocolate? B: . wine. isn't it cute! A: Come with me! B: . aren't they sweet. give students answers written randomly on the board and ask them to put them in the correct square. let me think about that. owl household objects: table. B: .5 3 A: Have you seen our new kitten? 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 II B: . I banged my head. flour 61 . eyes. shower parts of the body: brain. there's a note on the door that says the class has been cancelled. B: . B: . A: What's the answer to question 3? B: . A: We've just eaten all the dinner.laul (all long vowels) animals/birds: crayfish. consonants and consonant clusters Student handout I A: Put your hand in this bag. The winner is the one who has filled in most squares correctly. bison. I see now. A: Watch out for the low ceiling. The first vowel sound (not necessarily the first sound) in each word should be the one given. mouth food or drink: raisins. IAiand frl. that's a shame. Variation 13 A: There's someone trying to break into your car. 14 A: This is a photo of my two-year-old son holding his baby sister. la:/.Pronunciation Practice Activities Box 22 Sounds: vowels. ete. /. monitor the vowel sounds lcel. Extension 15 A: Watch out for the puddle! B: . mole. What is it? 2 A: Do you want to come over for dinner? B: . yes please. the water's gone into my shoes. get out of my garden! A: Brian's already gone home. Procedure I Ask students (individually. in pairs or in groups) to complete the table in Box 23 with the names of an animal/bird. toaster. that would be great. la:/. A: This wire should go into the second hole. and correct and repeat where necessary. I'm sorry I missed him. B: . 2. s on the vowels lcel. household object. A: I wonder why there's no one here. B: . get away from there! To make the activity easier. lights. and not a particular vowel letter. but you could ivity with other vowels or with consonants (see the sound an OHT or a handout. it feels disgusting.:)0/. doughnuts. You could give a time limit. 2 When students report back their answers. B: . nose.

vegetables. with the unvoicedsound there should be no vibration. /tSIJ and weakconsonants(jb/.arm. It/-/d/. with no noticeable puff of air. food:carrots. ask them to say the word yet beginning with a long li:1vowel eeeee .monke . The weak consonants are produced with less force. The result should be ee -et. /0/ (then). veins./z/.) until they can feel the difference. they should be able to feel a puff of air and the paper should move.3 (on consonants in minimal pairs) and 2.Ivl Ifl 62 ./5/. (lan. and sound close to yet. /d3f) Students place their hand or a piece of paper in front of their mouths. (Note: When the sounds are used in context the difference in force between them is much less marked. Studentsplace their hands gentlyon their throats. consonants and consonant clusters 2 Isl. If students have special problems with ItS/. finger.Pronunciation Practice Activities Sounds: vowels. Students alternate the sounds Ipl .cup. sheep household objects: sofa. isolating them and exaggerating the difference can help develop students' awareness of how the sounds are made. househ objects: ofthebod k. Otherwise the pairs of sounds Ip/-Ibl. IfI.ask them to shape the mouth as if they were going to produce It/. Fricativesounds:'voiceless' Iff.) until they can feel the difference. 18/-/0/. affe. To produce Id3/. . ItSI-/d31are produced with mouth and tongue in a similar position.) .Ibl Ipl -/bl (etc. . frying pan. If they do this. When they produce the strong III (sit) animal or bird household object part of the body food or drink C CAM'RmG' UN>vmm PR'" '004 Answerkey lpleanswers:animals:cam hark. hes.armchair. /t/. 13/(u~uan .garlic. Some learners produce initial Ij! as Id31(saying yet as jet. /d/. Here are some suggestions for teaching strategies to use when students have problems pronouncing particular consonants: Student handout lrel (bl!1ck) 10:1(part) IA!Uf&.onions. sugar Box 23 Consonants (2. /8/ (thin).6 to 2. When they produce the voicedsounds they should be ableto feela vibration through their hand. 63 . frog. /kJ-/g/.9) Correcting particular consonants When you use activities 2.Is/-/zl and ISI-/31are produced with mouth and tongue in a similar position. build up pressure in the mouth and release it suddenly. ISI(all fricatives) animals/birds: snake.fridge. However. making sure that the sound is voiced (see next section).6-2. Then to push the lips forward and round them. shin food or drink: sultanas.Ivl (etc. you may need to give some explicit guidance to help students form the consonant sounds correctly.9.figs. vase. 2. /S/ (ship)and 'voiced' and repeat. /k/. /g/. Students alternate the sounds If! .3. do the same but with less pressure. for example). lvi. gradually reducing the length of the initial vowel. Strongconsonants(jp/. flatten the tongue a little against the top of the mouth. vulture. Otherwisethe pairs of sounds If/-lvi. sheets parts of the body: stomach. sto rib.

1in Box 24 twice onto two 0 HT s or two e Part A and a version of Part Bwith the d. Ivl is produced with the top teeth on the bottom lip. As the external shape of the mouth is different. and correct where necessary. .Ibl .6 Wholiveswhere?Minimalpairnames3 /b/vs/v/ . include e names and places omitted instead.Pronunciation Practice Activities Sounds: . Some learners produce a kh sound instead of an initial /hJ. . /w/vs/v/ Demonstrate the different starting lip positions: Iwl is produced with lips rounded and pushed forward (as if saying 00). III 3 Based on an idea from Michael Vaughan-Rees.or at least until you run out of air!). /r/ vs/1/ . initial/h/ .Ibl .) and then put them into words right -light . Explain that the place where a person lives is given under their name.) and then put them into words wet .Iwl Ivl (ete.) until they become aware of the difference.) until they become aware of the difference.III. Demonstrate the different starting lip positions: /bl is produced with lips together. lvi. Demonstrate that/bl is 'short' (i. Ivl is produced with the top teeth on the bottom lip. Drawing head cross-sections to show the two sounds can help some students.) or at . Correct and repeat where necessary. 2 Focus students on Part (ete. Students alternate the sounds Ibl Ivvvvvi .Ivl . focusing on Ill. and these names and places are ece/Rees. Make statements such as 'Mark Vaughan lives in Ridcombe' and students write or say True or False. People's names and the places where square. Then organise students into pairs to repeat the activity again.Ivl .) and then put them into words bat - vat .hat .) until they become aware of the difference.bat . Students alternate the sounds Ibl .at . 1in Box 24 onto an 0 HT or a handout.) until they become aware of this. monitor their pronunciation of Iwl. Students repeat the names and places given in Part A after you or the recording. in the second. Irl and Ill.right -light (ete.hat (etc.Ir/ . the air is released and the sound ends) while Ivl is a 'continuing' sound (i. they should feel the air moving down the sides of their tongue.Ivl (etc. consonants and consonant clusters .Ivvvvvi (ete. . Help students become aware of the position of the tip of the tongue in producing these sounds. hi is produced with the tip of the tongue a little further back in the mouth (as in It/).Ryton). . ask students to look in mirrors to observe this. it can be continued indefinitely . With the tongue in this position and the mouth open a little. tell students to make the noise they would make if they were trying to steam up a mirror by breathing on it.e. 64 65 . but the tongue should not touch the top of the mouth.hit (ete.III ( . ask students to blow. Students alternate the sounds Iwl .hit . Students alternate the sounds Ir/ .vat (etc. During this stage. Studentsalternatewords with and without initial /hJ:it .) until they become aware of this. ~ E: hi :::::v Procedure Version1 I Give out or display the material in Box 24. re use the material in Box 24. 3 Repeat step 2 with different students making the statements. To produce initial Ih/ correctly.wet . WightonI. include Part A and a version of Part B with y the material in Box 24 twice onto Part A and a version of Part Bwith omitted at random. 2. III is produced with the tongue touching the alveolar ridge (behind the teeth).

checking the answers at the end.Paul Vane Les Right . Extension You could write similar material focusing on other consonants or vowels. '"°4 67 . At the end.Padbury Tadlow . students should compare the information they have on their completed handouts and talk about any differences. Ir/ and IV.Widcombe Lambsgate .Dagnell Bail."G.Tim Bail Laura Pandee Keith Durden Pinmoor . 4 Show or give out the second version of Box 24. Correct and repeat where necessary. depending on the sounds your students find problematic.Phil Babb Helen Parr John Dain Darren TattonJulie Drew . They should keep these hidden from their partner.Les White Ann Whicker . During this stage monitor their pronunciation of Iwl.Padloe Torcross .Whines Cross Ryton . One in each pair should take the teacher's role (selecting names at random) and their partner should add names to their chart.Wyton Lorton .Ann Vicker Susan Wain .Alison Way Part B @CAM".John Rees Mark Warne .Rockswood Vines Cross . and correct where necessary. Students repeat the names and places in Part A after you or the recording.Sounds: vowels.Betty Rorson Peter Lowe .Ramsgate Venby. Correct and repeat names and places where necessary.Susan Rayne Loxwood . Choose places at random and keep a note of where you have said people live. 3 Students report back their answers. lvi.Mark Vaughan Betty Lawson .Waitby John Leece Mark Warne Betty Rorson Wyton Widcombe Waitby Paul Wayne Alison Ray Ann Whicker Loxwood Vines Cross Lambsgate Alison Way Betty Lawson Les White Whines Cross Rateby Lorton John Rees Susan Wain Paul Vane Ryton Vorden Rockswood Mark Vaughan Les Right Peter Lowe Ridcombe Rawton Venby Peter Roe Ann Vicker Susan Rayne Whenby Ramsgate Warden Alison Ray . Irl and IV. lvi..Rawton Vorden . fbi. Give the first version of the handout to one student in each pair and the second version to the other.UmvmmPn. and correct where necessary.Julie Brue Carol PenneyDarren Patten Carol Denny Keith Purdon Laura TandyTim Dayle .Pawcross Box 24 Student reference Part A John Leece .Derryvale Purton .Warden Ridcombe .Peter Roe Paul Wayne . During this stage monitor their pronunciation of Iw/.Derton 66 Bagnall. Students work in pairs. students then ask each other questions such as 'Where does Mark Vaughan live?' and 'Who lives in Ryton?' to complete their version of Part B. ItJand Id/: Helen TarJohn Payne Phil Dab . to repeat steps 2 and 3 above. consonants and consonant clusters Pronunciation Practice Activities Version2 I Show the OHT or give out the copies of the first version of Box 24. 2 Make statements such as 'Mark Vaughan lives in Ridcombe' and students write down the places in the chart in Part B or in their notebooks.Dinmore Perivale . 2 In pairs.Dearton Tadberry . Here are two possibilities: I Focus on Ip/. Version3 I Students work in pairs.Dale Bierton . Students repeat the names and places in Part A after you or the recording.When by Rateby.

pie.7 Lip-reading on the visible features of sound iminate between the sounds. Procedure Focus students on the pictures in Box 26.dare. Pam and Barbara are thinking about the presents they would like for their birthday.Hardfield Tanbrook la:/.Keelby Pithill. and 151 . and so 1m!vs Iw/: me .. Students should decide what presents each person wants and make sentences like: Tom wants some trousers. Monitor and correct the sounds It!. . Iwl vs Ir/: wear .white. ten . Ipl and fbl where necessary. IfI vs izl practised in the material in Box 25. buy . folder . but tivity with other consonants or with below)..Ipl and fbi.ray 2 Focus on lxi.race. In addition to the Isl vs IfI.den ItI vs Ip/: tea .pea.wake.share.Peathill vs 18/. through . very . Idl. Deborah wants a dictionary.chalk. Iwl vs Iv/: west . weed . IfI vs 18/. found .wet .sick 151vs Id/: than . lay . (I993. 14).power It!vsItS/:talk . wine . Ask students if you said word a or b.Deborah. If/vsIs/:fin .Heeston Kilby . Focusstudents on the firstpair of words in Box 25.dark 4 FromHewings. The idea is eaker' more aware of how the sounds are es between pairs of sounds. late .Leakford Manton .Tarnbrook .sank. . their .IfI vs lvi.boat.Dan.dig.we.sink.Meanton Napton . .saw.4 Procedure Givea demonstration.shade.tip . might .rise. three .fat. fine . . test . Ig/.rare. fit . think . 69 .shine. tie . fine . Repeat until they clearly understand the activity and then ask them to work in pairs to complete the worse . big . Tom wants things that begin with the sound It!. pride .chest. 19/.berry 181 vs It!: thin . then .Isl vs 15/. 68 or ahandout. wet . hi and 1i:/: Ed Catlow Sharon HillsEd Cartlow Sharon Heals Liam PatchLiam Peach Hannah RadburnHannah Reedburn Patrick LimPatrick Leem Harry Sacker Harry Seeker Diane Mickin- Diane Meekin Lackford .sin. /k/. bark .tank 181vs Is/: thank .Explain that Tom.Sounds: vowels.8 UN>VORSCTYPms '004 Classifying words according to their first consonant an OHT.chip. Face the class and silently say either sat or fat. toes.vine. vest .chose IV vs /r/: lace .fried.rate. or as a :onsonants It!. they . vote . lock . wise .. Kathy. Kathy things that begin with IkJ.sign Ivl vs fb/: vet .die. consonants and consonant clusters Pronunciation Practice Activities Emily Danley Emily Darnley Jack Gadden - Jack Garden Fanmoor . Id/.Farnmore Hadfield IfI vs IS/:fair .true.rock Box 2S Student a I sat 2 fat b fat that 3 smg 4 say 5 sink thing they think handout a 6 few 7 some 8 sort 9 few IO fan b View thumb a II bath 12 death b bars deaf thought zoo van 13 path 14 that 15 there pass sat fair @CAM""DG' 2. Extension You can do the same kind of activity with any pairs of sounds that have a visible pit .sit. way . /k/. thank . fool fbl vs Id/: bad . Ipl vs If/: pat . met .vest.M. thaw . other possible contrasts and some example minimal pairs are: .shoulder . fade . make .Neepton Histon .sound. . thick . pool- . This activity 181and 15/.ray. tower .tin. Deborah things that begin with Id/.

This car. espan).g. This can. C span spark spm sport stable stool stop strip scan scar Scot skid @CAM". Students repeat after you a word from column A. estart for start.11611711811. ask students to elongate the s sound . This trip. This pin. Students repeat the names after you. . Then ask them to suggest appropriate presents for these people. then the corresponding word from C. (Speakers of Brazilian Portuguese. Catalan. Box 28 onto an OHT or a handout. Procedure Version1 This is for learners who add a vowel (usually /g/ or sometimes /e/) before a word beginning with a consonant (usually a consonant cluster such as /st/) producing. but this time don't provide a model for repetition.) I Focus students on the material in Box 27. This cot. Extensions I Ask students to suggest other presents for the same characters on the same principle as above.1. This kid. consonants and consonant clusters 2.Thisssssspan . for example. followed by the corresponding phrase from B. This top.1" "1231241 "128127 29136131 Box 27 ~ ~p ~ ~ @ CAMBRWC' Umvmm Pm. This table.11111.then omit Thi until they produce ssssspan. 2 Give students the names of people that begin with sounds you know your students find difficult. Farsi and Arabic may have particular problems with this. This park.Pronunciation Practice Activities Box 26 Sounds: vowels. This port. w04 71 .11. Student handout A pan park pm port table tool top trip can car cot kid B This pan.WC' 7° UmVHmy Pm. Then reduce the length of s until they produce span. Spanish.when they repeat phrases in B. 3 If students add an initial /g/ (e. This tool. 2 Ask students to do the same again.113 '.9 Student handout Getting rid of unwanted vowels of vowels before and after words Box 27 onto an OHT or a handout.

Students repeat after you a phrase from column A and then the corresponding word from B.) The first half of the material is for words ending with/sl and Iz/. Keep it.}/)after a word ending with a consonant producing. but this time don't provide a model for repetition. (Speakers of Italian. p.12) Version2 This is for learners who add a vowel (usually I. Continue until there is a winner or until you feel they have had enough. go round the class with each student (or pair/group) adding a new word. Is it. Read it. (1993. Kick it. Build up the word chain below and explain that each word must begin with a consonant cluster (two or more consonant sounds). 2 Ask students to do the same again. Stop it. Keep.g.g. Race. Stop. Was. ask students to repeat the phrase in A a few times (perhaps holding the Isl or /zl for a little time in the first examples) and then concentrate on dropping it. so that the focus is on sounds rather than spelling. Force it. B Pass. Guard. If students fail to provide a new word. Don't write these on the board. Was it. 3 If students add a final I. pass-er). Race it. '" CAMBRWGE Umvmm slow 2 Continuing from slow.10-2.5 blue Box 28 Student cross handout A Pass it. Chinese and Korean may have particular problems with this. provide a word that doesn't begin with an appropriate consonant cluster. Focus students on the material in Box 28. Write it. Saws it. 28). Japanese. or provide a word that has already been used. Guard it. Is.of how many words they have produced as they add to the chain. set a goal for the class as a 'team' to achieve: ten or fifteen words in a sequence.10 Wordchains with a consonant cluster I Procedure I Demonstrate the principle of the activity on the board. consonants and consonant clusters Consonant clusters (2. for example. Kick. PR'" w04 5 From Hewings. Keep a note. they are 'out' and the turn passes to the next student(s). Force. Give a limited thinking time (longer or shorter depending on the ability of the class). 72 73 . what-er for what or yes-er for yes. the second half is for words ending with plosive sounds e. Write. for example. ItJand IdJ. 2. Saws.}Ito words in column B (e. The cluster must contain one of the consonant sounds from the cluster at the beginning of the previous word. leaving the word without the final I.Pronunciation Practice Activities Sounds: vowels. Alternatively.}/. M. Read.

IplJand and IstJ. Box 29 Teacher reference /bll to close and open your eyes quickly (blink) unable to see (blind) a cover on a bed to keep you warm (blanket) the darkest colour (black) describing a person with fair hair (blonde) red liquid in your body (blood) the colour of the sky on a sunny day (blue) the opposite of sharp (blunt) /brl the organ inside your head (brain) what makes a car go more slowly (brakes) part of a tree (branch) showing no fear (brave) a food made from flour. write the target consonant clusters (given above for Boxes 29 and 3°) on the board before the exercise. Use easier or more difficult vocabulary depending on the ability of your students. if your students share a first language. water and yeast (bread) air that goes in and out of your lungs (breath) something you make houses out of (bricks) a woman who is getting married (bride) IplJ a living thing that grows in earth (plant) a flat dish (plate) to take part in a game (play) to make someone happy (please) a piece of plastic that fits into the hole in a bath (plug) the opposite of minus (plus) enough or a large amount (plenty) things like Mars.Pronunciation Practice Activities Sounds: vowels. consonants and consonant clusters 2. 2 Read out word definitions at random and ask students to supply the correct word. Mercury and the Earth (planets). 6The class can repeat the word chorally. a bilingual dictionary). and then ask a few students to repeat individually./br/.' with the clusters /b1J. Iprl to say that something will happen in the future (predict) to like one thing more than another (prefer) not the past or future (present) the title of the head of the USA (president) the son of a king (prince) the opposite of public (private) the head of a university department (professor) to show that something is true (prove) 6 The definitions 74 ate loosely based on those in the Cambridge Learner's Dictionary. these could be taken straight from a monolingual or.11 Definitionsquiz . Make this a 'quick-fire' activity so that students are saying the target words frequently. find a number of words beginning with those clusters and prepare simple dictionary-type definitions of them (in fact. When you identify particular consonant clusters that are causing problems for your students. 75 . Repeat definitions randomly until the students tire of the activity. Correct any cluster problems. Extension Devise your own material. Witha consonant cluster Procedure I Using either letters or phonetic symbols.

The half that makes the final 'top" word is the winner of the round and gets a point.1i:1(eat). For example: tramples Itr'Xmplzl trample Itr'Xmp1/ tramp Itr'Xmpl tram Itr'XnV ram Ir'XnV " am l'XnV I'XI 3 This could be a competitive activity between two halves of the class.g.Sounds: vowels.g. This continues until no new words can be made. and so on. Ivl (Qn). One half makes the first word.Igul (gQ). Students then try to make a new word by adding another single consonant sound to this word.12 Box 30 Is1/ to close something with great force (slam) the part of a shirt that covers your arm (sleeve) feeling tired (sleepy) to hit with the flat part of your hand (slap) soft shoes worn in the house (slippers) a flat piece of food such as bread (slice) a vehicle used for travelling across snow (sledge) not fast (slow) Ispl the area outside the Earth (space) an insect with eight legs (spider) to say something using your voice (speak) your backbone (spine) an old-fashioned word for glasses (spectacles) a round mark (spot) to use money to buy or pay for something (spend) to turn around and around quickly (spin) Isk/ the outer layer of your body (skin) equipment for measuring weight (scales) to frighten someone (scare) the area where you can see clouds (sky) a place where children go to be educated (school) a piece of women's clothing worn around the waist (skirt) a country north of England (Scotland) a piece of cloth worn around the neck (scarf) 1st! the raised area in a theatre where plays are performed (stage) a long. Say one of the following vowels aloud a few times: I'XI(as in {1m). either at the beginning or the end: e. There are some examples of possible towers on p. depending on 77 . leII (pf1}'). IA!(gp). I'XI-+ am. !II (it).laI! (m}'). chorally and individually repeat the words and correct pronunciation where necessary. (you). lei C~gg). the same base vowel could in each case lead to totally different towers. am -+ ram. Alternatively. 2 Students make a word by adding a single consonant sound (not necessarily a single letter) to either the beginning or end of the word: e. the other the second.1::>:1 (more). Write this word on the board.legl (care). Of course. 78. thin piece of wood (stick) a piece of paper stuck on a letter (stamp) the organ in your body where your food goes (stomach) to begin doing something (start) a building where trains stop (station) to finish doing something (stop) the gas produced when you heat water (steam) 76 Consonant cluster towers Teacher reference to keep adding single consonant end of a word until they can't add any beginning and end of words Procedure I Demonstrate the activity.laul (how). hII (bQ}'). it could be a co-operative activity where the aim is for the class as a whole to try to build as high as possible. consonants and consonant clusters Pronunciation Practice Activities 2. Write this above am to start building the cluster tower. When a tower is (car). 13:1(fur). There should be no additional vowel sounds between the consonant clusters at the start and end of the words. some towers might be quite short.

Other base vowels and possible first words in the tower are given in step I. scarfs scarf calf mInes mIne car la:1 my jaIl house how laul scared scare care le'dl splits split spit sit it hi spades spade paid pay leI! 78 .Pronunciation Practice Activities the knowledge and originality of the students.

egg). Correct pronunciation where necessary. unsafe). ask others to repeat. Monitor the links and correct where necessary.4) 3.1 Matching adjectivesand nouns:consonantto vowel links Procedure I Ask students (giving clues if necessary) to suggest singular countable nouns that begin with a vowel sound and end with a consonant sound (e. unit begins with the vowel letter u but the consonant sound Ij/. animal. If necessary. Write the word an to the left of these. For example: an'-Jintelligent'-Jelephant an'-Joverweight '-Juncle After a student suggests an example and pronounces it with smooth consonant-vowel link.1-3. Then invite them to suggest their examples. American. apple ends with the vowel letter e but the consonant sound II/). Notice that the words mayor may not begin and end with vowel and consonant letters (e. Write the words that students give you on the right half of the board. Make sure that the word final consonants flow smoothly into the following word initial vowels. illustrate this by marking the link on the board.g. Write these on the left side of the board. 79 .g. 4 Give students a few minutes to study the lists and write down as many meaningful (though possibly amusing!) an + adjective + noun combinations as they can.g. 2 Now ask for similar adjectives (e. # 3 Students chorally and individually repeat all the words after you.Connected speech Linksbetweenwords (3.

Id! or In! when they are with another consonant (e. (without 81 . Extensions I Ask students to suggest when It!.a hot pizza .g. pedestrian crossing. input.2 Changingsounds:consonant to consonant links iIltheproIlunciation of the final 1. Illustrate by writing on the board: that that sort that cat and saying each item. Students repeat each wordlphrase after you and try to make the 2 Keep a note of items that are commonly said as one 'unit' (i. IdJ and In! change and when they do not.1avowel + It!. They should put a. such as compound nouns. We tofIPeter).) 2 Organise students into pairs and give out or show the material in Box 32. This is the closure in the throat we make as we begin a cough. 4 Students report back their answers by saying the two similar pronunciations first and then the different one. a consonant at the anOHT. Examples of compound nouns are: (with sound changes) credit card. Ask students to repeat these items making the sound changes practised above where necessary. but that before cat the t is pronounced something like Ig/. Box 31 an Student handout awful endless enjoyable excellent impossible incorrect informal innocent intelligent Irish old open overweight underground unfinished address aeroplane airport animal apple apricot arm example egg elephant evening exam example ice cream illness office omelette onion orange uncle @ CAM""DG' Umvmm PRe" '0°4 3. feedback. For example: hot (= holt!) .e.Pronunciation Practice Activities Connected speech Variation Instead of eliciting adjectives and nouns from students. godmother. Say (or play from the recording) the items in each row: 'hot . output. broadcast. without a pause between).a hot pizza (= ho/p/) The phrase in which there is a change in the final consonant (and the type of change) is given in the Answer key below Box 32. This feature sound change in that cat. Demonstrate with the first row: in column C.1J}dsisJ6I1owedby a word beginning ary. in which the first element ends in It!. downpour. just before we make a coughing sound. but in column B it will be pronounced something like Ip/. 3 Give the students an opportunity to check their answers. copy Box 31 onto a handout or an OHT and do steps 3 and 4. handball.a hot oven (= holt!) . (Note that before the sound Isl the It! might also be 'unreleased' or replaced with a 'glottal stop'. Students say the words and phrases in each row to each other and decide which of the underlined final consonants in columns B or C is said in the same or nearly the same way as in column A. Make sure that you say the items in columns Band C fairly quickly so that the consonant-final changes take place.a hot oven'. and how they change. t will be pronounced as in hot. hoB ihesounds It! and IdJ are sometimes left eaf a consonant cluster formed when a 1. You could encourage either a It! sound or a glottal stop before Is/. 5 Check the answers and then ask the class and individuals to repeat after you or the recording./ next to this. IdJor In!. Demonstrate that in the first two items the final tin that is pronounced Itl. Procedure I 80 Explain that some consonant sounds at the end of a word change when they are followed by a consonant at the beginning of the next word. etc.

(Answer: 4 Who is he? w.then the linking sound will be Ij/ [y]. Illustrate by writing on the board: two" eggs three" eggs W Y Students repeat the phrases after you a few times.g. and also their own speech. Can students think of more? Encourage them to look out for examples in their own reading or listening.""DG' UN'vmm p"" w04 3. laul [now]. w links and y links are used. 12Whun umbrella? y. 5 Take a dialogue from the textbook you are currently using. 3 Students repeat the phrases in column B after you or the recording and check their answers. godfather. They should say the phrases aloud quietly to each other as they do this. 2 Give out the handout or display the OHT. Then students work in pairs. (Answer: The choice of w or y depends on the vowel that ends the first word.Pronunciation Practice Activities Connected speech sound changes) part-exchange. / B a hot pizza a good excuse seven languages a short boy a red bike a brown suit white wine a bad cold ten cars light rain a wide river a green sofa C a hot oven a good price seven people a short way a red apple a brown beard white coffee a bad illness ten letters light green a wide gap green grass "C".) rial in Box 33 onto a handout or an OHT.laII [mx]. in general. Box 32 Student handout 1 A hot 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 good seven short red brown white bad 9 10 II 12 ten light wide green 1 Explain that when a word that ends in a vowel sound is followed by a word beginning with a vowel sound. l'dul[gQ]then the linking sound will be/wl [w]. downstream. Monitor the students as they do this and check that they are using wand y links. 4 Students match the questions in column A and answers in column B. Students work in pairs to decide whether the links marked in the sentences in column Bare w or y. handout. Students then read the dialogue aloud.3 Procedure Predict the linking sounds: vowels linked with andjwj jjj(y) with a vowel sound a 'Vowelsound / Extensions 1 Ask students to identify the two wand y links in the questions in column A.g. li:1 [as in see]. Correct where necessary. lu:1 [you]. making sure that the links are included. saying the complete dialogue. If the vowel is produced with the highest part of the tongue close to the front of the mouth e. Check by asking the questions and students give the answers. hII [bQX]. Ask students to mark where they think wand y links should be. If the vowel is produced with the highest part of the tongue close to the back of the mouth e.) 2 For more advanced students you could ask them to work out when. a very short Iwl or Ij/ (y) linking sound is sometimes put between them. tin opener. 82 83 .leII [da)!].

7 How long will it take? 8 Have you been there before? 9 How long will you be there? IO Why don't you stay longer? II Will you take Adam a present? I2 Why an umbrella? (e. 3 Students work in pairs to match opposites in A and B. etc.suchassouthern British or 'BBC English'.4 Student handout A Matching opposites and words that go together: vowels linked with /r / B . "CAMORWGEUN<vmm PRm '°04 Procedure I Write the followingon the board: four . Why? c Yes. Students should then say the pairs after you. say the pairs (perhaps exaggerating the r link a little) and ask them what they observe about the pronunciation of four. These accents are 1hisexercise is intended to be used only if g TheGalllive in France. Explain that when said alone. jWeI.poor example more .g.nglish.g. 84 85 . copy the material in Box 35 k MGuncle.more apples were . opy the material in Box 34 onto a handout e students. Scots and the west of England.four elephants another .lpd{e. caris pronounced /ka:/. '-J How will you get there? f I'll stau week. (For elementary students) 2 Give out the handout (Box 34) or display the material on the OHT. Check that they are adding the r links.four'-Jelephants r (lb:/ .. i To see Adam.. '-J j A few'-Jhours. but when they are followedby another word beginningwith a vowelsound an r is inserted.another ice cream poor . I To'-JAustria. In other American. When? b I grew'-Jup there.+the letter r or vowel + the letters re end I Where are you going? 2 3 4 5 6 a By'-Jair. d He asked me for one./b:rehf<\ntsl) Alternatively. /ka:r/ and /ke<\r/). the -r or -re words end in a vowelsound. For example: four . h It's too'-Jexpensive.Pronunciation Practice Activities Box 33 Connected speech 3.were open somewhere . another. a new'-Jumbrella. Who is he? '-J Have you got cousins there. care is pronounced are sometimescalled non-rhotic. too? e Tomorrow afternoon. these l. in context.somewhere else Say each pair in turn or play the recording.

