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Literacy Lesson Plan

Name: Jessica Chitwood

Emma is a fifth grade English Language Learner. She is a Transitional reader and is in the Within Word Pattern stage of spelling development. The Word
Recognition in Isolation task indicates that Emma can read the 2nd and 3rd Grade word lists at an instructional level (2nd: 80% 3rd: 70%). Emmas recognition
decreased dramatically when she was assessed using the 4th Grade word list (45%). On the Word Recognition in Context task, Emma reads close to a 2nd Grade
instructional level (93.4%). In general, Emma performed better on the word recognition and comprehension tasks using the 3rd Grade passage than she did using the
2nd Grade passage. Emma reads at an appropriate rate for the 2 nd and 3rd Grade levels (2nd: 94.6 wpm 3rd: 78.8 wpm). Emma read with 96% accuracy when assessed
using the 1st Grade passage and scored perfectly on the comprehension assessment for this grade level. Emmas comprehension was slightly below the instructional
cutoff on both the 2nd and 3rd Grade assessments (2nd: 62.5% 3rd: 68.7%). I suspect that Emmas status as an ELL student might contribute to her struggle with
comprehension. On the 3rd Grade passage, the answer to one question was, streamliner and Emma used the word, silver. She then said, Im thinking about it
but I cant say it. Emma could benefit from instruction that helps her expand her vocabulary as well as instruction focusing on comprehension strategies. Emmas
Word Recognition in Isolation, complete comprehension, and rate for the 1st Grade passage indicate that this is her independent reading level. The significant drop
in Emmas Word Recognition in Isolation when assessed for 4th Grade indicates that this level would be frustrating for Emma. While she does show some
competency at the 3rd Grade level, a 2nd Grade level is where instruction should begin for Emma. Emma could read some 3rd Grade texts without a high degree of
frustration, but the 2nd Grade level is most appropriate instructional level for Emmas stage of reading development.

Whole Group (approximately 20-30 minutes daily)

The students will use the inference formula: Background Knowledge + Text Clues = Inference, to make inferences about a
variety of texts and other media.
The students will infer using a variety of texts with partners and individually.
Standards of Learning5.5 The student will read and demonstrate comprehension of fictional texts, narrative nonfiction, and poetry.
Draw conclusions and make inferences from text.






1. Play the original

1. Give each student an 1. Give background on
1. Introduce the book,
1. Remind the students
Scooby Doo theme
Inferring the Meaning
the history of
Baloney Henry P. by
of the background
song to engage
of Songs handout.
segregation in the
Jon Scieszka and Lane
information we
student interest.
Discuss that we can
American South.
Smith to the class.
learned about
Discuss that whether
make inferences in a
Explain that
Explain that, Henry
segregation from
or not the students
lot of different
segregation means
P. is an alien who
reading The Other
still enjoy shows like
situations. For
separate and that at
speaks a language
Side. Ask the students
Scooby Doo, the plot
example, we infer
one point during our
similar to ours, but
to raise their hands to
of Scooby Doo can
when we read, when
nations past,
with a few
share something they
help us learn about
we listen to someone
segregation based on
differences. Henrys
know about
our comprehension
speaking, or even
the color of a persons
language uses similar
segregation. Be sure
focus for the week.
when we listen to
skin was allowed.
figures of speech and
that the points about
2. Distribute the Scooby
Describe that in the
spelling as our
separation of facilities
Doo plot description 2. Explain that the class
South, black people
language uses. We are
and services are
to each table group.
is going to listen to
and white people had
going to use our
covered before
(All handouts are
some songs and infer
separate bathrooms,
inferring skills to
beginning the read
attached at the end of
what the artist is
water fountains,
determine the
aloud. Explain that
the document.)
singing about or the
schools, and they even
meaning of Henrys
Grandmamas Pride
3. Read the story to the
meaning of the song.
lived in separate
by Becky Birtha is set
students and challenge
We will listen for
sections of cities and 2. Before reading, direct
in a similar time
them to guess the
lyric clues and think
towns. Challenge the
the students attention
period as The Other
identity of the thief
about what we
students to think about
to the inference
with their table group.
already know to make
what it might be like
anchor chart and
2. Read Grandmamas
4. Ask each group who
an inference about
to be a child who grew
emphasize that the
Pride to the students
they suspect the thief
meaning. Explain that
up during the times of
students will use clues
and pause at points
might be. Ask why
in songs, the lyrics or
segregation. Many
from the text and
throughout the book
they think the thief is
words are our text.
adults felt very
illustrations along
to model and practice
a certain person.
Play the song, Count
strongly about
with their existing

