A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF SIR WALTER SCOTT AND ABDUl.

HAI,IM SIIARAR

AS HISTORICAL NOVF.LISTS

Supervisor

Scholar

Prof.nr.Khawaja Im'iHz Ali Ex-Vice-Chancellor,

Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan, Pakistan.

Miss F~rida Yousaf

Assistant Prnrp~sort Department of English Language and Literfltl.lre Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan, Pakist~n.

)

__ ~_ _ __J

J::tECLARAT ION

J hereby declare that J have not suhmi.ted

this research work of mine entitled "A C'~_~ARATIVF.

STUDY OF ~IR WALTER 'SCOTT AND AnoUI. ~AI.L~ £HARA_~ ~!'_

HISTORICAl. NOVELISTS" leading to a degree of Ph.D. In

English Literature within the country or

outsfde

Pakistan. I also promise not to submit the same thesis

tor a degree of Ph.D. to any other University ]n

future. Research work ot the same topic has never been

suhmitted before hy anyone in any University.

(MISS FARIDA Y01JS_L\F)

Assistant Professor, Department of F.nglish J.RnKlIagp and Litprature,

Bahauddin Zakariya University, Mul tan.

---- - ------

-- - ---_-"

DEDJ:CATED TO THE HOLY PROPHET

< Pea. C €I! be U po:n h j Pl )

ACKNOWI .. EDGEMRNT

The present work on a comparative study of

Sir Walter Scott and Abdul Halim ShBrar as historir~l

novelists may, perhaps, be the first research work on

two writers belonging to two different climes and

cultures, undertaken by any University in Pakistan. In /

this sense it can be considered as a pioneering work.

There were, of course innummerable difficulties and

obstacles in the process of the completion of this

work, because of its unfamiliar nature, hut I was able

to surmount them, as far as possible, through the help

of various persons and institutions.

The foremost among these is my guide and

supervisor DR. KHAWAJA IMITAZ ALI whose encourRgement,

constructive criticism and useful suggestions were a

source of invaluable help.

J also owe my gratitude to Mr. Docherty, the

erstwhile Director of The British Council, Lahore, who

made available a grant of a reasonable amount to help

me undertake a short trip to U.K. to visit Libraries

and organizations relevant to ~y work. This help w~s

supplemented by a generous grant from my Univer~i1y

(Rahauddin Zakariya University, Multan) which en ab l e-d

me to visit U.K. and meet people related to my resPRrch

I

---------

and consult relevant material at ~jfferent librarips,

am very grateful to my University for this help,

also owe thanks to the Librarians or the

Punjab University Lihrary, Diyal Singh College Lihrary. Punjab Public Library and Karachi University Library

where

I found copies or Sharar's Journal Dilg"daz An~

other journals on \Jr~u Novel. Which were or great help to me in my work.

Closer at home I would like to express my gratitude to my rriend and colleague Dr. Humaira Dasti

ror her encouragement an~ help at crucial times.

Last

but not least I want to acknowledge the co-operation on the pari or my typist, Mr. Muhammad Shafiq.

II

PREFACE

Literary crifiques have usuR'ly been writfpn

on the works o f i nrl i v i d u a l w r Lt e r s b e Lo ng I ng

t I) Ollf'

l angu ag e and cui furl" bu t in the motlern 'jmrs t hr- r e is R

growing demand for bro~dening the horizon of

literary

perception and encour~ge cosmopolitan and Res1hetic

sensibility

encompassing more

languages and

centuries. The interpretation of such works requires a

knowledge of the literatures with which it deals and

the modern reader or scholar

is dependent

either,

directly,

or indirectly .... on comparative study.

In

other words, comparative study is involved even in the
criticism of a single writer as locating hi'" in his
own ethos and analyzing his work as rel~tf'd tn thE'
writers of his own age and of earlier times i-j an inevitable

Aspecf

of

the

research.

Thus

significance of a work of art

is more thoronghly

grasped and the experience thereof enriched when it is compared to another work of art.

The purpose of the prE'sent dissertation is 10 compare Sir Walter Scott and Ahdul Halim Sharar AS

historicRI

novelists.

Sir Walter Scott is

th(" first

historical

novelist in English and Abdul Halim ~hIH~r

holds

the same position in Urdu l i t e r a t u r e , All <-ffort

111

has been made to explore th~ simil~r

trends and techniques in t h e works or t h e two no v e l Ls t s .

The dissertation r.onsists of

~ix C'h~pters.

The first chapter starts with an introduction

10

th~

comparative study or litprature. Then it

procppds

to

give an

insight into the lives of the

two nov~lists

which helps

to determine the Hocisl, political

and

cultural fAC'tors which s t i mu La t e d them to write such a

variety of historical novels. C'haptpr two is abollt th~ .'

nature and function of/hi:o;torical nov",), It rpl"les f.hp

different

aspects ot historiC'al novel

and

j t s

C't}-

relation

with history which also

includes

hrief

description of English and Urdu literaturl;'s given in

order

to determine the positions of the two novelists

in their rpspective literatures and th~ir . I J

.• /' ! /

contribution

J

to establish

the histori~al novel as an apprt)pri~t('

.--~.

literary genre.

(,ha~!er three deAls wit h thp hi~torirfll
thp.mes dealt/hY the two writ('rs and point~ .Ollt the likeness~s and differences in thpir 1reatmpnt of

thosp

subjects. (,bapter four C'onsists of a ~nmparison hetwpcn

thp prespntation or rharactcrs by Scott

Chapter

fivp

is

~n attempt to e xp l o r r- anft rnmp!\rf'>

various narrative t('chniques uspd by Scott and Sharar.

IV

Th e i r USE' of various techniques are p r o v e d hl!_ q uo t Lng

~xamplp.s rrom their novels.

Th~ sixth and last ch~pter is the ~onclusinn

of

th~ whole thesis. Tn this

r:hapt(!r

the e r e a t i v e

achjev~mE'nts or th~ two writers arp. compAr~rl anrl their

success

in achieving the goals

atfribufprl

to

t hp i r

novels,__w1'"e an a l y z e d , Jt is hnpprl t ha t this o omp a r a t i v e

study will be helpful in viewing both Scott Anrl Sharar

in a new critical perspective.

-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-

v

CONTENTS

CHAPTERS p~Gr

I INTRODUCTION

II

TilE ART OF JlIST()R'C~L NOVEL

?6

lJI

HISTORICAL THRMES IN THR NOVEI.S OF SCOTT AND SHARAR

67

IV

CHARACTERIZATION IN THE NOVEI.S OF SCOTT AND SHARAR

14 1

v

NARRATIVE TECHNIQUES USED RY SCOTT AND SHARAR

18 I

VI

CONCLUSION

220

CI-IAPTER.. ONE

I N TR.ODt) C'1.' I ON

Comparative study of literature is one of the most

important aspects of literary criticism. It helps to explore

what distinguishes the works of two writers. It highlights

many important aspects which may have been left unnoticed

while studying a writer exclusively. In other words it opens

many new yistas of literary research. The comparison between

two writers helps, to a great extent, in determining their

literary status. The comparative studies of the works of the

same language have been quite common and popular. For

example, Shakespeare and Shaw have often been compared as

great

drama tis t s

of English Literature.

In

poetry,

Wordsworth and Keats offer a fruitful comparative study. In

the field of novel we see Richardson and Fielding compared.

Similarly, in Urdu literature, the comparative study of Meer

and Ghalib by Maulana Altaf Husain Halil is well-known. Many

comparative studies have been undertaken in the field of

Urdu novel. But the comparison of the writers, belonging to

two different lanKuages, provides a wider p~rspectivp for

the analysis of different literary and cultural aspects of

the works of writers.

(1) Hali, Maulana Altaf Hussain, Mllgaddma Sher-o-Shairi.

Delh.i. 1916.

1

Henry Gifford in his very p~rcpptivp analysis of

comparative literature has appreciated difficulties that may

arise

where

two different

linguistic

and

cultural

backgrounds are involved •

He has also pointed out

the

• A_ r. j-. ,..~ v-" /

linguistic problems, in the process of translation and has

..

rightly stated that translation, sometimes, affects the real

essence

of the original text2•

Gifford's comments may be considered relevant in

the matter of translations in languages othe~·than Urdu and

English where the translation method is regarded as an

important means for enhancing the efficacy of a language. A

translation may affect the essence but the substance of the

original

text can be conveyed to facilitate the reader who

knows only one of the Janguages.

It can be said that

if the writers compared

belong to different languages and also dwell

in different

ages as is the case with Sir Walter Scott and Abdul Halim

Sharar (the former belongs to the nineteenth century and the

latter to the early part of the twentieth century) it serves

the greater purpose of analyzing the different cultures and

different approaches of the writers due to their contrastive

env i romnen t s ,

In this case comparativ~ study he comes an

impor tant

vehicle to discover the social,

r.ultural

and

(2) Gifford, HenrY.,Comparative Liteq\_l!!I~~, hy Ron t l e dg e and Kecan Paul Ltd. London~~p. 44-50.

2

literary differences

between the two civilizations. The

similar and contrastive points prove to be more illuminative

when a comparison between two historical novelists is made

as it brings to limelight certain similar and contrastive

points of

the history of

two nations. The historical

novelist's creative imagination comes to his aid and enables

him to enliven the dull and dry facts of histc~~. History

tells us what really happens and fiction relates what can

happen. In the historical novel the writer tries to create a

coalition between history and fiction.

Matthew Arnold required that Hevery critic should

try and possess one great literature at least besides his

own ; and the more unlike his own, the better,,3. This he felt

was a law of criticism. In our day it appears to be almost a

law of the creative imagination. Arnold's comment indicates

that despite the inevitable cultural and social differences

the process of creative imagination informing them is almost

the same in all the literatures of the world. Henry Gifford

has also emphasized the same point when he says that

lithe

ideal student of comparative literature •••• will need time

and patience; a conviction of where he is going; a keen eye

for the local and particular, the awareness of historical

(3) Arnold Matthew, Essays in criticism, MacMillan, London 1865, P.39.

3

context; an active b e Li e f thai all literature is o n e and

indivisible. Add to these temerity and reserve: he must not

claim too much or enunciate too positively; ypt be ready for

. k,,4

r 1 s •

In the present dissertation an effort has been

made to compare Sir Walter Scott and Abdul Halim Sharar as

historical novelists. It may perhaps be profitable to have a their life1;tories. This probe will help f..

look

at

a

great

deal

in determining the reasons for various similar and

digsimilar literary aspects of their works as the nature of

the environment, in which a writer's personality develops

and finds its exposure, determines the nature and functions

of his creative works to a very great extent.

Sir Walter Scott was born on August 15. 1771. His

father was a lawyer who descended from a long line of

country gentlemen and his mother was the daughter of a

physician. Through both his parents Scott was connected with

families in the Border area of the south of Scotland. The

young Walter Scott,

one of a large family, was ill

in

infancy with what appears now to have been poliomyelitis,

which left him lame in later lifr. His parents, hoping that

(4) Gifford,Henry .• Opcit, P. 15.

4

country air would restore him, sent him to live for

long

periods with his grandparents ncar Kelso. Which, became a second home to him. It was there in childhood t La t he first

became aware of the traditional ballads and tales of the Border which were to stimulate his imagination all his life.

From

his earliest years Scott was fond

of

listening to his elderly relatives on both sides of the

family. He derived much historical material

from those

accounts and stories. He heard tales of the Jacobites during his stay in the Borders and these tales formed the raw material for his historical novels.

Scott's childhood being divided between Edinburgh

where be attended the High School

and the Border, set

the

pattern for that dichotomy visible in his adult life between the educated professional man of the world and the rover of the more old fashioned traditions of rural Scotland. It was

because of his upbringing

in two different kinds of

env i r oruae n t s

that he could never get rid of

the conflict

between new demands of time and the "good old causes". In youth he took avidly to reading and stored his tenacious memory with all manners of information derived from books,

especially history,

romance and poetry.

Scot t had the

classical

education of an 18th century gentleman, but

t h t'

Greek and Roman classics were never his first

love; his

5

youthful

imagination was fired hy balled po~try and the

works of later writers, especially Froissart,

Spenser and

Shakespeare. lie seemed to be recalling his own reading in adolescence very closely when he descrihed that of Edward Waverley in Chapter 3 of Waverley.

The raw material of his novels is an amalgam of

his widely read literary works and the oral knowledge that he derived from his elderly relatives. Though bookish and,

in his own way, a distinguished scholar,

Scot t always

preferred to rely for his historical impressions upon oral

tradition. That

is one reason why, though he wrote about

many different centuries and often used a medieval setting, all his best books deal with Scotland and with times within

a century and a half of his own.

Scott's father was a

solicitor and,

for some time, employed his son in his

office. But young Walter was destined for a higher rank of

t he legal

profession, that of barrister, and he studied,

accordingly,

at the University of Edinburgh. He became an

advocate jn 1792 and practised for some time, without much

success.

In 1799, he got a legal post, more to his liking,

when he was appointed Sheriff-Depute for the county of Selkirk and in 1806 he was appointed a clerk of the court of

session - two appointments which he refained until the end

of his life,

and which assurpd him a modest hut ~tpRdy

income.

6

An o u t l f n c of Scott's professional

career alone

gives a misleading picture of his life, dominated as it was

by his vast literary output. As a student hl' was

impressed

by the current revival of literature in Germany and his first pUblications were translations of Burger (1141-94) and

Goethe

(1149-1832).

But he soon turned his hand

to

material, nearer at hand, and started his literary career as a poet. His first major publication was a collection of the ballads of his beloved Border, entitled The Minstrelsy of the Scottish Border (1802-3). The work was well received by

fellow enthusiasts,

but it was not of a nature to bring

widespread fame. That came in 1805 with The ~ of the Last

Ministrel, a verse romance which was an instant success. He

followed it with others like Marmion (1808), The Lady of the ~ak~ (1810) and Ro~p.Qx (1813). He became, in those years, the most celebrated living poet - a palm which he later had to yield to Lord Byron - and incidentally a rich man. In

1813 he was offered the post of Poet

Laurcate,

which he

declined in favour of Robert Southey, who, he thought, needed the money more than he did.

Although Scott was personally a modest man, it was inevitable that success on this scale should influence his

style of living. In 1191 after a broken love affair that he

never forgot, he married Charlotte Charpentier by whom he

1

had four children. His post as Sheriff of Selkirk made it

desirable that he should live in that county and he acquired

land upon which he built Abbotsford, a house in the Gothic

style, which in the ambitions of its design was a constant

drain on his resources. Abbotsford, near Melrose, is still

lived in by Scott's descendants and is open to visitors.

Scott's fame, as a poet, surrounded him with visitors and

admirers. It may have been a desire to escape the strain of

being lionised which caused him to publish Waverley, his

first novel anonymously. It

came out on 7th July 1814 and

was an instant success. Many guessed at once who the author

was,

but Scott refused all provocation to acknowledge it

until many years later. He wrote to Morritt (who was in the

secret)

in July 1814 "I shall not own Waverley, my chief

reason in t ha t

it would prpvcni me of the pleasure of

. t . . ,,5

Wrl Ing agaIn •

According to David Daiches, one of the reasons of

Scott's anonymity is that "he seems to have had some deep-

seated desire to conceal how many lives he was leading and

how much his way of life was dependent on writing best-

selling novels. Further, he enjoyed mystification,,6.