Student handout A amateur bitter car clever end-of-year fair fire inner leather newspaper rare rear regular severe sour upper to B alarm animal arm armchair article ear earthquake enemy engine estimate exams exercise exit idea orange orchestra @ CAM""DG' UN<vmm Pm. and Box 37 onto separate handouts or w04 Procedure I Give out or display the material in Box 36.5-3. four said alone is /b:r/ and in British English it is /b:/. Monitor the use of linking r and correct where necessary. (For intermediate + students) 2 Give out the handout (Box 35) or display the material on the OHT. in North American English.) said with a North American accent. for example: before and after ' / r giving the words from A first.Umvmm Pm. bitter enemy. and students repeat each one. ete. They should say. Say the sentences in A or play the recording.another ice cream. 86 87 . Make clear that the words need a linking r: amateur ' /orchestra bitter ' /enemy r r Ask students for suggestions and then get the class or individuals repeat after you.5 Dialogues B after exit far father minor over past peace sister smaller student there worse @CAM>RWG. first chorally and then individually.Pronunciation 4 Practice Activities Connected speech Ask students for their answers.four elephants. 3 4 Box 35 Students work in pairs to match words in A and B that commonly go together. For example. Monitor the use of linking r and correct where necessary. Do the same with the sentences in Band C. Then get the class or individuals to repeat after you.) Give or ask for a couple of examples: amateur orchestra. They should observe that in North American English -r and -re words said alone are pronounced with an r sound at the end. another . (You could use the term collocate if the students know it. w04 Extension If you have a non-rhotic accent (see above).7) Box 34 Student handout A before better brother enter major mother under war bigger future here near teacher 3. play the recording of the same pairs listed in step I (four . Contracted forms (3. Ask students if they notice a difference between British and North American English.

There's some here. Then ask the questions in random order from D in Box 37. Monitor the contracted forms and correct where necessary. mix them up. Do the same for the questions in E and answers in B. Judy's 34. p. F Do you like coffee? Does Tom like tea? Were you in town yesterday? Can Pat swim? Don't forget your book tomorrow. The two parts should be labelled A and B and written on separate pieces of paper. students repeat the questions in D. 3 Make wrong sentences about the family in Picture I. Pat's three and David's two. It's disappeared. You've left it on your desk. I'm tired. I won't. That's right. and correct where necessary. he doesn't. Students should continue reading out the sentences until the class (and you) are happy that all the pairs have been found. I wasn't. 2 Ask students to make similar sentences about the family in Picture 2. No. 74). Elicit corrections from the students as in the following examples: A: Judy's 35. Monitor contracted forms and correct where necessary. -+ Itis blue. I've forgotten them. Say the sentences below aloud or play them on the recording. do this as an activity where students move around the class looking for their 'partner' Box 37 @) Student handout D E Where's Sam? What colour's your bag? Where's the chalk? What've you done You're French. Focus on Picture I.SlTY Pms 2004 3. I C No. Students answer with sentences from A. I won't. B: No. I wasn't.They've been married for five years. (Note there are no contracted forms in the questions in E) Then students work in pairs to ask and answer questions. Procedure ~ \f) Box 36 Student handout A B It's blue. I've cut it. 3 Ask students to look at A again. No. she can't. Make sure students use contracted forms when they read out their sentences.Adrian's 35. for example: It is blue. C No. No. There must be at least one contracted form in each part. she's not (or she isn't). I'm tired. No.m @ 2004 Give out or display the handout. Alternatively. You've left it on your desk. It's disappeared. No. Ask for a volunteer with an A part to read out their sentence. There's some here. «> CAM>RmGE UN'V. He's gone home. he doesn't. similar to those practised so far. she can't. -+ It's blue. Monitor contracted forms and correct where necessary. She's 34. to your finger? aren't you? Where's your ruler? Where're your books? Where's my pen? Where're your books? What's wrong? A B It's blue. They've got two children. No. Make sure they produce contracted forms. and distribute them randomly around the class. No. That's right. (I993. He's gone home.Pronunciation Practice Activities Connected speech 2 If necessary. 89 . explain how contractions are formed by writing on the board. Any students who think they have the corresponding B part should read out their sentence. E and F after you or the recording. 88 M. 5 Ask pairs of students to write a short two-part question-answer dialogue. 4 Give out or display the material in Box 37. No. I've forgotten them. I don't. Collect the papers.6 Talkingaboutfamiliesl ___="M . This may need some discussion if mistakes are made. I don't.". @ CAMmDGE UN.'TY P.n. I've cut it. 1 Based on Hewings. They're in my bag. They're in my bag. and then the questions in F and answers in C. Chorally and individually. Students repeat chorally and individually.

They've been married for five years. They've been married for three years. e. why're [why are]. represented in writing. Yes. They've got two children. have. For example: I'm 18. Then students work in pairs. asking students to repeat after you or the recording.rialin Box 39 onto a handout. chorally and individually. Picture 2 ~~*~i f3 16 if 10 Mo. etc.'eJ J. although couldn't have is found in writing]. Copy the material in Box 4° onto a separate handout or an OHT. Monitor the contracted forms and correct where necessary. 4 Students work in pairs.D ye~r" e CAM"WG' Vmv". I've got two children/brothers/sisters. Marking possible contracted forms in written dialogues.'eJ 5 ye~r" f3 3.--Procedure I Give out the handout (Box 39). (You could discuss later whether these are likely to be represented in written English. Monitor contracted forms and correct where necessary. You might ask students when auxiliary verbs (e. saying contracted forms Intermediate+ 60 minutes Copy the mate. A: They've got three children.) The dialogues should be given to different pairs of students.Pronunciation Practice Activities Connected speech A: They've been married for seven years. they haven't.rr. They're 16 and 21.g. In this activity students are asked to mark all contracted forms.. they haven't. couldn't've [could not have.Jy AJr. Mo. etc. we've.'h Pt 3f 35 3 Dw.'J J. You may find it useful to introduce the idea of written contractions (=reductions such as he's. They haven't got any children. Check that the contracted forms are produced. who practise and then perform them to the class. B: No. would) are not normally contracted (in yes/no questions. B: No. I'm (not) married. I am sure it will). Repeat for Picture 2. making wrong sentences and correcting. Go through each dialogue a sentence at a time.g. Students work in pairs to decide where contracted forms would be used in the dialogues if they were said at normal conversational speed. such as this'd [this would]. e. Have you seen the time?. Box 38 Student handout Picture1 Ju. My brother's called Marcus. 5 Students work in pairs to write short. Monitor contractions and correct where necessary.g. both written contractions and blending. He's married to Jenny. that are represented in writing) and blending (= reductions found in speech that may be. They should try to include at least one contracted form in each line and represent the contraction in the dialogue.. . four-line dialogues like the ones practised so far. 3 Give out the second handout with the contracted versions on (Box 40). reading the dialogues. 2 Check answers. I'll."y 9° FOClJs. and when they occur at the end of a sentence. but are not often. 4 Ask students to tell you about themselves and their own families using similar sentences with contracted forms. will.7 Comparingspeech and writing Pms '004 91 ..rr.

B: Yes. The party won't've started yet. they are so sweet. He'll eat anything. A: Where have you put the coffee? B: It is in the cupboard. 4 A: Ann is coming over later. he would have asked me first. A: John might have borrowed it. B: Do not panic. B: How'll she get here? A: I don't know. A: John might've borrowed it. he'd've asked me first. B: Sorry. A: I suppose he would. S A: What's wrong? B: I've lost my bike. let's go. A: There's none left. The party will not have started yet. Would you like one? B: That's kind. let us go. She might've asked Ken for a lift. B: No. B: No. It'd be good to see him. I'd've bought some more if I'd known.Pronunciation Practice Activities Box 39 Connected speech Box 40 Student handout I I A: Where've you put the coffee? B: It's in the cupboard. @CAMR>WG' 92 Student handout UN<VCR>m PRe" w04 '" CAMRCWG'Umvmm PRe" w04 93 . they're so sweet. B: Richard'd like them. 6 A: I have made these biscuits. A: I must have put too much sugar in. I'm sure it will. A: Have you seen the time? We are going to be late. 3 A: Okay. S A: What is wrong? B: I have lost my bike. I am sure it will. B: I'm not ready. 2 B: Sorry. B: I am not ready. He will eat anything. A: That'll be nice. B: Yes. A: I suppose he would. Urgh. A: I must've put too much sugar in. Would you like one? B: That is kind. 4 A: Ann's coming over later. 2 A: What are you doing in the summer? B: Tom and Mary have asked me to stay. A: There is none left. A: That will be nice. B: Don't panic. 6 A: I've made these biscuits. 3 A: Okay. A: Have you seen the time? We're going to be late. B: Richard would like them. Urgh. A: What're you doing in the summer? B: Tom and Mary've asked me to stay. B: How will she get here? A: I do not know. B: I have not met Ken. She might have asked Ken for a lift. I would have bought some more if I had known. It would be good to see him. B: I haven't met Ken.

.... B: Who's it from? (i) A: It's from Jim.. /gv/ .... The right column is more challenging with sentence beginnings and endings omitted. 6 talk about it . (contrast)... /WgZ gtJ .. /kgn juJ . 2 You must come over for dinner soon... and in (ii) it is pronounced with its weak form /frgmJ. the party........ 10 When do you get the results of your tests? II There should be some more in the box...... 8 tell now? 9 gOIng. /mgs/ . /wi Wg/ ..... II more In .... 3 Bill Mark left.. demonstrate the weak forms in the whole sentence said aloud........ got more. You must (lmAst/)come over for dinner soon.. but (/bAtJvs /bgtJ)...... 5 home ... ... 3 4 Mark . .... or given stress for emphasis. Tom? 5I home ... Use either the 2 below). /gnJ . /g/ 95 . @ C""'WGE Box 42 Umvmnv PRE" w04 Teacher reference (Sentences with weak forms marked) I He threw the ball at me..) 3 Play the sentences in Box 42 from the recording (making sure that the weak forms of the underlined words are used in the gaps in Box 41). /fg/ .... Monitor the weak forms and correct where necessary......... 12 tg/ .... dinner soon....... /Og/ .... Procedure I If students aren't already familiarwith the idea of weak and strong forms of common grammar words...... II in 12 When box... he threw the ball at (leet/)me.... 4 Check the answers (see Box 42).. Ask students to listen to (i) and (ii) and note the pronunciation of from in each... gOIng. .. If there are problems. ... 7 Ask come. /g juJ ...... /gs/ .......... Explain that many short 'grammar' words have both a weak and a strong form: have (/hav/ vs /hgv/).. /hgv juJ ...... Ask students to fill in the gaps in the sentences by writing what they hear. Ask students to give complete sentence answers with weak forms..... 6 We could talk about it at lunch... 4 Have you got more than Tom? 5 I was at home from five o'clock......... ete. 10 get the res ults . 7 come... ... 2 Give out the material in Box 41..... Don't ask them to say the individual words they have written as these will then be produced with their strong forms.... 3 Bill and Mark have left... 12 When are you taking him to see her? /hi! .10) Box 41 3.. 2 You come over . /OgnJ ./gtJ........ 6 talk about it lunch.. /tg/ ... taking see ? I 2 threw the ball. (ii) Say the dialogue......... 8 Can you tell us now? 9 We were going to the park.. Write the following dialogue on the board: A: I've just had a letter. park.. introduce the idea. For example: A: Did he throw the ball to you? B: No....... Note that many of the weak forms marked could be said in their strong form depending on context.. ..... /gVjg/ . Students repeat chorally and individually... 4 got more. 8 9 tell .. particularly if the word is being contrasted with another. (emphasis) 94 Student handout I threw the ball me...... 5 Say the sentences or play them on the recording...8 Comparingweak and strong forms of common grammar words onto a handout or an OHT..Pronunciation Practice Activities Connected speech Weakand strong forms of grammar words (3.. come..... Choose one of these for your students..8-3. /frgmJ ...... /gt/ .... log Sgd bi SgmJ ....... with only the weak forms omitted.......... can (/keenJvs /bnJ).. 7 Ask them to come to the party..... 10 When get the results tests? ... In (i) it is pronounced with its strong form /fmmJ... /dg jg/ ............ (The left column is easier. /tg Og/ ..... /wibcIJ ......... /ogm tg/ ..... five o'clock...

96 97 . A: I like those flowers. Extension Write on the board some other words that have weak and strong forms. A: I didn't see you at the meeting. B: They're for Jane. I spelt 'could' C-U-L-D. 2 Play the recording of the dialogues for students to check their predictions. 3 Say the B parts aloud. A: My music teacher is George Bush. to. B: Maybe we could go together. <>CAM".3°. A: I'm going to the conference. it's from Bob. at. Procedure I Give out the handout or display the OHT (Box 43). B: Are you going on your own? A: Why did you put 'Mistake' here? B: You've written 'your' instead of 'you'. one in which the word is likely to be pronounced with its strong form and the other with its weak form. A: My new printer doesn't work properly. Students work in pairs to decide whether the underlined words are likely to be pronounced with their strong or weak form in each pair of dialogues (one will be pronounced with the strong form and the other the weak form). forms of common grammar QX43 onto a handout or an OHT.WGC Umvmm PRm wo. Distribute these to other pairs of students. but I don't like getting up early. 4 Tell students that words like the ones underlined are normally said with their weak forms. A: Which is your house? B: It's the one on the right. A: Did you enjoy the film? B: I thought it was great. B: Do you want some? A: I'm hungry.9 Predicting weak and strong forms used after students are familiar with the idea that k and strong forms. can. Ask them to work out when. A: Did you get any questions wrong? B:Just one. too. have. A: What are you reading? B: It's a letter from Alice.Connected speech Pronunciation Practice Activities 3. surely. such as them. B: Not the George Bush. Students repeat chorally and individually. A: I'm going to Hungary next week. Box 43 I 2 a b a 3 b a b 4 a A: That cake smells good. but there are four situations in which they are given their strong forms. Students choose a word and work in pairs to write two short dialogues like those in Box 43. I should be there by 7. Monitor the weak and strong forms of the underlined words and correct when necessary. A: Have you got any matches? B:What do you need them for? A: What time do you have to be at work tomorrow? B: Well. A: Is this a present for Bob? B: No. who practise and perform them. Why weren't you there? B: I was there. B: There's some soup in the fridge. B: You should take it b 5 6 a b a b 7 8 Student handout a b a b r back. As an alternative to using the recording. using the information in the dialogues. Then ask students to perform the dialogues. you could ask students to read the A parts and you read the B parts.

10 Listeningto weak forms number of weak forms in sentences onto a handout. 99 .11-3. Point out that It! and Id/ are the sounds most commonly missed out in clusters. 2 Give out the handout or display the OHT. What time here? I dropped floor. Procedure 1 Give students the handout 2 Say the full sentences (see Answer key) aloud or play the recording. Cross out the t. Say each word or play the recording. What time get here? I asked money. Explain that It! and Id/ are also sometimes left out when consonant clusters occur across word boundaries. Check the answers and then students repeat the sentences after you or the recording.Connected speech Pronunciation Practice Activities 3. I asked money. Box 44 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 IO n 12 13 14 3. They should say the phrases quietly to each other as they do this. oranOHT.12) Umvmm Pm. It dropped floor. We went room. When will you give back? I knew did it. Write the word mostly on the board and show that the t is not usually pronounced when it is said at normal speed. Ask students to work in pairs to decide in which of the phrases the wordfinal It! or Id/ are likely to be left out (they can indicate this by crossing out the tor d letters) and in which they are likely to be included. She went room. Write last month on the board and illustrate the omission of t (in last) as you did in step I. When will you give back? She wanted stay. say the word a few times and ask students to repeat. w04 1 Explain that words with consonant clusters are sometimes simplified because they are difficult to say.11 Leavingoutconsonants: It I andI dl inclusters Student handout I wanted stay. Students repeat chorally and individually. Monitor that the It! or Id/ is left out. Ask students to look at Part A. Procedure @ CAMeR. 3 Students look at Part B. Students write the number of unstressed words (not the words 3 (Box 44)."GE 98 Leavingoutsounds(3. themselves) in the gaps. I knew did it.

Monitor the ItI and Id/ sounds and correct where necessary. 9 I'll send Lucy. Extension You could ask students to suggest rules for when It! and Id/ are not left out when they are the final consonant in a cluster at the end of a word. this. Then say each word in its reduced form or play the recording. We crossed over. or the letters I. 10 It was hard work. Check the answers. Students repeat chorally and individually. 4 It was just him. I 17 I phoned Keith. Illustrate by writing the word average on the board. -nt. 2 Hold tight. 8 She changed clothes. 3 " CAMeRmG' Umvmm Pm. Students check their answers. Students should use the words in Part A to complete the phrases in Part B.Pronunciation Practice Activities Connected speech 4 Say the phrases (making sure that the It! or Id/ sounds are left out where this is likely) or play the recording. 2 2I I slept badly. reduced form lrevnd3/. 101 . w04 4 5 100 Explain that in some words. Cross out the sound that is omitted: av~rage. II They kept quiet. vowel sounds that are pronounced when the word is said slowly and carefully are left out when the words are said at normal speed in conversation. Give out the handout (Box 46). restless lastly exactly landscape blindness Procedure 13 14 15 16 Did I hurt you? We reached Berlin. 7 I heard singing. Focus on Part B. The full rules are that It! and Id/ are not left out: before a word beginning with a vowel. 6 Take a left turn. 23 I understand 24 I felt bad. She arrived there. 20 He finished first. This exercise gives a partial picture. -rt. 18 It moved towards us. 19 They're second hand. -rd and -red (pronounced Ird/). 12 It looked good. 22 I found Ruth. Box 45 3. Students work in pairs to predict and cross out the vowel sound which is left out of each word in its usual pronunciation. Monitor and correct when necessary. 3 She's world champion. y or r. When students report their answers they should say the complete phrase and use the reduced form of the words. h. Focus on Part A. First say it slowly and carefully with its full form lrev<md31and then its usual. in the clusters -It. Monitor and correct where necessary. 5 It's in first gear.12 Leavingout vowels inwords Student handout PartA postman correctly wastepaper facts friendly kindness handshake hands grandmother Part B I It was next morning. 5 Students repeat the phrases chorally and individually. w.

. Alternatively... 5 time. Box 47 Student handout pedestrian university umbrella cow winter potato supermarket magazine accommodation dress country information difficult congratulations boat ago upstairs cook January communication @ CAMBRweE 102 Um"Rmv Pms w04 1°3 .. 10 A digital ... 8 A personal ..... 12 13 14 A frequent A A in words .... book.. or tell them how many words with the same number of syllables they should find (four for each group in Box 47). Pm. There should be the same 15 Entirely.. 3 A plant.3) 4.. 4 A car ..... II Absolutely.1 Howmany syllables? 9 A officer....Pronunciation Practice Activities Syllables. Write or an OHT.. Box 46 Student handout phrases Part A camera definite every factory family favourite history marvellous police recovery reference secretary separate similar strawberry traveller Part B I A friend... 7 Remarkably..... Students group the words according to the number of syllables..... 16 An amazing @CAMBRmeEUmvmm and five syllables. w04 Procedure I Focus students on the list of words. 2 Modern ....... word stress and stress in Syllables (4..... Correct pronunciation where necessary... 6 A great ..1-4. answer. 2 Elicit from students the five lists of words with the same number of syllables.... use ... Tell them they should find the same number of words in each group...

- 4.afternoon (3) (3) D S (The number of syllables in each phrase/sentence is given in brackets..She's overthere. (6) -Some time on Tuesday.Absolutely fantastic. 1 2 3 4 Tom's in Spain.. Say the pairs of words and students write S if they hear the same number of syllables and D if they hear a different number. Focus I~q~ptifying~l+~). four and five syllables.3 Eliminatingwords For intermediate students. 2 Students work alone or in pairs to produce their own list of ten pairs of 'same' and 'different' words. (S) 7 I've got nothing to do.(6) Highly unlikely. follow the Variation. Write them randomly on the board. (4) Canltryiton?(s)-lsawitonTV. Answer S D D S .) 1°4 10S J .2 Variation For intermediate students.homework S S guitar (2) (2) 6 twice(I)-colour(2) 7 helicopter(4) . Students find a word on the board with that number of syllables. D S 2 Call out numbers from two to five. (4) . follow the same procedure. The words in each pair should ~f!.(7) S 10 Leave it in the kitchen. (4) Procedure Box 48 Teacher reference - D S D --. They should also produce an answer key.She's inside. --- -". Don't give students a written list of the words.Nice to see you again. Procedure 1 Chorally and individually. follow the Variation. (3) What are you afraid of? (6) . of syllables in pairs of words LevelElementarylIntermediate 1 2 3 4 S 6 Tim~!~5'h20 miputes \ freparatiorl~tepare a listof ten pairs of words. listing the words with the same number of syllables. practise the pronunciation of the words on the board. (6) . and then repeat the procedure above. (s)-Hangon a minute. The first student to raise a hand and give a correct answer or shout out a word with that number of syllables gets one point (for themselves or their group).The homework was difficult.American (4) 8 museum (3)-abroad (2) 9 before (2) 10 timetable . There should be about the same number of words with two.We should be going.1UmbeJ:. Identifying the number of syllablesin words ElementarylIntermediate IS minutes Prepare a list of IS-20 words familiar to students. please. They could write this on the board or an (3) . (6) Give these to Pauline. (S) .Pronunciation Practice Activities Syllables. Don't give students a written list of the phrases/sentences.In the summer. (6) . Alternatively. using words from their course book or their own ideas. 4. but use short phrases or sentences. 8 A coffee. two or three times. Check the answers. You could use some of the words from Box 47.) Teacher reference sandwich (2) . Example material is given in Box 49.Ve the same or a different number of syllables.April (2) majority (4) .exercise (3) pollution (3) -competition (4) horse (I) -choose (I) (7) Answer S S D D S D 9 I want to go tomorrow.. word stress and stress in phrases Extension Students work in pairs to produce a new version of Box 47. The same or different number of syllables? Box 49 students. You may need to repeat each one. with each student reading out their ten pairs and the rest of the class writing the answers. use the words in Bmq8. (3) . (7) . Then follow step I. (S) D 1 Students write the numbers I to loin their notebooks. (S) Put it on the top shelf. That word is then (The number of syllables in each word is given in brackets. three.

with two. Hold the elastic band at two ends. quiet clap for each unstressed syllable. you could take words from Box 66 (p. These should have a variety of number of syllables (always more than one) and stress patterns. and below are a few more examples. follow the same procedure. ask them to say the words to themselves. (Alternatively. 3 Read out the answers for students to check.5 Matchingwordswiththeir stresspatterns handout or an OHT. B. pulling it a little at each unstressed syllable and pulling it a lot at each stressed syllable. and a longer. Monitor and correct stress placement where necessary. 2 Write a few more words on the board. The vowel sounds left out when the word is spoken at conversational speed are in square brackets. Warn them that they can't guess the answers only from the meaning of the sentences as there is more than one possibility each time. Students then repeat the dialogues after you before saying them in pairs. J. use a thick elastic band. louder clap for each stressed syllable. 1°7 .4-4. Variation For intermediate students.4 Demonstratingsyllablelength demonstrate that stressed syllables are bles. Ask students to focus on the words in the box at the top and to repeat them after you or the recording. word stress and stress in phrases Pronunciation Practice Activities deleted from the list and the game continues until all the words are crossed out. Repeat the procedure in steps 2 and 3 above.1 2 Demonstrate syllable length by writing words with the unstressed syllables in squashed-together lower case letters and stressed syllables in spread-out capital letters. For example. three. 106 Gilbert. comf[or]table caref[u]lly nurs[e]ry p[e]rhaps (pronouncedpraps) prob[ab]ly rest[au]rant sev[e]ral Wordstress(4. 3 Ask pairs of students to write down four words (different from those used so far). ressed syllables in words Procedure 1 Say a number of words familiar to students. Students only get a point if they can say the word with the number of syllables that they claim it has. but include some words that may be said with either three syllables. Variations 1 Instead of clapping. Students repeat and make the same clapping movements with you. do a short. Collect these in and write a selection on the board. See for example. For example: S E N T ence par TIC ularly after NOON 4. if they are unsure about stress in any of the words they should check this in their dictionary. demonstrating the number of syllables and stress pattern.15) 4. paying attention to the stress pattern.) 2 Students complete each sentence in Box 5° with one of the words at the top that has the stress pattern indicated at the end of the sentence. Correct where necessary. (2001). They need to check the stress pattern to find the correct word. Individuals say them aloud and clap at the same time. 1 This idea comes from Judy Gilbert. You could use some words from Box 46. Procedure 1 Give out the handout (Box 50) or display the OHT.Syllables. four and five syllables. or two when they are at normal conversational speed. 133)' As you say each word.

traffic jam December. tea towel around. 000 '" CAMM. = 00. supermarket.6 Groupthewords stress pattern words with more than one syllable and there are a number of words with each BOX5I. object (00) =noun. p. understand primary school. Some more examples of words and compounds with variable stress like this are given in Activities 4.7 Countrynames with representing syllables and word syllables. the word Japanese might be said with stress on the third or the first syllable. include some examples where there are alternative stress patterns. Students classify them according to their stress pattern. and discuss these. he plays the . 0000 7 A: Was Jack hurt when he fell off his bike? B: He just got a small cut his left eye. flower. Some more examples of words like this are given in Activity 4. For example. 00 . giraffe. 00. guitar basketball.00 5 A: What do you like best at school? B: I really like 6 A: What did you do in maths today? B: A reallydifficult . 00 IO A: What does Maria want to do when she leaves university? B: She wants to be an . You could also include words such as object. ete. pronunciation = 00000.0000 . while in She's a Japanese author it may be either 0 0 000 00 or 0 0 000 00. 0000 9 A: Do you play any musical instruments? B: I used to play the . furniture. So the stress pattern of the words said in isolation might best be represented as 000. rds by their stress pattern 1°9 . windscreen wipers Stress pattern 00 00 000 000 000 0000 4. correct pronunciation if necessary. 000. hot chocolate. 5). II.) 108 4. You could include words such as Japanese which have shifting stress (see Introduction. When they report back their answers.20 and 4. or write and display them on an OHT."GG U"vmm Procedure Write the words/compounds randomly on the board. romantic incorrect. which have different stress patterns depending on whether they are used as verb or noun: object (00) =verb. 000 4 A: David's quite musical. museum. countryside. w04 Example words curtains. Box 51 Teacher reference Pm. The stress in She's Tapanese is likely to be 0 000. 0000 . isn't he? B: Yes. frying pan. 00. They should group them under patterns such as: 00. 00 8 A: What was the exam like? B: We had an easy to do.Pronunciation Practice Activities Box 50 Syllables.21. word stress and stress in phrases Student handout above biology calculation economIcs experiment guitar over trumpet accountant engmeer I A: Where did you put John's photo? B: It's 2 A: What's Sue doing at college? B: She's studying 3 A: What does Pat do? B: He's an the door. focusing on any wrong stress placement. Extension For more advanced students.


Syllables, word stress and stress in phrases

Practice Activities

I Write on the board the following series of stress patterns:
00 -+ 0000 -+ 0000 -+ 00 -+ 0 -+ 000 -+ 000 -+ 000
and the following country names in random order:
Estonia, France, Germany, Japan, New Zealand, Norway, Singapore,
2 Say the country names and students repeat after you.
3 Explain that Jane is a businesswoman who travels all over the world. In
the last year she has visited eight different counties. The students need to
find out what order she visited the countries listed above. The stress
patterns written on the board show the order. Her first trip was to
Norway (00). (Answer: Norway [00] -+ Venezuela [0000] -+ Estonia
[0000] -+ Japan [00] -+ France [0] -+ Singapore [000] -+ Germany
[000] -+ New Zealand [000].)
4 Ask a few students to give their answers, and correct any wrong
pronunciations and stress patterns.
5 Write some more examples on the board and repeat the procedure in
steps 1-4. Use the information about country names and their stress
patterns given below.
I syllable
Wales 0
Greece 0


2 syllables


3 syllables





4 syllables



I syllable
judge 0
nurse 0

2 syllables


3 syllables


4 syllables


3 Include compounds for more advanced students. You could add some of
the jobs below to those given above. Note that some of these have two
main stresses (see Introduction, pp. 4-5).
3 syllables
bus driver
street sweeper
farm worker
art dealer


4 syllables
shop assistant
taxi driver
research worker
civil servant


5+ syllables
safety officer
refuse collector
civil engineer
police officer
security guard
personnel officer


4.8 Atthe supermarket


I Students write their own versions of the exercise, using different
countries and making sure there is only one country having each stress
pattern. Other students or the whole class try to solve these new versions.
2 Use the same procedure in different contexts. For example, people
standing in a queue at a bus stop all had different jobs. What order were
they in? For example, write:
00 -+ 000 -+ 000 -+ 000 -+ 0000 -+ 0000
and the jobs:
solicitor, hairdresser, teacher, engineer, decorator, mechanic
(Answer: teacher [00] -+ hairdresser [000] -+ mechanic [000]-+
engineer [000] -+ solicitor [0000] -+ decorator [0000 ].)