5. Highlight student
on Me by Bruno
segregation and in
3. After reading the first
explanations that refer
some areas African
knowledge to infer the
part of the first page,
to a clue from the
3. Use the Inferring the
Americans were
meanings of words.
pause to model
passage or a piece of
Meaning of Songs
physically harmed or 3. Read the book aloud
inferring. Ask the
handout to model
killed if they
to the class. While
students, What can
knowledge. Introduce
writing down lyric
challenged the
reading, pause when
we infer about the
the formal terms text
clues from the song
segregation system.
Henry uses the
mothers choice to sit
clue and
that tell what the song 2. Encourage the
following words in his
at the back of the bus?
is about. Some lyric
students to keep this
story: zimulis, deski,
I see that all the white
knowledge. Explain
clues from this song
pordo, szkila, piksas,
people on the bus are
that inferences are
include, Count on
information in mind as
cucalations, and
sitting near the front
made when a person
me like 123 and Ill
they listen to The
sighing flosser.
and the black people
combines a piece of
be there and Youll
Other Side by
Provide an example of
are sitting towards the
information from the
be there, cause thats
Jacqueline Woodson.
expected student
back. I know that
text with something
what friends are
Remind the students
responses and
segregation separated
they already know, to
supposed to do
of the importance of
connections for the
white and black
decide something
Reflect on our own
word zimulis.
people in many public
about what they are
knowledge of what it
information in the
Explain that we can
places. I can infer that
reading or
means to be a good
inference formula. Use
tell this is Henrys
the family sat at the
friend. Explain that
the inference anchor
word for pencil
back of the bus
6. Create a visual
we can infer from the
chart to point out that
because we know
because the bus was
representation of the
lyrics Count on me
the students will
what pencils look like
inference formula:
like 123 and Ill be
combine their
and there is a picture 4. Also pause after
there and our
knowledge of
of a pencil on the
reading about
Knowledge + Text
segregation with text
Clues = Inference
knowledge that
clues they observe to 4. Point out that the
decision to walk
friends help each
make inferences as
meaning of the words,
downtown instead of
other in difficult times
they experience the
piksas deski and
riding the bus. Ask
to infer that this song
cucalations can be
the students what we
is about relying on a 3. Read The Other Side
inferred because we
can infer about the
to the students and
can use our
reason Grandmama

4. Explain that the

pause periodically to
students will listen for
talk through the
knowledge of the
their own lyric clues
inferring process.
words picture
and think about their 4. After reading the first
desk and
own background
page pause and pose
calculations along
knowledge for the
the question, I see
with the illustrations
songs: Here Comes
that this text explains
in the book to infer
the Sun by The
that Clovers mother
what Henry means.
Beatles and ROAR by
does not want her to
4. Following the read
Katy Perry.
cross this fence. What
aloud, challenge the
5. Following the
can we infer about the
students to create a
completion of the two
reason it was unsafe
word for a peer to
songs, ask students to
for Clover to cross the
infer the meaning of.
share their inferences
fence? Highlight
Emphasize that
and the background
student responses that
students begin by
knowledge and lyric
draw on the
choosing a word they
clues they used to
know. Explain that the
infer the meaning of
knowledge that
students will change
the songs.
segregation sometimes
the spelling of the
made it dangerous for
word or create an
African Americans to
unrelated word
interact with white
accompanied by a
people or to go into
picture or a sentence
areas that were
using the word. The
specifically white
students will then
areas. Guide the
attempt to infer the
students toward
meaning of their
explaining a statement
partners word.
similar to, We can
*An interesting
infer from the
connection to word
mothers warning and

made this decision.

Highlight student
responses that include
text clues as well as
knowledge of
segregation. Some
students may point
out that Grandmama
did not like
segregation and if she
walked instead of
riding the bus, she
would not have to
follow the segregation
rules. Bring up a
similar discussion
when Sarah Marie
chooses not to sit on
the public bench.
Encourage the
students to infer why
Sarah Marie made
this choice. Highlight
the text clue, You
dont want to sit on
those public benches,
you dont know who
has been sitting
After reading about

our knowledge of
segregation that
Clover could not cross
the fence because she
might be hurt. Pause
at appropriate points
throughout the book to
discuss questions such
as the following: What
can we infer about the
white girl who sits on
the fence? What can
we infer about Clover
and Annies
friendship? What can
we infer from the
girls discussion of the
fence being removed
one day? Throughout
this process encourage
students to think of
inferences on their
own and to infer with
a partner. Each time a
question is posed,
allow several students
to share and highlight
or redirect students
explanations to help
them accurately
practice inferring.

