U.S.

History

Jason Saba

CHAPTER 26: ³Cold War Conflicts´ ______________________________________________________
Section 4: Two Nations Live on the Edge
One Americans Story: [no longer added] Brinkmanship Rules U.S. Policy Russia¶s atomic bomb U.S. need for stronger bomb Race for the H-Bomb H-Bomb: hydrogen bomb; 67x more lethal than the atom bomb U.S. developed the first H-Bomb Russia, 1 year later, developed an H-Bomb as well The Policy of Brinkmanship Dwight D. Eisenhower: president at the time John Foster Dulles: anti-communist secretary of state Dulles wanted the U.S. to use all its power to destroy Communism (including the HBomb) Brinkmanship: the willingness of the United States, under President Eisenhower, to go to the edge of all-out war. The U.S. trimmed its army and navy and expanded its air force (which would deliver the bombs) and its buildup of nuclear weapons American public in fear (shelters and air-raid procedures) The Cold War Spreads Around the World U.S. relied heavily on CIA Central Intelligence Agency (CIA): used spies to gather information abroad and began to carry out covert, or secret, operations to weaken or overthrow governments unfriendly to the U.S. Covert Actions in the Middle East and Latin America Iran¶s economy was faltered U.S. fear of Communism in Iran CIA gave $ to an Iranian group against the new leader U.S. fear of Communism in Guatemala CIA trains army invasion of Guatemala Dictator ruled Guatemala The Warsaw Pact Western Alliance = NATO Soviet and European Alliance = Warsaw Pact A Summit in Geneva Eisenhower & Soviets meet in Geneva, Switzerland to discuss allowing air flights over e/o countries Soviets reject proposal The Suez War U.S. & U.K. finance construction of a dam in Egypt U.S. found out that Egypt was also receiving aid from the Soviets angry Americans pulled back aid angry Egyptians Egypt took the Suez Canal from U.K. and France angry French & British

Notes taken from, The Americans, by McDougal Littel

Egypt refused to allow Israeli goods pass through the Suez Canal Great Britain + France + Israel sent troops and retrieved a part of the canal UN stopped the fighting Egypt wins The Eisenhower Doctrine Eisenhower Doctrine: the U.S. would defend the Middle East against an attack by any communist country The Doctrine was implemented to counterbalance Communist development The Hungarian Uprising Soviets controlled Hungary Hungary wanted a Democratic gov Imre Nagy demanded self-control of Hungary Soviets invaded Hungary and killed civilians The U.S. did nothing to help Hungary, regardless of the doctrine The Cold War Takes to the Skies Nikita Khrushchev: a man in the Soviet Union who gained power but favored peaceful coexistence without war The Space Race Soviets launched Sputnik, a satellite which circled the globe U.S., years later, launched its first satellite as well A U-2 is Shot Down U-2: U.S. plane which spied on Soviet¶s nuclear arms Francis Gary Powers: a U-2 pilot shot down by Soviets Renewed Confrontation U-2 Incident: Soviets shot down a U-2 plane greater tensions between US and USSR

Notes taken from, The Americans, by McDougal Littel

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