Here are some more jobs with their stress patterns:

ut ten items found in a supermarket. These should
~rsof syllables or stress patterns. Include twome main stress (e.g. washing powder [0000]),
dents include two-word compounds with two
alate biscuits [0000]). Don't include items
... (e.g. a bottle of wine). Possible examples
Lrstress patterns) for elementary students are: soap
hampoo (00), pineapple (000), potatoes (000),
:000), washing powder (0000), tomato juice (0000),
avocados (0000). Possible examples (together with their stress
patterns) for intermediate students are: carrots (00), courgettes (00),
:(000), sultanas (000), margarine (000), paper plates
chocolate biscuits (0000), black currant jam (0000),
sun-dried tomatoes (00000).


Pronunciation Practice Activities

Syllables, word stress and stress in phrases


Possible list of stress patterns:


I 000


Write the prepared list of words on the board in random order. Write just
the words, not the stress patterns. Give students a few minutes to try to
remember the words.
Rub the words out, and in random order write up the stress patterns of
the words (000,00,
etc.). It can help to write a number next
Students point to a pattern (or say the number) and then give
from the list having that pattern. If correct, they score a point
pattern is rubbed off the board. Continue until all the patterns
removed. The winner is the person/team with most points.

5 shampoo

I 000

5 00

2 pineapple
6 potatoes
2 000
6 000
3 soap
7 butter
3 0
7 00
4 washing powder 8 tomato juice
4 0000
8 0000
The first student begins: 'I went to the supermarket and bought some
lemonade' (stress pattern I). The second student continues: 'I went to the
supermarket and bought some lemonade and a pineapple' (stress
patterns I and 2). The remaining students continue in the same way,
remembering what has come before and adding an item to the list. They
are eliminated if they make a mistake (either in remembering the word or
getting the wrong stress pattern) and the turn moves to the next student.
Students may substitute words not in the original list, provided that they
have the correct stress pattern.
2 Don't use a pre-set list of words for the 'I went to the supermarket. . .'
memory activity. Instead, write a list of numbered stress patterns on the
board (such as the possible list opposite) and ask students to suggest
items themselves which they can buy in a supermarket and which match
these patterns. You could use some of the examples given above, but
some other example items (with only one main stress) are given opposite.


7 0000
8 000

13 000

4 000

9 0000


10 000


15 000

Example items:
00: coffee, ice cream, sugar, apples
000: marmalade, cabbages, oranges, shower gel
000: salami, tomatoes, spaghetti, satsumas
000: mayonnaise
0000: tonic water, talcum powder
0000: deodorant

After step I, rub the words out and write up only the stress patterns in a
numbered order.
Start with this:
End with only this:
I lemonade


3 0000
5 000



12 00

2 00

to each one.
the word
and the

6 0000


Stress patterns in -ty and -teen numbers (1):

numbers (e.g. 3 ° vs I3,
r vs thirTEEN) than on
4.9 and 4.10 focus on this
the basis of stress


Write the numbers I3, I4, I5, I6, I7, I8, I9, 3°, 4°, 5°, 60, 7°, 80,9°
on the board. Each student chooses six of the numbers and writes them

on a piece of paper. Call the numbers out at random and students cross
them off their lists when they hear them. Make sure that you stress the
second syllable in the -teen numbers (thirTEEN, fourTEEN, etc.) and the
first in the -ty numbers (THIRTy, FORTy, etc.). The first student to cross
out all six numbers shouts out Bingo, and they are the winner if they have
crossed out the correct numbers.
2 Check by asking the winner to read back their numbers.


Pronunciation Practice Activities

Syllables, word stress and stress in phrases

I Instead of just saying the numbers, say sentences with the numbers in
context. Some possible sentence frames are given in Box 52. Use the
numbers at the end of sentences or followed by an unstressed word.
Make sure that you stress the second syllable in the -teen numbers
(thirTEEN, fourTEEN, etc.) and the first in the -ty numbers (THIRTy,
FORTy, etc.). (SeeVariation 2 for the reason.)
2 As in Variation I, say sentences with the numbers in context. This time,
however, include examples of -teen numbers with stress shift when they
are followed by a stressed syllable. If you use the -teen numbers followed
by a word beginning with a stressed syllable, the stress usually shifts to
the first syllable. Compare:
fifTEEN but FIFteen YEARS
(For more details, see Introduction, p. 5.)
Some possible sentence frames for this are given in Box 53. You could
replace some of the frames in Box 52 with these.

His office is number (13/30).
Next birthday he'll be (13/30).
There were (13/30) of them.
Do questions I to (13/30) for homework.
Turn to page (13/3°)'
It costs 4 dollars, (13/30).
She'll be (13/30) on Friday.
The plane leaves from gate (13/30).


It costs (13/30) dollars. (00.THIRteen



Write the following on the board:
0 0
She's thirty.
00 0 0 0
She was thirty yesterday.



2 I've got (13/30) cousins. (00.THIRteen COUSins/THIRTy COUSins)
3 There are (13/30) children in the class. (00.THIRteen CHILDRen /
4 The book only has (13/30) pages. (oo.THIRteenPAGes/THIRTy




PreparationCopy the material in Box 55 (for half the class) and 56 (for the other
onto Sepal;ate handouts. For the demonstration, write the
about house I in just one copy of Box 55.


5 There were (13/30) thousand people in the crowd. (00.THIRteen
THOUSand ...)

-ty and -teen numbers on the basis of stress






Teacher reference

Box 53

Stress patterns in -ty and -teen numbers (2):
talking about accommodation


Teacher reference

Box 52



0 0
She's thirteen.
0 0 00
She was thirteen yesterday.

Students repeat the sentences after you, chorally and individually. Point
out (if the students don't already know) that stress can be shifted in the
-teen words: She's thirTEEN vs She was THIRteen YESterday. (For more
information, see Activity 4.9 or Introduction, p. 5.) Repeat a few times
with some of the 14/40, 15/50, etc. pairs (up to 19/90).
Do a quick listening quiz. Say sentences such as 'She's ninety', 'She was
fourteen yesterday', etc., and students write down the numbers they hear:
9°, I4, etc. You could use the frames in Box 52 (without stress shift) and
Box 53 (with stress shift).
Organise the students into Student A/B pairs. Give one of the handouts
(Box 55) to Student A and the other (Box 56) to Student B.
Explain the context: Students A and B are looking for accommodation to
rent together while studying at college / university / a language school
(whichever is relevant to your context). They have each found different
things out about advertised accommodation and are now back home
sharing this information (the address, the rent per week, the distance
from the college/university/school, the bus number, and the time the bus
journey takes). They have to complete their table by asking each other
Demonstrate the activity. Call one of the students to the front and give
them the copy of Box 55 that you prepared earlier with the added
information about house I . You take one of the blank copies. Ask this

T: How far is it from the college? S: 18 kilometres. Encourage them to use the 'Sorry.. or . For example.ask students to discusswhich accommodation they would prefer to have and why. Blue Rd 19. did you say 7° (SEVenty) or 17 (sevenTEEN)? S: 17.) T: How much does it cost? S: n6 pounds a week. Blue Rd 19. ask students to check any information they didn't get or weren't sure about. did you say... During this time. Red Rd 4°. try to repeat it as the occasion arises in the classroom. T: Sorry.. Green Rd How much? £70/wk Box 55 Student A handout Accommodation I £60/wk Bus number? 13 14 How far? I4km I6km 60min 50mm How long? "CAMeRWGE Umvmm Box 56 w04 Student B handout Accommodation I 2 3 Address How much? £n7/wk 4 5 16. White Rd How much? £n6/wk £70/wk £n7/wk £I80/wk £60/wk Bus number? 17 60 13 14 9° How far? I8km I9km I4km I6km 13 km How long? 40mm 50mm 30mm 40mm 60min 2 3 4 5 Address 5°. Black Rd 5°.. At the end of the demonstration. Black Road. (You then write down the answer. White Rd £r80/wk Bus number? 60 9° How far? I9km 13 km How long? 30mm 40mm '" CAMBRWGE UN'VERmv 116 Pms PRm w04 II7 .. When they have finished. 6 The rest of the class should add the information to their sheets at the same time. T: What's the bus number? S: 17. asking each other questions to complete their handouts. word stress and stress in phrases Pronunciation Practice Activities student questions abut house I and write the information you get on your handout.Syllables. T: How long does it take? S: 4° minutes. If they don't make the -teen/-ty numbers clear in the discussion.. T: Sorry. did you say 80 (EIGHty) or 18 (eighTEEN)? S: 80. Red Rd 4°. for example: Teacher (T): What's the address of the first house? Student (S): 80. 2 Having formally introduced and practised this point of pronunciation in the activity. when asking students to open their books at a particular page. did you say. give them the opportunity to check numbers: T: Can you turn to page 7° (mumbled.. monitor and correct stress in numbers. they should compare handouts and check that they have the correct information. or .?'. with the student at the front. Green Rd 16.?' The conversation might go. ask 'Sorry.?' pattern demonstrated. please? S: Sorry. and encourage other students to do the same. or said quietly). did you say 80 (EIGHty) or 18 (eighTEEN)? S: 18. or . did you say 7° or 17? or to clarify numbers for you: T: What room is your next class in? S: GI3. Extensions I At the end of the activity.. did you say. T: Sorry. 7 Students then work in pairs.. Show that answers can be checked if necessary by saying 'Sorry. did you say GI3 or G30? Box 54 Teacher reference Accommodation I 2 3 4 5 Address 80. T: Sorry...

You need a permit to fish here.2verb:conTRACT. Thomas was the main suspect in the crime. Rule:usedasnouns. 6 verb:reCORD. Part B Iconduct I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 II 12 discount object present produce suspect I I've always wanted to conduct an orchestra. 7verb:disCOUNT. contrast. upset. 3 noun:SUSpect. metals contract. It's my pleasure to present Dr Stevens. word stress and stress in phrases Pronunciation Practice Activities -- --- 4. 10verb:susPECT. What's that strange object on the top shelf? The vegetable shop sold only local produce. 3 Students say the sentences aloud. rebel. Procedure I Give out the handout (Box 57) and ask students to look at Part A. p. Explain that some words. Note that the nouns export and import are stressed on the first syllable: EXport. The rules don't permit mobile phones in the schooL The time was a new world record. @) Part A I I 2 3 4 5 6 contract permit record I They won the contract to build the new museum. We can't discount the possibility that John has had an accident. 5): We EXport SHOES /They IMport CARS. Say the sentences aloud or play them on the recording. PERmit. I asked if I could record her lecture. but may be stressed on the first syllable with stress shift (see Introduction.. IMport. uS u9 .4 verb: perMIT.nwpairs Box 57 Student handout focus Identifying different stress patterns when the same word is used as a noun Ora verb level Advanced Time20 minUtes Copy the material in Box 57 onto a handout. extract. contest. Rule When these words are used as nouns they have stress on the syllable. compound. such as the three in the box. . As verbs these words usually have stress on the second syllable: exPORT. I have to produce the report by the end of the week. misprint. 11verb:obJECT. decrease. As they cool. 9 verb: proDUCE.mGE UNlvmm P. 5 noun:PROduce. 2 noun:PRESent. 12noun:DIScount.. defect. and ask students to use the sentences to complete the rule at the bottom of Part A. protest. Say each sentence after the student (or play the recording) and ask other students to check whether the student was using the correct stress in the target word. PartA: 1noun:CONtract. When she asked for money I began to suspect her honesty. imPORT. reject. produce. 6 verb:preSENT.m w04 PartB:1verb:conDUCT. convict.stressonthe secondsyllable. survey. perfect. Students decide whether the words given are used as a noun or verb in each sentence and where stress should be placed. 8 noun:CONduct. conflict. insult. 2 Focus on Part B. She gave me a watch as a present.stressonthefirstsyllable. have different stress patterns when they are used as a noun or a verb. 3 5 noun:RECord.Syllables.11 Stress innoun-verb . The children's conduct during the concert was excellent.usedasverbs. and when they are used as verbs they have stress on the syllable. 4 noun:OBject. Would anyone object if we finish the meeting early? Will you give me a discount on the price if I buy three? @CAMB. Answerkey . Extension Prepare a similar exercise with other words that have this feature: combine.

m '004 121 . Tell them that the gaps should be filled with the words nouns... adjectives and verbs ---- Student handout Box 58 FoclISIdentifying stressed and unstressed syllables in two-syllable nouns... 3 Students use the information in the table to complete the general rule about stress in two-syllable words. of course......... an OHT or a handout...... Ask them which ones don't follow the rule.. 120 . He's a guitarist and he was going to Japan to give some concerts. ... But at the airport his guitar was stolen....... Repeat and ask students to mark the syllables in the words as stressed or unstressed (for example. UNlvmm P. word stress and stress in phrases Pronunciation Practice Activities 4. as the second sentence of the rule in Box 58 shows. nouns and adjectives.. happy.. you should start by asking students to cOPYf~enounlverb / adjective columns and the gapped rule into their notebooks... have stress on the are stressed on the ~ CAM"mG' @) Box 59 UN<vEI<SITY Pm.. syllable words in the box under the correct heading: Noun. .... C>CAMB... (Note that verbs are not highlighted here as the tendency in verbs is less definite than with nouns and adjectives. then the verbs: carry........... adjectives... He still had his passport and tickets. verbs.......... but not all.. '004 Student handout I had a letter from my brother Paul yesterday. Students check their answers. If rrepi1~~tjiqn 00 you uSe the board or an OHT. pencil. (It could go on the same handout carry forget famous happy pocket begin happen yellow Noun Verb Adjective . begin. 2 Say the words (all the nouns first: bottle.... ........Syllables. He called the police... Ask them to write the two- ..... .. but told him he would be very lucky to get it back.."ialinBox 58 onto the board. . and finally the adjectives: famous.. ..... copy the material in Eox59 onto anOHT or a handout.) Read the text aloud or play the recording.. brother... Verb or pocket.. Rule Most two-syllable and first syllable... happen... yellow).. forget.. by putting 0 over the stressed syllable and 0 over the unstressed) .....) Extension Give or show students the text in Box 59 and ask them to identify all twosyllable nouns and adjectives...... .. .... but couldn't go without his guitar....... verbs and adjectives. Students check their answers. Remind them that the rule they have just learned applies to most. lovely... (Answer: nouns. adjec~ives and verbs Elementary to Intermediate 15 minutes bottle brother lovely pencil Copy the mateJ.. .... If you are going to do the extension..12 Rulesof word stress intwo-syllablenouns.. He was very angry and upset. Some two-syllable first and some on the second syllable. Procedure I Give or show students the material in Box 58... They were very polite and friendly and took his address.

Box 60 Student handout historical consistency solidify managerial punishment rapidly politeness ability political presidency bottomless beautiful acidify investigation uniformity willingness powerless conservation purposeful government substantial immediately ThiSa. particularly for the last task. . They should also have been taught a way of marking main stress (e. particularly suffixes.polic~. Although English word-stress rules are complicated. Rules of word stress associated with suffixes are probably best taught at post-intermediate levels as the vocabulary involved is likely to be very difficult for lower-level students. to stress and pronunciation. . word stress and stress in phrases Answer key Nounswithstresspattern00: letter. Activity 4.7) and should have had experience of looking up word stress in a dictionary (e.1). Some of these are presented in Appendix 4.13 Rulesof word stress:prefixesand suffixes ---=~~~"'" ~. they cause the syllable before the suffix to be stressed) and which ones are like -able (i. Activity 8. Ask them to: underline the suffixes .e. and students repeat.concerts. 3 Check the answers. Illustrate with: 0 4.T5. generalisations can be made that relate word NounswithstresspatternoO:Japan.=~- influence of suffixeson word stress LevelUpper4ntermediate Time 4° minutes ~.13 to 4. say the words aloud. . Encourage students to use their dictionaries.polite Procedure I Explain that some common word suffixes influence word stress.15 look at the relationship between pronunciation and word stress.airport. Activity 4. or play the recording.14 and 4.passport. Some usually cause the syllable before the suffix to be stressed and others don't.13-4.friendl}l. ~C~~ "~-"" ~_c_~~- 00 0 0 0 0 0 00 (so the suffix -able doesn't change the stress from that in the 'root' word) If you feel that your students lack confidence in understanding stress markings in dictionaries. Activity 4. I) and that one of these syllables takes main stress (e. Focus Identifying the 0 athlete but athletic infinite but infinity (so the suffixes -ic and -ity cause the syllable before the suffix to be stressed) 0 a 0 a a a fashion and fashionable Stress and wordformation (4.. ask them to look up the six words and note how stress is represented.g.address(nQtEjtnat addressis stressedonthefirstsyllableinsomevarietiesofEnglishsuchastiS and Australian) Adjectives witf1stresspattern00: angry.guitar. 0 '" CAMORlDGE UN'YERmy PRm '004 -~~cc_- 122 123 .g.g.17) Activities 4.i~parationCopyrhe material in Box 60 onto a handout.Pronunciation Practice Activities Syllables. 2 Give students the handout (Box 60). While it would be difficult to learn every application of these rules in total. give the 'root' word for each (you could just say 'Find the word these come from') say which ones are like -ic (i.g.lucky Adjectives witnstresspattern00: upset.4). -<'~. it can be useful to focus on particular words with particular suffixes or groups of suffixes. each student should have access to a dictionary that shows stress patterns in words. students should already be familiar with the idea that words are divided into syllables (e.ctivity is a general introduction to the relationship between word stress and prefixes and suffixes. For this activity. they don't usually change stress placement). which look in more detail at particular aspects of word stress and suffixes. By the time they do the suggested activities below.e. It should be used before ACtiyit~es4.

but for some roles (physician. and Goodwin. for example. but as this doesn't represent a general rule.g. they should check stress placement in a dictionary. 2 At a later date. Note that library and history can be said with either two syllables or three: (/larbri/ or /larbrgril. Demonstrate the activity with one student in front of the class before starting the pairwork. so that in the guessing stage students will have to use additional vocabulary. of course. etc. you could do the same kind of activity with the material in Box 62. as in step 4 above. They should notice that all the -ian words have main stress in the syllable before -ian. (-ian words often refer to 'people who are members of a particular group'. hairdresser. author). words have the same stress as in the corresponding 'root' verb (DECorate/DECorator. the answers for musician would be three and second. students mark above each word a small circle for an unstressed syllable and a larger circle for the main stressed syllable. 125 . word stress and stress in phrases Pronunciation Practice Activities 3 Ask students if they can see any patterns in stress placement in the words. With this suffix. Note that some of the jobs have corresponding verbs. and Student B tries to guess what they are by asking questions: 'Do you do magic?' 'Are you involved in politics?' etc. If students can't agree. Accept this. don't focus attention on it. comPOSE/comPOSer.13 the relationship between word stress and e this activity looks in particular at the -ian and word 4 Students continue to work in pairs. /hrstril or /hrstgril). pedestrian) they will need to use additional vocabulary either because they do not have a corresponding 'root' word (pedestrian) or because a corresponding word has a different meaning (a physician is a doctor. 49). Brinton.Syllables. politics) in their questions. D. .14 Suffixes and word stress:wordsending -ian2 Activity 4. focus only on stress placement in the words on the handout. Extensions I or write the words at sc6Py them into their notebooks. 2 Check class answers quickly by eliciting the number of syllables each word has and the syllable taking main stress. Procedure I Focus students on the words in Box 61.). as in the example. M. M. Activity 4. M. 4. 2 This activity is based loosely on one in Celce-Murcia. Here the focus is on the -er/-or noun suffix. So. Student A should 'be' one of the -ian words.) Students might also note that the other words all have stress in the first syllable. 5 In monitoring and correcting while the pairwork is in progress. not someone who studies or works with physics). This is the general rule that you should highlight. and others don't (e. 124 Ask students (perhaps for homework) to collect other -ian words and check whether they follow the general rule introduced in the activity. J.13 before this one. In pairs.. They should include words on the handout (magic. used in the names of jobs. (I996. p.

00 Ooo~o 0 00 electricity.. librarian. while this activity looks in particular at the suffixes -ic and -ical.9 000 dietician. pronunciation and meaning. In pairs.. Ask a number of students to say each sentence. -. 000 musician politician diet magic vegetarian library music physician Jdentifyingthe word stress Advanced dietician historian politics grammar electricity pedestrian Time 4° PreparatioQli vegetables history librarian grammarian electrician magician i:>CAMORmGE UNlv". Ask students to work Answer ~f:lY 0 00 0000 00 0 0 0 0000 musicianj:politician. word stress and stress in phrases 4. reminding them of the -ic/-ical rule where appropriate.. -. >0°4 126 127 . Monitor stress in the words they have written in the spaces and correct where necessary.m):~terial in Box 63 onto a handout. pedestrian. electrician.. 5 Students then report back by reading out their full sentence answers.13 before this one. 2 Say the words with the stress indicated below or play them on the recording. 000 0 00 00 vegetables. Students repeat and check their answers. (Answer: In these words.liistorian.13 is a general introduction to the relationship between word stress and prefixes and suffixes.m PRm >0°4 relationship between the suffixes -ic and -ical and minutes tp. history. using a dictionary where necessary to check stress.e. Box 62 Student handout conduct actor edit act translator author composer decorate conductor translate hairdresser astronomer decorator editor compose i:>CAMBRmG< UNmRmy PRm MICroscope microSCOPic ALPHabet alphaBETical ATHlete athLETic aNALysis anaLYTical aPOLogy apoloGETic GRAMMar graMMATical aROMa aroMATic CYLinder cyLINDrical ICEland IceLANDic Irony iRONical caTAStrophe catasTROPHic phiLOSophy philoSOPHical 3 Ask students to look for a pattern in the stress placement in words ending -ic and -ical.15 Suffixesand word stress: wordsending -ic and -ical Student handout Students should have done Activity 4. in order to give plenty of practice.. grammarian. The four words in each set fill the four spaces in each pair of sentences. s. -. p 0 0 0 00 0 0 in pairs and underline the main stress in each word. students should first use the sets of words in Part B to complete the gaps in the sentences in Part C. magician.Pronunciation Practice Activities Box 61 Syllables.) 4 Then focus attention on Parts Band C... 0 vegetarian. -- Procedure 1 Give out the handout (Box 63) and focus on Part A. 0000 . stress is placed on the syllable immediately before -ic and -ical. Activity 4.

but that the stress in each is different. stressed syllables are marked in capital letters. ' microscopiC athletic apologetic aromatic Icelandic catastrophic alphabet analysis grammar cylinder irony philosophy alp ha betical analytical grammatical cylindrical ironical philosophical Part B drama . word stress and stress in phrases Pronunciation Practice Activities Box 63 ~ . b He claims to be the only who has no interest in .. 4 In pairs.scientific theory . 3 a My best subjects at school were b Although it was a novel.. usually on the first syllable.. W04 129 . b They are among the first patients to benefit from recent and advances in medicine. 6 a Jane Winters is the and correspondent for the Daily News.political energy .geographical history .. The verbs are commonly stressed in both component words.. 2 Say the verbs and nouns. In the table in Part A. and . 2 a He didn't know anything about or the . PRINTout = 12).diplomatic enthusiasm ..dramatic theatre .16 Stress inphrasalverbsandrelatednouns andrelated i Part C ~ The course is a mixture of the and the .. saying a number and asking a student to say the word(s) (correcting stress placement if necessary). Point out that some phrasal verbs (you could just call them 'two-word verbs' if students don't know the term 'phrasal verb') have related nouns. 3 Reinforce the stress and pronunciation by: saying one of the words and asking students which number word you said (e. monitor that they are saying the verb/noun they have written with correct stress. while the noun has just one stress.. 5 a They're trying to get more young people interested in and . students then use the words to complete the pairs of sentences in Part B..... Extend the practice by asking a number of students to say each sentence..Syllables. b The performance was and extremely .energetic diplomat . I a @ CAM"WG' 128 nouns Umvmm p"" Procedure Give out the handout (Box 64) and focus on Part A.technological practice . it had both and accuracy. I 5 When students report their answers back.' ""10 Part A miCroscope athlete apology aroma Iceland catastrophe Student handout . or play the recording.historical 4.g. b She must be both and to have such an important job and bring up a family.enthusiastic science . b In it takes three hours.theoretical technology .. a The best teachers are full of and for 4 their subject..practical geography . but in it takes much longer. and students repeat.theatrical politics .. too...

which you could use later in a similar exercise: break down / a breakdown. My brothers and I try to every month or so.cross-section).g. sell out / a sell-out. The government is accused of a of events at the demonstration.17 Rules of stress in compound nouns handout or an OHT."G' 13° Umvmm PH" Here are some other verb-noun pairs with the same stress pattern. He couldn't from his parents any longer.Pronunciation Practice Activities Box 64 Student Part A Verb I BREAK OUT 3 COVer UP 5 GET toGETHer 7 HIDEaWAY 9 LIE DOWN Syllables. toothpaste) or with the words joined by a hyphen (e. let down / a letdown. Students check their answers. I'm tired. The robbers had a in the mountains. credit card). Ronaldo suffered a yesterdayas he tried to getfit for the World Cup. Ask them whether the main stress is in the first or second part of the compound.g. The flooding work on the building by weeks. We gave him a good send-offbefore he left for Australia.) W04 131 . Would you like to come? There was a of 95% in the election. or adjective + noun) and are often written as two words (e. There's been a from the prison. 2 Give out or show students the sentences in Box 65 and ask them to underline all the compound nouns (each sentence has two). There's no point trying to the mistake. climb down / a climbdown. hold up / a hold-up. buyout / a buyout. but occasionally in the second. We're having a on Friday. 3 Read the sentences aloud or play the recording. mix up / a mix-up. Procedure I If necessary. explain that compound nouns are made up of two separate words (either noun + noun. flare up / a flare-up. get away / a getaway. 4. I think I might go and . Q CAM". My ticket to Sydney includes a in Singapore.g. We've got a spare room if you need a place to . takeaway / a takeaway. He felt a cold sweat on his forehead. Ask them to say what is the usual pattern. (Main stress is in the first part of most compound nouns. word stress and stress in phrases handout Noun 2 BREAKout II PRINTOUT 4 6 8 10 12 13 15 17 19 SEND OFF SET BACK STOP OVER TURN OUT 14 16 18 20 COVer-up GET-together HIDEaway LIE-down PRINTout SEND-off SETback STOPover TURNout Extension Part B I 2 3 4 a b a b a b a b 5 6 7 8 9 10 a b a b a b a b a b a b I must send off this parcel before the post office closes. I'll the report and give you a copy. Others are written as a single word (e. The play didn't to be a great success. work out / a workout. There's a of the report next to the computer. change over / a changeover. let up / a letup. I'm not feeling very well. I'm going to have a . You'll just have to admit it. break in / a break-in.

overseas (= different: 000/000) 2 Do the same using pairs of phrases or short sentences as in Box 67. they always give me jam sandwiches. =same: 00000 He went by car. so I can't play CDs. @CAM"WG' Umvmm Pm. For example: 2 When I have tea with my grandparents.ugly journalist . . bnt either the same or different stress pattern 132 133 . for ~sand short sentences. 8 My housemate is terrified of fireworks. tress patterns in words.e. Students can choose whether these will be said with the same or different stress pattern. Shetold me her name.overseas furniture .scientific moustache . which is on the recording) and ask whether they have the same stress pattern (i.18-4.below (= same: 00) computer .biology pyjamas . these are on the recording).granddaughter education ..overweight Argentina . the same number of syllables and stress placement) or a different one.Overthe hill. each pair having the same of syllables.tomorrow timetable . phrases and short sentences I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 IO Teacher reference around . The first step introduces the stress in words. Students say their pairs aloud.below computer . For example: around. =different: 0000 / 0000 w04 3 Students work in pairs to produce one or two pairs of phrases or short sentences.Syllables. 7 He works as a shop assistant in the city centre.attractive (S)ame or (D )ifferent? S:oO D: 000/000 D: 000/000 S:Ooo S: 0000 D: 00/00 S:Ooo D: 000/000 D: 0000/0000 S:oOo t of pairs of words for step I. these are on the and sentences could have Extension Ask students to take a text that they have been using for other purposes. each pair but either the same or different the pairs in Box 67. and the rest of the class decides whether they are the same or different. word stress and stress in phrases Pronunciation Practice Activities 66. 3 I'm meeting my girlfriend at the bus station in an hour.A litre of milk. 4 I've only got a tape recorder.22) 4.wonderful politics . identify the compound nouns and note whether the pattern they observed in the activity can be found. 5 I never do any housework on weekdays. You may decide that your ed this introductory step. each pair having the same number of syllables. 6 It gets so hot in the sitting room that we've had to fit an airconditioner. I Say pairs of words with more than one syllable (either from your list or Box 66. Box 65 I Student handout Procedure I went out during the lunch hour and bought a newspaper. so you could start at step 2. Box 66 Stress in phrases (4.18 Same or different stress patterns? to help students become aware of stress short sentences.