study might involve

using this activity as a
springboard for teaching
derivational spelling.

the girls return home

and the inclusion of
key words that
indicate changing
laws, pause and ask
the students to get out
a sheet of paper.
Using the document
camera display the
prompt, What can
we infer about Sarah
Maries next trip to
visit Grandmama?
Explain that the
students will make an
inference and write
two sentences about
the text clues and
knowledge they used
to make their
inference. This serves
as an assessment of
the students inferring
abilities and will
inform further
planning for the
following week.
6. Finish reading
Grandmamas Pride
after all students

5. If students struggle,
work through several
of the questions as a
whole group to help
them understand and
practice the process of

complete the
inference assessment.

Guided Reading (approximately 15-25 minutes daily for each group)

The students will read and practice comprehension strategies at their instructional level.
The students will infer using nonfiction texts.
Standards of Learning
5.6 The student will read and demonstrate comprehension of nonfiction texts.
b) Use prior knowledge and build additional background knowledge as context for new learning.
g) Locate information to support opinions, predictions, and conclusions.
l) Use reading strategies throughout the reading process to monitor comprehension.
m) Read with fluency and accuracy.
1. Explain that during
guided reading this
week, students will
read nonfiction texts
and use the inferring
skills from whole
group to make
inferences about the



1. Remind the students

1. Discuss that we make
that we are making
inferences for many
inferences from
different reasons. We
nonfiction texts this
have made inferences
week for guided
about songs, fiction,
reading. Emphasize
and nonfiction, but we
that making inferences
can also make
can help us better
inferences about the



1. Before beginning the 1. To begin, the group

new book on turtles,
will review the
complete a group
anticipation guide
anticipation guide
from the previous day
with the group of
and look for topics
students. At the end of
they will be on the
guided reading each
lookout for as they
day, look back at the
read today.

animals in the books.

Explain that the
purpose of inferring
with fiction and
nonfiction is to help
students better
understand what they
are reading.
2. Introduce the book,
Frogs! by Elizabeth
Carney. Review some
of the vocabulary
students might
struggle with in the
book, especially for
English Language
Learners. Words to
address include:
continent, habitat, and
croak. Ask the
students to define
these words in their
own language and
provide support when
students struggle to
sufficiently define a
3. Allow the students to
flip through the pages
of the book for about
two minutes. Ask the

understand what we
meaning of words
anticipation guide and 2. The students will read
based on clues within
see if we can confirm
pages 18-25. The
2. Ask the students to
the words.
or correct our original
teacher will listen to a
read pages 12-15.
2. The students will read
student read to assess
Remind the students to
pages 22 and 23
2. Allow the students to
his or her reading
write down inferences
relating to the
flip through the pages
ability. When all
they think of or
Terribilis frog.
of Turtles Take Their
students finish reading
questions they have on
Remind the students to
Time for a few
these pages, the
their sticky note for
write down inferences
minutes. Take time to
teacher will point out
today. When the
they think of or
briefly address the
that she noticed that
students finish
questions they have on
terms: reptile, tortoise
turtles live in a variety
reading, ask, What
their sticky note for
and flippers.
of places; on land, in
can we infer about the
today. Ask the
3. The students will
oceans, and on land
reasons different frogs
students, What does
begin by reading
and in water. What
eat different foods?
the text tell us about
pages 3-7. When all
can we infer about
Lets think about what
this frog? Look at the
students are finished,
how life would be
we know about the
name of the frog.
the teacher will ask,
different for turtles
places some frogs live
What can we infer
What can we infer
living in all the
and what special
about why the frogs
about why the box
different habitats?
adaptations they have
name is Terribilis?
turtle might need to
This is another
to survive in their
The students will share
close up the space
question students
habitat. We can also
their inferences about
between the two parts
could struggle to
think about the text
the frogs name and
of its shell?
respond to because it
and the pictures we
will be asked to
Encourage students to
is not as specific as
see in our book to help
explain how they
draw from the text on
some of the other
us make an inference.
made their inference.
page 6 and use their
inference questions
Guide students in
Ask the students to
asked. If students
using text clues and
come up with a name
knowledge of
struggle the teacher
that might describe an
predators to make
should provide an
knowledge like the
imaginary frog they
their inference.
example of an
different sizes of frogs
dream up. Give an
4. Next, the students will
inference, I know that