(5)

Let~er~ of £1£ Walter Scott, Vol.XI, Grierson, London 1932, P.230.

ed.

H.J.C.

(6) Daiches David, Sir Walter Scott and his world, Macmillan.

New York, 1971, PP. 96-7.

8

Scot1

was a socjable man who loved good company

and was always excellent company himself. But his journal7

shows t h a t

there was also a streak of solitariness,

a

tendenc1 to with-hold part of himselr. He seems to have relt

that

it would have made him vulnerable if he acknowledged

the authorship of the Waverley Novels. In fact, he had to

acknowledge the authorship in 1826 to the trustees appointpd

after the financial crash, since this was his main source of

income and

In February 1821 he at

la&t acknowledged it

publicly at a theatrical Fund dinner in Edinburgh.

Waverley is the first historical novel.

I t

IS

about the Jacobite Rebellian of 1145. Guy Mannering was Scott's

second novel,

though written much more according to a

convent ional

formula (dire prophecies, dispossession,

the

lost heir reappearing and finally gaining the girl and his

inheritance) was deeply rooted in Scottish society in the

t~wes of Scott's youth and contains some brilliant scenes of

common life. Scott's narrative poem The 1prd of Isles and

his nove) Guy Mannering both appeared in 1815. The relative

failure of the former and the roaring success of the latter,

confirmed Scott in his career as a noveJist. Henceforth with

extra-ordinary fpr.undity, and,

\ sometimes, by driving himselr

d e sp e r a teo) y b e c a u s e he needed t hl~ mon ey.

Se o t t produced

(7) Journal.!!.f SiL Walter Scott, London11890.

9

an average of more than one novel a year. The victory of

Waterloo,

an event which stirred Scott

enormously,

also

occurred in 1815. He made a triumphant visit to London in March and the following summer paid his first visit to the Continent, primarily to see the battlefield and meet his hero, the Duke of Wellington, in Paris. The trip produced a

series of letters home, describing his experiences in which

autobiography is only faintly disguised. rt was published in

1816.

Scott's third novel The Antiquary appeared in May 1816. Here Scott came nearer still to his own time. ln this

way Scott was charting a movement in the history of his own

country. The Antiquary was Scott's own favourite among his novels.

Pushed by the need of money for his expanding Abbotsford estates and excited by the profit motive for more novels which danced in his head, Scott now embarked on a curIous plan. He invented a series called Tales of ~ LandLord collected by a fictitious schoolmaster Jedediah Cleishbothem. The first of the new stories was The Black

r:.-.a r f ,

which was considered inferior by his publisher

William Slackword. Two novels The plack Dwarf and QLQ

Mortality appeared together in four volumes in December

1816. His next novel, f{ob Roy, as well as the second series

10

of Tales of ~ Landlord (consisting of Thp Heart of

Midlothian and other stories were published in 1818.

In March 1817 Scott was visited by the first of

the bouts of severe internal pain which plagued him for the

next

three years. Scott tried never to let his frequent

visitations of excruciating pain interfere with his writing.

When he was unable to write he dictated to his friend and

benefactor, withelandlaw. He struggled through Rob Roy in

/

frequent pain. It is another Scottish novel dealing with the

relations between heroic violence and enlightened prudence,

with merchant and brigand, city and country, Lowland and

Highland, counterpointed against each other and, as alw~ys,

a romantically inclined young man in between. Old Mortality

is a more deeply imagined novel which springs from the

depths of Scott's historical imagination set in the late

seventeenth century (the earliest period he had yet handled

in his novels). It dealt with the struggle between fanatical

covenanters and their moral

opposites,

the

hedonistic

cavaliers, with again a man of good will standing in between

and temporarily reduced into joining an extremist group. It

was followed by The Hear_! of Midlothian, probably the most

generally

admired of all Scott's novels.

After

its

publication he revealed his identity but most of his readers

had already guessed that the author of Waverley novels was

Scott.

1 1

Ihg 8rid~ 91 La!Dm_ermoor and ~ !!~!:n_~ of M.Qnt r_Q§~ were pu h l i s h e d in the third series of Tales 9.1 ~_.y Landlord in 1819. The tragic ending of The Bride of L~m~ermoor was disliked by most of his contemporaries. Ivanhoe came out In 1820 and was a success. After Ivanhoe Scott published

Monastery (1820), The Abbot (1820) and Kenilworth (1821). In

1822 two of his novels Fortunes of Nigel and Peveri] of the Peak were published. In 1824 he published Redguantlet and Tales of the Crusaders, including The Talisman and The Betrothed. In 1826 Woodstock appeared before the public. The

Chronicles of Canongate were written in 1827.

It will hardly be credited that a man who became

first

the for~ost poet of his day and then,

though

supposedly anonymously, the fore-most novelist, should have widened his range still further. But Scott's output, all his life, was amazingly large. He produced reviews, editions (of

Dryden

and of Swift,

for

instance) and

biographies,

including a nIne volume life of Napolean.

111

!IU8 he

accepted a bar~J~y from the Prince Regent, admirer of his work.

always an

S co t t ' s

immense earning contributed

to

his

financial

downfall from which he never recovered. In 1832,

he suffered an attack of apoplexy and died on September 21.

12

His hiographer

records that "almost every newspaper that

announced this event in ~cotland, and many in England, had

the signs of mourning IIsual on thp demise of

a

k' ,,8

I JIg •

Lockhart's b i og r a phy of Scott stands with Doswf'l)'s life of

Johnson as one of the two greatest literary biographies in

English.

Abdul Halim Sharar the second writer of our study

was born in Luckhnow in 1860. His father's name was Hakim

Tafassal Husain. His grandfather was in the service of the

exiled King of Awadh in Matyabridge (Calcutta). Sharar had

to go to Calcutta along with his parents. At that

time he

was nine years old. He ohtained his early education at

Matyabridge from his father and some other teachers.

Like

Scott he spent his childhood at the house of his grandfathpr

and was fond of listening to the tales from ancient Islamic

history. He received his early education in Persian, Arabic,

Philosophy and Physics. He also learnt the English language.

His grandfather retired In 1815. Sharar was appointed in his

place, but he could not continue this job for more than two , )

:.,....t'-'-

years and in 1811 he went to Luckhnow. There he completed

his education in Arabic. He was married to his cousin jn

1816 hut

the marriage could not cause hindrance in his

(8)

Lockhart, J.G., Edinburgh.t839,

Memoirs of Jiir Ch • XV I I, P. 240.

Oart

13

educational

progress. In 1877 he went to Delhi

for higher

education

in Hadith. During his stay in Delhi he continued

his studies

In the English language. He came back to

Luckhnow in 1880.

Freelance

journalism

became

his

favouritp

occupation during his stay in Calcutta. At this stage he

wrote poetry also. The names of some of his poems were

(Shab-i-Wasl) and (Shab-i-Gham). Another poem was Zamana aur Islam (Time and Islam). He pioneered blank verse in Urdu but he never regarded himself as a poet. In fact like Scott his poetic art was eclipsed by his popularity as a novelist. He started his career as a journalist in the newspaper Awadh, which was published from Hyderabad.

After his return to Luckhnow he concentrated on

prose writing and started writing essays newspapers and journals.

in different

In his essays Sharar preferred literary topics to the political ones and tried to imitate English prosp style. This style being different became popular. Monshi Nawal

Kishor

took him on the editorial board of the Awadh. Thus

his journalistic CHrecr started. Then he began a journal

Mehshar and devoted all his attention to it. This

journal

became popular

in a short time. The editors of the Awadh

were annoyed with the popularity of Mehshar and decided to

14

send Sharar out of Lucknow but Sharar could not swallow this

restriction for a long period and came back to Luckhnow after resigning from the ~wadh.

After leaving Awadh SharHr started writing novels.

was his first social novel. Though artistioally

sub-standard

it became very popular. Af1er

that

he

translated a novel Durgesh Nundine from English to Urdu which also was widely read.

In January 1887 Sharar started his famous journal Dilgudaz for the first time. In the beginning this journal was pukiished on the lines of Mehshar but later the process

of novel

writing was started in imitation of the Awadh

newspaper. In 1888 his first historical novel Malik-ul-Aziz Varjana was published serially in Dilgudaz.

According to Sharar's own confession ihis novel was written as a reaction to Scott's Talisman9. According to

Sharar Scott had degraded the Muslim hero Salahuddin and the Islamic Ideology so he wrote this novel in the Islamic zeal and passion. From the publication of Malik-ul-Aziz Varjana Sharar started novel writing regularly and it was continued till his death. Along with novel writing he wrote essays

under the name of Mozamin-i-Sharar in twelve volumes. These

essays consist of important aspects of history, biography

(9) Sharar, Dilgudaz, May 1934, P.97.

15

Sharar's busy and versatile life can be - I,

:~ . f., ~ r\ ./<

easily divided into five periods in order to see the

and criticism.

continual development in his art and life.

~~

In thc first period from-beginning to 1884 Sharar

) ;

. -_. . '

,Ii .

completed

his education~ started writing essays~

was

)

employed in Aw~ newspaper. It can be considered the

training period in Sharar's life because the impact of the

studies during this period can be seen in his later literary

creations.

Sharar started the second period of his novel

writing with the publication of Dilgudaz which runs from

1885 to 1896. According to Mohammad Sadiq Dilgudaz was one

of the prcmier journals which, with a few interruptions, ran

till Sharar's death10• Some part of this period was spent in

Luckhnow, and some in Hyderabad. Sharar also went to Europe

during this period. In 1885 he completed his first social /~?.,.._ '« [' ! •. ~

novel Dilchasp. ~~~~. Chatterji 's novel Du~sh Nandane

- I

was

originally written in Bengali, Sharar read its English

translation and then he translated it into Urdu. Then he

wrote his first historical novel Malik-ul-Aziz Varjan~ to

refute Scott's Talisman. This is about thc third Crusades

~. His second novel Hasan Angelina was started in Dil~daz

(to)

Sadiq, Mohammad, His~QKX gf Urdu literature, Oxford University Press, London, 1964, P. 339).

16

after he had finished Malik-ul-Aziz Varjan~. It

is about

Georgia and abo.ui' the Crimean war. In this he also refers to

the Shia-Sunni conflict between the Turks and Iranians and

its adverse effect on the Muslims.

Mansoor Mohna was the third novel in Dilgudaz. It

was about a Hindu girl and Muslim leader. It was

written

against

the background of Mehmood of Ghazna's

invasion on

India. The same year Sharar started a historical journal in

which he published the biographies of famous

Islamic

dignitaries. This journal had to be abandoned after a year

because or rinancial problems.

In 1891 Sharar started writing his novel Qais-w-

Lubna.

Its

theme is the well-known love story of the

Khilafat-i-Rashida period. Soon afterwards, Sharar was sent

to England as a tutor with Nawab Waqar ul-Mulk's son and ~

stayed there rrom 1893 to 1896.

In his absence three of his unfinished novels

Dilkasht Zaid-w-Halava and Yousaf-w-Najma were completed by

his subordinates and published. Zaid-w-Halava

was also

completed by Sharar himself and he published it under the

,

name of Il.9raFlorida.

In this novel he has exposed the

sinful

life of nuns and priests. This era can al~o be

considered as the experimental period of Sharar's life.

In this

third period from 1897 to

1907

Sharar

plunged himsp]f into historical research. Af1pr returning

17

from Rngland he went to Hyderabad and restarted Dilgudaz

fro. there. He remained in Hyderabad till 1899. According to

Dr.lftikhar Ahmad Siddiqui, he excelled in English and

French languages, which he mastered during his stay in

England11• During his stay in Hyderabad he wrote the first

part of Ayyam-i-Arab. In this novel he has

depicted

the

social

conditions of the pre-Islamic Arabs. Sharar's

historical research gave rise to a dispute. During his

research on Arabic history Sharar came ~cross the biography

of a lady Sakina bint-i-Husain who was considered a

fashionable and progressive woman of Arabia. Sharar tried to

.. ~ (:~

prove that she was the daughter of Holy Prophet's (peace be

upon him) grandson, Hazrat Imam Husain. This gave rise to a

.' .~

serious debate and caused t,He Shia-Bunni conflict. The Shia

people werp. much annoyed at

,

this act of Sharar; and

considered it an insult to the Holy Prophet's family on his

part. Some dignitaries of Hyderabad asked him to stop this

process of research but Sharar preferred to leave Hyderabad

and did not act upon their advice. He started publishing

Dilgudaz from Luckhnow for the third time and continued

expressing his ideas about Sakina bint-i-Husain.

( 11)

Siddiqui,

Iftikhar

Ahmad, Dr s , of Peshawar

Awwalyat-i-Sharar, University, Lahore

Kheyaban, Journal 1972, P.SS.

18

In 1889 Sharar wrote Firdous-i-Barin.

I t

is

considered his best novel. It is about the Ba t f n i a sect.

This sect caused a great turmoil fpr Islam. In this novel

I . ~ ~

Sharar has depicted the exaltation and decline of the

Batinia sect. After that he published a brief magazine Hasan

bin Sabah.

In 1900 Sharar completed the second part of

J\.YYam-i-Arab.

In this novel he has presented the Pervaizi

period of Iran along with the uncivilized (Jahiliyya)

Arabian period before Islam. During the same year he wrote

another novel Mugaddas Nazneen. In it he has narrated the

love story of a Christian girl and a Muslim prince and he

has also exposed the inner sinful life of monks and nuns.

In the same year he translated an English novel

into Urdu

and gave it the name of Dakoo Ki Dulhan. He started a new

journal Parda-i-Ismat in order to preach his own ideology as

he was against the idea of women's veil. In 1901 he wrote a

novel against

the veil;

its name was Badru-n-Nisa Ki

Museebat.

In this social novel he depicts how the r~mal~~s

veil caused the problemlbetween two families. During the

same year Sharar had to go to Hyderabad. For this purpose he

stopped the publication of both Ilil.K,udaz and p!!..rda-i-Ismat)

a drastically changed (

"" ..

which caused him t0C!..i~L~~, his I iaison wi th the state. Nawab

but he reached Hyderabad in

situation

W'aqar-ul-Mulk

was dead,

and Hyderabad's

new

finance

19

secretary Mr.Walker thought that the services of Sharar w e r e

not needed for the state of Hyderabad so he had to come back

to Lucknow and in 1904 Dilgudaz was again started tram

Lucknow.