10 She's expecting a baby. you could use two (':aiZl\.In the afternoon. 3 Check the answers by saying the A parts for each set of dialogues.esspattern (in the right column) to reorgapised so that all three dialogues in se)'slJ:1total}have the same stress pattern in the B . If the two parts are the same. give all the dialogues to all students on a handout (Box 69). They should work in pairs to categorise the B parts according to their stress pattern. 7 I'm afraid I can't.NOte that the A parts are just designed to put f!llQi1:j.She's really angry. 3 He plays the guitar. 134 135 . . You could photocopy the left column) that you stj.eVariation. word stress and stress in phrases Procedure Box 67 Teacher reference 1 She told me her name. . 2 Students walk around the room and find others who have B parts with the same stress pattern (i. If they are not. 2 He went by car.ofthesix sets.Over the hill. the same number of syllables with stress on the same syllables). 8 She's meeting her boyfriend. . prepare a handout oran OHT 69. If the students who respond to the A parts in each set are standing together. the students move on to another student and do the same thing. . Student 1 says the B part on their card and Student 2 says theirs. . -It's against the law.A chest of drawers.He wants to be a doctor.epotspoken by students in this activity.I'll try to find out.e. (S)ame or (D )ifferent? S: 00000 D: 0000/0000 S: 00000 D: 0000/0000 D: 00000/00000 D: 00000/00000 S: 00000 S: 000000 D: 0000000/0000000 S: 0000000 1 Distribute at random to each student one of the cards/pieces of paper you have prepared. . To do this. 4 On holiday. If the two B parts don't have the same stress pattern. i1:tthere are at leasttwo from each set. then they have found their partners correctly. So. . 9 She's completely exhausted. 4. ask them to say their parts again and discuss with the other members of the class where they should be. This continues until all students have formed into groups. First demonstrate the procedure carefully with a few students at the front of the class. the students form a pair and together they go to find other students with the same stress pattern.19 Findyourpartners of which has one of the two'}on it. or all three dialogues from four to more than one student if you For th.A litre of milk. -It's under the table.I was looking for David. 6 What does it look like? . for ha'leaclass of 12 students.Pronunciation Practice Activities Syllables. The student with the appropriate B part responds. Variation If it is not practical for students to walk around the classroom. Continue until you and the class are happy that the correct groups are formed. 5 They live in a flat.

.. word stress and stress in phrases Box 69 Teacher reference Stress pattern for B parts: A: Where's their office? B: On the seventeenth floor.-.-..-... 14 A: How do you like your coffee? B: With milk and sugar.-....... A: Where does Becky always sit? B: At the back of the class.-.......-......-- 4..... any occupations from list 3.....-- A: Do your broken ribs still hurt you? B: Only when I laugh.. .-- 00000 A: When did you learn to ski? .-............. A: When are you going back home? B: I'm leaving today.....-. 00000 ....... . 7 A: What are you looking for? B: I'm looking for a pencil....-...-- A: How do you like your coffee? B: With milk and sugar...-.-...........Pronunciation Practice Activities Box 68 Syllables..-...-.... A: What are you looking for? B: I'm looking for a pencil.......-.... A: Where do you want this box? B: Put it on the floor......-~: ~~-~r:_~ ~~_s........-.. '°°4 137 ...... 6 A: How are you getting to Paris? B: I'm planning to drive......-. A: Where are you going to hang that picture? B: Over the window.. 12 A: Do you want anything from the vegetable shop? B: A kilo of tomatoes. A: How are you getting to Paris? ..-~: !~~)?!~::r:~~JE~ ~:~~~: I A: Where's their office? B: On the seventeenth floor...-.20 Stress shiftin nationality words 00000 words ..-... A: Why are you having a party tonight? B: It's my birthday today...... 3 A: What did Francis say when you phoned her? B: She didn't answer. 10 A: What do you think of this photo of Paul? B: Let me have a look..... handout or an OHT.............-.....-... 16 A: Where does Becky always sit? B: At the back of the class........... 5 A: Do your broken ribs still hurt you? B: Only when I laugh...........-............ II A: What are you going to eat? B: A plate of pasta.......... selected nationalities from list I.......-...........-A: What languages do you speak? B: English and Spanish.......... 4 A: What did you do with the sugar? B: I put it in the cupboard... A: What do you think of this photo of Paul? B: Let me have a look..........-- A: Where did you get your new coat from? B: I bought it in town....-.-.... 13 A: Where do you want this box? B: Put it on the floor............. @CAM"WG' UN<vmm PRm w04 00000 .......y-~~_~!?~_r~ .. A: What are you going to eat? B: A plate of pasta.-..... 2 A: Where are you going to hang that picture? B: Over the window......... A: Do you want anything from the vegetable shop? B: A kilo of tomatoes. 18 A: When are you going back home? B: I'm leaving today... 15 A: Where did you get your new coat from? B: I bought it in town.............-....... ......-- 000000 ..... Write a ace under each face.. 8 A: Why are you having a party tonight? B: It's my birthday today. 0000000 @ CAM"WO' 136 Student handout UN<vwm Pm..... 17 A: When did you learn to ski? B: When I was younger.-- A: What did you do with the sugar? B: I put it in the cupboard. 9 A: What languages do you speak? B: English and Spanish.. A: What did Francis say when you phoned her? B: She didn't answer...

the words in column B of Box . then turn off the OHT or ask them to turn their handouts face down. Give one point for remembering and one for getting stress in the right place in the nationality word. do the same for the d Procedure 1 Give out or display the material in Box 72. Ask students to make sentences of the type: a's Chinese or a's a Chinese dentist. The stress patterns of the words are given in Box 71.21 Stressshiftincompounds Student handout compound words . (00000) (without stress shift) Ask students to predict which nationality words have this stress shift and to put ". Pay particular attention to stress. 000 000 stress-related three-dimensional 0000 00000 w04 139 . Practise the pronunciation of nationalities and occupations: Q: Where's a from? A: He's Chinese. Q: What does he do? A: He's a dentist. Compare: a's Chinese (00). word stress and stress in phrases Procedure 1 Give out the handout (Box 7°) or display the OHT. She's a Malaysian farmer. 3 Give students a few moments to try to remember the nationalities and jobs.m Pm. stress patterns are given for the words without and with stress shift) (No stress shift) Japanese (0001000) Chinese (00100) Taiwanese (0001000) Portuguese (0001000) Singaporean (00000100000) Argentinian (00000100000) Indonesian (000010000) Pakistani (000010000) Italian (0000) Icelandic (000) Malaysian (000) Australian (0000) Peruvian (0000) Nigerian (0000) Tunisian (0000) Norwegian (000) List 3 doctor (00) dentist (00) farmer (00) teacher (00) lecturer (000) artist (00) author (00) architect (000) sculptor (00) lawyer (00) journalist (000) footballer (000) actor (00) 4. Students repeat the items in column A after you or the recording. (with stress shift) b's Malaysian (000). He's a Chinese dentist (00 00). Box 70 Box 71 Teacher reference List I List 2 (Stress shift possible. 2 Demonstrate that when they are used before a word with stress in the first syllable. an OHT or a handout. a b c an OHT or a handout. Make sure that the main stress is in the second half of the compound. as follows: broken-down 000 semi-detached 0000 e f @CAMORWG' 138 far-reaching long-distance h g UN<v".Pronunciation Practice Activities Syllables. ac:tivity. some nationality words (those in list I) have a different stress pattern than when they are used at the end of the sentence (or before words that don't have stress in the first syllable). above these.

have stress in the first syllable.) 4 Students report their answers. windscreen). next door. individually or in pairs. This will produce compounds that most regularly have stress shift. credit card. world-class). although possible answers are given in the key. Make sure that main stress in the compound shifts back to the first word or first half of the compound. For example: 000 00000 broken-down but a broken-down car 3 Ask students. Syllables.Pronunciation Practice Activities 000 underground overnight 000 000 warm-blooded purpose-built 000 second-class 000 2 Demonstrate that when these compounds are followed by a word beginning with a stressed syllable. daylight. These should either have one syllable or. full-time. to suggest a word from column B that would naturally follow an item from column card first-class next door Stone Age world-class eyes fraud job ticket tools . rush hour. 14° Box 73 Student handout A bloodshot daylight full-time rush hour windscreen B . w04 Variation Give out or display the blanked copy of the material in Box 72 and follow the procedure for steps I and 2. Make sure that main stress in the compound shifts back to the first word or first half of the compound. The material contains a mixture of compounds that have main stress in the second part. Students report their answers. Stone Age. which is designed to show that the tendency highlighted in the activity above doesn't always apply. Extension Repeat the activity at a later date using the material in Box 73. and stress shift when followed by a stressed noun (first-class. footballer hours neighbour traffic Wiper " CAMeRWGEUmvmnY PRm w04 141 . and compounds that always have stress in the first part and no stress shift (bloodshot. word stress and stress in phrases Box 72 Student handout A broken-down long-distance purpose-built semi-detached three-dimensional warm-blooded B far-reaching overnight second-class stress-related underground animal car park citizen house Journey runner car changes factory illness object @CAMeRWGEUmvmnYPm. if they have more than one. Begin by reminding students that when compound adjectives are combined with nouns the stress may shift back. Then students work in pairs to think of suitable nouns to follow the beginnings in column A. main stress in the compound usually shifts back to the first stressed syllable. (Note that there isn't always an exact answer. but not always.

' Say this a couple of times and write on the board: ~~ The NAME'S bond. 'new' information is prominent and 'given' information is nonprominent (this is a simple explanation of prominence/non-prominence). Make sure that they use the prominence and intonation pattern practised so far.1 Introducing prominent and non-prominent words: 'James Bond' d non-prominent . (You could use the word stressed or highlighted instead of prominent. (= new / a choice is made) Where's Seoul? It's in I KOREA. 3 Ask a few students to introduce themselves to you in the same way. and then all students introduce themselves to other students around them. or . 'The name's Bond.~ Perhaps shake hands with one of the students to 'dramatise' it.3) What colour's your car? It's~ 5 Students then work in pairs to ask and answer the questions. why words are prominent and non-prominent. (= new / a choice is made) DARK red. James may have to miss out this step. and where there is no choice we make the word nonprominent (this is a more complicated.perhaps they have only one name or put their family name first . light (= new / a choice is made) (= given / no other word can go here) SOUTH North Korea.Intonation Intonation students respond. (= new / a choice is made) (= given / no other word can go here) 143 . ete. 2 Introduce yourself in the same way by saying (for example): TheNAME'S~gs. or explain to them. where there is a choice. (If students don't have a name that fits this pattern . Monitor the .) Both have a falling tone. explanation of prominence/non-prominence). blue. ete. green. Japan. Extension You could elicit from students. Procedure I Begin the activity by reminding or telling students that James Bond often introduces himself in films by saying. First ask them to match the questions and responses. or simply demonstrate the difference by gesture.1-5. but perhaps more generalis able. For example: ~ Prominence: highlighting words and syllables (5. we make the word which we have chosen prominent. or adapt as necessary. Check that the last name is not prominent and correct where necessary. Check the answers by asking the questions and 142 You could demonstrate either of these explanations in the responses to I and 2 in Box 74 as follows: What colour's your car? It's I RED. Point out that when Bond is said first it is prominent and when it is repeated it is not prominent. prominence and intonation in the answers and correct where necessary.) 4 Give out the handout (Box 74) to students. words in sentences ox 74 onto a handout. You could explain this by saying either: 5. India.

He's writing a book. The north of Spain. etc. American football. It's painful. 'IA They're ON the TABLE' and students circle on and table. Say the utterances in Box 77. It's a red Ford. Box 75 handouts for on an OHT).) Students listen and choose the most appropriate response in each case.Pronunciation Practice Activities Box 74 Student handout I What colour's your car? 2 Where's Seoul? 3 What's the weather like in Malaysia? 4 How was the exam? 5 Where shall we have the barbecue? 6 Where does Maria live? 7 What did you think of the film? 8 Have you seen my car keys? 9 How's your toothache now? 10 Do you do any sport? II Intonation Did Helen like the present? 12 What's happened to Jack? a b c d e It's make sure you change the order. Check the answers (students should say which words they have circled) and repeat any utterances that students find problematic. 144 1 2 3 4 S 6 Student handout A B C They're on the table. They're on the table. She broke her leg. I 3 When you have read the utterances in row I. One says the utterances in Box 77. South Korea. say 'Row I. They could write I. and students write: C They're ON the table. It was boring.I thought I put my book under the table'. Extremely painful. @ CAMCRWGC Umvmm Pms w04 5.AI goes with AI. So answer AI in Box 76 is the correct response to question AI in Box 77. They're on the table. At ten past eight. For example: you say. Explain to students that they need to circle the word they hear as prominent in each sentence (you could alternatively talk about 'stressed' or 'highlighted' words). you say. Procedure I Give out only Box 75 first. The third on the right. 4 Finally. She broke her leg. Band C in any order. . In Spain. but keep a note of the order in which you read them. For example.' Check that they get both the letter and the prominence placement correct in their response. Really delighted. She broke her leg. Incredibly hot. and the other responds with the answers in Box 76. Pizza and salad. Very difficult. At ten past eight. It's in Korea. He's writing a book. check the answers by reading out one of them again. Monitor and correct when necessary. Dark red. as in step 3. Then repeat the procedure for rows 2. number I .2 Hearingandsayingprominentwords: 'They'reonthetable' 2 Next give out or show the material in Box 76. 2 and 3 next to responses A-C to indicate the order in which they hear them. The front garden. It's a red Ford.from memory with the correct prominence in their response. Play the recording or say the utterances as they appear in Box 76. Pizza and salad. etc. The third on the right. After a time. It's red. Students work in pairs. In the garden. f g h i j k I They're in the drawer. First take row I and read A. etc. 7 The third on the right. I play football. Terribly boring. replying (for example) 'B: They're on the TABLE. A2 with A2. 3. etc.. She was delighted. 'IB They're on the TABLE' and students circle table. they should try to respond without looking at Box 76 . @CAMORWGC UmVCRmv Pms w04 I45 . The bottom drawer. He's writing a book. At ten past eight. He's broken his arm. Use the utterances in row I as an illustration of what the students need to do and then continue through the remaining rows. give out the material in Box 77. It was difficult. (Note that the questions in Box 77 correspond to the answers in Box 76 . Pizza and salad. Ask a student to give their answer. His left arm. It's a red Ford.

. They're 2 At ten past EIGHT.l$tiveprominence placement in words a handout and give out in advance. 3 It's a RED ford. She BROKE her leg. 'It's a STALagmite'. It's a RED FORD. w04 Elicit from students the words stalactite and stalagmite. He's WRITING PIZZA and SALAD.3 Box 76 Student handout A C B I They're ON the TABLE. Copy the material in Box the cartooJ) in Box 79 to the top of to an OHT. l OBT. 4 She broke her LEG. hasn't she? 4 Is Jane's broken arm any better? Did Jane bruise her leg? 5 What's David doing these days? David's writing a play. They're ON the table. 2 Show students the cartoon in Box 79 (either on the handout or displayed on the OHT). At TEN past EIGHT. second on the right.. 146 147 . 7 The third on the RIGHT. He's writing a BOOK. Write stalagmite and stalactite on the board and point out that stress is on the first syllable in these words. Discuss with them how the caption would be read aloud.) Procedure I Draw on the board a cavewith stalactitesand stalagmites. Then point to a hanging column and say 'It's a STALactite'. doesn't it? 3 There's a blue Ford commg. The THIRD The THIRD on the RIGHT. don't I? Your house is the Which is your house? past nine. 5 He's WRITING a BOOK. on the TABLE. w04 Student handout A B C I Where are my books? Didn't I put my books on the chair? I thought I put my books under the table. Prominence contrasts within words: stalactites and stalagmites activity will be challenging even for beusefuJ to give students the vocabulary a preparatory exercise (perhaps for the meaning of any words they don't in Box 78 to copy as a handout.somethinglike this: meeting? going to write a book. Point to a standing column and say. She BR 0 KE her LEG. isn't it? @ CAMB"DG' UmvmnY Pm. "CAM"WG' Box 77 Umvmm a book.Intonation Pronunciation Practice Activities 5. What time are we What car has Vicky got? Becky's got a red Toyota. At TEN past eight. 6 PIZZA and salad. Pizza and SALAD. 2 The film starts at ten See you at twenty past eight. It's a ted FORD. isn't he? How was Jane's skiing holiday? I've heard David is 6 Did you order pasta and salad? What would you like to eat? Is yours the pizza and chips? 7 I take the third turning on the left. Pm. on the right.

harmful microscope .detach impression . You could explain this either by saying that there is a choice made on the final syllable (between -tite and -mite) or that there is a contrast made on this syllable (between stalactite and stalagmite).constructive disappeared . Tell students that this is going to be practised in the activity. and then to perform them.biology harmless . 6 Students work in pairs on the dialogues. Students repeat after you or the recording. Mrs.observatory headband .discouraging geology . it's got tangled."G'Umvmm p"" W04 @TheNewYorkerCollection 148 1943 Gardner Rea from 4 Practise the pronunciation of the words said alone. it's a STALagMITE. Then select a few to perform some of the dialogues for the class. moving to the first in the dialogues) to demonstrate what to do."G' Box 79 Umvmm Pms w04 Student handout = =0 ~'('If IIfTTlY 9 Are you trying to reWIND the tape? No. I'm trying to UNwind it. Prominent syllables are in capital letters. 6) is overriden by the prominence placement that is needed in a particular context. Box 78 Student handout archaeologist . Monitor the contrastive prominence placement and correct where necessary.microphone millionaire .sociologist cornflour . ourfirst concern is to persuade the patient that he's a stalagmite. Ask students to work in pairs to write their own dialogues showing the contrast. moving to a later syllable in the dialogues) and one from 9-16 (which includes words that have stress in later syllables in their citation forms. For example: 1 It's a STALactite. p.expression disused . in Part A of the handout.headscarf accusation . Hall.motorboat rewind .. 3 If you haven't already done so.Intonation Pronunciation Practice Activities and point out or elicit that stalagmite would need to be pronounced STALagMITE (rather than the usual STALagmite) in this context. Take one from 1-8 (whicb includes words that have stress on the first syllable in their citation forms..application 41'1"""'''' 1[EII 'In a case of this kind.unwind stalagmite .billionaire motorbike . S Practise a couple of the dialogues in Part B with the students.irrelevant attach .cornflakes destructive . isn't it? No.misused conservatory . The main point to get across is that the normal prominence placement in its citation form (see Introduction.telephone relevant .reappeared encouraging . give out the handout (Box 80). telescope .overvalued "CAM". All Rights Reserved 149 .stalactite toothbrush .toothpaste undervalued . Extension Here are some more pairs of nouns that might be contrasted in the same way. " "CAM".

you cross the footbridge. if you hear ql\:tdesoulldsthat run together without a break. I said he suddenly reappeared. don't worry rdeciding on boundaries. A: Pam's a sociologist. 57. B: Yes.5) Student handout Part A Stress on first syllable STALagmite STALactite HARMless HARMful MOtorbike MOtorboat TOOTHbrush TOOTHpaste MIcroscope MIcrophone CORNflour CORNflakes 5. I'm studying biology. record a . Then ask them to say the whole extract again. 1 Source: Brazil. 89. A: Do you want me to get cornflakes? B: No. A: I hear you're studying geology. I went by motorbike. 3 fromp. I'm trying to unwind it. but they can be constructive. If students have problems. A: Is it harmful? B: No.Pronunciation Practice Activities Box 80 Intonation Toneunits and tonic placement (5. which might give clues to intonation unit boundaries. 45. gv#tsionofthe transcripts (as in Box 81) onto a Part B: I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Ia II 12 13 14 15 16 A: It's a stalactite. A: So he suddenly disappeared? B: No.4-5. Focus on Part A. B: No. Students look at the first extract while you play the recording of this two or three times. I said microphone. you could use your own material. or they may However. 78. I think it's overvalued. isn't it? B: No. "CAM"WG' 15° UN<vmm PRe" w04 Procedure I Give out the handout (Box 8I). play (or say) single units one at a time until they can say each one fluently. (I994 [Part A: I from p. it's got tangled. This includes extracts from the recording without unit boundaries marked on the written transcript. I3. 2 fromp. 151 . 4 from p. she's an archaeologist. A: Has she dyed her eyelashes? B: No. The transcripts with unit boundaries marked are given below Box 8I for your information. it's harmless. B: No. Then follow the procedure in step 2 above. B: Well I thought they were discouraging. D.4 Dividingspeech intotone units Stress on later syllables reWIND unWIND geOLogy biOLogy deSTRUCtive conSTRUCtive enCOURaging disCOURaging disaPPEARED reaPPEARED millionAIRE billionAIRE underVALued overVALued archaeO Logist sociOLogist copy the material in Box 8I 1onto a own material (see Variation). A: So you think the company is undervalued? B: No. isn't she? B: No. 23 (part). A: Did you say microscope? B: No. it's a stalagmite. too. 4 fromp. A: Should I cross the footpath after that? B: No. 3I]). I've forgotten my toothpaste. 2 Ask individual students to repeat. A: I hear you travelled by motorboat. A: Are you trying to rewind the tape? B: No. decide where the natural breaks are and mark these on their handouts. she's dyed her eyebrows. Then do the same for the remaining extracts. A: I found his comments very encouraging. 2 from p. A: Disagreements in a relationship can be very destructive. for example. recordings accompanying textbooks that you use. I want cornflour. 35. 3 Focus on Part B. Part B: I fromp. Ask students to listen to the recording a few times. trying to break up the speech into units in the same way as on the recording. Variation Rather than using the recording. Make sure that you don't include commas and full stops. 3 from p. A: Have you forgotten your toothbrush? B: No.four or five seconds for each one the extracts and divide the speech be pauses. A: Do you know he's a millionaire? B: He's actually a billionaire.

perhaps repeating items. as appropriate (Answers: 1.a). 3 Students form Student A/B pairs. ask students to record a very short extract from a radio or television news broadcast where the newsreader is talking (this is likely to be the clearest part). After a time. and out. and b after 1. Students repeat all the items in column B (with tonic syllables in capitals) after you or the recording. Students A and B can exchange roles.b. Demonstrate the importance of tonic word placement. Say sentences a and b (with a falling tone) for the class so that they understand that the tonic syllable is ten in sentence a and eight in sentence b. see Student handout in Box 82 onto a handout or an OHT. or ten to eight?' unit (or 'tone unit') there is one word which it is where the voice begins to fall . 153 . Student A says either sentence I or 2 and Student B replies with response a or b. Demonstrate this first. Encourage them to think about how professional broadcasters divide their speech into units. Ask them to suggest appropriate A parts to elicit each of the responses.5 Tonic word placement: 'At ten to seven. so that plenty of practice is generated. I went to Paris last SUMMer. Part B again.. 4 Student A selects randomly from the six pairs of sentences. I went to Paris LAST summer. Procedure I Focus on Part A. For the first pair of sentences. 2 In a later lesson.I or 2?' (a comes after 2. Box 81 5.Pronunciation Practice Activities Intonation Extension For homework. 2 . They should transcribe this and mark where unit boundaries occur. and discuss one or two of the transcripts in class. w04 Extensions I Give students short sentences such as I went to Paris last summer and ask Transcripts for Part B with unit boundaries marked: I Well I'm rather busy / just at present / perhaps you wouldn't mind waiting for a few minutes 2 We need to reduce / the numbers of cars on our roads / we don't need to increase them 3 The thing to look out for / is the playing fields / and soon after you've passed them / you'll go under an underpass 4 You remember that friend of his though / the guy who came from Liverpool/he always came on Fridays / and nobody quite knew why 152 them to suggest the first parts of dialogues to produce the responses: I went to PARis last summer. (For more information.) 2 Focus on Part B. when sufficient time has elapsed so that students have forgotten the details of the exercise. A onto an OHT or write it on the board. Then ask 'Which comes before a . give them the B responses in Box 82. Part A I She's leaving / to take up a post / in Glasgow / we wish her well 2 The door opened and / this person got out / and it was a little old lady / with a shopping bag 3 I hurried across / and turned into an alleyway / and started to walk / it was dark / and drizzling a little 4 At the top of the stairs / was the coffee room / and opposite that / was the photocopying room / just beyond there / was the post room / and Arthur's room / was about three doors along Part B I Well I'm rather busy just at present perhaps you wouldn't mind waiting for a few minutes 2 We need to reduce the numbers of cars on our roads we don't need to increase them 3 The thing to look out for is the playing fields and soon after you've passed them you'll go under an underpass 4 You remember that friend of his though the guy who came from Liverpool he always came on Fridays and nobody quite knew why !!) CAMBRmGR Umvmm PRR.

9)1. rise. the word yes is said ten times. we might ask a question in information we think we know is correct. and so have falling-rising or yes/no question can also be used to find out.5)2. b No. 4)4. rise. -questions end with a falling tone.6-5.7 or 5. 2)3.7 Tone choice inquestions a BIG mistake. Alternatively. ro)r.7)4. 3)2. Play the recording and ask students to give the number of the tone that they hear. 2)3. b WITH milk. The recording gives ten versions of the following words: question-I) 2.8)4. 4 Ask a student to take the role of teacher. it's in WEST Newtown.9)2. ro)2 pronunciation-I) 3. ro)4 Alternatively. 2)1. However. while other students answer with the appropriate tone number. saying a word that you give them using different tones. a With MILK.9) Choosing tones: fall or rise? be used to introduce the four most frequent tones in fall.6 Draw on the board the following tones (fall. level) and numberthem I to 4. UN<V". 5. 2 Seeyou at five to eight. 3)4. @C"mmG' 5. b They're in my BLACK handbag. and making sure (that is.5)3. 2 Where did you put the car keys? (i) I When do you think Jill will get here? 2 What do you think Jill will want for lunch? @ I Do you think leaving school at 16 was a mistake? 2 Why did the police arrest Tom? a No. 3)1. each with one of the tones above: 1)4. fall-rise. I aAtT~ 0 I~ bAttentoE~ Part B A B I I thought the office was in West Oldtown. b It was 3~ 4L ~ 2 On the recording. don't you? @ I I can't find the car keys in your handbag. isn't he? Q) I How do you like your coffee? 2 You have your coffee black. ones: fall. level.Intonation Pronunciation Practice Activities Procedure Box 82 Student handout Part A I See you at ten to seven.7)2. fall-rise. 2 I thought the office was in East Newtown. questions in natural speech which break by reminding students of the 'textbook this to give students a more general nship between questions and intonation. falling-rising are often used to find out. b She's coming after LUNCH. While this is often true.4)2. rise.6)3. level 154 2V a It was a big misTAKE. 3 Repeat with words that have more than one syllable. my SISter's a doctor. they and as yes/no questions are often used to make lling-rising or rising tone. it's in West NEWtown.or to remind students of activity such as Activities 5."y Pm' w04 Tones(5.8)1. a They're in my black HANDbag. you could say the words with different tones yourself. b No. a She's coming AFTer lunch. and so 155 . please. fall-rise. @ I Isn't Kate a chemist? 2 Your brother's a doctor. please.8)3.9)1.5)2. a No. n we might be trying to find out information now.8 below.6)2.4)3.. falling tone. my sister's a DOCtor. whbe used to make sure.7)3.6)1. and ing tone.

Pronunciation Practice Activities

questions; distinguishing between

onto a handout or an OHT, or write the
r.d. Copy the material in Box 84 onto a handout.


Give out or show the material in Box 83. Play the recording of the
questions. Alternatively, say the questions yourself with the intonation
at the end of the questions as given below. This is also the intonation
used on the recording. (Note that for the sake of simplicity, falling-rising
tones are used on the recording rather than rising tones. However, you
could use a rising tone instead of the falling-rising, with a similar
meaning. )
I How's Tom getting to ~?
2 Do you want a lift to the ~?
3 Why's~
4 Are you going to the~t?
5 Doyoulike~?
6 What do you want for your
7 When are you going back



8 Did you get back this~
9 WasS~?
10 Who's the man in the blue


Ask students to listen in particular to the end of the question, starting
with the syllable in capital letters, and decide whether they hear a falling
or a falling-rising tone. Try to elicit from students a relationship between
the type of question and the intonation in these sentences: that is, whquestions end with a falling tone, and yes/no questions end with a fallingrising tone.
2 Explain to students the distinction between finding out and making sure,
and the connection with wh- and yes/no questions (see

3 Give out the handout (Box 84). Focus on Part A. Students repeat the
questions after you with the intonation shown. Then take the B parts in
the dialogues and students ask you questions. I told you is inserted in the
answers in 6-10 to emphasise that this is information A should already
know. Finally, students work in pairs to ask and answer the questions
as A and B. Monitor the intonation in the questions and correct if
4 Focus on Part B. Say that wh-questions can also be used for making sureto check information that you have already been told (but may have
forgotten) - and these questions often have a fall-rise starting on the whword. Play the recording of the first five questions, or say them with the
intonation shown, and follow the procedure as in step 3.
5 Then explain that yes/no questions can also be used for finding out, and
these questions often have a falling tone. Play the recording of the next
five questions, or say them with the intonation shown, and follow the
procedure as in step 3. The difference between these questions and those
in Part A is that in Part A (with falling-rising tone) the questions are
checking (we think we know the answer) and in Part B (with falling tone)
they are finding out information we don't know.
6 Focus on Part C. Explain that students should ask the questions again
with an intonation appropriate to the purpose (find out / make sure)
given on the left. The B responses should be taken from those given in
Parts A and B and should be appropriate to the intonation used. Give a
few examples to illustrate and then students work in pairs.
After you have used a recorded dialogue in class, go back and focus on the
intonation at the end of any questions in it. Ask students to identify whether
there is a falling or end-rising tone (rising or falling-rising). In most cases, the
finding out or making sure distinction will help explain intonation choice.
For more advanced students, you could go on to consider whether the
alternative intonation choice might also be appropriate in the context and if
not, why not.