students, What do
and the different food
example, My frog
read pages 10-15. Ask
most turtles move
you predict we might
choices they might
would be the purplion,
the students, What
slowly on land
learn about frogs from
have available in their
someone could infer
can we infer about all
because their bellies
this book? Ask the
habitats. Specifically
that this frog might be
reptiles from what we
drag on the ground,
students to share what
reference the inference
purple because of the
know about turtles
but I can infer that
they know about frogs.
formula anchor chart
frogs name. The
from this text and our
tortoises tall legs
Draw students
in this discussion.
students can share the
knowledge of
make it easier for them
attention to the
3. Explain that the
name of their frog with
alligators, snakes, and
to walk faster.
inference formula and
students are now
the group and other
other reptiles? The
3. The students will
explain that the
going to read pages
group members can
students will share
finish the book by
information they
16-21. While the
infer what their peers
their inferences and
reading pages 26-29.
shared can be used as
students read, the
frog might look like or
the information they
When all students
our background
teacher will listen to
be able to do.
used to make their
finish, the teacher will
knowledge when we
one student read to
3. Next, the students will
point out the last
begin to make
assess their progress
read pages 24-27. The 5. The students will read
sentence in the book,
inferences from this
and areas for which
teacher will listen to a
pages 16 and 17. The
No wonder turtles
the student may need
student read these
teacher will listen to a
take their time. They
4. Explain that today the
more support. After
pages to observe and
student read these
have lots of it. The
students will be
the students finish
assess their reading
pages to assess their
teacher will ask the
reading sections of the
reading, ask them to
reading ability. When
students, What can
book and then discuss
infer how life for a
4. After the students
all students finish, the
we infer about the
what we can infer
Microfrog might be
finish reading, ask,
teacher will ask,
authors meaning in
from those pages. Give
different than life for a
Have you ever seen a
How are the tortoises
this statement? Use
each student a sticky
Goliath Frog. Explain
tadpole? What did you
that live on land,
your book and along
note to write down
that the students will
notice? What can we
made differently than
with your background
inferences they think
write their inference
infer about baby
turtles that live mostly
knowledge of animals
of or questions they
on their sticky note
frogs? This question
in the water? What
and lifespans to infer
have as they read.
and write a sentence
is intentionally open
can we infer about the
what the author means
Explain that when the
about how they used
ended to allow
tortoises bodies that
by this statement.
students finish reading
text clues or
students a bit more
make it easier for
The students will share
a section, they give
freedom in what they
them to live on land?
their inference with

thumbs up and can

look back over the text
they read. The teacher
will listen to select
students to assess
reading progress or
points for which the
students may need
extra support.
5. The students will
begin reading on page
4 and continue through
page 7. The students
will record any
inferences they make
and any questions they
have on their sticky
note. After the
students read this
section, ask them to
share any questions
they had or any
inferences they made.
Ask the students to
turn to pages 6 and 7
and look at the
pictures of the
different habitats frogs
can live in. Point to the
inference formula and
ask the students, If

knowledge to make
their inference. This
will serve as a
formative assessment
of students
understanding of
inferences and the
inference formula that
can inform the level of
teacher support needed
for the next day.

make inferences about.

The students will
the group and explain
If the students
share their responses
their thinking.
struggle, it may be
with the group and tell 4. Revisit the
necessary for the
about what they
anticipation guide and
teacher to provide
thought about as they
encourage students to
additional support or a
made their inference.
think about which
more specific thinking 6. After the students
statements they can
stem for students to
finish this last
confirm or correct. For
infer from. For
inference discussion,
statements that are
example, I might
look back at the
false, ask the students
suggest that when I
anticipation guide and
how they could reword
have seen tadpoles in
see if we can confirm
the statements to make
the wild, there seem to
or correct what we
them true.
be a lot of them all
thought we knew
clustered together.
about turtles from our
What can we infer
reading today. If time
about why so many
allows, the teacher
tadpoles are born?
will ask the students
5. The students will
how false statements
complete the book by
could be rewritten to
reading pages 28 and
be true.
29. When the students
finish reading, the
teacher will point out
that the text says frogs
and toads bodies
are built for where
they live. What can
we infer about frogs
and toads bodies that
would help them live