In July 1904 he published a new novel Shauqeen

Malika in Dilgudaz. It was completed in December 1904. Its

t heme concerns the second ~. 0 f t he Crusades. In 1905 he

published Yousaf-w-Najma. It is the love story of a young

man of the TughluQ period. Although a publisher had already

printed it during his stay In England Sharar himself

completed it again and got it published. In 1906 he wrote

the biography of Ha~rat Junaid Baghdadi and completed the

first volume of The HistorY of Sind. Dr.Murtaza Akhtar

Jafferi states that Sharar considered the History Q[ Sind as

one ot his best creations and it shows that Sharar was an

excellent historian as we1112•

In 1907 he wrote the biography of Hazrat Abubakar

.:1 SiddiQUf •

In The same year Sharar was appointed ~

Director

, ... ./

of Education and was called to Hyderabad.

In the fourth period between 1908 to 1914 Sharar

was working as Director of Education in Hyderabad. In 1908

he started the pUblication of Dilgudaz from Hyderabad. After

some time the Nizam of Hyderabad became annoyed with him and

Sharar left Hyderabad. During his residence in Hyderahad he

(12) Jaffery; Murtaza,Dr. ~Sharar Ki Zindagj~ in Kheyaban, Peshawar University Journal, 1972, P. 50.

20

wrote

two novels. Agb.~ $adig Ki ~hadi is a social

and

humorous novel

and focuses attention on the socjal

and

cultural

aspects of Luckhnow. M~ Malik

is a historical

novel about the conditions of Afghanistan during the Ghauri period and t,we Ghauri's invasion of India. This is the second novel about Indian history, the first being Mansoor

Mohna. In 1910 Dilgudaz was again published from Luckhnow. All th novels which had been published serially in Dilgudaz were published in book form and were sent to the readers of Dilgudaz on payment. In 1911 Sharar published another social novel Ghaib-Dan Dulhan.

In 1912 Sharar wrote Zawal-i-Baghdad.

In this

novel he has depicted the glory, glamour and prosperity of the Abbasid Caliphate and its decline afterwards. He has

dealt with these aspects in an artistic manner. During the same year Maulana Mohammad Ali Johar offered him the editorship of his newspaper Hamdard but Sharar could not accept it due to some personal reasons. In 1912 Sharar wrote The History of Egypt. In this history he narrated history from the ti.e of Noah's storm to the birth of Christ. In 1913 he

wrote another historical novel Romat-ul-Kubra. In this novel he has depicted the rise and fall of the Roman empire in an artistic manner. During the same year he turned against the princely state of Rampur. The reason was the Nawab of

21

l :'" t. ,. .. J_ I. ~

,

Rampur's degenerated condition and his in .... difference to .ft.t-~/I..; I I. .

........ ~. rO' ..J •

poor subjects. He wrote two novels on this topic and gave to t-

Rampur the fictitious name of Harampur. In another novel

Khaufnak Muhabbat he dealt with the same topic.

During the fifth and last period from 1915 to 1926

Sharar was busy in research and wrote histories. In 1915 he

launched a monthly journal Alferoz. He also wrote Alfanso.

In 1916 he wrote Maftuh Fatheh. In 1917 Babuk Khurmi was

published and he also wrote the first part of Juya-i-Hag. In

this novel he depicted the early life of Salman Farsi and

the predictions of Christian priests about the birth and

prophethood of the Holy Prophet (peace be upon him). He also

published a biography Swaneh-Qurat-ul-Ain.

In 1918

he

completed the second part of Babuk Khurmi. In the same year

he wrote a History of Pre-Islamic Arabs.

In 1919 he

published the second part of Joya-i-Hag. He completed the

biography of Holy Prophet (peace be upon him) through the

letters of different Christian priests written to Holy

~'i r , :7-'!'~" ",I,

Prophet (peace be upon him). He has written about the

/(. .: i ': .•• i

Jews ___..

enm~tjesl preaching of Islam and mutual conflicts of the

Arabs. In the same year he wrote another novel Lubat-i-

Cheen. Then he completed Tarikh-i-Mugaddas in which he threw

light on the history of Baitullah and Bait-ul Maqdas. He

wrote another history of Saglia Main Islam and then he wrote

22

• •

. '

the biography of Holy Prophet, Kh~tmul-Mursaleen. r'

In 1920

Sharar wrote a verse history, Aseer-i-Babul.

In 1921 he

completed the third part of JuYa-j-Hag by using the

epistolary technique.

In 1922 he wrote Tahira.

It is a

social novel describing the life of an educated Muslim

woman. In this novel he has also expressed his ideas against

the veil. In 1925 he wrote Meena Bazar which relates to the

times of the Mughal emperor Shah Jehan.

In the last part of his career Sharar also wrote

some plays. Their names are Shahid-i-Wafa and Maiva-i-Talkh.

He wrote Tarikh-i-Awad, Abul Hasnain, Sani-us-Nain, Khawaja

Mueenuddin Chisti, Tarikh-i-Khilafat etc. He edited books on

po lit i cal,

religious and cultural themes which

became

popular.

Sharar

died In December 1926 after

serving

literature

for 50 years. He gave to/historical novel

many

. ttl. In eres r ng

themes and equipped Urdu literature with a new

kind 0 f novel.

Sharar's biography proves his keen interest in

Islamic history. According to Dr.Sadiq, "Sharar had begun the

study of history as raw material for his romances. But soon

after he decided to return his knowledge to advantage by

writing histories and historical studies"J3.

(13) Sadiq Mohammad Dr. Opcit, P. 339.

23

The historical studies to which Dr.Mohammad Sadiq

reters are The History Q[ the Crusades and Ihg History QI

Sind which were published in his journals.

Sharar was a

prolific journalist and has been compared with Defoe by an Indian critic and poet Firaq Gorakhpuri. Thus Sharar was a versatile novelist and a historian.

The turmoil and unrest prevailing in India at that time motivated Sharar to write novels based on the glorious past ot the Muslim rulers. It on the one hand these kinds of

novels

provided a temporary refuge from

the

tragic

atmosphere in which his readers lived, they also stimulated them to raise their voice against the British anarchy. In

this way Sharar's novels contributed,

to a very great

extent, in arousing the patriotic emotions of the oppressed Muslims of India.

The biographies of Scott and Sharar bring to light

many similarities between them. Both were fond of

listening

to ~·o]d stories from their grand parents, both of them were poets and wrote a great number of novels as well. Scott

wrote twenty-nine historical

novels while Sharar wrote

forty-two novels historical themes.

in all out of which twenty nine are on

Thus we can envisage that the comparative study of Scott and Sharar as historical novelists can bring into

24

focus .any

interesting and

thought-provoking aspects of

their lives and works, hitherto, unknown to serious research

scholars of these two writers.

25

CHAPTIo::R

I I

THE AR.T OF I .. I STOR. I CAL NOVEL

i

, ,~

The nature and function of the Historical Novel

can be defined by regarding it as a remarkable cOralition of

imagination and reality. This type of novel is based upon

real history but the novelist gives it a certain ~colouring

or imagination" in order to make it interesting in the eyes

of the reader. In other words the historical novel is based

on the convergence of fact and rancy and this

very

convergence makes it an important but at the same time, the

most difficult kind of novel from the artistic point of

view.

In the process of fictionalizing history there are

greater responsibilities for the historical novelist, as

compared to those for the social novelist.

According to Jonathan Nield "a novel is rendered

historical by the introduction of dates,

personages or

events to which identification can readily be given"!

Most

of the eastern and western critics do not regard Nield's

definition as satisfactory because in their opinion only

dates and personages cannot be regarded as the distinctive

features of a historical novel. So it becomes very difficult

to define a historical novel because history and fiction are

two entirely separ,te entities.

(1)

,I

Nield, Jonathan~Nature of Historical NQvel",

.... ,G 1-0

Review, 12~ p.lS.

Library

26

----- __ ---

History consists of the events which have actually

happened, and tiction is based upon those incidents which

can happen and the historical novelist makes an attempt to

create a coalition between them. In this attempt he has to

y...

encounter great many intricacies and he has to be caretul

not to create any imbalance between history and tiction in

the process ot this coalition. He has to take care that

history and fiction do not overlap at any stage ot the

novel.

t ,W~

.... I

History is the depiction ot the events ot the past
in which usually there is no reterence to the enviroruaent
l,r~ ,.;(.
and the real motives ot the events ot the past. In other words history deals only with the external events ot lite

and it is the story ot only the victorious and the tamous.

It does not reter to the universal humanity but to soae

popular and great personalities. According to Augustine

Birrel, "History is the story of man upon earth and the

historian is the person who tells us any chapter or tragment

of that story,,2.

Sheppard has added to this definition and has

developed a simple detinition ot a historical novelist. He

says that "When a historian negates the authentic facts and

(2) Augustine Birrel cited by Sheppard in The Art and Practice ot Historical Fiction, London, 1963, p.12.

27

truth in telling the story of man, he becomes a historical

novelist,,3.

This definition by Sheppard points out

the fact

that a historical novelist does not limit himself only to

the "dry historical facts", but he adds to those facts the

sweetness of fancy, which is inevitable for him as the

historical novel, contrary to history, is spread over both

the external and internal aspects of life. He uses the 'J...-.

historical events as background. Thusj'historiCa] novel is a

story of past in which imagination comes to the aid of fact.

The production of a blend of truth and imagination

is the really difficult problem for a historical novelist.

According to Professor Donovan:

"The materials of history, both events and persons can be successfully integrated with the materials of fiction by a judicious handling of point of view. The historian writes always from an omniscient point of view, not because he knows every thing, but because his province in what is known. His task is to present his subject in the full glare of historical scholarship, to leave no corners in shadow, no matters, not even his doubts in doubt,,4.

It means that the historical novelist must avoid

the full light that the historian seeks: his province is not

(3) Sheppard, Opcit, p. 12.

(4) Donovan Robert Han,The shaping vision, (Imagination in the English Novel from Defoe to Dickens), Cornel University Press, New York, 1960, p.133.

28

the known, but the thing in the act of being known, and he

must prevent the specious and the actual from being seen in

the same perspective. He deals in the very illusions that

the historian tries to free himself from. The result is that

the historical novelist most often keeps history in the

background and allows the fiction to occupy the centre of

the reader's consciousness. Sometimes, indeed, he keeps his

history tidily out of sight.

In a historical novel there is room for the

colouring of imagination without which it is impossible for

the author to picturize the past in an attractive way to

make it alive to the eyes of the reader. A historical

novelist derives the facts from hist~r~ but he also includes

certain other elements in the novel with the help of his

imagination which give a lively colour to the novel without

distorting its historical facts. David Punter gives a very

impressive statement in this instance by saying that

"the

rocks of history have no validity of meaning without the

thin waters of fiction washing over them, but these waters

themselves have no shape without the half-hidden shoals over

which th~y skim,,5.

(5) Punter David, "To cheat the time, A powerful spell", Scott History And the Double" in Scott in Carnival: selected papers for the Fourth International Scott Conference Edinburgh 1991, ed. J.H. Alexander and David Heind Aberdeen,1993, p.3.

29

Both Sharar and Scott are in favour or the .. /

e l ejsen t s or Romance in the historical novel. According to

Sharar a historical novel should be based on true events but

it is inevitable to give those events a tinge of romance

because without it neither a novel can be called a novel nor

th t . t t i 6

e even may seem In eres lng

In Scott's point of view a

historical novel should have the elements or romance because

it deals with past, which is remote from present life7•

Though the historical novelist uses history as a

background but his mode is different. The insertion of

imagination makes it

~.

he Lp f u l in

. ..

.: ,.. :'" '.'. '-;

r e ad e r, which"

I

. ~.

more attractive and IS

c r ea t i ng an .... ~~J..A.t e r-es t

.f-fH'--· Il-i.& t--o r yin the -----

otherwise s~e~~ to him dull. dry and descriptive. The

historical

novelist breathes new life into a story of a

certain period. The facts or past are already spread on the

pages or history but in the novel they are re-created in a

lively

and romantic manner. Hence historical novel r-

is

one

that portrays a time on which the light of the living

generation's memory does not fall any longer in its full

force. The work of the historian has certain limitations and

he has to state only the widely known facts. Due to the

(6) Sharar, Mazameen-i-Sharar, Vol.4, 1985, p.19.

. ~',.

(7) Scott, Preface to Fortune of Nigel, Page xi.

30

privilige of colouring the facts with fancy, the historical

novelist is capable of recreating life which is beyond the

status,

framework and limits of a historian.

"neath

revolution and accidents have thickly verted the life of

past and made it out of human sight. And the thing which is

out of sight becomes extremely beautiful and attractive to

human nature.

In order to see thc beauty of hidden past

unveiled, the reader goes to history, but the desire remains

unfulfilled

because

~

the picture of past shown

by history

is full of grandeur but not full of life at all. In Sheppard~

words "it is just like skeleton which has neither the

softness of flesh nor the warmth of blood,,8. Consequently

~" ,

the aim of historical novel is to present past in a

"

colourful and lively manner.

The historical novel is the most complicated form

of novel because it is a novel which consists of history.

All of us know that history is based upon facts and'novel is

born out of imagination which consists of so many elements

of observation and experience. According to Stephen Smith,

historical novel is an inferior kind of history and a bad

kind of novel9•

(8) Sheppard, Opcit., p. 268.

(9) Smith, Stephen, The Craft of Critic, London, 1940, p. 102.

31

Professor

'1 'I).

Batterfield

has written

that

"A

historical novel may be a good book but not a good
historical novel. I t may be just a piece of history. I t may
be a good story but may not be good wit h the special
goodness of historical novel"tO.
Thus i t is evident that the art of,' historical novel is of a very intricate nature and it is very difficult

to create a perfect historical novel, because it demands a

great ability to create a conformity between history Hnd

fiction in order to fulfil the requirements of a perfect

historical novel.

No doubt the historical novel which presents the

historical atmosphere in an attractive manner, and has the

historical quality to make the reader visualize all the

events through the wordy descriptions, will be considered as

successful. A novelist has to use his imagination in order

to pres en t

the historical scene in a beautiful m~nner.

History provides us with plot and interesting events and thp

historical novel makes

them attractive but wherp history

becomes obscure the novelist brightens it with the light of

his imagination.

(10) Batterfield, "History and Historical Novel", Review, 1925, Vol.5. p.320.

I, it era r y

32

According to Dr.Ali Ahmad Fatimi

the historical

novel compensates ror the shortcomings or both history and

fiction; where the historical facts provide their light the

novelist proceeds on easily, where ther~ is no light,

fiction comes to his aid with its rays. Then facts again

come to light but to present all these things in an artistic

way is the task or the novelist. The function of history is

to present true and simple events in a direct manner; the

novelist thinks about them in his own manner and presents

the reality in the form of fiction11•

George Luckas has different views in this instance.

itA writer who deals with history cannot chop and change his material as he likes. Events and destinies have their natural objective weight, their natural, objective proportion. If a writer succeeds in producing a story which correctly reproduces these relationships and proportions, then human and an artistic truth will emerge alongside the historical truths and on the other hand ir his story distorts these proportions, then it will distort the. artistic picture as

11,,12

we •

In fact what is really required of an -historical

novel

is the equal proportion of reality and imagination.

