You are on page 1of 931

Principles of

Foundation Engineering

Principles of
Foundation Engineering
Sixth Edition

Braja M. Das

nf:st TA-. a/
.

v'/it:;em0n,

UWfL1

.-

u. > A .

THOMSON

Australia

Canada

Mexico

Singapore

Spain

United Kingdom

United States

Geotechnical Properties of Soil

1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 Grain-Size Distribution 2
1.3 Size Limits for Soils 5
1.4 Weight-Volume Relationships 5
1.5 Relative Density 9
1.6 Atterberg Limits 12
1.7 Soil Classification Systems 13
1.8 Hydraulic Conductivity of Soil 21
1.9 Steady-State Seepage 23
1.10 Effective Stress 25
1.11 Consolidation 27
1.12 Calculation of Primary Consolidation Settlement 32
1.13 Time Rate of Consolidation 33
1.14 Degree of Consolidation Under Ramp Loading 40
1.15 Shear Strength 43
1.16 Unconfined Compression Test 48
1.17 Comments on Friction Angle, q;' 49
1.18 Correlations for Undrained Shear Strength, c,, 52
1.19 Sensitivity 53
Problems 54
References 58

Natural Soil Deposits and Subsoil Exploration


2.1

Introduction 60

Natural Soil Deposits

2.2

60

60

Soil Origin 60

vii

viii

Contents

2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6
2.7
2.8
2.9

Residual Soil 61
Gravity Transported Soil 62
Alluvial Deposits 62
Lacustrine Deposits 65
Glacial Deposits 65
Aeolian Soil Deposits 67
Organic Soil 68

Subsurface Exploration 68
2.10 Purpose of Subsurface Exploration 68
2.11 Subsurface Exploration Program 68
2.12 Exploratory Borings in the Field 71
2.13 Procedures for. Sampling Soil 74
2.14 Observation of Water Tables 85
2.15 Vane Shear Test 86
2.16 Cone Penetration Test 90
2.17 Pressuremeter Test (PMT) 97
2.18 Dilatometer Test 99
2.19 Coring of Rocks 101
2.20 Preparation of Boring Logs 105
2.21 Geophysical Exploration 105
2.22 Subsoil Exploration Report 113
Problems 114
References 119

Shallow Foundations: Ultimate Bearing Capacity


3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
3.7
3.8
3.9
3.10
3.11
3.12

121

Introduction 121
General Concept 121
Terzaghi's Bearing Capacity Theory 124
Factor of Safety 128
Modification of Bearing Capacity Equations for Water Table 130
The General Bearing Capacity Equation 131
Meyerhofs Bearing Capacity, Shape, Depth, and Inclination Factors 136
Some Comments on Bearing Capacity Factor, N,. and Shape Factors 138
A Case History for Bearing Capacity Failure 140
Effect of Soil Compressibility 142
Eccentrically Loaded Foundations 146
Ultimate Bearing Capacity under Eccentric Loading-Meyerhofs
Theory 148
3.13 Eccentrically Loaded Foundation-Prakash and Saran's Theory 154
3.14 Bearing Capacity of a Continuous Foundation Subjected to Eccentric
Inclined Loading 161
Problems 165
References 168

Contents

ix

Ultimate Bearing Capacity of Shallow Foundations:


Special Cases 170
4.1
4.2
4.3

Introduction 170
Foundation Supported by a Soil with a Rigid Base at Shallow Depth
Bearing Capacity of Layered Soils: Stronger Soil Underlain
by Weaker Soil 177
4.4
Closely Spaced Foundations-Effect on Ultimate
Bearing Capacity 185
4.5
Bearing Capacity of Foundations on Top of a Slope 188
4.6
Bearing Capacity of Foundations on a Slope 191
4.7
Uplift Capacity of Foundations 193
Problems 199
References 202

Shallow Foundations: Allowable Bearing Capacity


and Settlement 203
5.1

Introduction 203

Ve~iical si~e;s increase in a Soil Mass Caused by Foundation Load .. 264


5.2 Stress Due to a Concentrated Load 204
5.3 Stress Due to a Circularly Loaded Area 205
5.4 Stress below a Rectangular Area 206
5.5 Average Vertical Stress Increase Due to a Rectangularly
Loaded Area 213
5.6 Stress Increase under an Embankment 216
Elastic Settlement 220