we use our background

knowledge of what an
animal might need to
survive in a water,
tree, or land habitat
and we use the
pictures of the frogs as
our text clues, what
can we infer about
these frogs bodies or
behaviors that might
help them survive in
their habitat? Give an
example, The marsh
frog sticks the top of
its head out of the
water to look around,
it looks very similar to
a lily pad. I can infer
that the shape of the
frogs head helps it
blend into its marsh
habitat. Other
inferences students
might suggest relate to
the tree frogs toes that
help it grip branches or
the bullfrogs behavior
of burrowing into the
6. Next, ask the students

in a certain habitat?
The students will write
their inference on a
sheet of paper and
write a sentence
explaining how they
used text clues and
knowledge to make
their inference. This
will serve as an
assessment of the
students ability to
infer and can help
inform instruction for
the next two days.

to read pages 8-11.

When students finish
reading, ask, What
can we infer about
why frogs need to
make different noises?
Think about your need
to use different words
and use the text to help
you make an
inference. Encourage
students to explain
their inferences. This
is an important
opportunity to
emphasize drawing on
knowledge and text
clues when inferring.
Homework- The
students will read in
their independent
reading book for 15

Homework- The students

will read in their
independent reading
book for 15 minutes.

Independent Reading
The students will read independently each day.
Standards of Learning

Homework- The
students will read in
their independent
reading book for 15

Homework- The
students will read in
their independent
reading book for 15

Homework- The
students will read in
their independent
reading book for 15

5.5 The student will read and demonstrate comprehension of fictional texts, narrative nonfiction, and poetry.





Each Monday, students

will have the
opportunity to browse
the class or school
library for independent
reading books. Students
are encouraged to select
a variety of book genres.

The students will read

independently and the
teacher will confer with
some students each day.

The students will read

independently and the
teacher will confer with
some students each day.

The students will read

independently and the
teacher will confer with
some students each day.

The students will read

independently and the
teacher will confer with
some students each day.

The students will read

independently and the
teacher will confer with
some students each day.

Each Friday, some

students will share a
book they are reading
with the class and
describe why someone
might be interested in
this book.

Writing (approximately 30-40 minutes each day).

The students will identify organizational strategies in pieces of writing.
The students will use organizational strategies in their own writing.
Standards of Learning5.7 The student will write for a variety of purposes: to describe, to inform, to entertain, to
explain, and to persuade.
a) Identify intended audience.
b) Use a variety of prewriting strategies.

c) Organize information to convey a central idea.

d) Write a clear topic sentence focusing on the main idea.
e) Write multi-paragraph compositions.
f) Use precise and descriptive vocabulary to create tone and voice.
g) Vary sentence structure by using transition words.
h) Revise for clarity of content using specific vocabulary and information.
i) Include supporting details that elaborate the main idea.





1. Explain that good

1. Remind the students
1. Review Problem and
1. Explain that the
1. Distribute the Cause
authors write in a way
that, yesterday, we
Solution and Cause
students will work
and Effect and
that is organized. If
discussed the
and Effect
together with a team
Problem Solution
writers wrote
organization strategy
organization strategies.
at their table to
assessment handout.
whatever popped into
Cause and Effect.
Emphasize that Cause
identify the
Explain that the
their minds without
Explain that today, the
and Effect tells about
students will read the
organizing their
students will learn
something and then
strategies used in four
two passages on the
thoughts, it would be
about the Problem and
explains the reasons
passages. Two of the
handout and write
very hard to
Solution organization
that thing happened.
passages relate to
whether the author
understand what they
Problem and Solution
endangered species
used a Problem and
are trying to say.
2. Explain that
identifies a problem
and are written in
Solution or a Cause
Explain that over the
sometimes the purpose
and gives ways to
similar formats to the
and Effect
next few days, the
of a piece of writing is
solve the problem.
passages covered
students will be
to make readers aware 2. Create a Venn diagram
earlier in the week.
learning about two
of a problem and ways
to compare and
The purpose of this is 2. As the students finish
strategies writers use
the problem can be
contrast the two
to help scaffold the
the assessment they
to organize their
solved. When this is
experience for
will complete their
writing: Cause and
the purpose of a piece
strategies. The
students by beginning
Cause and Effect or
Effect and Problem
of writing, the
students are
with passages they are
Problem and Solution
and Solution. Explain
Problem and Solution
responsible for
familiar with and then