The first thiug to remember is that the histor.ical novel is

(IJ) Fafimi, Ali Ahmad., Sharar BeHaisiat-i-Novel Nigar, Luckhnow, 1986, p.138.

(12) Lukacs George., The Historical Novel, London, p.!90.

1962,

33

a novel primarily and history secondarily; hence the'art of

novel should be dominant, but it should have the historical

essence as well.

Both the historian and the historical novelist are

concerned with history. Both are in search of facts but

with a slight difference. The historian searches for the

events and their dates, he tells us about the chronology of

a certain ruler, his method of reigning, about the important

events and circumstances of his age and then how and when he

these

details do

not

form

part

of

the

. wi th .1

t~

'," historical

_\.:1 ... '/ .... 1 t-"

kings

the novelist. A novelist is not concernedl"

great personalities. He describes the

or

events,

while

conforming

th:;'

wi th

a

·1'

, I _ ..

"

panorama of common human relationships and describes
same historical facts by tinging them wi th emotions
"
f'V'"' .'
feel iags. He has to bui ld up a story and in ,so
II the

and

doing

sometim~s the historical truths described by the historical

novelist, seem quite re~ote from lhe real history.

Thus it can be concluded that the major difference

.~; ..

between history and novel is that of the view-points of the r.

novelist and the historian. The purpose of the historian is

to give details of the past, and the aim of the historical

nove 11 s t

is to show the modern man a true picture of the

pas t , sot h,a ~ :. e can b P. ins p ire d t 0 i mp r 0 v e his pre sen t

34

situation and also anticipate h i s f u t u r r- , In {Ird .. l J t o r a t u r e

it was the aim of Abdul Halim Shar8r to arouse the Tnrli~n

Muslims 8nd to huild lip their morale, hy reminding them or

the great deeds of their ancpstors. Scott also h8~ thC' snm~

purpose and wanted to give a new spirit

to the Scottish

people who,were extremely dejected when Scotland had be~n

:" ..... 1 •

allied with England.

It is evident th8t the objective of the historical

novelist is to create an inspiration in the reader. For this

purpose he has to present history in an interesting man~er,

and to create interest he has to give history the colouring

of imagin8tion. In this process sometimes a little deviation

from the histo~ical facts is p~rmissible if it

serves the

great purpose of

inspiration. Th~ p~triotic spirit

t

improve the existing conditions of the nation lead~ the

10

novelist

towards writing a historical novel and it is trup

of

the novelists of all nations. Sharar and Scott

are the

two distinct

examples in Urdu and English literature,

..

respectively.

Thus it is evident that the historical view point

is differf"nt from the common human view-point, and is devoid

of sensitivity and passion. A historian only looks at great

personalitips and king~. Hp does not givp

import~n('e to

common man, and th~ pagf"S or history rpmain hereft nf thpjr

stories. The mind of the h i s t o r i s n r e ie c.t.s. tr~di+i-.o.n...__.n

35

J. ~ h-

It" . I I , t ..

r-

favour of

ell

truth,' considering it un a u t h en t f c , As a result

history

is devoid of the treasures of Romance.

, i .I, .. ~II.·~·'

~.J '".'

In the

selection of events hii attitude is academic, ethical, and

dry instead of being psychological and emotional. The

historian does not realize that apparently trivial things of

life leave a deep and long lasting effect on human life.

That

is why the wordy pictures ot history are incomplete.

The historian observes the facts in a traditional manner so

he takes into view a very limited span ot lite and the real

essence ot human life does not come into his consideration.

For this reason whatever a historian writes,

is neither

impressive nor interesting and attractive tor the readers.

History is written for some special purpose. As a

result

the historian brings out the facts according to his

own particular bent of mind and throws

Ijght on some

historical facts. A historian moulds the events according to

his own aptitude. According to Mumtaz Manglori,

this

innovation

leads to exaggeration· instantly

and

then

ultimately to lying. Sometimes historians themselves have

related history in such a ridiculous manner that in spite or

its claim to be tactual and truthful, history seems to be 8

meaningles~; heap of lie and innovation13,

(13)

Mang·.ori, Mumtaz Dr., Sharar Kay Tarikhi Novel ~K~a~--,T.-"e:..!.h,,-=q1!:::.e~e~g~i~-_T~a~n!..::g:a.;e~e.!;!dl...!i!-....:J!!....2.a~i....!!z~a, Kheyaban- i -Adab 1978. p. 31-32.

aur In

Lahore,

36

Dr.Mumtaz

history as

a meaningless heRp or lip~ and

,. :.,'. (-

. "

i rm o v a t ion.' "

historian

cannot innovate the racts. lIis task is to r e l a t e

what

has actually happened. While criticizing the racts or

history he gives them either a positive or

R negative

interpretation, according

to his own bent

or mind.

One

historian

can present

a king in a positive manner by

appreciating some or his reforms. While another historian

can

present

the Same king in a n~gativp manner

by

criticizing

those very rerorms. But he can,

in no way,

di stort

the

facts or history. ~imilarly a

historical

novelist is not allowed to distort the racts but is expected

to present them in a lively manner which is beyonrl the scope

of a historian.

History shows past as dependent on the grp.at dpeds

I

or some great men an4/historical novel shows that if

there

was really any life in the past, it was not only because of

kincs and great leaders but because common human heings had .j

-e,

madp an equal contribution )6 it. In this way a novpJ beeomes

more attractive and more widely read as eompar~d tn history.

Arcording to Deane Tnee: "Thp motivp~ for ral~irying hi~tory

are in exact proportion to the interest

of po~tprity

in

knowing

the

truth.

Falsified history perhaps had more

37

influence than t r u r- history .. 14. The l i n e s quo t cd above sh.)w

that Dean Inge regards the tinge or imaginAtion in hi~tory

as essential anrl thinks it more effectiv(' than re~l hi~tory.

So we can say lhat when history i~ tingerl with fAn~y anrl

imagination it 1urns into historiral novel.

An Urdu critic .l\li Abbas Hu s s a i n i SAyS t h a t

nnve]

has its plaep wherp the pages of hj~tory arp q~iel Anrl where

the

changes

of

time have fogged

the

events

and

personalities. In such instances nov~l makps them prominent

with the help of story and fiction but where history

itself

is

in

its full peak, it is ridiculous to turn

i t

inlo a

historical

115

nove •

Hu~~aini 's views show that

he

regardf';

historical novel as a comppnsation for history, ~nd rlQes nol

t ak e into a r-c o u n t its function as a s o u r c e of m s k i ng t h e

history attr~ctiye and worlh-rearling.

1 t

can he a c c e p t e d that it is difficult

th~

his tor i c a I nov p 1 i ~ t t n w r i t P abo 1I t tho sea :<: r e c t s () f h j s t 0 r .Y

which have bepn perfpctly related hy the historian hims~lf

but it seems unfai r n o t to al tow the historical no v o l i s t 10

write about those events because.·historical nove) is

aJwAY~

more popular than eVf'n the most poplllar history.

( 14 )

Dp.ane

I ng e , c i t e d hy Sheppard, Op~it_. p. 1:1.

(l 5 ) H u s s a i n i , J\ ) i A h has. J N 0 ~ti _ KL __ T ~H!.9.N·ltL _ ..I!l.J' jJ< h , Lahore, 1970, p. 13.

3ft

----------_ ..

I t

should b(> rpalizf"d that historicAl

novf"1

i s

basically a novel and it~ first And forpmo~t

is that it is a source or e n j o ymo n t , ~nrl should ~rp .. tp a n

interest

in the reader. Rut this

i nt o r = s t Alld.~~enrrrn1

cannot be invoked e1:::J:tan. by merely r e l a t t ng

l- ;-p fb. ._,,_ ~- /r.

even t S. Q& __ by.~, .. illtef!: i ". t j 8W. Oppos it e to

t h e historical I f

.... . I ~ • ,1" ."

h i s t o r i an , 8

historical novelist's art requires somp concessions by which

he creates a balance between history and imagination.

According to Sheppard:

"Historical Fiction deals imaginatively the past. The novelist has 8 wider range,

wit h he

may set· the foot in the preserves of history, but on one condition, he may not make his habitation there, or may only bn i Ld i I' part of hi~ hOllse stands within the demense of the

. . . .. I 6

ImagInatIon •

In this mannpr the p~rspective of the historic~l

novel becomes wider than that of history.

r t

is more

difricult at the SAme time as the historical novelist h~s to

be alert not

to shAke the balance between reality ~nd

imagination. David Punter has also very rightly stated that

"history and fiction are thpn, mutual phantoms; and as sllch

thpy can givp u~ knowledgp through a kind of rross-

t . .. 17

persppc lye •

(16) Shpppard, Op.cit, p. 5. (J7) PUnter, David, Op.cit, p.4.

39

Keeping all

t h e h a z a r d s und e r e on s i d e r a t jon a

novelist

has t 0 con s i d p r s eve r It. I It S P f> C t sin t h (> p r n r' f' S S 0 f

creating an appropriatc historical novel. The first

a s p e r- t

in

this process is the selection or some period as

th~

theme for his novel. The cxperts of the historical

novel

regard

i t

a very important stage. As there is

a

lot 0 r

material

available for story in the present, thp SBme is

true about the past because the worlrl is so full of A nllmher

of things that every way one turns, there are novels anrl

short stories for those with eyes to see anrl all thp wotlrl's history orfers background.

The grpatest

difficulty which any novelist,

hut

especially

the historical nov~list has

to

face

i s

th~

difficulty of selection. In every period of history, in

ev e r y episode, in a rragment of stone, in an old weapon, in

a. name on a d e s o l a t e g r av e , in EI s c r a p of vprsc, is the gprm

or 'historical

nove I .

The riifriculty is or ~hollld

he

splection.

A trend for It. particular period can serve as a

guide in this matter. The allthor's own iJlclinfitinn

towl'lrrlo..:

1* certain pprjorl h e l ps him in deciding about OIl' (1f'rinrl of

his novpl. A great sympathy with humAnity on the pRrt of Ihf>

novelist is another importBnt r o qu i r eme n t , In t he s e l e e t f o n

40

of the period two kinds of trends are p r ev a l e n t among the

novelists. One is that the events of the most glorious and

popular period are appropriate for novel. This kind of

period is so attractive and interesting in itself because of

its social and cultural glory that its real picture suffices

to amuse the reader and the artist has no need of

exaggeration. The second trend is to choose such a period in

which history has left many blanks and the Artist

fills

them with the colouring or his own imagination in such a

manner thAt these colours should conform with real life and

they should also create an interest in the reader. The

addition of imaginary events to fill in the vacuums is the

only possible contribution of the historicl:'l novelist to

history but

this contribution is also full of certain

limitations. The imaginary event so used for this purpose

should be cO/3llied with reality, and should not seem to he

an external addition. As a matter of fact it seems dangerous

to choose some popular and glorious period as the subject of

historical

novel

because the historians have

already

( .. .:.,:,. .... t

t he-~ art i s t \ can not use his art 0 rim a gin a t ion.

abundant material about such kind of I .

period

provided

In one sense an historical nove) dealing with

unexplored and elastic ages is easy, it is a tale which goes

round without a fiddling stick, like a tale of the old play.

But

in another sense it is not so easy as it

looks.

the

41

surest ground is when one deals with human nature, primitive

then and primitive now -- its terrors,

loves,

jealousies,

hatreds, sacrifices and strifes. If a novelist

chooses a

historically popular period, he should not give primary

importance to real and historical events but he should make

the imaginary events the centre of attraction and use the

historical ones as the background.

According to Saintsbury

"All who have studied the philosophy of novel writing at all, closely know that great historical events are bad subjects, or are only good subjects on one coniditon the steady observance of which consititutes one of the great me r t t z o I' Sir Walter Scott. The

central

interest in all such caseS must be

connected with a wholly fictitious personage, or one of whom sufficiently little is known to ~jve the romance free play. When the condition is complied with, thc actual historical events may be and constantly have been used with effect as aid in developing the story and working out the fortunes of the characters,,18

It is certain that the choice of a remote and

unrecorded period can help the historical novelist in

maintaining the pret~~n of accuracy, because common .........

people usually know almost nothing about that period and the

novelist can have a wider scope for the easy play of his

(18) Georgr. Sajntsbury, referred to by Sheppard, Opcit,

P.124.

42

------

imagination, and unlike the writer of thE" popular cvents of

history he is not answerable to the public. But he is always

afraid of the danger of being discovered at any moment, and

at any place where the human knowledge of rcality can

interrupt the flight of his imagination./"

I

George Lukacs also holds the same point of view

and says that:

"It is clear that the more remote an historical period and the condition or life or its actors, the more the action must concern itself with bringing these conditions plastically before us, so that we should not regard the particular psychology and ethics which arise from them as an historical curiosity, but should reexperience them as a phase of mankind's development which concerns and moves us"19.

Thus it is comparatively easy to write about the

I t

. "

!'oo i

: ,". very

10,

remote

past to

invent names,

perhaps

which

probably

"0 L' J

were land or sea but the writer does at his own risk

He

.. ~, ~ ,""-

may invent names invent environment even make his clock I'" 1'-

strike in ancient times and years with imp~r.ty and with J

ease until he is found out.

It is considered that the remoter period described

by the historical novelists has the least danger of being

challenged 8S .§p.authentic or as untrue and in this way a

novelist

can do real justice to the art of novel without

bE"ing worried about the authenticty of history. But when we

(19) Lukacs George, Opcit, p.20.

43

review the examples of different historic81 novplist4 we

witness many paradoxes in this context. According to the

research

made by Dr.Ali Ahmad Fatimi

the number

of

successful

historical

novels about

the near past

is

Itreater than that of those about the remote past,,20

...... A

In the case of Sir Walter Scott, his novels

written within the range of five hundred years are more

successful

as compared to those written about

the remote

past. Talisman which deals with the history of remotel past

, I

is less successful and'" novels like Ivanhoe and \l,laverley

dealing with history within the last five hundred years. ~

In Urdu literature we can take into account the

examples of Aziz Ahmad and Qazi Abdul Sattar. Their novels

about the near past are more popular but the case of Sharar

who may be considered as the greatest historical novelist in

Urdu is just the opposite. His novels about the remoter past

are more

important and popular. Novels

like Firdous-i-

Bareen, Ay,yam-i-ArAb, Juya-i-HI!,g are tht(distinct examples

in this respect. Hence the choice of the period involves

many co.plications for the novelist. Thp choice of period

should depend on the novelist's own perception. Hp should

(20) Fa t i m i , Ali Ahmad, Op.cit, p.219.

44

choose the period accordinK to his own predilp.ction, the

00.-"-

period ~, which he teels contident enough to utilize all. his

artistic capabilities, and which can help him to create a

complete contormity between historical reality and artistic

imagin~tion. Thus a historical novelist has to be careful in

the process of selection and it seems better that a novelist

__ .

looks tor the vacuums in his favourrte historical period and

fills them as they have been ignored by the historian.

After selecting a period another problem for the

historical novelist is to gather t he" intormation about

that

period. He requires to have a perfect knowledge ot his topic

and should be familiar with the background ot style in which

he is going to present the life of a particular period. A

story writer's material

is based upon his own personal

observation

and

/ ..