5.7
5.8
5.9
5.10
5.11

5.U
5.13
5.14

Elastic Settlement Based on the Theory of Elasticity 220


Elastic Settlement of Foundations on Saturated Clay 230
Improved Equation for Elastic Settlement 230
Settlement of Sandy Soil: Use of Strain Influence Factor 236
Range of Material Parameters for Computing Elastic
Settlement 240
Settlement of Foundation on Sand Based on Standard
Penetration Resistance 241
General Comments on Elastic Settlement Prediction 246
Seismic Bearing Capacity and Settlement in Granular Soil 247

Cons~lidation Settlement 252


5.15 Primary Consolidation Settlement Relationships 252
5.16 Three-Dimensional Effect on Primary Consolidation Settlement 254
5.17 Settlement Due to Secondary Consolidation 258
5.18 Field Load Test 260

170

Contents

5.19 Presumptive Bearing Capacity 263


5.20 Tolerable Settlement of Buildings 264
Problems 266
References 269

Mat Foundations

272

6.1
Introduction 272
6.2
Combined Footings 272
6.3
Common Types of Mat Foundations 275
6.4
Bearing Capacity of Mat Foundations 277
6.5
Differential Settlement of Mats 280
6.6
Field Settlement Observations for Mat Foundations 281
6.7
Compensated Foundation 281
6.8
Structural Design of Mat Foundations 285
Problems 304
References 307

Lateral Earth Pressure


7.1
7.2

308

Introduction 308
Lateral Earth Pressure at Rest 309

Active Pressure 312


7.3 Rankine Active Earth Pressure 312
7.4 A Generalized Case for Rankine Active Pressure 315
7.5 Coulomb's Active Earth Pressure 323
7.6 Active Earth Pressure for Earthquake Conditions 328
7.7 Active Pressure for Wall Rotation about the Top: Braced Cut 333
7.8 Active Earth Pressure for Translation of Retaining
Wall-Granular Backfill 334
7.9 General Comments on Active Earth Pressure 338
Passive Pressure 338
7.10 Rankine Passive Earth Pressure 338
7.11 Rankine Passive Earth Pressure: Inclined Backfill 344
7.12 Coulomb's Passive Earth Pressure 345
7.13 Comments on the Failure Surface Assumption for Coulomb's
Pressure Calculations 347
7.14 Passive Pressure under Earthquake Conditions 348
Problems 349
References 352

:I
!

Contents

Retaining Walls
~--

353

Introduction 353

8.1
.,,

xi

"'-

-~-

355
Proportioning Retaining Walls 355
Application of Lateral Earth Pressure Theories to Design 356
Stability of Retaining Walls 358
Check for Overturning 359
Check for Sliding along the Base 361
Check for Bearing Capacity Failure 364
Construction Joints and Drainage from Backfill 374
Some Comments on Design of Retaining Walls 377

Gravity and Cantilever Walls


8.2
8.3
8.4
8.5
8.6
8.7
8.8
8.9

"M;t;;;;;,:,k;d;;-s;~liTiii.;-:Cnl.;i;;i~i7.iwai&- ....379

Soil Reinforcement 379


Considerations in Soil Reinforcement 380
General Design Considerations 382
Retaining Walls with Metallic Strip Reinforcement 383
Step-by-Step-Design Procedure Using Metallic Strip Reinforcement 390
Retaining Walls with Geotextile Reinforcement 395
Retaining Walls with Geogrid Reinforcement 399
General Comments 402
Problems 404
References 407

8.10
8.11
8.12
8.13
8.14
8.15
8.16
8.17

Sheet Pile Walls


9.1
9.2
9.3
9.4
9.5
9.6
9.7
9.8
9.9
9.10
9.11
9.12
9.13
9.14
9.15
9.16

409

Introduction 409
Construction Methods 413
Cantilever Sheet Pile Walls 414
Cantilever Sheet Piling Penetrating Sandy Soils 415
Special Cases for Cantilever Walls Penetrating a Sandy Soil 422
Cantilever Sheet Piling Penetrating Clay 423
Special Cases for Cantilever Walls Penetrating Clay 428
Anchored Sheet-Pile Walls 429
Free Earth Support Method for Penetration of Sandy Soil 430
Design Charts for Free Earth Support Method
(Penetration into Sandy Soil) 435
Moment Reduction for Anchored Sheet-Pile Walls 440
Computational Pressure Diagram Method for Penetration
into Sandy Soil 443
Field Observations of an Anchored Sheet Pile Wall 447
Free Earth Support Method for Penetration of Clay 448
Anchors 452
Holding Capacity of Anchor Plates in Sand 454

xii

Contents

9.17 Holding Capacity of Anchor Plates in Clay (cp = 0 Condition)


9.18 Ultimate Resistance of Tiebacks 460
Problems 461
References 464

10

Braced Cuts

460

466

10.1 Introduction 466


10.2 Pressure Envelope for Braced-Cut Design 467
10.3 Pressure Envelope for Cuts in Layered Soil 471
10.4 Design of Various Components of a Braced Cut 472
10.5 Bottom Heave of a Cut in Clay 482
10.6 Stability of the Bottom of a Cut in Sand 485
10.7 Lateral Yielding of Sheet Piles and Ground Settlement 487
Problems 489
References 490