Pronunciation Practice Activities

Box 83

Box 84

Student handout

How's Tom getting to PARis?
Do you want a lift to the STATion?
Why's ALice coming this evening?
Are you going to the PARTy tonight?
Do you like OYSTers?
What do you want for your BIRTHday?
When are you going back HOME?
Did you get back this MORNing?
Was SUSan at the meeting?
Who's the man in the blue SUIT?

making sure


B: I told you, a new jumper.

making sure


B: I told you, tomorrow.

making sure


B: I told you, the marketing

finding out
finding out
finding out
@ CAMBRmeRUmvmm



finding out

finding out

Box 84

finding out
finding out

find out
make sure

I A: How's Tom getting to P~
2 A: Why's A~
3 A: What do you want for your

finding out

4 A: When are you going back H~

finding out

5 A: Who's the man in the blue

making sure



making sure
making sure

6 A: Do you want a lift to the
7 A: Are you going to the

B: No, it's been cancelled.

8A: Do youlike O~

B: Yes, I love them.

9 A:Didyou get backthis M~

B: No, last night.


B: Yes, she was there.




I A: How's Tom getting to Paris?
2 A: Why's Alice coming this evening?

make sure

3 A: What do you want for your birthday?
4 A: When are you going back home?

B: To borrow some CDs.
B: Anew jumper.

find out
find out
make sure


find out
make sure
make sure

B: The marketing manager.

find out

5 A: Who's the man in the blue suit?
6 A: Do you want a lift to the station?
7 A: Are you going to the party tonight?
8 A: Do you like oysters?
9 A: Did you get back this morning?
IO A: Was Susan at the meeting?



B: No, I told you, I'll walk.
B:No, I told you, it's been

8 A:Do you likeO~

B: Yes, I told you, I love them.

9 A: Didyou get backthis MO~

B: No, I told you, last night.


B: No, I'll walk.

7 A:Areyougoingto the P~

B: By train.


making sure

6 A:Do you want a liftto the S~

Part C

Student handout

Part A
finding out


B: Yes, I told you, she was

Part B
making sure
making sure


B: I told you, by train.


B: I told you, to borrow







Pronunciation Practice Activities



Falling and falling-rising tones: reservation
definite yes/no answers and fall-rise tone for

questions (or think of other yes/no
own situation) on a small piece of paper:
Were you hard working at school?
Are you going to give us any
homework today?
Do you play any musical

One student asks a question to a selected member of the class, who
should respond with one of the yes or no patterns on the board. Continue
with other students. To encourage a range of answers, you may need to
point to one of the patterns and ask the responding student to begin their
answer in this way. (Of course, not all questions will permit all four
responses. )


'News' and 'not news': correcting
returning students' exercise
If this is not possible,

ne for telling something new and the
for something already known


a handout.


Distribute the piecesof paper with questionson to a number of students,
but don't explain what they are for. Then prompt students to ask you the
questions they have on their pieces of paper. Answer using all four
responses on the board, showing that a falling tone is used for definite
yes/no answers, and that a fall-rise tone indicates some reservation or
limitation which you can go on to give. For example:

V most of the time,
~ but I'd like to learn.

Have you ever been to Paris?
Do you enjoy teaching us?


Can you speak German?
Are you a good swimmer?
Do you watch TV a lot?


Were you hard working at school?


Are you going to give us any
homework today?
Do you play any musical instruments?

in the last couple of years.


Give students time to think of and write down one or two additional
yes/no questions each, or brainstorm


no more than average.

ideas for questions on the board.

1a Return the students' work, but give the exercise books or papers to the
wrong people. Give back the first book/paper, and when the student
objects, elicit from them the following:


But this is (F~
book/work, not
Alternatively, students can use a rising tone instead of a fall-rise:
But this is (F~
book/work, not ~E.
Make sure the first student uses one of the two intonation patterns
shown, with the syllables in capitals indicating the place where the falling
and falling-rising (or rising) tones begin (i.e. the tonic syllables). Repeat
this with other students. (Note that some of your students may have
names in which more than one syllable, or even all syllables, are stressed.
This activity should still work, using a falling tone on the last stressed
syllable of the name.)
b As an alternative, 'borrow' a few of the students' belongings (pens,
books, rulers, ete.), mix them up and return them to the wrong people.
Then follow the procedure in step I a.
2 When students are familiar with the intonation pattern, explain that we
use a falling tone when we tell something new, and a rising or

For example: A: Have a great time in Norway. I've read lots of books about it. B: I'm going to S~. B: You'll need to ~ B~ II A: The new farming policy is good for Germany. . Monitor and correct intonation where necessary. B: It's good for E~ot onlY~. 7 A: I'll get the number sixty-two into town. I I'm not going to Norway. 6 A: It's cheaper to go to Barcelona by plane than train. Although a falling tone could replace a falling-rising tone in the examples above. I don't like going up ladders. it might be heard as less polite.g. etc. and these are given on the recording. 2 Her house hasn't got a green door. Then they should work in pairs on the new dialogues. B: I'm not going to ~I'm only C~ not just read going to~. B: He'll have to do more ~not just~. not in~ 9 A: You should easily beat Emma at tennis. are we? ~ B: Smoking's banned in the whole ~ot only in the Note that in British English at least. she's going permanently. B: We're going in O~. 4 She's not just going there for the summer. 5 He won't just have to eat less. the correction is a reminder of something they may have forgotten. . The labels News (signalled with a falling tone) and Not news (signalled with a rising or falling-rising tone) might be helpful.). In the B parts the fall-rise (or rise) should come first (for the information which is 'not news') and the fall should come second (for the information which is 'news'). 3 He's a decorator. 3 Give out the handout (Box 85). I'm going to Sweden. not to ~ 2 A: Mary's house is the one with a green door. not a green one. The activity gets progressively more difficult: 1-3 have intonation and tonic syllables marked. Explain to students that they are going to practise the same 'news' and 'not news' pattern in correcting what people say. he'll have to do more exercise. a falling-rising tone is often used in correcting (as in I. B: I'm playing Su~not 162 E~ 163 . B:He'san~ota~ 4 A: I hear Sue's going to India this summer. it's got a blue one. B: She's going there ~ notjustfortheS~ 5 A: Tom's trying to get fit. . etc. Take the part of A in the first dialogue and ask a number of students in turn to take the B part. not an artist. and the rest have neither marked. 8 A: It'll be really hot in Greece in July. I A: Have a great time in Norway. telling A that they have got their facts wrong. ~ G~ B: Her house has got a not a 3 A: I'd hate to be a painter like John. 4-6 have only tonic syllables marked. students work in pairs on the dialogues. B: It's ~ot 10 A: I want to learn to drive. He's on a diet.). not to Norway.Intonation Pronunciation Practice Activities falling-rising tone (it doesn't matter which) for something that is 'already known' or 'assumed'. The effect of this tone is to make the correction less confrontational and so appear more polite. Do the same with the remaining dialogues. . Monitor and correct the intonation pattern where necessary. 12 A: We're not allowed to smoke in the offices. The most likely intonation patterns and choice of tonic syllables are shown below. 2 . Extension Ask students to reverse the order of the information in the B parts (e. B: You catch the sixty~notthe sixty-~. 4 Finally.

12 A: We're not allowed to smoke in the offices. 9 A: You should easily beat Emma at tennis. II A: The new farming policy is good for Germany. B: He'll have to do more EXercise. @CAM". 7 A: I'll get the number sixty-two into town. B: I'm going to ~. not in July. B: Her house has got a ~ not a ~ 3 A: I'd hate to be a painter like John. are we? B: Smoking's banned in the whole building. 8 A: It'll be really hot in Greece in July. not just EAT less. not only Germany.Pronunciation Practice Activities Box 85 Student handout 1 A: Have a great time in Norway. B: We're going in October. B: I'm playing Suzanne. not just for the SUMMer. B: You catch the sixty-one. not the sixty-two.W'" 164 UN<vmm Pm' w04 . 6 A: It's cheaper to go to Barcelona by plane than train. not Emma. 5 A: Tom's trying to get fit. not just read books about it. B: You'll need to practise. 10 A: I want to learn to drive. not to ~ 2 A: Mary's house is the one with a green door. B: It's good for Europe. He's on a diet. I've read lots of books about it. not only in the offices. B: It's easier. B:He'san~nota~ 4 A: I hear Sue's going to India this summer. B: She's going there PERManently. not only cheaper. I don't like going up ladders.

/). 1m/. Their task is to put the letters of the alphabet into the seven groups.1 Grouping English alphabet letters activity after the pronunciation of the en introduced./bi:/. Give a couple of examples: C goes in column 2 under B (1st/. grammar and vocabulary Pronunciation and spelling (6.).ete.1-6.L goes in column 7 under F (I~l/. to their vowel sounds Procedure I Divide the board into seven columns and write the following at the top of each: ~ 2B 3I 40 6R 5U p Students copy this into their notebooks and then they repeat the letters along the top after you (leI/../~f/). Then ask students to work in pairs to do the other letters.Pronunciation and other parts of language: spelling. Their tables should eventually look like this: 1A 2B 3I 40 5U 6R 7F HJK CDEG Y - QW - LMNS XZ PTV 165 . Tell students that all the letters of the alphabet include a vowel sound like the ones in the letters on the board. /bi.6) 6.

and continue until all the letters have been gIven. Go on to ask students if they know what the abbreviations stand for (USA =United States of America. IOU. i. Box 86 one-syllable words a handout. 0 and u by asking students how the abbreviations on the board are said. as in step r. Monitor letter pronunciation and correct where necessary. 3 Ask students to underline all the words that contain a vowel with its alphabet name. . e = 1i:/. 5 Finally. Students repeat the words chorally and individually after you or the recording. . (They could search for these in their coursebooks. the vowel letter is " CAMBRmc. r67 . U"vmnY I'm> 2°°4 M. (C)CYC(C) means a word beginning with one (or two) consonant letters. =id est [Latin] -that is).ete. r66 Vowel letter (C)CVCe (C)CVC(C) a e 0 u Rule When a one-syllable word ends with pronounced with its alphabet name.Pronunciation Practice Activities Pronunciation and other parts of language Note that: W is pronounced like U in its second part.2 Pronouncingsingle vowel letters (1)1 4 Focus on Part B. Write the USA. correcting where necessary. 2 Students report back their answers. 91-92). Focus attention on the pronunciation of the vowel letters a. and then one (or two) consonant letters. Part A cake test spell soft Student handout fact home bag nose game these drop kill life left plane dust tap bit mme cup tune tube Part B Procedure r Pronunciation in words written. If correct. in North American English Z is pronounced /zi. EU = European Union. UN =United Nations. followed by a vowel letter./.) and introduce this term. PTO =Please turn over. (1993. PTO. write the letter in the appropriate column on the board. Then ask individual students to say all the letters in a particular column: 'What letters go in column 5?' etc. they should ask you. like B. UAE =United Arab Emirates. followed by a vowel letter. Then they should complete the rule at the bottom of Part B. e. UN. . fact goes in the first row of column 3. Students write the words from Part A into the table in Part B. 10 U =I owe you. ask students to find five or six (or more) examples of words with the same pattern of consonants and vowels. Ask: 'What other letters go in column r?' etc. UK =United Kingdom.) They should check which of the words follow the rule and which (if any) don't. Explain that C stands for consonant letter and Yfor vowel letter. I Based on Hewings. Check that they are saying the vowels with their 'alphabet names' (a = leIl. (C)CYCe means a word beginning with one (or two) consonant letters. EU. Nominate a student (or ask the class in general for an answer) and say: 'Tell me a letter in column 2' etc. Give a couple of examples to check that they understand: cake goes in the first row of column 2.e. Extension In a later class. a consonant letter and then the letter e. i. Make sure that all the letters in each group are said with the same vowel sound. 2 Give out the handout (Box 86) and focus on Part A. 6. If they are not sure of the pronunciation of words they have found. etc. write the seven columns on the board again. pp.

2 Students work in pairs to decide how many ways the underlined letters A. also Ice/). if words break any of the three rules) by awarding no points and moving on to the next team. when they do not come before the letter R (because combinations such as AR. Appoint a student to keep score on another part of the board. Correct vowel pronunciations where necessary.7. they get two points. in a stressed syllable or a word with one syllable. If a team is able to say a word with a sound-letter correspondence that hasn't been used before. la:/). For example. and don't allow each team too much thinkingldiscussion time. they get one point. Try to keep the pace fairly fast. You could penalise wrong answers (i. Ice/). Check that the students know all the words.3 Pronouncing singlevowelletters (2) of single vowel an OHT. but is not one of those used in Box 87.Pronunciation Practice Activities Pronunciation and other parts of language .bad (one point. must be in a stressed syllable or a word with one syllable. E. if the dice shows 4. For example. etc. or write the of this activity (from step 4 Procedure I Give out or show the material in Box 87. Explain (as in step 2) that the letter: must be a single vowel (not part of a pair of vowels such as in 0 UT). Box 87 Student handout hand CjJJ police sxmbol fmpty thfse England ryde make crx wQlf frQg call mxstery time right father sygar bf lyck many machine mQve tryth bfd sQn crxstal prftty f. but more than about five or six might slow the activity down too much). I68 Divide the class into teams (any number of teams can play. See. under A you might have: cat (two points. must not come before the letter R.rather (two points.ask (one point.ull with hQt txpe sit SQ bx was @C"'''WGC UN>v"my Pw. Possible single vowel letter to sound correspondence is given in Box 88.e. Repeat a few times and then add up the scores to find the winning team. also Ice/). 3 Check the answers. for example. w04 I69 . write the word in the 0 column. may have other pronunciations) . (This procedure can be the starting point of a number of similar activities focusing on spelling-sound correspondence. 4 Divide the board into six columns and write the following at the top of each column: A E IOU Y 6. Move on to the second team and repeat the procedure. Students repeat the words chorally and individually. U and Yare pronounced and to count how many examples of each pronunciation there are. I. Activity 6. Ask for the number of sounds for each letter and all the words with a particular vowel letter sound. la:1or lce/both pronunciations are acceptable). For a word including a sound-letter correspondence that is repeated. ) You could point out that you are only looking at these letters: as single vowels (not part of a pair of vowels such as in 0 UT) . If the answer is correct. trap (one point. one of the team has to say a word which includes the letter 0. 0. Throw the dice and call out the number for the first team. ER.

mxstery. OA.Pronunciation and other parts of language Pronunciation Practice Activities Box 88 Teacher reference Letter Number of sounds A 6 E I 0 U Y 3 3 5 3'!ther. lu:1rude.!! lul hIll. Box 89 lrel h-'!nd. b~. OE. hQt. then say the words and students repeat after you. truth III sXmbol. OA. 00 is to learn about some of the different of vowel letters. England. @CAM>RWG. Catalogues from shops that are useful for this. Teach new words and their meanings as necessary.!s. with. Put the )n a page and include about the same elude different vowel pairs (these are is given in Box 89. Iml time. s. ~mpty III sit.!ny li:1th~se.!ke. Students should look at the pictures and find the words that contain each of these pairs (not all of them do) and decide how many different pronunciations of each there are. crx Student handout t Pronouncing pairs of vowelletters: OU. The pictures should illustrate words with a lllciations of these vowel pairs. which you could \ Procedure I I7° Write the vowel letter pairs 0 U. right. g different pronunciations of vowel letter t show words having one of the vowel pairs 1their spelling.lul WQlf.leII m-. 1i:1police.h:1 c-. machine Ivl frQg.!ll.IAISQn.Ivl w-. crxstal. 01. Many of these can be of ways. lei b~d. laII bx.U"HRmy rRm w04 I7I .4 2 Sounds and example word 2 Ask students to report their answers. txpe. IIIpr~tty. or you could download . OE. 01 and 00 on the board. luck.IAlcgt. but this activity focuses on the most s of vowel letter pairs beginning o. Check these. lei m-. hml SQ.

you could divide sentence 1 into the following sections: la weekl (repeat). break IE Usual pronunciations: larl tie. With more advanced students. ask students (for homework) to find small pictures for words that include one or more of the vowel pairs you want to focus on. together with some nouns including these pairs. You could devise a similar activity to the one above focusing on some of these. mountain AU Usual pronunciation: /:):1astronaut. II go to the gym twice a weekl (repeat) Check that students understand the meaning of the sentences. Ito the gyml (repeat). shield. head. tail. 2 Explain that you are focusing on the pronunciation of the letters C and G. guitar 172 Procedure I Give out the handout (Box 9°) and focus on Part A. For example. III babies. lei bread. 173 . saucer Occasional pronunciation: IDIcauliflower. 6. autumn. vowel letter pairs followed by R (e. E. II go to the gyml (repeat). priest.g. To make the task of finding relevant pictures easier. Students work in pairs. drain. eagle. dead.Pronunciation and other parts of language Pronunciation Practice Activities Extension The table at the bottom of p. Ask them to circle all the C and G letters in the sentences and to decide how many different pronunciations of C and G there are. Itwice a weekl (repeat). author. autograph. 172 gives information about the pronunciations of some common vowel letter pairs beginning with A. laundry. Stick these (and some distractors) on a handout to be used at a later date. juice. EIGH) have been excluded as these can have different pronunciations from those shown in the table. chain. I and U. berries. beach. statue VI Usual pronunciation: lu:1fruit.g. exhaust pipe. so to make theprocess easier and help build up fluency. rain Occasional pronunciation: IIIcaptain. AUGH. tissue. sausage EA Usual pronunciations: 1i:1tea.5 Pronouncingconsonant letters: Cand G of consonants Vowel letter pairs Pronunciations and example nouns AI Usual pronunciation: lerl brain. suit. east. building. beans. cookies VE Usual pronunciations: lu:1glue. OUR) and by GH (e. feather Occasional pronunciation: lerl steak. bruise Occasional pronunciation: III ask them to repeat short sections from the end of the sentence to the beginning (a process sometimes called 'backchaining'). you could also use words including these combinations and highlight their pronunciations. It can be difficult to repeat long stretches of speech like this. Ithe gym! (repeat). batteries. Students repeat the sentences after you. nail. For simplicity. flies. I go (repeat). saucepan. Iju:1barbecue. pie. EIR.

. 2 The letter G is sometimes pronounced 13/.g. CH. 5 A cyclist from Egypt won the competition in Germany. prestige.This happens in a few words. 3 When students have finished... TH and GH and correct where necessary. ask students to find words in which the rules do not apply. genre). . pronunt. SH. THand GH . I and Y. spe{.. C is pronounced Isl (e. 2 In an emergency give me a call.e) Two pronunciations of G:Igl (e.g.. go) and Id:y' (e. the ones above have exceptions.g.g. with an example word for each: Ikl ~at Isl i~e Ig/ give Id31age Focus on Part B of the handout.iation) - 6.Pronunciation Practice Activities Pronunciation and other parts of language 3 Write the four pronunciations of C and G used in this activity on the board as phonetic symbols.g.6 Pronouncing consonant pairs: PH. 4 Gary crossed the dangerous road to the cinema. I and Y. the letter C is usually pronounced Everywhere else it is pronounced . 175 .g. Students work in pairs to find three words from Part A for each of the categories listed in Part B. Everywhere elseit ispronounced Ig/. Answerkey PartA: Twopronunciations of C:/kI(e.twis. 6 Mrs Giles took the register at the beginning of the class. Say the words or play them on the recording.CH. I Part B Rules Before the letters E. 2 Students work in pairs to find how many ways there are of pronouncing the letter pairs PH. monitor the pronunciation of the letter pairs PH.g. CH.But notice that when there is another ISIsound in the word. Ask students to complete the rules using the information they have in the sentences in Part A.ian). they might find: I The letter C is pronounced IS!(as in shop)at the end of a stressed syllable before I and another vowel (e. When they report back their answers. Before the letters E.. Check the answers. and in some people's pronunciation of the second G of garage. 4 Focus on Part B to review the pronunciation of the consonant letter pairs. s. Everywhere .g different pronunciations > of consonant THand 011. For example. Students repeat the words after you or the recording. e material in Box 9I onto a handout or an OHT. mainly with French origins (e. Box 90 letterCisusuallypronounced Is/.C..I Extension elseit is pronounced/kI.. Focus on Part A. and how many examples of each pronunciation there are in these words. give them an opportunity to check their answers.. the letter G is sometimes pronounced and sometimes . Everywhere else it is pronounced "CAM"WG' 174 letter Gis sometimespronouncedIgl and sometimes Id:y'. Then check that students understand the meaning of the words. . or write the on Student handout Procedure Part A I I go to the gym twice a week.. §:PH.. gym) PartB: BeforethelettersE. You might even ask them to work out other rules for the exceptions.SH. TH and GH in the words in Part A. 3 The girls went together to the city centre..ial. UNmRSlTY Pm' '004 Give out the handout or display the material..amandIsl (e.musit. termediate utes ctisip. Beforethe letters E. For homework. Like most 'rules' that relate to spelling and pronunciation. titringa. SH.

..................... or to move a boat through water using oars.............. 6. they could use them to find out or check pronunciation and meaning........... pronounced /rau/ it means a noisy argument....................7 Homographs: a row about rowing? sounds.......................... 7 three words describing how things feel ................ (Perhaps go through item I to illustrate this.. 6 three means of transport ... which are or an OHT........ 5 three male names. 2 three things you find in the bathroom ........................ and to decide how the two forms of the word are pronounced. Students work in pairs.. Monitor the pronunciation of the homographs and correct where necessary................... Ask a number of students to say each sentence to give plenty of practice.............. II three items of clothing ........................ Write the word row on the board and ask students how many meanings it has...... 3 Check answers by asking students to read out the sentences.............................................................................. 8 three jobs......Pronunciation and other parts of language Pronunciation Practice Activities Box 91 Student handout Part A cheese rough shampoo author Philip tights champagne toothpaste Thomas stomach ship geography chef Ghanaian chemistry cherries smooth headache shoes Stephen pharmacist coach shower Chinese Thai yacht shorts cough throat physics chest shiver light Part B I three things you can eat or drink ...................... 10 three parts of the body............................................................................................................................... (Pronounced /r~u/ it means either a line of things or people..............) If your students have dictionaries showing pronunciation...................................................................WG' Umvmm Pm.... Ask them to identify the homographs in each sentence.................................................................................. 9 three school subjects......... 4 three nationalities................. w04 Procedure I Give an example of a homograph..... 176 177 ...) 2 Give out or display the material in Box 92.. @ CAM".... 3 three things you might do or have when you are ill...........................

Check that students know the meaning of the words. Isl follows other voiceless sounds (where you can't feel a vibration on your throat when 178 179 . Her invalid parking permit is invalid.. Students work in pairs and identify the odd one out in each list of words: four of the words have the same-s pronunciation and one (the odd one out) is different.9) Box 92 Student handout 6. There was a tear in her eye when she saw the tear in her dress. The full answers are given below Box 93. boats. addresses'. bags. We'd like to present you with this leaving present. (Answer: /z/: begins. dances). 181is followed by Isl and 151is followed by Iz/. For example. 12 'Don't you like the new vase?' 'No! I object to having that ugly object in my house. 3 Allow students to check their answers by saying each list (or play the recording) with the odd one out at the end.Pronunciation and other parts of language Pronunciation Practice Activities Pronunciation and grammar (6.8 and 6. Pronouncing -s in plurals. grapes. ete. n Come and look at this minute insect when you've got a minute. Ask students what different pronunciations -s endings have in these words.) and in plurals (bags. keeps. This furniture polish is Polish. 10 It's getting close to the time for the museum to close. they could use these.) Then say the words and students repeat. ask students if they can see any patterns relating the -s pronunciation to the previous sound. etc. 2 Give out the handout (Box 93) and focus on Part A. coughs. IIz/ dances. Explain this to students first. 5 Finally. Sue's. Then say each list again and students repeat. read list I 'as 'jokes. As the winning archer put down his bow he gave a bow to the crowd.). Procedure I W04 Write the following words on the board: begins Sue's bags keeps Frank's cats dances George's classes Remind students that -s endings are important in English in the third person present simple (begins.verbs and possessives tising different pronunciations ssessives of -s endings in a handout or an OHT. Isl keeps.8 I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 The refuse collectors refuse to work on Sunday. 4 Explain that the pronunciation of -s in words like this depends on the previous sound. in possessives (Sue's. otherwise they can write letters. I'll project the results of the project on the screen. The guide threatened to desert us in the desert. Ask students to complete Part B using the words they have practised in Part A. I lead a busy life buying and selling lead and other metals. ete. The only real complication here is the two pronunciations of th. If students know phonetic symbols. ete. It is not necessary to be too technical about this: hzl follows sounds that 'hiss'.' "CAMeRmG' UN ""my Pw.

and /z/ follows voiced consonants and vowels (where you can feel a vibration). and students write the verbs down in the appropriate column in Part B..9 Pronouncing -ed inpasttense vetbs @ CAM">DCC Umvmm PRe. Say the verbs in Part A (or play the recording). Explain that the -ed endings of verb past tenses have one of three pronunciations: It/. Id! and lId!. w04 rent pronunciations of -ed endings in Procedure I 180 Give out the handout (Box 94) and focus on Part A. 63-65). If the /z/ vs /s/ distinction is difficult for your students.Pronunciation Practice Activities Pronunciation and other parts of language the sound is made). 181 . Box 93 Student handout Part A I jokes grapes boats addresses coughs 2 loves clothes sizes ribs Tom's 3 Thomas's animals crashes teaches villages 4 things cooks Robert's cliffs paths 5 birds legs Alison's menus stops 6 brushes catches baths freezes cages Part B Pronunciation of -s ending /s/ /z/ IIz/ Previous sound 6. see 'Correcting particular consonants' for ideas (pp.

16. it's me.and correct if necessary. . .Teachor elicitthe meaningsof Part A words as you go. Students work in pairs and use the verbs to complete the story dialogue in Part C. . too.' she 'But I'm tired.' she . ask others to suggest any alternativereporting verbs. but students should try to use all the verbs.Pronunciation Practice Activities 2 Then say the words in each column aloud (see the key below). (Youcould organise this in various ways: one student could expressively read out the quoted speech.13.' she 'You! Ha!' he 12. 'There's nothing funny about that.' he 6. 'he admitted'. 'Well.' she 'That's okay.' he 2. or they could simply read out alternate lines. 'No idea. Finally.' Tom . r"" '°°4 183 .' he . he 11.10.ask students ifthey can seeany patterns in how -ed endingsare pronounced. 8.before other voiced sounds the pronunciation isIdJ. 'Where have you been?' they Y.15. and what is the situation. Pairs of students read their story dialoguesaloud.' he 'I'm sorry I shouted. Monitor the pronunciation of -ed endings and correct where necessary. Go on to ask for suggestions on who the people are. I'm worried about him.) As they do this. 'Sorry.' he 'And then I got lost. 'Tom! Is that you?' she . Monitor the pronunciation of 3 4 5 6 Pronunciation and other parts of language Box 94 Student handout the -ed endings. 5. 'But you must find him..9. Focus attention on the sounds before -ed if necessary. and the other adds 'she asked'.. look for him. 'Yes.14. Put the verbs (they are all 'speaking' words) into context.' he Y.before other unvoiced sounds the pronunciation isIt!. 'GO NOW!' she 7. 3. ete. Encourage different interpretations.. 'Sh! What's that noise? Listen. where they are. Students check their answers and repeat after you. In most cases a number of verbs are possible in each gap.' she 'But I'm tired. and use each once only. @CAMmDG' Umvmm 182 18..' he 4. I'll find him.' 'I suppose I could go.. The rules are that before IdJor It! the pronunciation is /rdJ. 'Okay. promised complained called repeated asked added objected explained whispered laughed apologised confessed admitted insisted offered replied chorused demanded shrieked Part B Pronunciation of -edending It! /rdJ IdJ Verbs Part C 'Where's Tom?' she 1. I forgot what time we were meeting.

10-6. and one doesn't). 184 185 . four out of five words share the same feature of pronunciation.e. 6. adding to it during the week.) week beginning 15th July'.12) 6. and end up with a 'problem pronunciations of (e.10.g.Pronunciation and other parts of language Pronunciation Practice Activities Pronunciation and vocabulary (6.12 are short. Write these on an OHT or a poster and regularly display them. second.n and 6. getting students to repeat the words after you. Procedure 6. Keep the list of words close by. third.) have a particular number of syllables with a given stress pattern (for example. use them as a quiz.. etc. 2 When they report back their words. and get students to repeat them. Activities 6. 6.11 Oddone out nt pronunciation Procedure I Ask students to write one line in an 'odd one out' exercise using vocabulary they have learned this week. simple activities that you can use regularly to help students to improve pronunciation while learning or revising vocabulary. . 2 Collect the lists of words on a handout or an OHT. i. Build up a collection of these and bring them out occasionally for revision and practice.12 Problem pronunciations a difficultpronunciation Encourage students to learn the meaning of words and their pronunciation at the same time.g. correcting where necessary. but the fifth is different (e. .10 Classifyingwords pronunciation During the week collect new words that cause your students pronunciation difficulties. include a particular vowel sound (either a simple vowel such as hi or lei or a diphthong such as larl or kJU/) include a particular consonant sound have stress on a particular syllable (the first. Procedure I Ask students to find five (or more) words they have learned this week (or whatever period is relevant in your teaching situation) that: . correct pronunciation where necessary. ask them to find words with three syllables with the stress pattern 000). four words contain a particular vowel sound.