..

experience, while material

(".'

I

'or

the

historical novelist is beyond his personal experience and

observation. As a historical noveli'st it is inevitable for

him to explore ~uch a land which is beyond his experience

and out ot his sight. His mind has to take leave of his own

time and enter in such a period in whidh he feels himselt a

stranger. Thus he has to cross a great many limits of space

and time and enter into a strange and remote worJd. He has

to live in that period mentally in order to present a real

and lively portrait ot the past.

45

The histDrical

novelist mus t

sflldy bnDk~

nn

costumes,

Dn cDinage, on th~ cDntrmpo.rary histDry of other

states;

he must

rrarl contempnrary

l e t t e r s ,

despatches, even legal documents C1nrl mE'dif'I'I1 wo r k s ,

Nothir]~

rlealing with his p~riod and IDcality should be fnreign to.

him.

He may have to. go. to. works nn heraldry~ o.n hotRny~

on

etymology,

on agriculturE', picture gaJlerips and mllsellms,

cathedra I s

and

churches and cast Ips,

a I ]

yip.ld their

spoils.

The basic responsibility of 8 historical nDvelist

is that he should nDt change the authentic facts of histDry

and their

chronology;

because this change

It"ads

to

th(>

d i s t o r t i o n of h i s t o r y and h e n e e to. the u np op u l a r j f y of t h o

historical nov(>l. It is suitable fDr th~ historj~al novE'li~t

to get

ideas

frDm actual history ~nd whpr~

fact~

l'Ind

imagination wer~ at

v a r i e n c e , to lI:'t

) "ad ov e r

reality. He sho.uld be raithful to. the nut~tanding histnriral

facts, but r.an makp 8 r(>w trivial changes in the chrDnDlogy

when it is po s s i h l e , Thus it is e x t r eme l y essential to. make

the story spem true.

There arr two methnds by which history may he made per.e ate .' ~ the nov ~ I • _J

to.

I n the first plar~ it ~An

snpply

the metal for t h e novelist's mou l d j. hut p r-o v i d e d j o f ,

r01J r S e,

into that

';'1111it flow of imp'ip.d po<;<;ihi lit i ..... s wh'~rf'

spark 'ires "pwards. The no v e l I s t , though he ml\y i n v o n t a l ]

the charaC'ters.diAlogups ~nd inC'idt'nts must hp faithf .. l in

his

inven t ion

to

the spirit of his period. Hp n~pd not

distort

the characters of aptual histnrical ppoplp or

liberties with the ch r on o l og i c a l table, or in any way over

•. ~"I4-'-

t r'

great e r Lt Lc a l episodes of the past. The s e co nd (matter!

where a plot

taken from history is utilized,

demands H

larger degree of fidelity to documentary evidences. ~

i'.t J' ~..- ..

. t.). t ., .... 'J" r

., f ,I"'

The next step is that of arranging and f'onforming'

~ different eVf"nts into 8 uni'if"d wholp. This

is called

plot. Without any pre arranged plot fhp story j~ likply to

be loose ,and ill-knit and e hao t t e . With too rigid a ,pInt nr

too scrupulous an attention to the plan that

has hpPH Sf'>t

hefore one for guidance,there is the danger of bpin~ plot-

.f

mastered and plot.-.riddeTn. As the plot develops I

from t h e

germs,

so the novel, if it is a living thing, mu s t

develop

from the plot. You cannot keep tree in a flower pot tn its

maturity.

Wi t h tJ(f"

fine arr8ngpment of elpmpnts a plot

becomes

interesting anit seems more rp<'tl <'tnd

til ..... r('(luirpit

environmpnt

to

create an effective plot a l"iove'i~;;t s ho u l d knolO,' h o « 10 ol1JiI

certain unnrcessary details as well a~ how to add

thost'

which will

add interest to the story. SuC'h ~ nnvplist

47

aware of the difficulties during the development of plot and

can easily tackle the suddenly appearing problems durini the

process

aware

or

of the creation ot the novel. He is also

.. ..I.-~'.

r> ,. t

his re~ponsibiljtl~s when to tinish hi~ novel. ~e does not

challenge the:, )r~~e ... l)~g, emotions and expectations of the

I

reader lest he should teel lack of interest in the novel nor

does he end his novel in such a way that the reader feels

dissatisfied.

Thus it involves a great artistic and analytic

ability on the part ot the historical novelist to create an

erfective plot in order to make his novel interesting and

absorbinc tor the reader.

Arter the arrangement of the plot comes the stage

ot characterization in the historical novel. There are

experts who give ditferent views about the presentation of

historical

personalities as characters in the

nove I .

According to one view the novel becomes artistically weak by

the

presentation ot historical personalities and

the

novelist has to face greater difficulties in this matter.

Because it he deviates slightly tro."portrait of a popular

hi stori ca I

personality as developed by tradition

and

history, his portrait is regarded as rake, and the readers

do not accept the truth ot his details. The second view

regards

the presence ot some historical personality as or the novel. Le~ie Stephen and Sheppard are

the

strength

also

48

in favour of this viewpoint.

Lesi.lie Stephen wrote to Thomas Hardy

"I think that an historical character in a novel is almost always a nuisance, but I like to have bit of history in the background so to speak, to find that George III in the corner though he does not present himself in full front. But if the young novelist brings the big folks on the scene against the background of the epical events and forgets the little folks, he is, in a thousand cases

t i nv i t i d i t .. 21

o one r nv i r ng' r s a s er

It means that the presence of a great historical

figure

provides strength to novel;

the

creation

of

fictitious characte~/is also essential for the interest of

the reader. The novelist should always beware of the danger

that

the great historical

facts and figures are

not

distorted in this process and he should also be able to show

the indirect contact between individual lives and historical

events which,

according to George Lukacs,

is the most

decisive thin,of all. He says:

"People experience history directly. History is their own upsurge and decline, the chain of their joys and sorrows. If the historical novelist can succeed in creating characters and destinies in which the important socialhuman contents, problems, move~ents etc., of an epoch appear directly, then he can present history "from below" from the stand point of popular life. And the function of the

historical figure in the classics is when problems and movements such as

this; these

have been rendered concrete for us so that we may experience them directly, the historical

(21) Lesilie Stephen Referred to by Sheppard, Op£it, P. 133-34.

49

figure steps in to raise them on to a hi~her level of historical typicality by concentrating and ~eneralizing them. In this way one is not imprisoned in the simple immediacy of popular life in the simple spontai~ety of popular movement ••••••••• For this'~ ~eason ••••• the historical figures of the classics are only minor figures but indispensable to the total historical

f. It 22

l~ure

Ruskin, while regarding the characters of novels

as the representative of real life, says that every action

of the characters should be similar to that of men of flesh

and blood. Thus it can be said that the feelin~s and

.editations should also represent the human feelings and

thoughts23•

In the process of characterization it is essential

,. "

.. .._, "'·.1

f:D-r the novelist tfl..a-t.-~ sfloll-ld not limit himself a.t' giving

good or bad opinions based on mere discription~ but the

negative or positive aspects of a character should be I .

~~.,

evident from the manners and actions o'£'-lhe·· dulracter.

According to Sir Walter Besant and Sheppard an! ~

autbor should be careful not to write about a character;:

that he should not pause to give a direct and detailed

description but should show men and women gradually in the

(22) Lukacs Goerge: Opcit, pp. 285-286.

(23) Ruskin, "Fiction fair and foul" in Scott the critical Heritage, ed. Hayden London, 1970, p. 524.

50

course ot his narrative - a description might

bl" given

indirectly,

ror instance by comparison with a portrait,

or

even hy reflection in a mirror. or course,

a character's

character

should be shown

in other ways

then by mere

state.ent that he is good or bad, kind or cruel, generous or

2.

mean

From these views it is evident that the novelist

should not

describe the good or bad traits

or historical

characters,

but should pres~nt them moving and acting and

speaking

in such a way that they should reveal

themselves

through

their actions, movements and spp.ech~s.

In this

manner a lively interest in history can be created.

The next important step arter characterization is

the use of narrative techniques. These are important aspects

or

the novel in general but in the historical

novel

they

acquire extra-ordinary

importance. The right

use or

the

words, appropriate comhinations of dirrerent exprc~sions are

the essential requirpments or a proppr historical novel. Tt

IS the duty of the historical novelist to make hi~ re~rlers

reel that they arc actually living in the days and among the

p e op l e deserihed. In f a o t it is the mastery of La ng u ag e anti

(24) Walter Besant, cited by Sheppard Opeii, P. 249.

51

art or atmosphere-building on the part of

thp historicfli

novelist

that

creatps ~ ('Ie~r-cut distinrtion

historical novel and history. The language of history t r-nd s

to be more descriptive while that of the historical novelist

has to be lively, full of emotions and feelingl

Historical novel needs to be more p i c t u r e s qu e as

compared

to the ordinary novels as it deals with what has

alr~ady happened. Hence mere deseriptives cannot crpate the

effect of environment. The rea] essence of the skil] of the

artist

lies in that he should present the events in such a

way that the reader can see them with his mind's eye.

For the·creation of atmosphere a novelist has to

keep an eye- on his words, If'ngllage 8nit narration.

So: t ~.' '-'/

should be careful in the selection of dptails ~ndA ~iff~rent

h e

nthe~ elements about the period he has chosen .0 deal

wit h.

Walter Scott

attache-s great

importance to tile art o f

narration and says that: ~The interest bpcomps lost

in 8

minute description of events not affecting the progress of

t I ,,25

a e •

]t can be concluded that the style of narration,

which is an import~nt aspect of every kind of novel, bpcomps

extremely important when the creation of the historic~] n(lv(']

( 2 5) J. p t t e r s () f W a ] t e r S ~gjJ. , pd. L 0 c k h art, ton d () n , 1887, p.203.

52

i ~ j n v 0 I v f' d. J\ novel i ~ t h <'I S t f) P xis t 10 r- rot :d I yin t h t»

In which

his

histnrirA' novel is

hiq

d e t a I l s with pictorial quality. Ro.th Sh;Har ilnif

Srn t t

great master~ in this respect ilnd they pr~scnt a livf'ly anrl

interesting portrait of the past in their novel~.

The

pictorial

quality adds to

the artistry of

histo.rical novpl and

the really great historical

noveljsts

are

those who invPl5t Rnd surroun~ their character~

, ,;

."

men anrt W<lmen - or last years,

with the b a z e: w i s t f' u l n s s s and r

glamour which

is comparahle to that gln~s or film 0n

th,..

pre-historic imp1rmpnts and wpapon~, time~ own work: not if)

he copied by any huma n t o o l or process. It me a n s

t h 1'1 t

no ve l j s t

h a s to gi VP Ii fp to the p a s t , Fnr t hi s purposp hp

has

to merge himsplf in the very ~pirit of the p~~t.

Thl='n

only

is hp shIp to create a historical novel equipped with

lively human heings.

Macl:I,dA,)' has p r e f e r r e d f b e historical rro v e Li s t to.

the historian npcfllls"" in his opinion thf' formf'r i<:

..... hich ovp .. lo(lk~

f h eo f i ('I ti 0 f ~ III i ~ It I Y h R ttl 1', t 0 i n v I' '"' t t h ,.

reality or

an d b l o orl , b e i ng s wlj o rn \II'~ <'11'1"

inclined

to

consider

8S

p e rs o n j f i I'd

(~ I I ~ I j tip."

in

II J 1

53

allegory, to call up our ancestors before us with al)

peculiarities of language, manners and garbs to show us over ~h ;,.(1. ~~

the i r h ou s e s , t 0 sea t usa t the i r tab I e s , t 0 ~. the i r

old fashioned ward robes to explain the uses of their

ponderous furniture, these parts of the duty which properly

belongs to the historian have been appreciated by the

his tor i c a I no vel i s t 26. (.~ ... ./

... ,.

I t

can be accepted unhesitatingly that

the

historical novelist must excel

in the art of narration

and style.

I t

is also evident that a novelist has to

struggle very hard in order to maintain the balance between

fact and fancy. He has to playa double role of being a

historian and a novelist at the same time with such a great

skill

that one role does not overlap the other.

A historical novel must preserve dignity and avoid

grandiloquence, preservp atmosphere and avoid the archaic

carried to extremes, preserve accuracy of the hackground and

,

avoid the crowding of t"""e human interest, preserve strength

and avoid the needlessly coarse and ruthless and morbid,

preserve the dramatic without being melodramatic, preserve

the proportion without sacrificing detail.

(26) Macaulay, Biographical and Critical Essays, London,

1922, p.llS.

54

Thus

it can be said that an historical novel

is

simply 8 novel which attempts to recapture the atmosphere or

an age which is remote from that of the writer.

It

is 8

story of manners and morals of

t h e past. History only

consists of the great dt"eds of great men. The hjstori~al

novel shows the complexity and intricacy or the common human

relationships, in a parficular age. It shows the motives and

incentives of common human beings, who Jive anonymously,

and could not find a place in the golden pages of history,

but their deeds had enhanced the great attempts made by the

great personalities of kings and heroes. Thus a historical ~

novel is a story of manners and actions which gives base to

,

great attempts of heroes and leaders.

John Buchan has described the difference between a

general novelist and a historical novelist, while saying that

~The point of difference is that in every ease fhe writer has to construct for himself, imaginatively, not only the drama hut an atmosphere and modes of life an~ thought with

which he cannot be pesonally fAmiliar. man who deals with contemporary life has key nearer to his hand. He is concerne~ fhings which are roughly within his worl~

Thp the with of

experience; the details may be strang~, hut the access to them is simple. The historical novelist has to think himself into an alien world before he can ~xpound its hutaan i t ,,27

uman) y •

(27) Buchan John, Sir Walter Scott, London, 1932, P. 130.

55

--------

Thus it e a n be said that the t a s k of t h e n o v e Li s I

IS to romanticize the real eVf'nts of the p~st with the aid

of his imaginative art, but he has alway~ to b~ RWAre of the

danger of distortion and ha~ to he ~Iways careful

in

the process of the creation of the historical

nove I ,

the

balance between reality and imagination is not shaken.

While comparing Scott and Sharar

as

historical

novelists an attempt has been made to analyze how far

they

were successful in wedding the characteristics of history to

those oC novel

in their historical novels,

and

to what

extent

they

were able to CulCil

the

above

stated

requirements ~ the historical novel. But before proceeding

to the proper comparison hetween the two novelists, it seems

necessary

to review

the prevailing cnnditi0ns of

historical

nove I I

both

in English and Urdll Jitf'ratures,

especially when Scott and Sharar started their

care~rs as

historical

novelists as

i t

would help to analyze and

criticize

their

contribution

to

the

development

or

historical

nove]

in

English

and

Urdu

literatUre

respectively.