that a strategy is
organization strategy
another word for a
is one of the best ways
plan. Remind students
to organize writing.
that an author begins
For example, a writer
with a purpose for
might see that
writing. The author
pollution is a problem
has something they
in his or her
want to share or make
community. The
people aware of. The
author would write
next step is to think,
about the problem and
What is the best way
then suggest several
I can organize my
solutions to reduce
thoughts to help my
pollution. A solution
readers understand
is a way to fix a
what I am trying to
problem. Some
solutions to reduce
2. Sometimes the best
pollution might
way to organize
include informing
thoughts is the Cause
people about how to
and Effect strategy.
properly dispose of
When writing is
their waste and strict
organized this way, it
tells us about an event
controls for businesses
that happened and the
who contribute to
things that caused that
event. Sometimes
3. Display the passage,
there are many things
How to Help the
that cause an effect,
Hawksbills. Explain
for example, a
that the students are
football team loses a
going to read more
game because their
about Hawksbill Sea

identifying similarities
applying their
3. During the last fifteen
and differences
knowledge to
minutes of class,
between these two
passages relating to
students will share
strategies. Some of the
different material.
their essays with the
contrasting differences 2. Give each table group
class. Examples of
might include that
a plastic bag with the
both the
Problem and Solution
four passages inside.
tells what you can do
Ask the students to
strategies covered this
about something
read through each
week will be shared.
where Cause and
passage and identify
Each student who
Effect tells the reasons
the organization
shares will be asked
something happened.
strategy. The students
to tell what
The students may also
must complete the
point out that the
graphic organizer to
strategy they used
details in Cause and
identify problems,
and why they chose
Effect are causes and
solutions, causes, and
that strategy for their
the details in Problem
effects for each
writing. The goal of
and Solution are
this activity is to
solutions. The students 3. After each group has
allow students to see
might also recognize
the chance to classify
how their peers used
some key words like
each passage. Go over
strategies similar to
reason because
the passages as a
and different from
and resolve. If
whole group. Ask for
their own as well as
students struggle to
student input on how
seeing their peers
identify key words the
they determined the
thinking as they
teacher should identify
organizational strategy
explain why they
and explain why key
of each passage to
chose a given
words can help us
involve all students in
identify which strategy
the identification
is being used. The
process even if they
students may point out
identified the passage

quarterback was
injured, their wide
receiver dropped a
pass, and the other
team played very
good defense.
3. Display the passage,
Hawksbill Sea
Turtles and read the
passage aloud to the
students. Pause and
explain when specific
vocabulary like
endangered and
bycatch are used to
help students
understand the
passage. Model how
to select the effect in
a passage and causes
of a given effect. Fill
in the Cause and
Effect graphic
organizer for this
passage. In this
passage, the effect is
that Hawksbill Sea
Turtles are a critically
endangered species.

Turtles today, but the

that each strategy
organizational strategy
begins with an event
4. Following the
will be Problem and
or something that
identification activity
Solution. Read the
happened and then is
the students will
passage to the students
followed by details.
continue in writing
and fill out the
However, an event can
their Cause and Effect
Problem and Solution
be used as a problem
or Problem and
graphic organizer.
or an effect. The
Solution essays. The
Pause and explain
students may struggle
teacher will circulate
when specific
to understand this and
throughout the room
vocabulary like,
comparing the two
to provide feedback
endangered and
passages on the
on student writing and
bycatch are used to
Hawksbill Sea Turtles
answer any questions
help scaffold students
can help the students
that arise. The teacher
see how the structure
will give the students
Explain that the
of the organizational
a five-minute warning
problem in this
strategies are different.
when it is time to
passage is that
3. Ask the students to
wrap up and remind
Hawksbill Sea Turtles
take out the plans they
the students that their
are becoming extinct.
completed using the
rough draft must be
The author gives
graphic organizers the
completed tomorrow.
several solutions to
past two days. Explain 5. Ask the students to
this problem
that the students will
choose a partner
including, educating
pick one plan to write
sitting near them.
people, passing laws,
an essay about. The
Explain that the
donating money for
essay should be at
students will discuss
research, and
least three paragraphs
what they
changing fishing
and must follow one of
accomplished today
equipment. Explain
the strategies we
and what they plan to
that we know this is a
learned about this
accomplish tomorrow
Problem and Solution
week. For cause and
to complete the essay