Testing pronunciation

Testing pronunciation

You could either make a very informal evaluation, basing your judgement on
what you have heard of the student's pronunciation in their regular
classroom speech, or you could make it more formal by getting students to
read a text aloud (see Activity 7.2) or, for example, to tell a story from a
sequence of pictures (see Activity 7.2, Extension for more ideas).

The first activity in this chapter (7.I) provides an evaluation of a
student's overall pronunciation competence. It could be used either as part of
a test of language ability more generally, or to give feedback to students on
how much they have achieved. The second activity (7.2) diagnoses particular
pronunciation difficulties, focusing on vowels and consonants. The rest of the
activities (7.3-7.7) can be used in two ways. First, they can be used to test
students' ability to hear and distinguish certain features of English
pronunciation (vowels, consonants, weak and contracted forms, etc.), i.e. to
test their receptive skills. Tests of receptive skills are given in Version I in each
activity. These tests can be done as a class activity. Second, the activities can
be used to test students' ability to say different features of pronunciation, i.e.
to test their productive skills. Tests of productive skills are given in Version 2
in each activity. These tests should be done with individual students either
saying their answers directly to the teacher, who marks them immediately, or
(preferably) recording their answers onto a cassette for the teacher to mark
later.SeeIntroduction, pp. 17-19for a fuller discussionofreceptiveand
productive skills in pronunciation, and also of the advantages and
disadvantages of using text read aloud and spontaneous speech in testing

7.1 General evaluation of pronunciation
a grading scale
each student.

The evaluation scale in Box 95 can be used to give a broad class of
pronunciation ability (in column I) and a finer grade (in column 2). Simply
circle one of the grades (I is highest and 12 lowest) to give an overall
evaluation. If you are using the scale in order to provide feedback, regular
evaluation can be done. Using the scale rather than the broad classes makes
it easier to encourage students, by making sure they move up the grade scale
if they have worked hard on their pronunciation.

Box 95


Your pronunciation



.. .

always easy to understand
(You rarely have pronunciation



usually easy to understand
(You occasionally have pronunciation



sometimes difficult to understand
(You quite ofteh have pronunciation



often difficult to understand
(You frequently

have pronunciation



@CAM",,"G'Umvmm PRm w04

7.2 Diagnosing particularproblems
an initial diagnostic assessment of
Ip prioritise teaching goals. The text1
xamples of most English vowel and
e are the focus of a systematic diagnosis.
ed forms (see pp. 87-93), links (see
forms (see pp. 7,94-99) are included, so
as can also be diagnosed.
dation problems

1 This was written jointly with Janet Jones of the Learning

Centre, University

of Sydney.


Pronunciation Practice Activities

Testing pronunciation
handout. If you are going to
~material in Box 98, one for
a cassette recorder, microphone
activity. For the Variation, copy the


Give out the handout (Box 96) and let students spend some time
familiarising themselves with the context (this is in bold, not to be read
aloud) and the text. It is not essential for students to understand all the
2 Individual students read the text aloud as you record it.
3 Listen to each recording and on another copy of the text circle the sounds
that students ha ve difficulties with. You may also want to transfer details
onto the checklist in Box 98. A space is provided for comments, which could
either be notes to yourself or to the student, clarifying what kind of problem
is involved. In this way you can build up a picture of the pronunciation
priorities for individual students or a group of students as a whole.

Box 96

Student handout

Imagine that you have just moved into a new house and are describing
some of the things that you have had to buy. You start by describing
what you have bought for the kitchen.
In here, the dearest things were the electrical appliances - things like a
dishwasher, a fridge and a stove. There was no cutlery, so I bought
some knives, forks and spoons. I'd been given some bowls, but no
cups and saucers, so I bought six of each. I needed furniture, too, and
curtains for some of the rooms. I had to make some difficult choices. I
bought purple curtains for the dining room. That wasn't my idea, but
they should look really good in there. They'll help keep out the noise.
And I got a nice old wooden table and some chairs. They cost about a
thousand dollars. I've painted the walls pale orange and hung a large
poster near the window. And I've put an oil painting on the opposite
wall with an unusual pair of lamps. Yesterday I bought blue carpet for
the stairs. And I had to get a barbecue for the yard. Another job is to
paint the outside of the house and the garage. I'll enjoy doing that.



The 'target' single consonants in the checklist are those which either have a
vowel on either side (e.g. need.ed) or come before a punctuation mark and so
are likely to be preceded by a pause, i.e. they do not form part of a consonant
cluster. 'Target' vowels are in stressed syllables of words and so are likely to
be pronounced more clearly than vowels in unstressed syllables.
For elementary students, short sentences and utterances can be used in the
same way as the material in Box 96. Example material is given in Boxes 97
and 99.
Other texts intended for pronunciation diagnosis can be found in:



M., Brinton, D.M. and Goodwin,J.M.

(1996, pp. 398-399)

Swan, M. and Smith, B. (2001, p. 360).

A text read aloud could be supplemented with a sample of more
spontaneous speech from students; for example, talking about their family,
home town or hobbies, or telling a story from a series of pictures. From this
sample, further information can be gathered about problem sounds,
consonant clusters and word stress. (SeeIntroduction, pp. 18-19.)

Box 97

Student handout

See you later.
Are you thirsty?
I have to go now.
What's that noise?
By tomorrow evening.
It's about five o'clock.
I sent a cheque to Roy.
It's on television today.
She's upstairs in the bath.
Peter works in a shoe shop.
Do you really want a drink?
I'll go to see Sarah before July.
'Thanks a lot.' 'It's a pleasure.'
I forgot to pay Mark for the toys.
Your jacket is on the chair outside.
'Shall I do the washing?' 'Good idea.'
We're usually home before the children.
There's a zoo near Hull. It's not far.
We bought an amazing orange and purple car. It's in the garage.
Can you just put the books over there by the door?


Umvwm p"" w04


Testing pronunciation

Pronunciation Practice Activities

Box 98



Words in text


hought, hut, ahout, harhecue, joh
too, curtains, got, about, put, get, that
dearest, dishwasher, needed, dining,
idea, good, yesterday, outside, doing
like, ~utlery, ~ups, diffi~ult, ~ost, ~arpet
good, got, get, garage
each, furniture
fridge, iob
forks, difficult, for
stoye, (six) of (each)
things, thousand
the, there, that, they, with, another
5.0,sau~ers, (for) 5.ome(of), choi~es,
nke, hou5.e
appliance5., saucer5.,choice5.,noi5.e,chair5.,
thou5.and, dollar5.,opp°5.ite, stair5.
dishwasher, should
unu5.ual, garage
had, house
(for) some (of), make, room
needed, furniture, noise, nice, near, an,
electrical, really, dollars, pale, large, I'll
dearest, cutlery, rooms, orange, pair (of)
xesterday, xard
was, walls, window




Box 98

Teacher reference (or Student handout)







Words in text
in, things, dishwasher, fridge, given, six,
difficult, window
el~ctrical, hdp, y~sterday, g~t, tamps, g.arage, that
wasn't, CQst,dQllars, Qrange, QPposite,
c!!tlery, C!!PS,h!!ng, anQther
look, good, wooden, P!!t
each, needed, really, keep
table, painted, pale, painting, paint
appliances, knives, dining, nice
choices, noise, oil, enjQ)':
spoons, too, rooms, un!!sual, blue
stQve, bowls, Qld, PQster
about, thousand, outside, house
here, dearest, idea, near
there, chairs, pair, stairs
large, carpet, barbecue, yard
bought, forks, saucers, walls, wall
furniture, curtains, purple


Contracted forms
I'd, wasn't, they'll, I've




electrical appliances, like a, and a, so I, forks and, cups
and, six of, some of, good in, keep out, and I, got a,
nice old, cost about, about a, pale orange, hung a, and
I've, put an, the opposite, with an, an unusual, pair of,
get a, job is, the outside, I'll enjoy
Weak forms


the, were, and, there, was, some, but, of, for, to





Roy. do. It's in. chair. to. children July. iust be£ore. good. forgot. Thanks a. washing televi~ion. put by. Hull tomorrow. orflnge srnt. washing. bought.3 Testing vowels and consonants and production of vowels and consonants sion 1). a. washing. chair. orange and. near evening. outside noise. bought an. jacket. tod. thanks the. tQys shoe. want.Testing pronunciation Pronunciation Practice Activities Box 99 Comment Consonants Words in text P b t d k 9 tS d3 f v j w £eter. lot. idea. works. amflzing by. and. five 0'. Good idea. shop. It's about. television. jflcket. shall. really.You will need a cassette Umv"mv Pm. car before. can Comment in. jacket is. are. toys. usually.forgQt. there Mark. 1!sually what's.ay. pleasure hflve.£ar eyening. ~an go. she's. Qver now. shoe. outside. Shall. bought. nQt. your. we Vowels Words in text e 0 s z S 3 h m n 1] I r e ce D A U i: continued Vowels Words in text eI aJ lflter. tomorrow.~ent.ay. plea~ure. near upstairs. fiye. thflt. purple ::)1 u: . there's Links Comment tomorrow evening. thflnks. Sarah noi~e.}u au I. idea. bath. about. gflrage tomQrrow. wflnt. really. teleyision. wflshing. iacket. Peter. RQy. garage you. do. far. Sarah. garage cheque. toy~. evenmg. Qrange 1!pstairs. for. There's a. shQp. lot. door clock. works in. u~ually. Hull tomorrow. it's. Sflrah. p. the."G' Umvmm PR'" w04 7. there's. amaz. oyer thirsty. your. outside really. she's. upstairs in. Prter <DCAM"'"O' 192 Box 99 Teacher reference (or Student handout) @ CAM". about. amazing later.hQme. bought today. clQck. 3° minutes per student (Version 2) material in Box I01 and Box I02 onto separate :euse the words in Box IOO. amazing now. P1!t see. good. there ~ee. 1!sually. books later. w04 phone and a blank cassette for this activity. pay.£orgot. chair outside.zoo gQ. chrque. five. we're. want a. drink.} e. garage (or Id3/) have.oo. upstair~. I'll. She's upstairs. July. children. home. bath. It's on. July. sent a. amazing orange. door thirsty. books over Comment Weak forms you. before. orange.} G: J: 3: Comment Comment Contracted forms what's. Qn. it's. shop. Mark. H1!ll. 193 . Shall I. It's a. works. rvening.j1!st good. books. lQt. trlevision.

Notice that in each list there are four different 'target' vowel sounds (underlined in Box IOO). lul (I) I.}1(2). comb. car. ete. Then transfer this to the feedback sheet as above.laIl (2).I e. ship.with four examples of each target vowel sound in total. tnt got. caught sheep. lu:1(I) III (4) Ia:1(I ). who join. ripe. oil hard. new bQx. Give one mark for a correctly produced target vowel. 4 Follow the same procedure to test recognition of consonants using the material in Box I03. care. lei (1) leII (1). lamp coat. 2 sand'. make a judgement of correctness. tick the words (in Box IOl)in which the target vowelsare produced correctly and cross those which are not. pick. noise. annoy /. On the feedback sheet. For each student. crash.}1(2). than if the words were listed as in Box IOl./rel (1) /J:I (2). turn. least. fair. read the words in the first two columns of Box IOO(say '1 tin. cure.}1 ago I. breaking up what would otherwise be a long list of 80 words. goat'. lu. father look. and write the mark (out of 4) for each vowel sound in the right-hand column. top./eII (1) lrel (3). Listen to the first vowel.}1(2). I. pure. burn. lul (1) lei (3). green. Ivl (2) lu:1(2). clock. would. although you might want to do this. bear. you do not have to explain any unknown words to students. shape. Give them the following instructions: 'You will hear a key word repeated three times. h. hQme b!!t.}1 sure lu.}1(I). laul (I). As it is not a test of vocabulary. more. lift. 3 Later. 3 In the same way. voice. but an indication of which vowels are particularly problematic for individual students. beard how. spill. heart fewer. listen to individual students reading the word lists and. down thy. sQn. laIl (I). laul (2). blue.}1(3). You can then give a total score out of 80. listen to the students' recordings. want. IA!(I). h. Then transfer this information to a feedback sheet for each student (Box I02). l!!ck. want. /3:1(1) 4 5 6 7 8 9 IO II 12 13 14 IS 16 lend lei saw I:I fool lu:1 cheap 1i:1 cow laul play leII wrotel:ml come IA! top Ivl stood lul boy III arm/a:1 bird /3:1 slpt. I:I (2) 1i:1(4) lau/( 1). Variation Follow the same procedure to test reception and production of consonants. hair rub. here. poor 17 18 19 20 near h. leave lied. la:1(I) lu. taught.Testing pronunciation Pronunciation Practice Activities Procedure Version1: Testingreceptiveskills 1 StUdents write the numbers 1 to 20 in their notebooks. call. This gives a clearer picture of which sounds are produced correctly and which not. 2 Individual students read the lists of words aloud and record these. full hi (3). Version2: Testingproductiveskills 1 Give out the first handout (Box IOl) and give students time to read through the words. pet. Note that the consonants 131and IfJIare not included because they do not occur at the beginning of English words. same. using the material in Boxes I03-I05. and that the total mark you give will be out of 88. as they do this. From this you will not only get an overall evaluation of ability to produce English vowels. la:1(2) lul (2). top. Check the answer with them (two-want and clock have the same vowel as top). lift.}ul(1). alive.}I(4) 195 .}1 where le. say. Mark the test out of 20. night. How many of these four have the same first vowel as that in the key word?' 2 Give the following as an example: 'top. hi (I) 13:1(I). dear. giving one mark for the correct number of words. Then you will hear four different words.) or play the recording.}1(I) h. bad. nurse. no marks for an incorrectly produced vowel. /3:1(1) IA! (3). pick first. cook agree. mouth show. lu:1(1) Ivl (2). amount. The words are divided into sets of four to make it easier for students to process them. tin. 194 Note If you do not have access to a cassette recorder. tin. all the words with the same target vowel sound are on the same line. ticking and crossing the words on a version of Box IOl. shock too.}1(1). same.}I real. hang. dsk. stQne./3:1 (1) laIl (1). proud. kind. Box100 Teacherreference Key word and first vowel Words (the underlined vowels are the same as in the key word) First vowels (and number) 1 tin hi 2 sand/rel 3 wide lall spill. The 'target' consonants are at the beginning of each word. leII (2) le.)01 (3).

ban. van./zl (1). see chalk. zeal test.161(I) IfI (2). taste yery.guard. vat. zoo.Testing pronunciation Pronunciation Practice Activities Box 101 I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 II 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Student coat bear box turn but would say hard fewer down dear blue show caught slept leave got proud pure rub Box 102 handout call cook green new spill kind vOICe stone nOIse fair hang nurse alive home same want crash look oil ship agree fipe lamp luck too mouth tent more they night least lift father heart car how real 14 15 16 pick first care cure amount desk full shock son 17 18 taught annoy Jom bad poor beard here hair sheep lied sha pe burn pet who @ CAMmDG' UN<vmm Box 102 Student Feedback sheet I III 2 II laIl 3 lei 4 /:):1 5 6 lu:1 li:1 7 8 laul lerl 9 10 I.ISI (I). Id! (2) Id! (I). bet just. cap. cheap sing. thumb. 161(I). Idsl (I) ISI(1).)1 le. chip. game let. yes. 1m!(I) Ipl (3).)1 nOIse father nurse dear hair fewer alive VOIce hard turn real care cure amount oil heart burn beard bear pure annoy @CAM". ferry.UN<VmmPH" 196 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 19 20 continued r:nl la:1 /3:1 11. shin. tie./81 (I).lrl (I) /zl (I). fast./vl (2)./fl (I). went. shy.161(I) Iwl (3). Ik/ (2) 1j/(3).eroIz/ ship ISI choose ItS! thick 181 20 than 161 21 June Idsl 22 hat Ih/ '°°4 197 . mine. Joan. Ipl (I) Igl (2). heat /bl (2)./r1 (I) 1m!(3). ray thin. III (I) Isl (1). wait sat. boat. those view. /bl (I) Ir/ (2). first they. IfI (I ) 161(I). §ip. harm. Isl (I). bear. knee.)1 lu.12ond. late. dare. Iwl (I). mile me. she. card. tick. lay. thigh.)1 Jom car first here fair poor agree 1. Igl (2) III (3).WG' Box103 UN<vmm 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 PRe" w04 Teacherreference Key word and first consonant Words (the underlined consonants are the same as in the key word) First consonants (and number) I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 II 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 day. Ivl (I).)ul II IA! 12 101 lul 13 spill crash night slept call too sheep down same coat but got full PRe" '°°4 handout lift hang lied desk taught blue least proud they show son shock look pick lamp kind tent more new green mouth say stone luck box would ship bad fipe pet caught who leave how shape home rub want cook @CAME"DG.181(I)./sl (I) ItS!(3). net. way. jewel. IS!(I). In! (I) In! (3). share. lent./dS/(I) /k/ (2)./z/ (I). fat. then. nine 12ush. cherry hurt. than rake./dSI (I).ip thank./tSI (I) /hi (4) bed /bl do Id! fill IfI good Igl lOUIj/ at!k/ look /11 man 1m! no In! 12utIpl run Irl §oon Isl top It! yote Ivl in Iwl z. rate met./zl (I) ItI (4) Ivl (I). Isl (I). zone.1d! (I) IdSI (I)./bl (1). loke ould.oat lake. hate.1S!(I) 181(2). rent./j/ (I). lard. doze ioke. 12est wake. pace goat. den. Nile.

w04 handout Procedure bear dare fast goat yet could lake met net push rent SIp test bet day ferry good yard coat lay mme Nile pond ray sat tick ban den fat guard yoke cap lent mile mne pest rate see tie boat doze first gap yes card late me knee pace rake smg taste @CAM"WG' 198 Ivl Iwl /zl IS! ItS! ISI 10/ Id31 Ihl @CAM"WG. Where these occur they should write the contracted form in the gap and then expand this form after the sentence... Getting both answers will allow you to check both that they hear the contracted form and also know what it means.UmvmnvPmv pest goat mme lake bear lay fat harm yard guard late thank @C". Pw..Pronunciation Practice Activities Box 104 I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 II 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 Student Testing pronunciation handout rate pond first met card lent mile then rent heat hate just those den sat cheap fast good zeal she jewel mne doze see share boat yet way thumb ban SIp chip vat yes Joan wait tick me they ray zoo push cherry vIew Box 105 could wake Nile thigh shin dare thin knee hurt rake shy gap van tie bet test very went yoke coat Student Feedback sheet I /bl 2 Id/ IfI 3 4 Igl 5 Ij! 6 /kJ III 7 8 1m! In! 9 10 Ipl II Irl 12 Isl It! 13 very way ZIp shy chalk thigh they joke hurt VIew went zoo she chip thumb those just harm vat wait zeal share cheap thin than jewel hate van wake zone shin cherry thank then Joan heat ZIp than taste chalk cap smg net zone 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 w04 7.4 Testing weak and contracted forms pace joke day ferry Umv".wc. 2 Read aloud the sentences in Box I09 or play the recording.. if they hear will've. The weak forms of grammar words and contracted forms are left outinBox I06. Say that in some of the sentences they will hear contracted forms. they should write this in the gap and then expand it to will have after the sentence. Give some examples: if they hear it's. 199 . Box 105 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 continued UN<vmnv 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 Pm' w04 Version1: Testingreceptiveskills I Give students a copy of the handout. they should write this in the gap and then expand it to it is after the sentence. Explain that they will hear a number of sentences read aloud and they should complete the gaps with what they hear..

. see about five minutes... with only one weak form or one contracted form in each gap. He won't give us them back... out. Did you go shopping at lunchtime? Let's go and have. ..... To mark the test. wo... with two weak or contracted forms missing from some gaps in Box 107... 6 Did go shopping lunchtime? 7 go have drink. Note that the test items in Box 106 are relatively easy.. two presents Thomas... Are those the ones that he ordered? He's better than his brother at tennis. I've got your hat but not your coat....... . Umvmm Pm' wo... give back. Do you want me to give her a call? Some of my friends should've been there. . 201 ..a drink...... . wantto go..... and more than two in some gaps in Box 108... or play the recording... I can see them for about five minutes.. 8 like meet some time..... Box110 Teacher reference I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 When does she finish work? I met him at university... invited..... friends """"'"'''' be round later.......... ... Student handout I taller me.... I'd like some more of that one as well.. . taken interview. There were two presents from Thomas.. . Box 106 @CAN""DG' I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 When Imet I He ask party...... those ones ordered? better brother tennis. read aloud the sentences in Box IIO and Box III... .. She doesn't want you to go... ... .. Where shall I put your books? I can't see him now.... 2 Ken come London? 3 a card Ron. . 10 like more that one well... .Um"Rmy .... 3 Collect in the handouts. Student handout ...Pronunciation Practice Activities Testing pronunciation If you have included the material in Box 107 and/or Box 108. Boxes 107 and 108 include more difficult items. here earlier accident in town..... . 4 Where I put books? 5 I see now... want give call? my friends there. if pointed . We'd like to meet her some time. recognised Tony......... You may want to give a half mark where a student has completed the gap partially correctly or has expanded a contracted form incorrectly... .. want go. ........ Box 107 Box 108 ..... Box 109 I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Teacher reference She's taller than me. finish work? university....... UN>VCRmy Pm... 9 got hat not coat. Does Ken come from London? It's a card for Ron.. @CAMOR<DG' 200 I 2 3 4 5 I 6 7 8 Student handout PRm 20O. photographs here seen before. . . @CAMOR<DG. something wrong with car...... give one mark for each correctly completed gap..

Did you go shopping at lunchtime? Let us go and have a drink. She does not want you to go. Explain that they should try to say the sentences as if they were parts of a conversation. Does Ken come from London? It is a card for Ron. 2 Individual students read the sentences aloud and record these.UmvmmPms "°°4 Box 113 I 2 3 4 s 6 7 8 9 IO Student handout When does she finish work? I met him at university. @CAMERwc. He was invited. Box 114. . However. There are some photographs here that you will have seen before. 7 There're some photographs here that you'll've seen before. There were two presents from Thomas. I have got your hat but not your coat. Illustrate with item I from Box II2. Encourage students to spend a few moments before each sentence saying them in their head before saying them aloud. . @ CAM". . He will not give us them back. There must've been something wrong with his car. I can see them for about five minutes. Say that sometimes students might choose to use contracted forms of parts of the sentences. You may want to give a half mark for a good attempt. 8 I wouldn't have recognised Tony. I could have taken her to her interview. they could talk about 202 Box112 I 2 3 4 S 6 7 8 9 IO Student handout She is taller than me. Where shall I put your books? I can not see him now.) forms.g. listen to the students' recordings and mark the test.WG' Box 114 I 2 3 4 S 6 7 8 Umvwm PRe" w04 Student handout I will ask them to the party. This will give them some time to think about how the sentences might be said fluently. . if you had not pointed him out. . @CAMARWOEUN<. you might want to supplement the formal test given here by asking students to talk briefly about a topic relevant to them and record this on the cassette. 2 Some of her friendsjl 3 4 S 6 be round later. but he does not want to go. I could've taken her to her interview. . I would not have recognised Tony. 7 . The marking of the contracted forms will be to some extent subjective. I would like some more of that one as well.'. Do you want me to give her a call? Some of my friends should have been there. Say that this is likely to be said as 'She's taller than me' rather than the expanded form 'She is . if you hadn't pointed him out. You may want to give marks (or part marks) for fluent-sounding uncontracted or partly contracted (e. He was invited. We'd've been here earlier but there was an accident in town. that you'll have. giving one mark for each correctly produced weak or contracted form.wm PRES< w04 2°3 . but he doesn't want to go. 3 Later. It would be more natural to test this feature of pronunciation in spontaneous speech. Are those the ones that he ordered? He is better than his brother at tennis. We would like to meet her some time. There must have been something wrong with his car. Some of her friends will be round later. Version2: Testingproductiveskills I Give out the handout (Box In) and allow students some time to read through the sentences. to be given back to students as feedback. Put the marks and a total mark on the students' answer handout. but it can be difficult to assess this in an efficient and systematic way. Extension In the test. For example.Testing pronunciation Pronunciation Practice Activities Box 111 I Teacher reference I'll ask them to the party. students are required to produce weak and contracted forms in text read aloud. We would have been here earlier but there was an accident in town.

Japanese. For example. Put the total mark on the students' answer handout.10 arrive (2). flower. 2°5 .19 Japanese (5). competition) Then read aloud the following words or play the recording: I furthermore (3). preposition.g. open) 2 = 00 (e.6 unemployed (5). saying each word twice.14 incorrect (3). or play the recording: I beautiful (Answer: 3). removable) 6 =0000 (e.g. II winter (1).18 badminton (I) For convenience. tomato 5 (000) understand. 3 Read aloud the following words.15 trousers (1).g. positive 2 (000) computer. clarinet 4 (0000) helicopter.g. or not produced when they perhaps should have been. newspaper. furniture.8 banana (4). Note If you do not have access to a cassette recorder. afternoon) Explain to students that they will hear 20 words and they have to decide which of the stress patterns written on the board the words have.12 important (2). 3 Later. work through the recording noting weak and contracted forms produced appropriately. 2 Write the following on the board: 1= 00 (e. As they do so.5 Testingwordstress production of word stress (Version 2) a list of words that you want ~xt.g. 6 helicopter (4). 13 engineer (5). timetable 4 (000) banana. 5 flower (1). the words are categorised as follows: I (000) badminton.g. 7 understand (3). alone) 3 = 000 (e. reservation You could. listen to individual students reading the words or the words in context.20 September (4) 4 Collect in the papers and mark them. Give one mark for each correct answer.4 furniture (3). the words are categorised as follows: 2°4 to advanced students.12 timetable (3). ete. ticking or crossing the words on a version of the students' handout. vandalism 5 (0000) American.15 romantic (2). tomorrow) 5 = 000 (e. unemployed As a test for upper-intermediate the board 7. If necessary. pedestrian 6 (0000) economics.9 understand (5). 3 tomato (4).10 preposition (6). and a blank cassette for Procedure Version1: Testingreceptiveskills I Students write down the numbers I to 20 on a piece of paper. control. if you have more time. incorrect. chemistry. dinosaur) 2 = 000 (e. open has two syllables with stress on the first syllable. to be given back as feedback. I (00) daughter. trousers. communism) 5 =0000 (e. 3 economics (6). romantic.g. Version2: Testingproductiveskills I Give out the handout (your own material or Box II5) and allow students some time to read through the words or sentences. 2 Individual students read the words or sentences aloud and record these. winter 2 (00) arrive. 5 positive (I). 13 television (4).g.g. the contexts in Box II5. expected) 3 = 000 (e.2 before (2). make a judgement of the correctness of stress in 'target' words. II newspaper (1). relax 3 (000) beautiful. 18 detective (4).16 control (2). For example. You could evaluate this either by giving an impressionistic mark for how well they produce weak and contracted forms or. magazine) 4 = 0000 (e. of course.16 reservation (6). write the following on " 1= 000 (e. 14 chemistry (3). detective.7 relax (2). For convenience.17 daughter (I). television. 8 vandalism (4). devise a similar test with vocabulary that your students have learnt during their course. engineer. or ask students to mark each other's work. before. Their answers should be a number from I to 5. important 3 (000) furthermore. 17 apology (5).Testing pronunciation Pronunciation Practice Activities their families or their interests. listen to the students' recordings and give one mark for each of the 'target' words correctly stressed.g.g. September. 2 American (5). apology. work out a marking scheme that includes both the formal and more spontaneous components of the test. 4 computer (2). yesterday) 4 = 000 (e. 9 pedestrian (5).

e. (with tonic prominence. w04 7. 12 13 14 IS 16 I've got a new timetable. Shakespeare was born in IS54. 2 It's on top of the WARDrobe. I gave him some flowers. I'm doing chemistry. It's out of control.Pronunciation Practice Activities Testing pronunciation 2 Say the following sentences twice. I a handout. David plays badminton every other week. 6 Gail's got a blue FORD. Box 116 19 It's Japanese. Shakespeare died in IS64. 20 In September. Procedure Version1: Testingreceptiveskills I Give out or show the material in Box n6. doesn't she? How did your father react? I suppose your father was angry about it. on Lon. I'd seen her before. is more likely to come before each sentence they hear. Why don't you want to move away from London? Now you've finished your course. 4 I thought you liked RED.UmVmmPm. 17 My daughter. They have to decide which of the pair of sentences. Explain to students that they will hear ten sentences. You have your coffee without milk. Can you get some tomatOes? We've got some new furniture. don't you? How do you like your coffee? I don't like that coat. i. Then say the following twice or play the recording: I went to LONdon yesterday. Do you want a banana? I don't understand. Say the following twice or play the recording: I went to London YESterday. on yes-) Ask students which of the two questions given in the example is more likely to come before this sentence (Answer a: What time are you going to London today?). I At TEN past two. please. 9 He was born in IS6(SIXtY)4. IO I've GOT a good job. the main stress. @CAMBRmG. Box115 Student handout I 2 3 4 S 6 7 8 9 IO It was a beautiful day. 3 WITH milk. a or b. She's unemployed.) Explain that this is more likely to come before question b (How was your trip to Paris yesterday?) 206 Student handout Example a What time are you going to London today? b How was your trip to Paris yesterday? Ia b 2a b 3a b 4a b sa b 6a b 7a b 8a b 9a b IOa b What time are we meeting? I'll see you at five past two. How often does David play badminton? Is that Gail in the red Ford? Is that Gail in the blue Toyota? Where does Ann live? Ann lives in New York. 8 He was very ANGry. @CAMORmG' Umvmm Pm. Where did you put myoId handbag? I thought I put myoId handbag in the wardrobe.e. or play the recording. it's red. wo. S He plays EVery week. 2°7 . 7 She lives OUTside New York. (with tonic prominence. i. If you choose you will need a cassette this activity. I bought some trousers. Give the example at the top of Box n6. She's an engineer. Just relax. When do they arrive? n I hate winter. 18 He wants to be a detective. Blue's my favourite colour. the 'main stress'. What a nice coat. and students choose a or b in each case. I suppose you're looking for a good job.6 Testing prominence of tonic prominence student (Version 2) n6 onto a handout or an OHT.