It IS pvident from thf' history of hoth Urdu and

F.ngl ish

litC'raturf'

i th~tJnov(>1

is

• I' (.\ v : _.t

con~id""r~d ,l.the

I i t~rary tool

to rippirt t h e s o e i e L,

.::Ind pnlitical

conditions or a particular figf'. It s e ems that the h i s t o r i c a l

56

element is an i n o v i t a b l e astH"'" of r- v o r y kind of n o v r- l hp it

rom ant i cpo lit i c a) 0 r soc i a I, (' V f" n i f I tt ~ nov r 1 i s t I ': III 0 r p

J • I I

.1 .... - .: ., )\. ... ~ ,r.. r

~to d e s c r f be th(' c o n t empo r a r y s c e n e in his n o v o l , hilt ; t

, ~ I'

is also an und~niah)e fact that

is no notieah)f"

tradition of a proper historical novel either in English or

Urdu literatUre before Sharar and Scott.

In English Literature nove) was started by Daniel

Defoe. His novel "Rnbin Crusoe" can be considerrd the first

historical

nvvel in the English language, as it deals with

the adventures of the Ip.gendary char~rter Robin Hood. (Tn

his novel

he has stated the various aspects of English

Sod ety

in

the Anglo Saxqn period).

Rut

Defoe was a

journalist

by inclination.lhat is why his novels

~--- ..

I a ~k

the

vigour,

kindness and pict'orial

quality,

which are

the

essential asp('cts of every kind of novel. Thus, according to

most

of

the literary historians, Ri('hardson is

the

first

novelist

in English, as his novels show a perfect hlend of

sentiment and logic but hp also deals with ~

contemporary

conditions ra1hf"r than tracing the past.

-

Sir

Walter Scott

j s

rrntllry

novelist.

B('fore him the historical

no v e Ls of d i f f e r e n t '1

I

kinds and p r e t e n s i o n s had a l r c a dy b e e n written. Wil Bu r

,/

L • C r 0 S S IILI S

t r a c e d t h o d e v e l o pmr-n t of' English rro v e

from

Smollett's Hnmphery CJinkpr to Scott's Waverley and

insists

57

that

the r.othic r~vival w~s ~ reviv~l of intrrest not

in ghosts and other supernatural and horror e l r-mr-n t s hut -t-t.-

.-,_{ I'!l

WAS It r<."vival

I . h i t 28

a so]n ]S ory .

Thj~

shows

the

t r a d i t ion of

h i s t o r f r-a l

Eighteenth century an interest in hi~tory WRS kept

up by

historical

tales,

which were tinged with the elements of

romance as we)).

I t

js also proved by th~ his10rical

evidences

that .. ,in Eighteenth c e n t u r y tM--' r oma n e e writers .1'

developed a new enthusiasm for

Shakespeare's historical

plays,

and derived fresh material

Crom

th<.>m.

Historical

tales oC romance and adventure were very popular

In

those

days.

The late s~venteenth ~~ntury witnesspd the ris~ of a

more ohj~ctiv~ s1udy of history and th£"refore of R deeper

sense of diff~rpnces hetween past ~nd present.

Thr

past

reflected

in

the novels of O<.>foe.

Though he

is

considered a proper nov~list in mAny resp~ets,

yet

his

Ciction,

for the first time, presents before tht:> reader a

picture

both of

the

individual

I i t e ,

in

j t s

IRrger

perspective and a.a historical process hcing ~cted out

York, 1955, P. r i o ,

Sf!

_).,

According- to lfln Wilt t , n~fof"<; ('h~r~f't('rs -'lr'£' ff'1 t

'f. .~

r-:

hy read ... r

"

to he rooterl in the trmpnrnl dimrnQinn.

" I

his

best

he convinces liS complr:>tl:'ly

t h a t

h i s n a r r a t i v e

occuring at 8 particular placl:' and a particular

t i m~~;

nnd

our memory of his novels consists largely of these vividly

realized moments

in the lives ot his characters, moments

which are

loosely strung together to form a convincing

biographic:tl

pf"rspective.

We havp a sense of personal

identity subsisting through duration and ypt

heing

by the flow of experipnc('29

<~ • -. , • ~ I ' ., E' 'I'" j~ ... (. <' n -. +, l

I :' .

f'~" t'o- ....

I •

, .

'/.

changed

//, . ,

We can say that the historical perspe('tivp was
present in the novel from the time of its orirrin, pven
though the histori('al novel with a I I the ingreitipnt~ of
history had not been started at that time. Wh",npv('r thl:' novelist mentioned the past, he mentioned it with all its

concreteness and reality. After Defoe we come across the

realisti(' novel

of Richardson,

throwing

I; g h t

on

contemporary manners and morAls.

The ye3r when a new kind of historical novel

('Rme

i n t 0 be i ng WAS J R 7 :\, w hen Mis s Sop h i ALp r p 11 h lis h (' it t h r fir" t

hy

two more

(29) Watt, Ian, Th«' Rise (If the Novpl, Camb r i dg e t sns , p.2S.

59

vol limps.

11 is R story a bo u t Eli7l'1h('thllJl ag e , in which

activities of

the Worthi~st c o u r f i o r s lire rlio..:f'uss",1.

Th('

story unrolns

the chllract('r of F.arl or Lpic('stf"r who

;1' ;'"banisheit a nrl recalled by his qu e e n , H£' i ndu l g c s in i n t r f g u e s

with Lady ERSPX ~nd kills his wife by poisoning h~r.

From Rpcess thpre is a stpady rangr of histori('al

romances down to ~cott. ~ost of thp noveliRts iteriv~~

stories from Shakespeare's history plays. B~t the hi~torical

romance,

at

that

time t

was pre-eminently dominated hy

sentiments. The novelists showed their historieal ch;lractpr~

weeping, anit sighing. Bpcause of the dominancp of sentiment,

the sentimental novel and the historical novel could not be

d t s e r f m t na t e d

from

each

othpr.

Anothpr

remarkablp

achievement

in the field of historiral romance wa~ th~t

of

Smollett;

his

charactes are thp well

known gentlemen of

history. AftE'r Smollett ,JFlmE'S WhitE' w r o t e ArlV<:'ri11lrPS nf__.l.Q!m

Gaunt in 1970.

According to Wi) Rur L.Cross, the nnvplists or th~

late Eighteenth century laid more emphasis on

thp raets of

history.

In

this

respect he givps the px~mpl(' of C'ar~

Reeve,

who

at the end of the Pr('fAce 0f h£'r novpl

Derrl'lrt'nnon, g.3V~ a list of a u t ho r s she had c o n s u l t r-d , which

i n e Lu d e d Gr o i s s a r I Ho l j n s h r-d and Smo l Le t t. ShE" s k e t e h e d the

of

th~ great

e. man

-

of Rich8rn's

11

reign,

GO

~
, L ...
" that lhp who ~onlribllll?d tn the prospprity or 1
~ , ( young mpn
\JY""
England Wf're nof as rl"prescnled hy P'Lu t a r e h fhl' 1 t· I' t30

rpvo u lonary nnvp IS •

A ~reat improv~mpnt over Ihe imAgin~tivp trr~tmrnt

of history was b r o ug h t a h o u t by thp r oms n c e s of .bnp pork",,,.

volume is almost wholly h i s t o r f c a L, It i.e; f n l I oC till' h(>l-Irt-

ren"'ing

evenfs that gather round thp partition of Poland

in

1793.

The Polish battle scenes

are df'pi('tf>d

in

l"n

.artistic manner. But the essence oC history is

spoile-d

in

the

last thre-e volumes. The Scottish Chiefs was he-r

historical

romanc~. For writing this , ,.

, "". , . J' ~ I A'"

romance ~he

WAS

be-tter

i ..... ;

< ,

equipped as having I i v e d in Edihllrgh and ~il1rr fami I i a r wi th

L _ .~_.~.

Anrl Bruce

traditions.

Sh,. was

t •• t»

fir~t

historiral

romanl''''

planned to descrihp. She had ~~simi)atf'd 100, the ~pirit of

Aftl?'r

J8ne Porter a ve-ry rurious pxpcriment

Ifl histnriral

QJ ran tn.

It rpfers to the ('vents of twelfth or

thirteenth

('{'nfuriE's.

The lively details of the (>vpnts in

t his

novel

The most successful practitioner of the Gothic

novel was Mrs. Anne Radeiff. According to David Daiches her

novels,

"While historically i n a c cu r a t e and psychologically

crude have certain verve in their employment of standard ,

Gothic propertiesH31"

Her novels cannot be considered as, historically

authentic. After Mrs. Radcliff a very curious experiment in

historical fiction was made by Joseph Strutt in Queen Huo

Hall. Left incomplete by its author,it was hastily completed

by Sir Walter Scott and published in 1808. St-Mttist-etes··tts

~_;,_ ... -!J ... I.._..t',. /~ l '. i. ,.,(. ",

r

(:

p~se In the preface to the novel that

the chief

purpose

of the work is to make it the medium of conveying mueh

useful instruction, imperceptibly to the minds of such

readers as are disgusted at the dryness usually concomitant

with the labours of the antiquary, and present to them a

lively and pleasing representation of the manners and

amusements of our forefathers under the form most likely to

attract their notice. The scene of the piece is laid in

England and the time (in which the events are supposed to

take place) is in the reign of H~nry ~heJ.iX~h,~,~". ( r ,J(;.Jt.~. ,f, ( ~r:J ~ e t~· '"'-, .....

. i !... l ("t •• 11 !" J

(31)

Da i chest

David, A Critical History

of

Li terature, Vol. 3, 1969, P. 743.

(32) Struth: Preface to Queen HUG Hall, 1808, P.IV.

62

(

]n the descriptive details of various kinds of

games,

tavern scenes and other spectacles Strutt has given

I"

t~ complete cultural and linguistic knowledge of the reign

of Henry the Sixth. The details are so accurate and concrete

,* I . " ~/

")...- _I\ .._:~ ~ ( ., ~ ", • -I' ': \. , t "

the novel does-;ne1 have a gleam of imagination. ·The ,..

that

importance of such a publication is that

it decided a

defini te framework for the historical novelist· that is I that ,

he should be able to give an exact reproduction of the past

in a lively and vivid manner. These were the precedents

available to Sir Walter Scott when he started his career as

a historical novelist. The examples of The Scottish Ch·iefs

by Jane Porter, Defoe's Robinson Crusoe and some historical

romances of Clara Reeve, Mrs. Radcliff Count Hamilton were

available to him which, according to Earnest Baker "had all

the ingredients prescribed for a good historical novel

except

the life, the humour and the genuine romance that

Scott

infused into the feeblest thing he ever wrote,,33.

Considering Baker's view it can be assessed that the English

historical novel before Wa It er Scott was in a state of
~
i.potence and i t was}due to entire lack of imagination. The
novelists dealing wi th history before Scott did not realize that

to make their novels resemble the rea) life they must

(33) Earnest A. Baker, History of The English Novel, Vol.6,

1968, P. 134.

have a sufficient knowledge of the society and culture of a

'\ ,- .{

given age( that is how people lived their lives, what were

their private and personal concerns. They should have to

live

mentally in the period of their novel. pick out

the

intricate details of the happenings and causes of the
dynamic changes which occured in that age. As Baker has very
rightly stated that to present and interpret facts was the
historian's business; to summon up a past epoch, to show men and women alive in it, and behaving as they must have

behaved in the circumstances, was the labour and joy of the

genuine historical novelists.34

It means that the perfect blend of historical

reality and fictional

imagination which is the

basic

requirements to be fulfilled by a genuine

historical

"

.' ... '"

novelist, was lacking in Scott's predecessors. To Scott past

was a living thing. His point of view was that a new method

of approach was needed in order to see the historical past

in its true perspective. In this light we can say that Scott

is

the first genuine historical novelist

in

Engl ish

r, f '-~iterature.

I J

As far AS Urdu ~jterature is concerned, the novel

did not appear in its proper form until the pUblication of

( 34) B a k e r , OBci t, Vo I • 6, P. 220 •

__ R_4_

Nazir Ahmad's Mirr~l-ul-Aro0s which i~ rp~~rrl~d as th~ fir~t

novf'l

in' , r rl u J, j t p r a t u r e , Th par t 0 f s tor y

p o p u La r ev o n bpfore the p ub l i o a t i nn nf N87ir AhmIH1'q no v e l s .

Urdu Prose started as a s_?u.r_cf' of d i f f e r e n t

tAles,

which

were translated from Persian and other kindrerl

Janguagf's.

These stories were overwhelmingly dominated by supernatural

eJempnts. They were ~ tales of adventure in which the hero

went through a great many expeditions, fought with many evil

forces and was destined to h a v e ure' ultimate victory after

having

won

battles

against

all - Uie

evil

forcf>s.

The novel, in its proper form, was horrowprl from

the western l I t e r a t ur e , Be f' o r e Ahdld Halim Sh;!rar WP h e a r

the names

of

two novelists, Na7ir Ahma~ Rn~ Rat~n Nath

Sarshar.

Both

the novelists crpated )c! /: .. revive th~ ~ng morAl values.

i n s t r u c t Lv e no v o l s ,

aiming to

The novpl

originated

after

turmoils of

tho

IR57

War

of

Independence commonly known as the Mutiny.

Th e set JJ rmo i Is

had a great effect on the themes of Urdu /

these conditions novel appearrd as ~ mirror of life. Na7ir

literature.

In

Ahmad and Ratan Nath S~rshar wpre concernpd only with the

cont ernp o r a r y s i t u a t ions --(...'14.i I,' ~{" them _.A ting!:"' 'of light

"r'

and wr o t o )'fie mo r a l n o v e Ls C-+-V;'"ftg

h i s t o r f r-a l

novelist in Urdu Literaturf> be f o r e Ahdul

Ha lim

Shara r ,

Na z i r Ahmad u s o d t h e n o v e l for mo r s l

i n s t r u e t j o n s

65

and Sarshar used it for satirical purposes, while Sharar

used it to trace the glorious history of U\e Muslims. Though

/

the great leaders like Sir Syed Ahmad Khan were working to

convince th~ p~ople of the need of taking part

in the

freedom movement, yet in many ways Sharar's novels, about

.' .

the ~ict6rious past,

helped a great deal,

to

invoke

enthusiasm in the public. "e wanted to inspire his readers

by reminding them of the great deeds of their ancestors.

Thus jf ·can be concluded that both Sharar and

Scott are the initiators of historical novel as the English

historical no v e l was in an impQ..--tlf.T1t state be-fore Scott

while in Urdu Literature- there was no historical novelist

before Sharar. Both of the-m have endeavoured to make the

past alive and colourful to the eyes of their readers. Their

aims were similar to R gr~at exte-nt. Spott wanted 10 make

his readers aware of the glorious history of Scotland and

Sharar wanted to build up the morale of hjs people in the

period of their downfall by presenting before them the great

deeds of their ancestors. The intricate likenesses and

differences between their methods of treating history will

be shown jn the following chapters.

66

CHAPTER.

I I I

HIs"rOR.ICAL THEMES IN TIlE NOVEI .... S OJ. ..... SCOTT AND SHAR.AR.

The selection of theme is the first and most

important stage in the creation of every kind of novel.