11

Pile Foundations
11.1
11.2
11.3
11.4
11.5
11.6
11.7
11.8
11.9
11.10
11.11
11.U
11.13
11.14
11.15
11.16
11.17
11.18
11.19
11.20
11.21

491

Introduction 491
Types of Piles and Their Structural Characteristics 493
Estimating Pile Length 502
Installation of Piles 504
Load Transfer Mechanism 508
Equations for Estimating Pile Capacity 509
Meyerhofs Method for Estimating Q, 512
Vesic's Method for Estimating Q, 515
Janbu's Method for Estimating Q, 516
Coyle and Castello's Method for Estimating Q, in Sand 520
Other Correlations for Calculating Q, with SPT and CPT Results 521
Frictional Resistance (Q,) in Sand 524
Frictional (Skin) Resistance in Clay 528
Point-Bearing Capacity of Piles Resting on Rock 531
Pile Load Tests 538
Comparison of Theory with Field Load Test Results 542
Elastic Settlement of Piles 543
Laterally Loaded Piles 546
Pile-Driving Formulas 562
Pile Capacity For Vibration-Driven Piles 568
Negative Skin Friction 570

Group Pile; 573


11.22 Group Efficiency 573
11.23 Ultimate Capacity of Group Piles in Saturated Clay 576
11.24 Elastic Settlement of Group Piles 580

Contents

11.25 Consolidation Settlement of Group Piles


11.26 Piles in Rock 584
Problems 584
References 588

12

Drilled-Shaft Foundations

581

591

U.1
U.2
U.3
U.4

Introduction 591
Types of Drilled Shafts 592
Construction Procedures 593
Other Design Considerations 598
u.s Load Transfer Mechanism 598
U.6 Estimation of Load-Bearing Capacity 599
U.7 Drilled Shafts in Granular Soil: Load-Bearing Capacity 602
U.8 Drilled Shafts in Clay: Load-Bearing Capacity 613
U.9 Settlement of Drilled Shafts at Working Load 620
U.10 Lateral Load-Carrying Capacity-Characteristic Load
and Moment Method 622
U.11 Drilled Shafts Extending into Rock 631
Problems 635
References 639

.-

13

Foundations on Difficult Soils

640

13.1 Introduction 640


640
Definition and Types of Collapsible Soil 640
Physical Parameters for Identification 641
Procedure for Calculating Collapse Settlement 645
Foundation Design in Soils Not Susceptible to Wetting 646
Foundation Design in Soils Susceptible to Wetting 648

Collapsible Soil

13.2
13.3
13.4
13.S
13.6

649
13.7 General Nature of Expansive Soils 649
13.8 Laboratory Measurement of Swell 650
13.9 Classification of Expansive Soil on the Basis of Index Tests 655
13.10 Foundation Considerations for Expansive Soils 656
13.11 Construction on Expansive Soils' 661
Expansive Soils

Sanitary Landfills 665


13.U General Nature of Sanitary Landfills 665
13.13 Settlement of Sanitary Landfills 666
Problems 668
References 670
I

xiii

xiv

Contents

14.;

Soil Improvement and Ground Modification

672

Introduction 672
General Principles of Compaction 673
Correction for Compaction of Soils with Oversized Particles 676
Field Compaction 678
Compaction Control for Clay Hydraulic Barriers 681
Vibroflotation 682
Precompression 688
Sand Drains 696
Prefabricated Vertical Drains 706
Lime Stabilization 711
Cement Stabilization 714
Fly-Ash Stabilization 716
Stone Columns 717
Sand Compaction Piles 722
Dynamic Compaction 725
Jet Grouting 727
Problems 729
References 731

14.1
14.2
14.3
14.4
14.5
14.6
14.7
14.8
14.9
14.10
14.11
14.12
14.13
14.14
14.15
14.16

Appendix A 735
Answers to Selected Problems 740
Index 745

..