BORN in rs64.7 Testingtone What time are you going to London today? I went to London YESterday. 7b. please. sa. 6b. as appropriate). I suppose you're looking for a good job. David plays badminton every other week.Explain the test to students (either to the class as a whole or to individual students. 9a. lOb. cassette for this activity. Say one of the a or b sentences from each pair in Box 118. a or b. is more likely to come after each sentence they hear.Explain to students that they will hear six sentences and they have to decide which of the pair of sentences. b I've GOT a good job. giving one mark for each correct response or. He plays every week. I thought you liked red. I've got a good job. a handout. 2 Test students individually. b I thought you liked RED. Gail's got a blue Ford. Blue's my favourite colour. He He He He was was was was very ANGry. roduction of falling and end-rising tones 2) a handout or an OHT. then they should say the answer with prominence on London. The example questions and answers are on the recording. Say that on the handout is a series of answers to questions that can be said in different ways. Box 117 Ia What time are we meeting? b I'll see you at five past two. Version1: Testingreceptiveskills I Give out the handout (Box 119). sa He plays EVery week. 4b. lOa Why don't you want to move away from London? b Now you've finished your course. 9a Shakespeare was born in IS 54. b With MILK. b Shakespeare died in IS64. You have your coffee without milk. It's on TOP of the wardrobe. With milk. Note that a possible set of test questions for the sentences in Box 118is on the recording. 7a She lives outside New YORK. don't you? How do you like your coffee? I don't like that coat. 2a b 3a b 4a Where did you put myoid handbag? I thought I put myoid handbag in the wardrobe. 4a I thought you LIKED red. b Is that Gail in the blue Toyota? 7a Where does Ann live? b Ann lives in New York. preferably. please.The correct responses to these sentences are given on the right. How was your trip to Paris yesterday? I went to LONdon yesterday. He was very angry. 3b. Say the following twice or play the recording: I hoped you would have~ 208 2°9 . You will need At ten past two. 8a. How often does David play badminton? Is that Gail in the red Ford? Ia b 2a b At ten past TWO. VERy angry. Focus on the example at the top of the handout (Box 119). it's red. She lives outside New York.Testing pronunciation Pronunciation Practice Activities Version2: Testingproductiveskills I Give out the handout (Box 117). 6a Gail's got a BLUE Ford. It's on top of the WARDrobe. You could either mark the test as you are doing it. then they should say the answer with prominence (you could use the word stress or emphasis) on yesterday. Focus on the example with the answer I went to London yesterday. He was born in 1564. please. 3 a WITH milk. lOa I've got a good JOB. with the following answers: I b. b She lives OUTside New York. Procedure @ CAMBRmG' Umvmm Pm' 000. 2a. born in IS6(SIXtY)4. If the question they hear is How was your trip to Paris yesterday?. At TEN past two. Sa How did your father react? Sa b 9a b b I suppose your father was angry about it. If the question they hear is What time are you going to London today?. record the test and mark it later. It's on top of the wardrobe. b sa b 6a What a nice coat. b He plays every WEEK. doesn't she? b Gail's got a blue FORD. Student handout Example If the question is: You answer: If the question is: You answer: I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Box118 Teacher reference 7.

5 You told me it would be difficult to get tickets. a So I was surprised when she said she wanted to study engineering. a And you were right.mPRe" 210 I I hoped you would have~. it's excellent news. or play the recording. first as an appropriate response to sentence a. listen to the recording and mark the test. In response to sentence b. 7-9]. It is a good idea to allow students a few seconds before each item to give them time to 'say in their heads' how they think the responses should be said. use this term here. 2 I thought you'd be pleased. Say each of the sentences in the left-hand column and the student answers. he says he never has any money. b So she must be really pleased now that she's got into medical school. 4 It's about time he repaid you. I got it done by lunchtime. ~ouldhave~ Say that students should decide whether falling or falling-rising (or rising) tone is more likely to be used in each response. but uses slightly different material. 6 He didn't take the~exam because of his poor Version2: Testingproductiveskills This is based on Version I. If the sentence was said (say this or play the recording): u would have finis ~ the implication would be that 'you' have finished. 3 My sister wasn't atthe party because she wasn't in~d. 3 My sister wasn't at the party because she wasn't invited. and then as an appropriate response to sentence b. If so. '°°4 211 . 2 Say the following sentences twice. ~ith a falling tone beginning on fin-. Likely answers are given in Box I2I. b Yes. I She's always wanted to be a 2 ITHO HTyou'd be ~ ased.) 2 Test individual students. so response b would be more likely. a So he'll take it next year instead. a Just give me five minutes more. the sentence is likely to be said either with a falling-rising tone beginning on hoped: tickets. response a is more likely. I She's always wanted to be a doctor. and students choose a or b in each case. 4 It's about time he r~ 5 You TOL it would be difficult to Box 119 ~ Student handout Give out the handout (Box 120).Pronunciation Testing pronunciation PraCtice Activities As the implication is that 'you' have not finished. 3 Later. b But I didn't have any problems at all. In response to sentence a. b Well. Illustrate with the example. b He just decided that he hadn't revised enough. Record both parts onto a cassette. Explain to students that they need to say each sentence in the right-hand column twice. 6 He didn't take the exam because of his poor health. a I only asked friends. There is no need to take this into account unless it is clearly wrong. giving one mark for a correct falling tone and one for a correct end-rising tone (it doesn't matter whether a rising or falling-rising tone is used). Note that there may be some variation in where the tone starts. a Well you were wrong! b Yes. @CAMB"DceU"V".(perhaps after a fall beginning on hoped): Example I hoped you would have finished by now. he did apologise for the delay when he gave me the money. the sentence in the right-hand column is likely to be said: or with a rising tone beginning on fin. a Well. (Note: You may have introduced the term 'end-rising' as a general term for both rising and falling-rising tones [see pp. b She was out of the country.

5a You must have been surprised when Kate said she wanted to study engineering. She didn't come because she was ill. Talk about any differences between predicted and correct answers. 6a It's a pity Ann was ill and couldn't come to the party. 3a Hesaidhe'dbe~ 3b~ 3 Students repeat the words after you or the recording. Copy the material you use onto the Yes. To do the activities in this section. 4a It'saboutt~~ 4b It's about time he r~ Note sa ~~e's always wanted to be a docw ~ Sb Yes. extend the activity to include llables. 2a I told you it would be I ~ Finding out about word stress b I thought you'd be ~ 2b Ito~ If you are using the material in Box 122. including stress. that students are unlikely can do this activity without using of course. b I had real problems getting tickets. ask students first to predict the stress pattern of the words in Part A and write them under the headings shown in Part B. use the words and stress patterns you have selected for your students. 6a She didn't come because she was 212 d4. It can be useful for students to understand these even if they don't understand other phonetic symbols. There is an extract from the Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary on the following page to illustrate. some with stress on the ~same with words with stress patterns. Using a dictionary(8. students should have access to either monolingual or bilingual dictionaries which include a representation of the pronunciation of words (perhaps using phonetic symbols). 4a Jack just gave me back the £50 he owed me. 8. 3a Shouldn't we waidor Tom before we go? b Tom didn't get home until after midnight. 2a You said it would be easy getting tickets. b I got it all done before lunchtime today. b You must have been pleased when Kate got into medical school.2) I thought you'd be pleased. I told you it would be difficult. Procedure @CAM"WG' UNmRsm PRe" >0°4 1 Box 121 Teacher reference 1a I~d. Examples . I hoped you would have finished by now.1 stress It's about time he repaid you. Alternatively. b I wonder why Ann wasn't at the party. b That's terrible news.she'salways~ Many dictionaries use the symbol' before the main stressed syllable in a word and the symbol. before a secondary stressed syllable. 2 Students then use their dictionaries to find out what the words mean and to check their answers. ~ 6b She didn't come because she was~ 213 . she's always wanted to be a doctor. He said he'd be late. b Jack's owed me £ 5° for over a year now.1-8. 1a That's wonderful news.Pronunciation Practice Activities Box 120 Resources for pronunciation teaching Student handout Example a I just need a few more minutes to get it done.

Primary stress is on the second syllable.ingpi<:tionary. with an added's'. and explain how stress is shown in the dictionary." co. Part B 00 This word has two syllables. students should have ofSttess shift. 00. 4 It was an INcorrect deCISion. and the first person/group to correctly call out a word on the page with that pattern wins a point. . 215 . syllables. it has primary stress on the second syllable and secondary stress on the first. or ask students to open their dictionaries at a particular double page. They write 0. with secondary stress on the first. (But check first that there is at least one!) shift board. and this dictionary marks word stress in some way. 2 The ANSwer was incoRRECT. ete. for example.1gthe activity. 0000). If not. it has primary stress on the first syllable and secondary stress on the second. 00 000 000 @ c"".) cess to a dictionary which shows stich as the Cambridge TY'{Ofto a pronunciation dictionary (e. write a stress pattern on the board (e. 2003) which shows bli. in a table and put words underneath. comes before each new syllable. 3 It was an INcorrect ANSwer. just choose a double page at random. The third syllable is unstressed. depending on context. they could Extension If each student has access to the same dictionary. As an adverb. Box 122 This word has two syllahles.00.. As a variation. Write the following on the board.2 Findingout about secondary stress: shifting stress (Note that in the Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary the symbol. Students have to classify all the words on those pages according to stress pattern. or It was an incoRRECT deCISion.g. Primary stress is on the second syllable and This word has three secondary Student handout stress on the first. Give out the handout. As an adjective.Pronunciation Practice Activities Resources for pronunciation teaching ou.. 000. with the likely stress patterns marked: I INcoRRECT.m. Check whether they all agree and discuss any difficulties. the first stressed and the second unstressed Part A convene prospectus downpour fruitful surgery meander distinct increment assent cookie synonym excursion effusive obstinate incur bullet This word has two syllables. UN"mny Pms w04 8. Copy the material Procedure I 214 Remind students that some words can have stress on different syllables.g. copy a double page for each student from a dictionary that marks stress.

I asked him a serious question. IfI.3. 216 Resources for pronunciation teaching Box 123 Student handout Part A controversial demanding democratic invisible original outside scientific humiliating idiotic successful unfinished Part B I a b 2 a b 3 a b 4 a b 5 a b 6 a b The research was published in a scientific journal. This scientific discovery will affect us all. She left her answer unfinished. 4 Check the answers by asking students to read aloud the sentences with stress in these words as they have marked it. Ih/.The sentences in Part B include words from Part A that do allow stress shift. Explain that some dictionaries show which two syllables can be stressed in words like incorrect. In 4. Ig/. see Appendix I. 8. He made a controversial speech. 1994. Obviously.are more problematic. main stress might go on either of the two possible syllables as the main stress in the following word is not stressed. It/. as are all of the vowel symbols. 3 Give out the handout or display the OHT (Box 123). The country had its first democratic government in 1948. (Adrian Underhill gives many ideas for using a chart of phonetic symbols in his book Sound Foundations.4 and 8. In one of the sentences in the pair an early syllable in the word is likely to be stressed. and in the other a later syllable in the word is likely to be stressed.18/. Id. Ik/. It's called his Unfinished Symphony. Their decision was controversial.3-8.Pronunciation Practice Activities Explain that some words such as incorrect have two stresses. The main stress is on the last stressed syllable (as in I and 2) unless it is 'pushed back' to earlier in the word (as in 3). Her suggestion was completely idiotic. Iwl and Iz/. but he gave some idiotic answer. then they may need some help in learning these symbols before they can make full use of their dictionary as a pronunciation resource. " CAMBRmcc U"n"nY PRe" w04 Using phonetic symbols (8. IS/. Students should underline the likely stressed syllable in these words in the sentences. The house has got an outside toilet. In/.101and Id31. Activities 8. you will need to decide whether teaching phonetic symbols is an effective use of time in your particular teaching context.5) If students use a dictionary in which pronunciation is represented by phonetic symbols. Isl. The remaining consonant symbols . so students will generally have few problems understanding fbi. lvi.) 217 . frl.5 aim to help students learn phonetic symbols. For a list of phonetic symbols used in this book. Ipl.Ij/. The car's parked outside.IfJ/. 13/. Ill. The symbol for most consonant sounds is the same as the letter.ItS/. The decision was democratic. Here is an extract from the Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary: 2 Ask students to use their dictionaries to find out which of the words in Part A of Box 123can have stress shift. 1m/.

In In the second.6-8. You could do a series of simple transcription exercises that focus on contrast between particular vowels or particular consonants. Ann (a name) sounds the same as an (An apple hit me).3 Finding out about sounds to help pronounce words Procedure Keep a chart showing phonetic symbols.Resources for pronunciation teaching Pronunciation Practice Activities 8. if the word is chaos. bought. watch (2). the consonant symbols are the same as their letters. Number them I. taught. point to Ik/ then lerl then 101and then Is/. hard. knock. loft (all with 10/). it can be useful to produce transcriptions of 218 219 . breathe (4). half. knock. police sounds similar to please (Please open the door). Knock. Police who? Police open the door. these. For example. Then say some of the following words (in random order) for students to transcribe: heart. together with a word or words which include each sound. thanks. Do similar exercises with other groups of vowels and problem consonant symbols. knock'jokes Relating sounds and symbols Procedure Highlight two or three problem symbols on a phonetics chart or write these on the board. not. Ann who? Ann apple hit me on the head. introduce them with a couple of simple examples such as: Knock.). knock' jokes. In the first example. Students can refer to it when they are looking up pronunciation of words in their dictionaries. Who's there? Ann. knock' part) with a student. teacher. focus on IS!(number this I). h:1 and 101. Alternatively. father.first highlight the target sounds on a phonetics chart.10) 8. Usingauthentic material (8. For example./81 (number this 3). dog. hall. Then do the second without writing it on the board. laugh. on the wall of your classroom. Although only some students will find it valuable to be able to write a phonetic transcription of words. hop. mouth (3). to help students learn the symbols la:/. raw (all with h:/). rod. 3 (etc. Say words which include one of the sounds. and students say the number of the sound the word contains. bath. start (all with/a:/). ItSI(number this 2). and perform it (you should take the 'Knock. 8. 2. crash (I). when students ask how a word is pronounced.In all these words only the vowel symbol is problematic. students could photocopy a key to phonetic symbols (such as the one in Appendix I) and keep it with them for reference.5 Transcribing words symbols Procedure Procedure I If students aren't familiar with 'Knock.6 'Knock. Write the first example on the board to show the dialogue pattern. stop. choose.4 words in order to learn to read phonetic symbols. talk. Who's there? Police. Then say words at random from the following list: shelf. 100(numberthis 4) and give examples of these sounds in words (or use example words on the phonetics chart). 8. point to the sounds it consists of on the poster: for example.

5 If he licks hfhi: hksl changes to fe licks Ifi:hksl (which sounds like Felix) in fast speech. Q CAM""WG' UN<v".9 are from The Funniest Joke Book in the World Ever! (2000) Random Children's Books (I p. 2 p. knock. Dozen who? Dozen anyone want to let me in? 5 Knock. knock. Freeze who? Freeze a jolly good fellow. Who's there? Dozen. Juno who? Juno what time it is? 9 Knock. knock. alternating between you and the students taking the 'Knock. These are summarised in Box 125. Who's there? Felix. 47. Felix who? Felix my ice cream. 8. Who's there? Juno.Pronunciation Practice Activities Resources for pronunciation teaching 2 Organise students into pairs and give a copy of the handout (Box 124)1to one of the students in each pair. knock. knock' parts.1dedhere are tongue easy to understand. 7 Knock. knock. knock. Then choose individuals to try to say it. 4 Doesn't IdAznt!changes to Doesn ldAzn/ (which sounds like Dozen) in fast speech. Bingo who? Bingo in to come and see you for ages. 2 For he's If'dhi:zl changes to f'r'e's Ifri:zl (which sounds like Freeze) in fast speech.m 1 Jokes 1. knock. 8 Knock. knock. you could discuss the features of connected speech that each joke depends on. 3 Students work through the jokes. Who's there? Adam. Box 124 Student handout I 2 Knock. 43)' 220 PRm Box 125 Teacher reference Features of connected speech in the jokes I It's got hts gDt!changes to (t)sgot ItSgDt!(which sounds like Scott) in fast speech. 4 Knock. With more advanced students. Wooden shoe who? Wooden shoe like to know. 3 Add them Ired O'dm/changes to Add 'em lred'dm/(which sounds like Adam) in fast speech. Who's there? Wooden shoe. 46. working as a whole class.7 Tonguetwisters is saying words that Irl and III or the with all tongue twisters. knock. Students repeat after you. 221 . 9 p. 8 Do you know Idu:ju: U'dulchanges to D'you know Id3'dU'dUI (which sounds like Juno) in fast speech. who should take the 'Knock. Who's there? Bingo. Adam who? Adam up and tell me the total. knock' part. 9 Wouldn't you Iwudnt ju:1 changes to Wouldn' choo IwudntSu:1(which sounds like Wooden shoe) in fast speech. Who's there? Freeze. 3 Knock. 7 My shell Imal Sell changes to Mi shell Imi Sell (which sounds like Michelle) in fast speech. 6 I've been going Ialv bi:n g'duII]Ichanges to been goin' Ibm g'dUIn/ (which sounds like Bingo in) in fast speech. is :ll. Who's there? Scott. I'll lick his. Michelle who? Michelle had a big crab inside it. 4 Finally. 6 Knock. 126 onto a large card or an when you want to briefly 20°4 House Procedure Display a tongue twister. Knock. Encourage them to repeat each one until they understand all of the jokes. perform the jokes again with a number of students. Scott who? Scott nothing to do with you. Their partner shouldn't see the handout. Who's there? Michelle.2.

swim! Swan swam back again Well swum. To practise consonants and consonant clusters Isl and Is1/ Sly Sam slurps Sally's soup.-I 1 Resources for pronunciation teaching Pronunciation Practice Activities Variations I Use the She sells sea shells. Red lorry (I) -yellow lorry (2) -Red lorry (1)yellow lorry (2) . Divide the class into two groups. Iprl and Ip1/ Six slippery snails.Truly Box 126 ISrl and Ifrl It/. Two-Two won one.) Ipl. Swan swam over the sea. Isl and IS! The shells she sells are surely seashells. Freshly fried fresh flesh.8 Limericks ___wm UN''''. So the first line begins: She (group I)-sells (group 2) -sea (2) -shells (I) . I'm sure she sells seashore shells. Truly rural. Itrl and ISrl (also good for practising a variety of vowels) ItSI. slid slowly seaward. need to rhyme. so the vowel sounds in these words need tbbe produ. Three free throws.) Irl and III Red lorry. Give papa a cup of proper coffee in a copper Ipl and If! coffee cup. and those at the ends of lines 3 and 4.the other half all of the words that begin Isl and you say the rest. . Choose two students to say the tongue twister in turn. (etc. I2irnericks provide a way of practising a number of features of pronunciatiol1 in a very controlled way. Please pay promptly.) The two-twenty-two train tore through the tunnel. Isl and ISI She sells sea shells by the sea shore. /b/. . Isil and Isnl Ifr/ and lill Freshly fried fresh flesh.. 0 CAME"DGE 8. /brl and /bll Betty and Bob brought back blue balloons from the big bazaar. What noise annoys a noisy oyster? A noisy noise annoys a noisy oyster. . . So if she sells shells on the seashore. . Two-Two was one.Truly rural (1)- Truly rural (2). alternating with other vowels A variety of vowels the judge) and this student is eliminated. Ifrl and lill 0 CAM'''DGE UN"""" 222 Pm. IfI.shore (I) 2 Use a short. . (etc.) Mrs Smith's Fish Sauce Shop. One group should say all of the words that begin ISI.) A box of biscuits. When One-One won one race. (ete. . u. (etc. .Iswl and ItSI rural (student 2) . Isl. Please pay promptly. too. swan! While we were walking. Red lorry. Truly rural. .. The students continue until one of them makes a mistake (you should be A variety of clusters Vowels The vowel l'Ju.. 2 and 5. Shredded Swiss cheese. red lorry. W04 J 223 . swan. Please pay promptly. Chop shops stock chops."Y PRm'004 --- . Three free throws..sing weak forms. Box 126 continued Student handout Tongue twister A variety of vowels and also Iwl To practise single consonants Irl and III Truly rural. Swim.) Friendly Frank flips fine flapjacks. repeated tongue twister (e. Chop shops stock chops.).. A variety of vowels. Truly rural. Choose another student (or ask for a volunteer) to take the place of the eliminated student to 'challenge' the winner. particularly !AI(and perhaps In/) and lu:/. words at the ends of lines I. One-One was a racehorse. (etc. a batch of mixed biscuits. yellow lorry. Chop shops stock chops. . (etc. tongue twister. we were watching window washers wash Washington's windows with warm washing the (you) -sea (2) .IS!and a variety of consonant clusters ISrl. yellow lorry. . In addition.) Shredded Swiss cheese. (etc. They are best recited with a $teady rhythrn. and putting stress in appropriate places.. Itwi.ced consistently. too. and this requires lengthening and shortening sounds. yellow lorry. For example: Truly rural (student I) .g. Note that in British English one is pronounced either IWAnIor Iwnnl. .

and continue in this way until all the limericks have been reassembled and read aloud. and then individuals can read the poems aloud. G. The student reads this line out. . make one copy of the limericks written on the board) and cut up the limericks so neQn eqchpiece of paper. p. When she opened them wide. When they bring these into class. 5.Resources for pronunciation Pronunciation Practice Activities of pronunciation Box 127 teaching Student handout 1 from Box 127 (or another one that you are or an OHT. Continue until the limerick is finished. Limericks 2. And the smile on the face of the tiger. 6 There was a young lady whose eyes Were unique as to colour and size. Students chorally and individually repeat after you. But some very large bees Stung his nose and his knees. and appropriate stress. Copy the material in Box Forrhe Variation. He murmured: 'I'll risk it and go as a biscuit. p. Then all five students read the limerick out. some of Ogden Nash's short.who cares? 3 There was an old woman from China Who once went to sea on a liner.cgi A fellow named Malcolm MacHairs Kept a number of grizzly bears. 3. 5. There was a young lady of Riga. 279. Encourage students to say them with a steady rhythm. They returned from the ride With the lady inside. or students share one. etc. 281. And hurried away in surprise. 2. Then give out a copy of all the limericks for students to take away. p. 224 225 . 2. then give one line of the cut-up limericks to each student (or more than one. Ask for another first line.2Simply ask students to repeat limericks after you a line at a time. 4 There once was a man of Bengal Who was asked to a fancy dress ball.westegg. People all turned aside. 280. Variation Follow the procedure for step I. If they think they have. 5 There was an old person of Dover Who rushed through a field of blue clover. p. 2 Limericks I and 4 are fromThe UsborneBook of FunnyPoems (1990):I. .4. line-end vowel sounds. they should read it aloud. weak forms. a line at a time. 2 Give out the handout (Box 127). (2002) Andre Deutsch: 2. p. She fell off the deck And twisted her neck And now she can see right behind her. For example. Ask students whether they think they have the first line of a limerick. 3). p.comlnash/baby. 279 (adapted slightly). The Internet is a good source of material. 24 (Anon). the rhyming scheme (AABBA)and the number of stressed syllables in each line (3. 2 a Procedure 1 Write one limerick on the board or an OHT.' But a dog ate him up in the hall. So he very soon went back to Dover. 3. Ask who has the next line. And then they ate Malcolm . Extension Encourage students to find other limericks or other poems that are very rhythmical or have a fixed rhyming scheme. rhythmical poems are at: http://www. 15(Anon). 6. and then select individuals to say them aloud. depending on numbers). @CAMeRWGE UN>vmm PR'" wo. 3. Who rode with a smile on a tiger. Read through the limerick and point out its form: the number of lines (5). read them out. 6 are from The Biggest Kids' Joke Book Ever! Brandreth. He ran out of money For they ate so much honey.

the third his father. My dad.Resources for pronunciation teaching Pronunciation Practice Activities 8. .. reduced forms ('em. I wonder what she'll tell 'em. and fltJ. My husband. Then the groups should read the poems aloud. The parents in the corridor Are chatting cheerfully. They're sitting there and talking. gonna). 226 Published Box 128 Student handout Parents' Evening We're waiting in the corridor. (1991) Heard it in the Playground. Students silently read their own verses and ask you to explain any problem language.~storparticttlar emphasis (I'm smiling. Go around the class at this stage. We're waiting in the corridor. I'm nervous as can be. my boy and me. and perhaps also parents or teachers. 3 Ahlberg A. I hope it's not all bad. I hate these parents' evenings. I'll say I've got a pain! I wish I'd got my spellings right. Give one verse to each member of the group so that between them each group has the whole poem.9 Poems with features of connected speech best said with a steady rhythm. In a multinational group. son and me. I wish I had a brain.36 and 37). I wonder what she'll tell us. My son just stands there smiling. Talk to students about their experience of such events. It's nearly time to start. My wife. I'm smiling. Divide the class into groups of four. Copyright 227 . But dozy -like his dad. Finally. but also {illected speech. And now I've got to face them. I'm waiting in the classroom.). @CAMRR>DG' UN<V<RS<TY Pms w04 Puffin edition 1991. my mum and me.T'tn. 'best mother'. And I'm nervous as can be. . My wife's as cool as cucumber. if the class is reasonably small. really. I wish there was a way to stop The pounding in my heart. ask whether parents' evenings are held in the different countries represented and what form these typically take. ete. We're waiting in the corridor. The four 'best readers' can then perform the poem. ask students to compare the experiences of the characters in the poem with their own experiences of parents' evenings. you could get one or two groups to perform their readings or select readers from four different groups. you could get all groups to perform and then ask the class to vote for the 'best son'. Ask students for their experiences and memories of parents' evenings as students. etc. the first from the viewpoint of a boy. encouraging a steady rhythm in the reading. and the fourth his teacher. I'm nervous as can be. and checking that contracted and other reduced forms are used. At this stage. the second his mother. Allan Ahlberg 1989 (pp. Explain that the poem has four verses. The waiting makes me sick. nervously. In the poem used here there are 're. atures of connected speech so that you have one for number will depend on the Qne verse on each piece of Procedure I 2 3 4 S Explain that you are going to look at a poem about parents' evening at school. Give students a copy of the full poem to take home. Alternatively. I feel just like a kid again Who's gonna get the stick. He's such a good boy.