The causes of this are

passage because the
effect, the students
habitat destruction,
author begins by
must identify
bycatch, and the
telling us something
something that
selling of turtle shells.
that he or she sees as a
happened to them and
Highlight ways we
problem. The author
give at least three
can tell that this
then gives several
causes for the effect.
passage uses the
ways to fix the
Students who choose
Cause and Effect
problem. Point out
Problem and Solution
strategy. Explain that
that the effect from
must identify a
we can tell this
yesterday and the
problem in our school
passage is Cause and
problem from today
or community and
Effect because our
are both that the
give three solutions
author begins by
Hawksbill Sea Turtle
that could help fix that
telling us something
is an endangered
problem. Explain that
that happened. The
species. Describe that
it is not enough to list
author then uses
the author explains
the causes or solutions.
words like reason
why something
Students must expand
and cause that tell
happened or ways to
on these ideas and
us he or she is
fix what happened,
write about how
explaining the causes
this tells us whether or
something caused an
for the disappearance
not the author used a
effect or how
of the Hawksbill Sea
Cause and Effect or a
something is a solution
Problem and Solution
to a problem.
4. Ask the students to
4. The students will
think of something
revise their plans to
that happened to them 4. Ask the students to
meet the criteria and
recently. Explain that
brainstorm problems
begin writing their
they will think
they observed in our
essays for the
backwards about
community or school
remainder of the
what caused that
and think of some
writing time period.
event to happen. The
solutions to the
While the students

on time.

students will make a

plan for their ideas
using the Cause and
Effect graphic
organizer. The
students will then
share their plan with a

problem. The students

will make a plan for
their ideas using the
Problem and Solution
graphic organizer. The
students will share
their plan with a peer.

plan and write, the

teacher will circulate
throughout the room to
answer questions and
identify students who
need support in
meeting the
requirements set out.

Word Study:
Emma is a fifth grade English Language Learner. The spelling inventory indicates that she is in the Middle Within Word Stage. She
knows short vowels as well as blends and digraphs. She uses but confuses some of the common long vowels and other vowels such as or, er,
and ow. She has knowledge of inflected endings and some unaccented final syllables. Emma does seem to struggle some with specific short
vowels and common long vowels. Because of this, Emma needs to review the short u sound and the oa sound pattern to fill gaps in her
understanding. Word study for Emma should include sorts that focus on less common vowel patterns as she uses but confuses some of these
vowels. It would b e useful for Emma to sort by sound or picture in addition to sorting by spelling as I suspect she has trouble pronouncing some
English vowels. I think Emma could also benefit from word study activities, like word hunts, that involve finding words that fit the pattern being
studied in real text to allow her to apply her word study knowledge.

for week

The students will classify words based on less common vowel patterns.
The students will sort words based on spelling and sound patterns.

SOLs for week

5.4 The student will expand vocabulary when reading.
a) Use context to clarify meaning of unfamiliar words and phrases.

b) Use context and sentence structure to determine meanings and differentiate

among multiple meanings of words.
c) Use knowledge of roots, affixes, synonyms, antonyms, and homophones.
d) Identify an authors use of figurative language.
e) Use dictionary, glossary, thesaurus, and other word-reference materials.
f) Develop vocabulary by listening to and reading a variety of texts.
g) Study word meanings across content areas





Introduce the sort.

Word Hunt

Writing Sort

Racetrack Game

1. Meet with the students

in Emmas group to
introduce the sort.
2. Begin by reading the
words with the students
and asking the students
what each word means.
Be sure to clarify the
meaning of any word
the students do not
3. Pose the question,
What do you notice
about these words?
Discuss student
responses and explain

1. Pair students with other

members of their word
study group to complete
the word hunt activity.
2. Explain that each pair of
students will listen and
look for words in their
class novel, (ex.
Wonder) to find words
that match the spelling
patterns for this week.
Emphasize that the
students must write the
words in their word
study notebook and
classify the words using

Assessment: Blind
Writing Sort

1. The teacher will meet

1. Group students in pairs
with word study groups
based on their word study 1. The students will sort
to facilitate further
the words based on
discussion of diphthong 2. Explain the rules of the
spelling pattern.
Racetrack Game. Each 2. The teacher will call out
2. The teacher will review
player gets six word
words from the list and
the words found in the
cards and the rest of the
the students will write
word hunt and
cards are placed in the
those words into
homework to discuss
middle. One player rolls
categories in their word
how to classify these
the die and moves the
study notebook. If
words according to their
marker the indicated
necessary, the teacher
number of spaces. The
will repeat the word for
3. The teacher will ask the
spelling pattern of the
the students.
students how they might
word in the space the
3. The teacher will analyze
sort the new words
student lands on
the assessment and make
differently if they sorted
determines the word the
plans to remediate