The responsibilities of a historical novelist are

doubled as compared to those of a social novelist

because he has to go back to history to select a period

and adopt it as the theme of his novel. If the novelist

selects a popular era from history, he has to be

careful to maintain accuracy at every stage because the

readers are aware of almost every detail

and the

novelist has not even the slightest chance of deviation

from the truth. On the other hand, if he selects his

theme from a remote and unknown period of history, he

can gi v e a comp a r a t i ve 1 y F-r"".: ven t to hi s imagi na t i on and

can also fill

the gaps left

by the historian by

inserting romantic elements in history. In this kind of

theme the reality and imagination are merged together

In sueh a perfeet way that the reader cannot question

the authenticity of history.

A critical analysis of the theroes

In the

novels of Scott and Sharar reveals that

there are

67

comparatively fewer similarities than dissimilarities

in

the

subjects

they

selected

for

artistic

represcntation. Both Sharar and Scott wrote about the great eras ot history. Their greatness, as historical novelists is evident trom their modes of dealing with the popular periods ot history by imparting to it a

tinge of romance. Both of them wrote

protusely.

Sharar's novels are mostly about the Early and Middle Ages while Scott chose the period between the eleventh and nineteenth centuries as the themes ot his nove~.

Let us take up the similarities first.

Despite the fact

that they lived in two

different

centuries, the political conditions both in

Britain and India were similar to a great extcnt. Scott created his historical novels at a time when the

traumatic

events ot the French

Revolution

had

shattered his generation and had produced a new awareness ot the past. In 1603 Scotland was united with

Britain

atter having lost

its independence.

The

Scottish people telt dejected and sutfered from an

interiority complex. In this situation of trustration

Scott considered the historical novel

as the most

effectjve tool for arousing a new zeal in the Scottish nation. He endeavoured to build up the morale of his countrymen and tried to bring them out ot the state of

68

hopelessness and uncertainty. For this reason most of

his novels deal with Scottish themes. He wanted his

people to realize the positive side or the Scottish

alliance with the English. The Fortunes or Nigel is an

evident example in this respect. This novel states a

whole series or themes: the historical novelty of lire

in the seventeenth century London and the hostility

between the English and the Scots. Most of his novels

dwell on the theme of reconciliation between the Scots

and the English. These novels show that Scott is torn

between two civilizations. He has nostalgia tor the

independent past ot Scotland but, at the same time, he

also realises the importance and inevitability of

Scotland's allegiance to England.

In the same way Sharar wrote at a timc when

India

was colonized by England and

the

tragic

consequences ot the 1857 War ot Independence were still

:Til.

impi~ging the lives ot the people. Sharar himselt had ,:.

been an active participant in the treedom movement.

Betore him, Sir Syed Ahmed's movement had inspired a

spirit of national progress and improvement. In order

to achieve their goals Sir Syed and his friends chose

the

medium ot journalism and literature.

Sharar

considered the historical novel a better medium for

69

invoking the suppresssed emotions or his people. He

wanted his countrymen to muster courage and play an

important role in the freedom movement. But while Scott

wanted to create an alliance between the Scottish and

English nations, Sharar's aim was quite the opposite.

The purpose of his novels was to arouse the Muslims of

India

against

the English rulers. He wanted

to

stimulate them to fight against their

oppresser.

Consequently most of his novels deal with

,

the great

deeds of Muslim heroes

in which they are

shown

s t r ug g I i ng

very hard against their

enemies

and

eventually, truimphing over them.

'- \ ". I

... ' ,., .....

The subject of

the Crusades also figured

p;evailingi~ in their novels. Both Scott and Sharer '-:.. -~-- .

approached historical fiction in terms of a story to be

told and of a theme to be worked out. The Crusades is a

common theme between them. Scott wrote two novels on

this subject,

The Betrothed, and The Talisman. The

Betrothed

was

a very unpopular novel

but

Talisman was regarded 'a great masterpiece'

by his

printers.

Sharar

read 'Talisman and his

religious

feelings were hurt at the distorted picture or Muslim

morals and manners portrayed in that work. So he wrote

Malik ul Aziz Varjana as a refutation .F Talisman. As

70

far

as Scott is concerned, his

intf're~ts

weorp

different. He indulged in presenting an extremely

unfavourable Muslim history. Both Scott and Sharar

handle this theme in a prejudied manner. The theme of

the Crusades haunted both of them as a popular aspect

of history. The tussle between the Muslims and the

Christians is presented in an illuminating manner by

Sharar; Scott does not present true history and tries

to avoid the authentic facts. Sharar comments on this

the~e in ~is journal Dilguda~.

j,;:1 Jy~ iJ~ r.~-t~J'I:( &- /UL v:. v:. £ L J; v:.,;:J, J:.I~ r:)T I.f' j IJ J r. VJ? / }.., 1 ~~ J lJi~ J:. V')Ji Ii ,; 't! ~ L I) / (.;,; 1:/ ~~ ~)' -'~ J J,I: J_ J:. ~ L ~lO J r. If .. ~ J;.IJ"I o· J:. J,I: j r ~ ,; ~- j..,. L J ~ Jc1!j )Ji J .. )( J? ~/~ v:. Vi 4- J'I:~ .. ( ;v/, r. k' J....' ,/ L ,.it J 1J''')t' U/ r. ~I:){ L J, ! ;,;.) )Jt etA o- ~ ~ )Ji j,1

I .(0 A '-J

- (3) ;1.1'0 Jo)A r..I t L lJi~ i z,

(1) Sharar. Dilgudaz, May 1934, pp. 97-8.

71

ITo improve my English I r~ad W8't~r

Scot t • s

novet,Talism~..!!, which is b a s e d on t hr- third rrll~Rdp. was so annoyed to note the dpgradation of Muslims on Scott's part that I thought of writing A no v e l on t hrsame topic. So I s t a r t e d serializing MAlik .11 Azi7, Varjana, the first no v e I of DiJguda7. Wh~n ) IIs~d t hrpoetic imagination and simplicity of expr~ssion to portray in this nove) the facts of th~ third CrusadE" and heroic deeds of the celebrated Sultan Salahnilrlin and Richard the Lion-herated, which I portrayed with the help of Arab's history books, th~ Muslims were immensely inspired J.

These comments of Sharar indicate that he was

annoyed at Scott's presentation of Muslims'

negative

Tole

in

the Crusades and he wrote

this

novel

exclusively as a result of his Islamic fervour. In order

to make

this novel

a success, from the moral

and

commercial

points of view, Sharar has

tin~l;'iI hj~t(lry

with the element of romance. Dr.AsJam Sayyed rxpressps

his

adverse opinion about

Sharar's

Ma Ii k-u J -Az_i z

Varjana and says,

"Sharar's lack of training as a novplist and poor knowledge of history detract from his work. The novel contains long discussions on how Jews were slaughtered in England. Islam was a better religion than Christianity, mere conversion to Islam created miracles and how a woman fought against hundreds of soldiers without receiving the slightest injury. Sharar fakes priile in mentioning the fact thai King Rj c ha r d p r o p o s o d his sistpr's marriage to thp Sultan's hrnthpr Anil that SaJah-ud-Din did not kill any ChristAins w h e n he o o r- up i e d .JeruSalem in ttR7. He a s s i g n s

responsibility for later mASSacr~s of to the cruelties of Rj c h a r d , who had in Acrp killed and evpry woman

CbristjRns cv e r y Mus Jim rap~d aftpr

72

capturing the city. When the Sultan heard of this, he swore not to spare any Christian. It is interesting to note that during his discussions on fslam, Sharar upholds the Sunni Orthodox vipw of Islam by putting the argument of Mu'tazilites in the mouths of Christian priests2"

Scott has also included 'th~ romantic element·

in his novel but he attempts to do so with the help of

the institution of marriage and suggests a marriage

between Saladin and Lady Edith. Lady Edith is a

fictional character. It can be said that both Scott and

Sharar have handled the theme in a prejudied mAnner.

Malik ul Aziz Varjana became more popular

than

Scott's

Talisman

because

the

existing

psychological condition of Indian Muslims was in favour

of such a novel in which Muslims triumphed over the

Christians. !.the aggrieved Muslims welcomed, whole-

heartedly the novel in which the great Christian King

was defeaterl and was forced to sign a peace treaty and

secondly because Sharar was s~rialjsing this nov~l and could make changes at every step to aCC~rlate the

(2) Aslam Syed Muhammad, Muslim Response to West:

J857-1914,

Islamabad, 1988, p.119.

73

demands of the public. Sharar wrote another novel on

the Crusades'

t~.~lhe, Shaukeen Malika. This no v e l

j s

ahout the second Crusade. According to Mumtaz Man~lorj,

this novel is based on authentic historical

resnurces

and the events related in it can be verified from the

book of Archer and Lane-Poo13 •. ~ut Ali Ahmad Fatimi

regards this novel as a deviation from the real history

of

the

4 Crusades •

In this respect I Dr. Manglori's t~,.\·tt,·.~ (. ,.__... . ~ ," .

lIHtt"e-lIti:t~h~c because he has t r i ed

'- -" .

comments seem to be

to prove the truth of historical dptails by quoting

references

from history. Hence it can be said that

Sharar

handles the theme of the

Crusades

more

than Scott, as it is his charactpristic

that he deals more comfortably_with the remote p~st .

....... ...... -- ..... "

Another aspect

in which the two novelists

appear to he similar is the introduction of the element

ot romance to the historical SUbjects. They think it

necessary

because,

in their opinion, a historical

nove I ,

contrary to history, has

to he interesting,

attractivp and coJourful. Both of them want to givp a

(3) Manglori Mumtaz Or. Opcit., P.?O.

(4) Fat illd A] i , Behasiat-i-Novel Nig;n, Lu e kh now

1986, P. 301.

74

colouring of imagination to thp rpalistic depiction ot history but they vary from each other in the gradation ot the combination ot romance and history. As romparpd

to Scott, Sharar gives more importance to romance. In

tact

the romantic theme is used as thp central

aspect

and

real

history is used only as reference

or

backgrou~d. Moulana Salahuddin Ahmad comments on this

characteristic ot Sharar And says that

he (SharRr)

merges

the historical events into the sweetness of

romantic tales

in such a manner that the reader r.~n

remember it tor a long timeS.

When Sharar's novels are reviewed. in the

light ot Moulana Salahuddin Ahmad's comments, it can hp observed that Sharar has a great artistic awareness of

the story;

the central historical

story and

the

romantic sub-story go side by sidp in his novels. In

other words there are two waves of events

in his

historical novels. One wave is that ot historical

events and the other is that of romantir. pvents. Th~y do not go sidp by side hut one is mprged into the

other.

In fact many romantic events arp created from

(S) Salauddin, MouJana., Urdu Ka Atsanvi Adah, Lahorp,

1975, pp. 19-20.

75

------------

historical

events; for instance t h e story of M:dik ,11

Aziz Va.~_na starts with the advance of troops h e a d e-d

by Ma]ik ul Aziz, who kills the Ch r i s t i s n l e ad o r . Tn

the process of chasing the Christi~ns,

the Prinre

reaches a lonely and barren p La "": He rescu",s a
/ ~~ _' . I ...
Christian princess from the 1:.~_P t 1.1 r?\o t a Jew. This
__ c_. __ historical even~ sprves as an instance of ]ovP ~t first

sight 6 ...

According to Dr. Mum1az Manglori, a greater

part of the second half of Malik ul Az;z Varjana is

. '," ." /.

fictitious and imaginary.

his

statement Or. Manglori refers to the history of Tbn-i-

Shadad and gives the correct d e t a i l s of the f'vpnts7".

The same is tru~ of his oth",r important novp)

Mansoor Mohna. Here he creates a fusion or historir~J

and romantic events in such a way that bo t h kinds of

events seem .s ubs e r v i en t to e a e h o t h e r , A Hindu girl

falls in love with Mansoor when he saves her ]ifp. The

same kind of fusion takes place in his other novpls,

such as Yousaf-w-Najma. Najma falls in lovr with Yousaf

(6) Malik ul Aziz Varjan8, rhap.tpr I, P.

(7) Nang]ori Mumtaz Dr. Op.cit., p. J3.

71";

during war. The s t u dy of RII t h e s e nnvf"ls s how s th~t hy

tinging history with rf)manc~ Sh~r8r trif"d to crp~te H

perfect

novel

from the artistic point

of

v i (Ow.

Romance IS an important e l emr-n t in all his no v e l s . His

novels have the romantic tinge of a strange kinr'l.

Usually a Muslim hero falls in lovp at first sight with

a Christian or Hindu heorine.

Sharar's own Cf)mments on the novel show that

regards

the tinge of romance in history

as

inevitable, For example he says that

r LJ L. '.:)d,v.. cf ~'e J~'J 1: J::'e u! J,l: L. ~ L. ~Ji. J. 4- L. ~,;"" c.., / , c.."J" ~ , (I,d'<'-J; L. cf J" !Jf./ Ji J i.J:.d x-1t./' J ~j, r k d', (S)..f.if kL'J~

[The novels of European taste are not needed for

Inr'lia.

Instpad the Indians need tt} romance in which they

are

reminried of

the great dpeds anr'l gJorlps of

anr-e s t o r s ] .

(8) Sharar, MS7,ameen-i-Sharar, Vol.4, Lur-k lmo w ,

i s i n , p. 21.

77

- ... >
~
J
..
.,
, ,
~ " Again he says thst

. ~o L ~ , cf .!- ~J )"r: 0J tJk; c:.... VOjt' J 4- ~( V tJk; c:.... '":""'" ~ L J,," (~)-4-J'r f (j

[The most e s s e n t i a l thing for a nov o I is fhAt it s h o u l d be extremely interesting and interest ~an very rarely be i ncu l cat e d wi thout romance ~.n~!b~a~t.y) •

,...(.~".. ' i {.. r,' ,. ( •

The~e observation of Sharar ahnut thE" art nf

novel writing indi~ate that basically he is a romAntic

novelist

to write romantic novels

ahout

and he wants

some glorious periods of the history of his ancestors

and regards them as an effective tool to assuage the

defeatist sentiments of his countrymen and to create a

new z e a l anti enthusiasm in them. In his

endeavour

tn

build up the morale of his readers he, somp.imes, ten~s

to make romance dominate ~ history.

Scott

also gives murh

to

the

importl'fflre

element of romance in his historical

c omme n t s t I at

Scott hl'fS found Scotland's past snd its

events as

romantic as anything he has djspnvf"r~d

in

imaginative

"His

l j I e r a t u r e ,

aim in

the

Scotl"h

novels .••.

cnmmunicate

his

imaginfltive

WaS

to

(9) Lb i d, n- 22.