Resources for pronunciation teaching Pronunciation Practice Activities SPORTS BAG OFFER 8.. newspaper headlines and the captions for cartoons... .....-.. In these examples prominence would normally be as follows if the compounds were read aloud: SPORTS bag offer TAKE-away food Commentary The headline repeats Isl sounds in order to attract the reader.... .... . .......-.. 6 a shop sign.. When you or your students find them..-........-.. ...... Prominence placement can sometimes be difficult in these compounds.-. cut out and bring to class) short texts that in some way represent or exploit pronunciation....-.-...S children's clothing.. and a little bit more.-......-. This is commonly done in advertisements..-.. . .-..-...... The examples are from advertisements for: 1 a supermarket..... .. 3 breakfast cereal..-. The article was about prisoners in the famous Dartmoor prison in the south west of England. for example...-. Some of these depend on features of pronunciation for their humour.. ........3 ~ ... Some newspapers and magazines also include misprints and mistakes that have been found in other publications.becausetheyA~ . with the general aim of developing students' awareness of the role of pronunciation in communication.......-..-.... . Notice that only in the first example is this suggested by underlining.1 They taste so good because they are so good2 Commentary To make sense of these.-.-. I'm gonna meetcha' 'Yougotta teach 'em 'boudreedom' Commentary The words of pop songs include features of connected speech. sick at heart = very sad) From pop songs 'I don't wanna say that I've been unhappy with you' 'All you've gotta do is call' "Cos I'm happy just to dance with you' 'I'm gonna getcha . wanna =want to gotta =got to 'Cos = because gonna getcha = going to get you gonna meetcha = going to meet you Yougotta teach 'em 'bout = You've got to teach them about......-..-...-- 228 229 .. The weak form of and (km/) is often represented in informal writing by 'n'.. and a little BE AWAKE.-- Push 'n' g04 Mix 'n' match5 Fish 'n' chips6 II From newspaper headlines SERVING TIME IN SUNLESS CELLS AND SICK AT HEART Noun compounds are often used in advertisements.... 4 a child's toy........ BE VERY AWAKE. briefly talk to students about the pronunciation feature involved and build up a collection on a display board if possible... (serving time =spending time in prison. 2 biscuits.-... they need to be read in a particular way with prominence and falling tone as follows: ....-.10 Short texts showing features of pronunciation ent features of pronunciation TAKE-AWAYFOOD Procedure Encourage students to look for and note (or if possible...-.... Here are some examples with a brief commentary on each: From advertisements Everything you want from a store .....-.. ..

http://www.f2J'M~ @'9060S\V~ "sr.OOD \N\.bham.Joan Catchpole herself shoots). @ Tribune Media Services. The publisher has used its best endeavours to ensure that the URLs for external websites referred to in this book are correct and active at the time of going to press.comjwordlistjindex.e.htm Fun material on pronunciation. the pronunciation of difficult words and the pronunciation of word-final endings (e. who (The Sudbury Mercury: September 1992) frequently ~i. -ac). both compiled by John Higgins. including tongue twisters and poems. .ukjhome/johnmjeptotdjtiphome. However. . 1 1\\\NV.e.\lYL"". .ac. the publisher has no responsibility for the websites and tan make no guarantee that a site will remain live or that the content is or will remain appropriate. who frequently Misprints and mistakes 'Twelve year old Roger Catchpole was granted a shotgun licence this summer and learnt the safe use of a gun from his grandmother.Resources for pronunciation Pronunciation Practice Activities Commentary The last part of this could be read in two ways. Quizzes and answers on many topics including stress in compounds. Reprinted with permission. uk/MHewings/ pron uncia tionreso urces http://www.phon.comFted. see http://artsweb.html Includes lists of common English pronunciation problems according to the first language of learners with suggested practice material from a variety of published sources. ..g.ccjronjenglish. who frequently shoots herself. she tries to kill herself!) which is.powerjphono.' SHOOTSh~ (i.marlodge. W p. For an up-to-date report. http://www.html http://www.unique. http://www.supanet. of course. Here is a list of some.html The first is lists of minimal pairs and the second a list of homophones. Commentary What George Bush said was: 'NoNEW~ But what he claims he said was: 'NO~ 23° 231 .'(OU M\SU~D&~S. -et.ucl.htm The 'Pronunciation Tip of the Day' from John Maidment's website. ridiculous. The way it was intended would be '. it could also be read'.comjwordlistjhomophon.\A. -se. 1 S/\\D / teaching Web-based resources A number of websites have useful pronunciation and other relevant material that is freely available.marlodge. [ne. together with a brief description of what you will find there.btinternet. All Rights Reserved.supanet. However.fl_$~NP. Joan

101vs Id/ (then~den). as in lemonade Illem~'nerd/) nl a glottal stop (a sound like the beginning of a short cough. arm saw. safe go. any pen. out near. where poor. eight my. Ipl vs /bl (pie:buy). apple run. open how.Ih/. ItS/. 181vs It! (thin~tin). Chinese Vowels IIIvs li:1(rid:read). ship. early day. for example. loves general. 233 . ITJ/.g. Id31vs Igl (]ohn~gone). as in about 1~lbaut!) secondary str~ss (before a syllable that has an intermediate level of force or emphasis between primary stressed and unstressed syllables. but there is not a particular frequent replacement. The main sources of information used in compiling this list are Learner English (Swan and Smith. hoping that. or heard as being more emphatic than others.lvi. annual Symbol /bl Idl IfI Igl /hi Ij/ Ik/ 11/ 1m! In! Ipl Irl Isl ItI Ivl Iwl /zl Id31 ITJI 101 181 ISI 131 ItSI Examples bee. opposite put. Consonantclusters Tendency to insert a short vowel between consonants in a cluster at the beginning and at the end of words (play~/p~ler/). usual chin. lul vs lu:1(pull:pool). allow map. Consonants Igl vs Iki (gap:cap). around soon. big hat. push measure. Ivl vs IfI (vast~fast). I~u/. up hot. would ago. eat part. lamp nose. swim zip. other thin. eyes boy. live wet. 1a=/. for example. side fat. and before initial consonant clusters (start~lIsta:tI). Arabic Vowels IIIvs lei (pin:pen). doctor see. and pen is said or heard as pin. week led. made when the vocal folds are pressed together) 232 Some common English pronunciation problems for speakers of a number of major languages are shown below. vast is said or heard as fast. 1987). Examples such as Ivl vs IfI (vast~fast) indicate that the second sound is often used instead of the first. 2001) and Teaching English Pronunciation (Kenworthy. age hang. Ivl vs h:1 (shot:short).Appendix 2 Appendix 1 Key to phonetic symbols Symbol III lei 1a=1 IA! Ivl lul II 1i:1 la:1 h:1 lu:1 /3:1 lerl larl hrl Iul laul III le1 lu1 Iii Iu/ Common pronunciation problems Consonants Vowels Examples pit. it wet. bath. lerl vs lei (late~let). always too. Irl. end cat. join low. behind yet. sure cosy. ItSI). you key. catch Other symbols used in this book: I primary stress (before a syllable that is said with relatively more force. lA!. us ten. stop red.this means that students often have difficulty with this sound. pin is said or heard as pen. lerl vs lei (late:let). here hair. I~ul vs Ivl (note:not). Examples such as IIIvs lei (pin:pen) indicate that words with these sounds are often confused. When sounds are included on their own (e. about do. you her. last vat. happy influence.

Id-j.g. 1<1/. lrel vs lei (had~head). 101.!hi. ler/. II!vs li:1(did~deed). rob~/mb<1/). Ip/. Id31vs 131(page~/per3/). lul vs IA! (rob~rub). IA!vslrel (but~bat). Idl and Igl tend to be pronounced Isl. ITJ/. prize~price. fAl vs lrel (but:bar). lA!. where 1<11 is normally used (/rebaut!for l<1baut![about]). lei. II!vsli:1(did~deed). lvi.. 13/. lei vs Isl (thing~sing).drop~/dmp<1/). Consonants Ivl vs Iwl (vest:west). Others Tendency to produce strong forms where weak forms should be used.J 235 . ISIvs Isl (shave~sa ve). Isl vs Izl (snow~/zn<1u/). IIIvs Irl especially in word-final position (wall~war). Vowels 1:):1 vsIA!vslul (port:putt:put). Tendency to produce vowels in unstressed syllables as they are written. Indl and Ingl (e. 234 Vowels /:):1vs l<1ul(call:coal). Tendency to produce strong forms where weak forms should be used. lul vs lu:1 (pull:pool). 131vs IS!(pleasure~/pleS<1/).ITJ/.!hI. where 1<11 is normally used (/rel<1un! for 1<1I<1un! [alone]).g. 1:):1vs l<1ul (call:coal). Consonantclusters Others In the clusters Imp/. Word-final consonants tend to be 'clipped' (back~fbre?/). save~safe). Italian Vowels I Consonants ItSIvs ISI(cheap~sheep). Others Tendencyto add a short vowelafter words endingin Ip/. It! vs Idl (hat~had)./k/. and to make words prominent where they should be non-prominent. lrel. fbi. lamp~/lremb/) ~ French Vowels III vs li:1 (rid:read).g. German Vowels Japanese lei vslrel (bed:bad). Id31vs 131(page~/peI3/). ~ . Ik/ vs Igl (back~bag).proved~/pru:vrdl). ISI. lvi.Id-j vs ItSI(joke~choke). IA!vs lrel (but:bat). fbi. lrel vslei (had~head). and to place word stress on later syllables where they should be placed on the first syllable (Over~oVER). 1:):1vs l<1ul(call:coal).ler/. Consonants lei vs It! (thin~tin). 13:1vs la:1(fur~far). If/. ItSIvs IS!(cheap~sheep). Isl vs Izi (price~prize). It! and /k/ respectively at the end of words (e. Consonants Tendency to insert a short vowel between consonants in a cluster at the beginning and the end of words (play~/p<1ler/. /3:1vs lei (bird~bed). or a vowel added after them (fbrek<1/).. lu:/. Others Tendency to add a short vowel after words ending in fbi.-II Pronunciation Practice Activities Appendix 2 Consonants Greek In word-final position Ipl vs fbl (cap~cab). 101. Ik/ vs Igl (cave~gave). where 1<11 is normally used (/rebaut! for l<1bautl [about]). Tendency to produce vowels in unstressed syllables as they are written. 131vs Izl (pleasure~/plez<1/).g. lu/. Tendency to omit !hi. IA! vs 13:1(bud~bird). lei. or to include it before word-initial vowels. In! vs III (net~let). 101vs Idl (then~den). I I I .It!. Inti and Ink/. Consonantclusters Ipl vs /bl (pear~bear). tendency to produce Imb/. It! vs Idl (tie~die). Idl or Igl (e. and the sounds Izl. Tendency to produce vowels in unstressed syllables as they are written.!hi.Idl and Igl (e. 101vs Iz/ (then~/zen!).

III vs 1i:1(rid:read). Tendency to produce It! and Id/ as Itsl. Polish Vowels Consonants In word-final position. I~I vs lei (had-7head). h:1 vs I. Tendency to produce strong forms where weak forms should be used.IS/.)ler/. stop-7/stop.Appendix 2 Pronunciation Practice Activities Consonants Consonantclusters Irl vs IV (rock:lock). IS/. tip-7chip. IkI vs Igl (cap:gap). 236 Spanish Vowels III vs 1i:1 (rid:read). dO-7/d3U:/). Iv/. 151vs Id/ (then-7den). Irl vs III (rock:lock). It! vs Id/ (tie-7die). Id/ vs It! (had-7hat). Consonants Ipl vs /bl (pear-7bear). (saw-7so).g.)1is normally used (/~baut! for I. lul vs lu:1 (pull:pool). Ik/ vs Igl (back-7bag). I~I vs la:1 (had:hard).15/. Others Tendencyto producestrong forms whereweak forms should beused.g. where 1. 13:/. Also 181vs Isl (thing-7sing). I~I vs lei (had-7head).Id3/.13/. Igl vs IkI (bag-7back). I~I vs lei (had-7head).)ul (saw-7so). Ivl vs /bl (vest-7best). 181vs Isl (thing-7sing). I. III vs li:1 (rid:read).Id3/. I~I vs la:1 vs IA! (hat:heart:hut).g.Tendency to produce Igl as Il]gl between vowels (ago-7/.)1is normally IDI vs hi (shot:short). Iz/ and It! (e.)u/. IA! vs la:1 (come-7calm).15/. I:J:Ivs I. /bl vs Ivl (bet-7vet). /3:1. Tendency to 'clip' or omit word final /b/. Id31 respectively before lul and lu:1 (e.)baut! [about]). 1tJ/vs ISI (cheap-7sheep). Malay /Indonesian Consonantclusters Vowels Tendency to insert a short vowel between consonants in a cluster at the beginning of words (plaY-7lp. 237 .)baut! [about]). IkI vs Igl (cave-7gave). Isl and Izl asItS/. Id/. Tendency to insert a short vowel between consonants Consonant clusters lei vs I~I (bed:bad). In word-initial position Ipl vs /bl (pear-7bear).la:/. Tendency to add a short vowel after a word-final consonant (e.Id3/.Tendency to produce vowels in unstressed syllables as they are written. Id/. 13:/. rob-7/m?/). dear-7jeer). plaY-7lp.)ler/).)baut! [about]).ItS/. /zl vs Id31(zone-7]oan). Ig/. In word-final position /bl vs Ipl (rib-7rip). It! vs Id/ (tie-7die). It! vs Id/ (sat-7sad). Also 18/. ItI vs Id/ (ten:den).IS/. 151vs Izl (then-7/zen/). in a cluster at the III vs li:1 (rid:read).)ler/). If I. in hand-7/h~n/). Id31vs 131 (page-7lper3/).1tJ/and Id31(e. If! vs Ipl (prefer-7lpnp3:/). IkI vs Igl (cave-7gave). 18/.)u/). Iz/. h:/. Id3/. lvi. two-7ltsu:/. Tendency to produce vowels in unstressed syllables as they are written. Tendency to produce where 1. vs lu:1 (pull:pool).)ul Tendency to insert a short vowel between consonants in a cluster at the beginning of words (e. they are written. each-7li:tSi/). Korean Vowels III vs 1i:1(rid:read). Vowels Others and at the end of words. beginning word-final consonants and tendency to omit last consonant (plaY-7lp.g. II]I vs Igl (sing-7sin or Isrg/).)l]g.g. lb!. Ib!. Consonants Tendency to add a short vowel after words ending in ItSI. where 1. If I vs Ipl (foot-7put). Consonants Russian Ipl vs /bl (pie:buy).)1is normally used (/~baut! for I.)/). IS/ and Id31respectively before II! and li:1 (e. /hi. 181vs It! (thin-7tin). lul vowels in unstressed syllables as used (/~baut! for I. Tendency to produce It!. IDI vs hi (shot:short).g. Isl vs Izl (ice-7eyes).

Initial consonant clustersin English Consonantclusters 1 Consonant + consonant Tendency to omit first or last consonants from clusters (instead~lIstedJ. the name Gwen. li:1vs III (seat~sit). Ip/: spot. 18wl (thwart and thwack).13/.--" Pronunciation Practice Activities Consonants Appendix 3 In word-initial position Ipl vs /bl (pear~bear). Tendency for IIIor I<JI to be omitted between s and a consonant (supply~/splaI/). Ivl vs Iwl (vest:west). Igl vs Ik/ (bag~back). ItJvs IdJ (tie~die). and Id31vs ItSI(edge~etch). between vowels Ipl vs /bl (supper~/sAb<J/). but are very rare or used in words unlikely to be heard or used by most learners.g.Id3/. 10/vs IdJ (then:den). I ~ 238 I 239 j . 181vs ItI (thin:tin). Also Ibl vs Ivl (best:vest). lrel vs lei (bad~bed).g. 1m!:smile. Iw/: swim. ItJ:star. Iskl/ (e. IdJvs ItJ(had~hat). These are Igwl (e. In/: snow. Isl can be followed by: II/: slow. IdJvs ItJ(had~hat). Ij/ vs Idy (yet~jet). le<JIvs leII (hair~hay). ItJvs IdJ(eaten~Eden).J . Igl vs Ik/ (bag~back). Ik/ vs Igl (maker~/meIg<J/). or Gwent in Wales). Izl vs Isl (prize~price). Ik/ vs Igl (cave~gave). lu:1vs lul (pool~pull). and ItSI vs Id31(catches~cadges). sp st sk I splash )( )( r spray straw scream w )( )( squeak j )( stew skewer In a few cases combinations marked)( are possible in English. P t k b d 9 m n f v e h )( )( )( Turkish I play )( class black )( glass )( )( fly Vowels r pray trip cnme brown drop grow )( )( fry)( )( )( w )( I'J:Ivs l<Jul(call:coal). In word-final position /bl vs Ipl (rib~rip). j Consonants twins queen )( pure tube dwell )( queue beauty due )( )( three )( )( )( mUSiC news few view )( )( huge In addition. Ispj/ (spew). sclerosis). IfI: sphere In word-final position /bl vs Ipl (rib~rip). 2 Consonant + consonant + consonant Consonantclusters Tendency to insert a short vowel between consonants in a cluster or before a cluster at the beginning of words (play~/p<JleI!. start~lIsto:t/). Ik/: sky. hand ~/hren/). 1m!vs In! or /rj!in word-final position (cream~lkri:n/ or lkri:IJ/).ISI. /hi.

g.g.derSTAND/underSTANDable) -age (e.g. you will find some exceptions to most of the rules given here.g. MILLion/millioNAIRE) -cratic (e. conSULT/conSULTancy) -ant (forming nouns e. PRESident/PRESidency) -ful (e.g. However.g. SUBject/subjecTIVity) 3 With some suffixes. which are usually true.g.g.g.g. SYMpathy/SYMpathise) -less (e. biOLogy/bioLOGical) -ify (e.g.g. the stress is usually on the syllable immediately before the suffix: -cracy (e.g.g.g. HIStory/hisTORian) -ic (e. conSULTant) -cy (e.g. PRODuct/proDUCTive) -ity (e. atTEND/atTENDance) -ancy (e.g. CELebrate/celeBRAtion) -ious (e.g.g.g. deFENCE/deFENCEless) -ly (e.g. conSPIRacy/conspiraTORial) -ian (e. Only simple relationships are included (there are many other suffixes with more complicated effects on word stress).g.Appendix 4 Appendix 4 Some word stress rules The rules below indicate the relationship between certain suffixes and word stress.g. HUmour/HUmorous) 2 Some suffixes are themselves stressed: -ade (e.g. DECorate/DECorator) -ous (e.g.g. BEAUty/BEAUtiful) -hood (e. NEIGHbour/NEIGHbourhood) -ist (e. LEMon/lemonADE) -aire (e.g. geOLogy/geOLogist) -ise/-ize (e. -ial (e. perCENT/perCENTage) -ance (e. enCOURage/enCOURagement) -ness (e. SCIence/scienTIFic) -ical (e. un.g. ABsent/absenTEE) -ivity (e. eLECtric/elecTRICity) 1 Some suffixes don't usually change the stress pattern of the root word: -able (e. PERson/perSONify) -ion (e. VICtory/vicTORious) -ive (e. DEMocrat/demoCRATic) -ee (e.g.g.g. HAPPy/HAPPiness) -or/-er (e. SOCial/soCIety) 24° 241 .g. DEMocrat/deMOCracy) -ety (e. CAREful/CAREfully) -ment (e.

and Marks. Jenkins. (1992) The Pronunciation Book: Student-Centred Activities for Pronunciation Work. London: Edward Arnold. and Seidlhofer. Jones. A. (2003) English Pronunciation In Use. and Smith. Brazil.]. Teaching materials Bowen. G. Crystal. Harlow: Longman. M. Swan. (eds. Cruttenden. Vaughan-Rees. Wells. D. J. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. A. Edited by P. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. M. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. (1994) Pronunciation for Advanced Learners of English. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. (1994) Gimson's Pronunciation of English. Bowler.]. Harlow: Pearson. Roach. M. Harlow: Pearson. Underhill. (2000) How to Teach Pronunciation. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 2nd edn. M. M. (2003) English Pronouncing Dictionary. Oxford: Heinemann. Kenworthy. Roach andJ. Hartman. (1990) Longman Pronunciation Dictionary. (1993) English Pronunciation Tasks: A Course for PreIntermediate Learners. 5th edn. D. Harlow: Longman. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. J.]. B. (1991) Headway Upper-Intermediate Pronunciation. and Cunningham. (2002) Streaming Speech: Listening and Pronunciation for Advanced Learners of English (CD-ROM). (And other Headway Pronunciation books. (1996) Phonology in English Language Teaching. and Goodwin. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. (2000) English Phonetics and Phonology: A practical course. (1995) Pronunciation Games. (1987) The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Language. (1998) Pronunciation Plus: Practice through Interaction. R. B. B. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Hancock. S. D. Pennington. 3rd edn. (2000) The Phonology of English as an International Language: New models. Harlow: Longman. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. (2002) Test Your Pronunciation. Hewings. (1994) Pronunciation. New Norms. Brinton. M. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. (1994) Sound Foundations. Gilbert. B. M. (1998) Intonation in Context: Intonation Practice for UpperIntermediate and Advanced Learners of English. 15th edn. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. P. Hancock. Bradford. Cauldwell.) 242 243 . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Birmingham: Speechinaction.Bibliography Bibliography Reference and methodology Celce-Murcia. New Goals. (2001) Clear Speech From the Start. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.) (2001) Learner English: A Teacher's Guide to Interference and Other Problems. D. Kelly. Hewings. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.. Harlow: Pearson. (1996) Teaching Pronunciation: A Reference for Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages. Oxford: Oxford University Press. M. T. S. and Goldstein. M. C. (1987) Teaching English Pronunciation. Dalton. M.]. B.

15. verbs. 16 comparing with weak forms 94-5 predicting 96-7 suffixes IO. speakers planets 34-6 plurals: -5 pronunciation 179-8 I poems: connected speech 226-7 Polish speakers 237 pop songs 229 Portuguese speakers IO. see also consonant clusters.38-41 emotion 38-41 introducing 23-5 meaning 8-9 in print 38-41 prominence 8. word stress stress in phrases compound words 139-41 nationality words 137-9 patterns 132-7 stress shift 5 compound words 139-41 dictionary use 215-17 nationality words 137-9 stressed syllables 4-5.65-8 strong consonants 63 testing reception and production 193-9 unwanted vowels 71-2 voiced/voiceless 63-4 weak consonants 63 see also consonant clusters. vowels Spanish speakers 35. II-I3.36.237 -s in plurals.235-6 key terms 3-8. ooh. 122-4. 173-5 German speakers 35. I06-7 strong consonants 63 strong forms of grammar words 7.16. 120-2 numbers: -ty and -teen II3-I7 oh. consonant pairs 244 identity 13-14 impersonations 36-8 Indonesian speakers 236-7 intonation 7-9 attitude 9.72. Farsi speakers 5. see also under testing pronunciation prominence 8 contrasts within words 147-50 non-prominent words 142-4 prominent words 8. 173-5 classifying words 62. 173-5 cartoons 149. verbs.57-8. 230 models of pronunciation 2. SH.234 fricative sounds 62. I09-II 218 authentic material 219-30 dictionary use 213-17 phonetic symbols 217-19 web sites 2r9. GH. see also under testing pronunciation resources limericks main stress 5 Malay speakers 236-7 minimal pairs 3 Bingo! 53-4 Column A or column B? 52-3 consonants 51-4.16-17 consonant to consonant links 80-2 consonant-vowel links 79-80 contracted forms 87-93.213-15 see also phonetic symbols diphthongs 44 -cd in past tense verbs 181-3 ee 59-61 emotion 38-41 English/first-language differences 233-8 er 59-61 Extension sections 2 29-30. 173-7 lip-reading 68-9 minimal pairs 51-4. 3°-1 common problems 233-8 compounds 5.23I rhotic accents 85 Russian speakers 6. 31-2 names 33-6.72. possessives 179-8 I secondary stress 5 sentence stress patterns 132-7 SH pronunciation 175-7 sounds 3-4. 233-4 citation forms 6. consonants. 7 I possessives: -s pronunciation 179-8 I primary stress 5. 142-4 in sentences 144-6 testing pronunciation 206-9 pronunciation: components of speech 3-9 4. 240-1 -ian 124-6 -ic and-ical 127-9 Swahili 3 Swedish 5 245 . 206-9 tone units 8. 139-41 C prouunciation IO.209-12 tonic words 8.15.217 to help pronunciation 218 key 232 relating sounds and symbols transcription 218-19 photocopiable material 2.68-9 G pronunciation IO.63-5. 230 Catalan speakers 7r CD recordings 2 CH pronunciation 175-7 Chinese speakers 9.69-70 in connected speech 79-82 correcting particular consonants 63-5 fricative sounds 62.139-41 connected speech 6.154-64. 15 product names 34-6 productive skills 17. 72.237-8 spelling 9-IO alphabet letter classification 165-6 consonantletters (C. G) 173-5 consonant pairs 175-7 homographs 177-8 'rules' IO single vowels 166-70 vowel letter pairs 17°-3 stress 4-6.Index Index activities 21-2 adjectives: stress patterns advertisements 228-9 ah 59-61 Arabic speakers 71.36. initial 65 homographs r77-8 -ian 124-6 -ie and-ieal 127-9 33-6.228.236 questionnaire 25-7 questions and answers: tone choice 155-61 levels of ability 2 223 . 38-41 place names 34-6.68-9 G pronunciation IO.233 attitude 9.151-2 tones 8.153-4 Italian speakers IO. 229 non-rhotic accents 85-7 nouns compound nouns 5. 38-41 120-2. 235 contracted forms comparing speech and writing 91-3 dialogues 87-9 talking about families 89-90 testing pronunciation 199-2°4 conversational speed 3°-1 Japanese /dJ omission 99-IOI developing awareness consonant clusters 29-3° English/first-language differences 29-30. 131-2 and related phrasal verbs 129-31 -s in plurals 179-81 stress patterns II8-I9. 239 iutroducing 23-4 /t/ omission 99-IOI towers 77-8 word chains 73 consonant pairs: CH.71.65-9 in context 56-8 same or different? 51-2 same word or different word? 55 vowels 51-7 misprints and mistakes (as resources) 228.23-5 'Knock.131-2. 142-5°.5 lip-reading 68-9 listening 16-17 receptive skills 16-17. 173-5 importance of 15 initial/hi 65 introducing 23-4 letters and sounds 3-4. I09-II nationality words 137-9 native/non-native pronunciation 36-8 newspaper headlines 228. 234 GH pronunciation 175-7 glottal stops 8 I going 20 grammar 19-20 -ed in pasttense verbs 18 1-3 -s in plurals. ow 59-61 179-8 I personal names 33-4 PH pronunciation 175-7 phonemes 3 phonetic symbols 2. possessives Greek speakers 235 /hi.71 Finnish 5 French speakers 35.33-6 good English pronunciation 31-2 impersonations 36-8 intonation in print 38-41 key terms 23-5 names 33-6 native/non-native pronunciation 36-8 questionnaire 25-7 slow and quick speech 30-1 vowel sounds 27-9 dialogues: contracted forms 87-9 dictionary use 213 citation forms 6 stress shift 215-17 word stress 5. TH 157-77 consonants 3 C pronunciation IO. PH.63-5. ai. stress shift.20 phrasal verbs 129-31 pitch range r6. knock' jokes 219-21 Korean speakers 72.57-8. see also stress in phrases.199-204 links between words 79-87 omitting sounds 99-I02 poems 226-7 vowels linked with /j/(y)and /w/ 82-4 vowels linked with /r/ 85-7 weak and strong forms 94-9 consonant clusters 4 /d/ omission 99-IOI definitions quiz 74-6 English/first-language differences 29-30 final clusters 77-8 initial clusters 15.73-8.

82-7 correcting particular vowels 42-4 diphthongs 44 front vowels 43-4 identifying sounds 48-51 introducing 23-4 letters and sounds 3-4.166-73 lip position 42-3 long vowels 43 making sounds 27-9.184-5 vowels 3. 122-4. 204-5.16.151-2 tones 8. verbs 120-2 -ty and -teen numbers "3-I7 word formation and 122-32 words 4-6 classifying pronunciation 184 in connected speech 6 problem pronunciations 185 strong and weak forms 7.120-2 Vietnamese 9 246 vocabulary 19. 16 choice in questions 155-9 falling tone 160-4 fall-rise tone 160-4 identifying tones 154-9 'news' and 'not news' 161-4 reservation answers 160-1 rising tone 16 1-4 testing pronunciation 209-12 yeslno answers 160-1 tongue twisters 221-3 tonic words 8. 16 comparing with strong forms 94-5 listening to weak forms 98-9 predicting 96-7 testing pronunciation 199-204 web-based resources 219. ro6-7 syllable length ro6-7 It! omission 99-roI teaching pronunciation activities 21-2 correcting pronunciation 21 importance of ro-II integration into teaching programme 19-20 listening 16-17 modelling 20-1 models of pronunciation 2.194-7. 238 unstressed syllables 4-5.213-15 introducing 23-5 main stress 5 noun-verb pairs II8-I9 phrasal verbs and related nouns 129-31 primary stress 5.186. 153-4 Turkish speakers 5. 15 rules II8.206-7. 15. 240-1 suffixes -ie and-ieal 127-9 syllable length I06-7 testing pronunciation 204-6 two-syllable nouns.240-I secondary stress 5 shifting stress 137-41.202-4. II .42. adjectives. ro 5-6 introducing 23-5 stress 4-5. 205-6.197-202.194.I3r-2 dictionary use matching sounds: family tree 44-8 minimal pairs 51-7 omitting in words roI-2 short vowels 43 single letter pronunciation 166-70 single sound communication 58-6 I sounds and spelling ro.18. I09-I3.215-17 stress patterns I07-8.199-204 see also vocabulary .15 back vowels 43-4 classifying words 61-2 in connected speech 79-80.177-8.13.94-9.2II-12 prominence 206-9 reasons for 17 receptive skills 17.208-9.186.231 word stress classifying words ro8-9 compound nouns 5. 43 vowel pair pronunciation 170-3 see also weak forms of grammar words weak consonants 63 weak forms of grammar words 7.209-II tone 209-12 vowels 193-9 weak forms 199-204 word stress 204-6 TH pronunciation 175-7 tonal languages 9 tone units 8.I65-73 testing reception and production 193-9 unwanted vowels 71-2 vowel length r5.18-19. 31-2 planning 20 principles 20-2 priorities 15-16 reacting to opportunities 20 target 13-14 testing pronunciation 17-19 consonants 193-9 contracted forms 199-204 diagnosing problems 187-93 general evaluation 186-7 productive skills 17.Index syllables 4 identifying in pairs of words ro4-5 identifying in words ro3-4. ro6-7 urgh 59-61 verbs -ed in pasttense 181-3 phrasal verbs 129-31 -s pronunciation 179-8 I stress patterns II8-I9. 137-41 suffix -Ian 124-6 suffixes IO. 120-2.