that the students will

the category headings
now try to sort the
from the sort this week.
words based on sound.
Challenge each pair of
Respond to any
students to find two new
questions students have
words for each category
about the words or the
in their sort. However, it
sounds they make.
is acceptable if students
4. Ask students to explain
cannot meet this goal.
how they sorted their
Some word patterns are
words. Emphasize that
more common than
all strategies are valued.
5. Highlight the important 3. The teacher will read a
features of the words
chapter from the class
and connect these
novel and students will
features to the student
follow along, looking
sorts. Explain that the
for words to record in
words we are sorting
the different categories.
today include
The teacher will pause
diphthongs. Diphthongs
at the end of each page
are sounds that begin
so that partners can
with one vowel sound
discuss words or catch
and move to another
up with recording words
vowel sound in the
as needed.
same syllable. Point out 4. Following the activity,
the distinct o and i
students will meet with
sounds in the word
their word study groups
coin as an example.
to compare the words
6. Point out that there are
found and their peers
2 types of sounds in our
classification of those
sort. There is the oy
sound made by words
5. The teacher will
like toy and coin.
circulate throughout the
There is the ow sound
room, asking children
made by words like
about interesting words

by sound. The students

student must find a
will take a few minutes
match for with the word
to consider this and then
cards in their hand. If
the teacher will ask them
the player makes a
to explain some of their
match, they draw a card
from the stack in the
4. Following a discussion
center, if he or she does
of new words that fit the
not make a match they
pattern, the students will
still have to draw a card.
complete a writing sort
Matched cards are put in
in their notebooks.
a separate pile next to
5. The teacher will call out
the player to be tallied at
the words from the word
the end. Then the other
list. The students are
player rolls the die. The
expected to categorize
game is played until
the words based on the
there are no cards
vowel sound they make.
remaining in the center.
6. Following this activity,
Then, each student
the teacher will review
counts the number of
the students sorts and
cards in their match pile
discuss any points that
and the player with the
need further
most matches wins. It
clarification. If the
may be useful to give an
students are still using
example of rolling the
but confusing the letter
die and finding a word
sounds in a word, the
card that matches the
teacher should take
pattern on the board.
more time to reiterate
3. Explain that students
the pattern and help the
should help each other
students understand the
check if the word card
connection between the
they choose matches the
sound made and vowels
pattern on the board
used in the word. For
space. If there are
example, the students
questions or really

diphthongs or move on
for word study next

gown and mouth.

Highlight that the ow
and ou words and the
oy and oi words
make the same sound
using different vowels.
Use these examples to
explain that sorting by
spelling and sorting by
the sounds words make
would be very different
for this word list.
7. Ask the students to sort
the words by sound

they found or helping to

facilitate classification
of words the group may
be struggling with.

may have difficulty

differentiating ow and
ou sounds in words. If
this is the case, the
teacher should spend
extra time on this
This activity should
provide the teacher with
feedback concerning the
students understanding
of the sounds the words
make and the vowels
used to spell each word.

Homework: Sort the words

by spelling in your word
study notebook using the
category headings.

Homework: Listen for,

find, or create 2 words that
could fit with each
category in this weeks

Homework: Ask someone

at home to do a blind sort
with the words. Explain the
patterns to that person after
the sort.

confusing words, the

students should raise
their hand for teacher
4. During the game, the
teacher should circulate
throughout the room
answering any questions
students have and
observing what students
might still be using but

Homework: In the word

study notebook, sort the
words based on sound.
Review the spelling sort
from Mondays

Bear, D.R., Invernizzi, M., Templeton, S. & Johnston, F. (2012). Words their way: Word study for phonics, vocabulary, and spelling instruction
(5th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.

Birtha, B. (2005). Grandmamas pride. Park Ridge, IL: Albert Whitman and Company.
Carney, E. (2009). Frogs! Washington DC: National Geographic Society.
Fowler, A. (1992). Turtles take their time. Chicago, IL: Childrens Press.
McGregor, T. (2007). Comprehension connections: Bridges to strategic reading. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
National Geographic. (2015). Causes of global warming. Retrieved April 27, 2015, from
Scieszka, J. (2005). Baloney: Henry P. Puffin Books.
Woodson, J. (2001). The other side. New York, NY: GP Putnams Sons.
World Wildlife Fund. (2015). Protecting species. Retrieved April 27, 2015, from