78

excitellent

to

his

d 10"

rea ers •

Just

as

Sharar

has

endeavoured to separate thc two cultures,

converting

the Christian or Hindu heroines to Islam as a result

or their romantic relationship with the Muslim hero,

Scott has tried to wed the two cultures by creating

love arfairs between Scottish heroines and British

heroes. The love affair betwecn the two is usua]ly the

result of a compromise on the part of the Scottish

heroine and her father with the changed and the new

society. The examples in this instant are the marriage

or Waverley and Rose Bradwardine in Waver~ and that

of British Frank Baldistone who marries his Scottish

her 0 i neD ian a Ve rna n , the S cot tis h , i n R a ~_ Roy.

According to Marian H. Cusac "the fundamental

theme in most of his novels is the movement or the

protagonist

from Scottish romanticism to

Eng] ish

rea] ism.

[n all his novels historical story dominates

t h] t" 11 Wh . C' t

over e ove s ory • en we revIew usac s commen s

in the light of a thorough study of Scott's novels, it

can be observed that, unlike Sharar, Scott does not

give

grenter importance to romance:

the romantic

( J 0)

Jack, ]an., Sir Walter Scott, Edinburgh, 1972, p.IS.

(11) Cu s a c H. Marian. Nar__r_@_tl_yg_._§_U-ucture in the ~.Q.'!'.!'JB o r _,~i r Wa] t e r S cot t, Par j s , 1 969 , p. 30.

79

relationship between the hero and heroine exist as an

important part of the novel, but it never dominates the

realism.

Unlike Sharar

love

is

associated

wit h

nostalgia

in Scott's novels. While commenting on

the

element

oj'

romance in Scott's novels,

Daniel Cotton

says

that Scott's novels are dedicated to the time of

youth and yet are written in the belief that the time

of youth can be recognized only through memory,

since

youth does not fully appreciate its own blessings. It

is only to be expected therefore, that the mourning in

these novels for what disappears through change should

always

he greater than the celebration for what

has

arrived.

And yet this conclusion raises disturbing

t- 12

ques 10ns •

Even though Scott assumes,

for example,

that his readers "are, have been, or will be

lovers",

he describes love

as an

emotion founded upon loss13

It is evident from his novels that, contrary

tu Sharar, Scott's notion of love and romance is linked

with nostalgic and tragic sentiments. He himself writes

that

( 1 2 ) Cot ton, Dane I. I T_h e _(:i..Y. iii 7- ed I ma_gj__l!_'!.!_i o_n_;_.A__!,.'i..! . .!!Q.y tl~'\nne _ ___Rad~.ljL Jane Aus t en and Sir~..!! 1 f f'r ~cot!., Cambridge, 1985, p. 136.

( 13)

Scott. Anne of Geierstein, London, 1826, p. 338.

80

"the first that being

period at which love iN formed for the time, and felt most strongly, is seldom at which there is much prospect of its

brought to a happy end. The state of

artificial society opposes many complicated obstructions to early marriage; and the chance is very great that such obstacles prove insurmountable. In fine, there are very few men who do not look back in secret to some period of their youth at which a sincere and early affection was repulsed or betrayed, or became abortive from opposing circumstances. It is these little passages of secret history which leave a tinge of romance in every bosom, scarce permitting us even in the most busy or most advanced period of life, to isten with total in,4ifference to

t I r t I 14"

a~ a e 0 rue ove •

wt._

This passage clearly eXPlains~slott's idea of

love associated with a tragic attitude.

I t

indicates

his belief that the interest of romance flows from a

wound in experience so deep that a cure is not even

d e s i r ab l e , because of the effect it finally will

bring?

to the lover. Thus the interest of Scott's novels is

dedicated to that delightful season "when youth and

high spirits and all those flattering promises which

are

so i II

kept

to manhood15 " , but

one

finds

compensation for those broken promises in "the spirit

of romantic melancholy which perhaps is ill

exchanged

even for feelings of joyful raptureIG". In o t h e r words

14) Scott, Peveril of !he fe~~, p. 125.

15) Scotl ,St Roman's Well, p. 18.

16) Scott, Peverit of the peak, p.220.

81

the love of which these Hovels tell may form "the most

delightful hours of human existence" but also and just

as frequently leads to "to those which are d a r-k o n d e d by

disappointment,

fickleness,

and a] I

the pains

of

blighted hope and unrequited attachmentI7" •

...

., ,-I,' ';.,,: '. fJ'

J an.e U i J ) ~)t!_~ _ _s: ~ S' 0 n S cot t's :"~ 'f9:.h

.r

that

'f .. Romanticism

Il • r

and says

"he could explore the tension between imagination and reason in a much more complex fashion. He had no philosophic interest in the problem and was incapable of any Coleridgean formulation of it, but in the movement from verse romance to prose fiction as embodied in the completed Waverley of 1814, Scott shifts from an initial romanticism of a very eighteenth century kind

to that much more nineteenth century which perceives the imagination not enemy of knowledge and wisdom but

18 " very source

variety as the as the i "

Thus

i t

can be concluded that as

Scott

is

/' ..

deeply associated Witl/n~'neteenth century Romanticism;

-, • J ,.... .. f .. ' '/~, '

/'I......_.-......;r. F ...... "'\

his involvement' of romance .i:a. history bears most of the

characteristic of Romanticism,

0'

i ,.~ .. .>"

and romanc~

in his

novels

is associated with past and p~simism.

Even

though Romallce is an important aspect of his novels,

( 17 )

Scott, Quentin Durwar,g_, p. 271.

(UP

Mi lIgate Jane., Wal ter _ _Sco_!_!: Th_£_Making ---",o-.!.f_-,t~hp Nq_y__!!lisJ" 'Edinburgh. 1984, p. 57.

82

unlike Sharar he clnps n o t indrdge in m~king

ita

dominant

elf.'mf'nt

in t hr-m , /

themes.

Sharar vpry rar~'y dpaJs with q pprind twirf'

but Scott

does. So the Jacobite revolt

1S Se o t t t s

favourite theme. He has dealt with it in three of his

novels.

This revolt was the consequence of

the

suppression of Scottish rights on the part of the t'

British rulers. The crowns of England and Scotland were

united in 1603 when, on the death of Queen Elizahpth-l

of England,

the nearest heir wa~ the King of Scots,

James VI, who

hecame also James I of

Scottish ro¥al

l'":;j' .

1:t&U-se wa~ ,he Hou s e of

rllled

Britain

after

11)03.

The

Stuarts

unsuccessful

rulers in England. Their a~tocrati(' view

~

_.-l

of kingship being based on i "Divine .Right"

accord

we I I

with the ideas developing

in

the

seventeenth century of a limited monarchy and 8 more

powerful

parliament. As a result of this

t urmo i I

the

parliaments that had remained separate in ~pite of the

.- -,

.. ,'........... r"'-"

un i o n of' crowns were un i ted hy ;) Treaty of,-l Union in

1707.

For Scotland, the poorf'r of thp twn n~tinn~,

t h e r e was the htlpfO' that thp n n i o n "_'nulc1 brin~ I!reHtpr

prosperity to the country, but in the early year~ it

was hard to see any advantages and easy to see thp loss

83

enough motives

for any army to h~ formerl in

,715 on

behalf of the true Stuart heir who was now

living on

t

the Continent. There was a short compaign, J' WAS harily

managed an~ an inrlpcisivp battle at Sharfffmun known as

"the 15" was lost. The next m~jor upri~jng on h~half

of

the ~~cohites WAS

thirteen yeArs

later.

Thi.'"

Charles Edward, knrywn to rnm~ntjc hj~tory a~

"Ronnje"

Prince Ch a r l ie. ~ ~he fathpr and the son are 'known

as

the

Old Pretender

And the

Young

Pretender

respectively.

S co t t

has dealt with this t hr-me in four

of

his novels. In Waverlev, his first novel, he ~~al~ with

the evpnts of

1145. Tn Roh_..R_o_.y and The If"art

of

Midlothian

shows

the Afterm~th of

1707

RprlgaHntJpt he r e p r e s en t s the events Rftpr til' 174r,. The

rea~on

for

t his

rer:llrren('p

i .,

that

movpment h~unts him, ~nd hp wants to satisfy hj~

Inn('r

urge of' c o ns i de r i ng Sco t l a nd I'IS an inrh>penripnt r>lltion_

R 0 h Roy h (' gin s IlP for p t h p ry 1_1 t b r p <\ 1< 0 f t b ('

1715 Jacrybite rpvolt and ('losps early In

171(;. Whilp

COMIIJPntinp; on Jacobite emo t i ona l I sm of Scot.,,'\'O .• T.

Cockshut says that "hp was fonrl of rlpscrihing him~eJf liS

an incorrigihle Jacobi te" and fel t sure that he would have taken arms for the Pr e t cnd e r if he had lived in his time. Yr.t he was not only a loyal subject of the George, he was convinced at a deep ]evel of the necessity and rightness of England's decision to cast off the stuarts. And he saw the matter, of course with his powerful historical intelligence in a I I i t s bearings, not just as a choice between dynasties, but as involving every important question of political and cultural development19"

His deepest meditations on these themes are

emhodied in Waverley, Rob Roy, The Heart of Midlothian

and Red gauntlet. In his first nove], Waverley, he

deals with

the last Jacobite rebellion of 1745 and

confesses

that the Jacobite movement haunt~d him from

time to time. He grew up as the Jacobite tradition was

final I,Y

Scotsmen

ebbing away amid the first

;,J,toi") I A -: ,.

and committed once and for

c-»:

generation

of

a] Ito

the

association with England and Hanoverian dynasty. David

Daiches has commented on Scott's Jacobite passion and

the conflict within him between a British ally and an

independent

S co t 1.

"He ret t sf r o ng l y that the a s s o e i a t ion was inevitable and right and advantageous - he exerted himself gr~at]y to make George JV popular in Scotland. Yet there were strong

(19) Co e k s hu t , A.O.J., The Achievement of _~Lr__Wa~ ~cott, Lo nd on r J969, p.l2.

B5

emotions these politics

on the other side too, and it was

emotions that made him Tory in

and that provided the great

hlpssing of leading him to

I· t 20"

llS ory •

literature and

The Jacobite movement

for Scott

was not

simply a pictureque and historical movement. It was the

~

last

attempt to restore to Scotland ·something of

the

I

old heroic way of life. He used Jacob4tisID and its

aftermath

to symbolize at once the attractiveness and

futili!y of the old Scotland, that Scotland was doomed

after

the unions of Parliaments in 1707

and doubly

doomed after the Battle of Culloden In 1746. The after-

math of 1707 is shown in Tl:!e Heart of Midlothjan and

::..;:R,-=o--"h,-------=R-,-,o_.y •

The uprising of 1746

is

depicted

In

Redguant I et

explicitly.

Through

these novels Scott

gives vent

to his Jacohite emotions

hut

he also

realises

the fact that the fall of

the Stuarts was

inevitable and

the union of Scottish and British

Parliaments was beneficial for the Scottish people.

On the other hand, when we review the novels

of Sharar in search of similar themes, it can be secn

that

he

is never on the same theme twice.

A II

his

forty-two novelK have different eras as their

themes.

( 20) Da i c h cs, Da v i d ~: S co.t t 's a chi .!'~e!D....!.".!t.L_!l_1l_"'!!_D.o V...f.:.UE..!.'::' In Modern Judgement.~_on_ScQ1!, Ed. Devlin, 1946,

p. 36.

86

The

1 h ome of Ma_!jJc_~lIl Az i z __ _Y~.!:.jana

is

thf'

Crusade.

The per i od of H~l!_an _ _A.~lJ!!J!

i oS

the post

Crimean war era of 1872, when Russia sent

her navBI

.!-t,. r:

forces into Black Sea after betraying the peace Treaty

J

of Paris. It also deals with the differences of Shia

and Sunni sects. His third novel Firdous-i-Barin,

,

has ~_,. ..

• ,

its

topic

the

last period of the ascension of

the

Batinia sect.

Sharar has also thrown

Ii g h t

on the

machinations

of the Batinia sect and has related the

story of how this group was destroyed.

Dr, Mumt az

Manglori regards this novel as Sharar's masterpiece in

which he has related the story of

the beliefs and

misdeeds of the Batinia sect21•

Sharar wrote only two ~oyels about

IndiBn

history, ~ansoor Mohna and Mah Malik. Mansoor ~ohna is

about

the

invasions of

India by Sultan

Mehmood

Ghaznavi,

and Mah Malik is about the eras of Sultan

Ghias-ud-Din Ghauri and Sultan Shahab-du-Din Ghauri. It

is named after the daughter of Sultan Ghais-ud-Din,

That Sharar wrote only two novpls about Indian history

is

indicative of his lack of

interest

in his own

culture and tradition. It IS also r-v i d o n t t h a t Sharar's

perspective of nat,ionality has a wider range a n d it

(21) MBnglori,Mumtaz Dr./Op.cit, p. 97.

87

takes

into

account

the

whole

MHoSI im

history,

irrespective of geographical boundaries.

Sharar wrote two novels about the history of

Muslim Spain, Flora f'lorind.E!_ and Fath-i-An~~.

Florinda

is about the conspiracies against

Islam and

ev i I

deeds of nuns and priests during the heyday of

Muslim rule in Spain. It deals with the reign of Abdul

Rehman

the Second in Andalusia.

Fath-i-Andlus deals

with the grandeur of the events that paved the way for

a long magnificient Islamic rule in Spain. It IS about the great chivalrous deeds of Musa Bin Nasir. According to Ali Ahmad Fatimi, Flora Florinda is one of the most

successful

novels of Sharar.

He has

v e r y

boldly

unveiled

the evil deeds of priests who seduccd women

under the guise of rpligion. He has also shown the real

picture of their churches and tried to show

that

the

churches which were apparently the places of worship

were in fact the centres of all sins and evils.

Sharar

has a r t i sc-t Lc a l l y drawn a verbal internal life of these churchesZ2•

picture uf

the

Sharal' has deAlt with pre-Islamic his'ory iJJ his novels, A'y'yam-j~AL~_h and ~oml!!_::·ul-Kubra. In A.Y~!!t: _! - A r a b he s how s the cuI t u r a leo n d i t ion S 0 f p r 4c' - J s I am i c

(22)

Fatimi,Ali Ahmad, OBcit, P. 276.

88

Arabs.

lie comments, in an illuminative ma nn e r , on

the

immoral, atrocious and brutal aspects of Arabic soriety

and, in turn, pays a great tribute to Islamic

reforms

due to which the Arabs changed into a moral, pious and

brave nation. Rpmat-ul-Kubra deals with the history of

pre-Islamic Roman Empire.

He

throws

light

on

the

social, economic, religious and political conditions of

Rome up to the 5th century A.D.

Al

Fanso is based on semi-historical

events

of the life of~ticily. This novel is heavily dominated

by imaginary romantic elements.

M..ll.qaddas Nazneen is ahout a strange event of

the Christian world and especially about

the Popes.

There is a controversy about this event among different

historians but Sharar has tried to give it a univer~al

touch.

~ubat-i-Chee~ is about the early period of

Ummayads and deals with the historical events of 1st

century A.H., when the Ummayads' rule was established

and Hazrat Imam Hussain was killed (61 A.H). He has

!( , :', / " . ' !' r I, ,. F ,. ,

also r e-l.a t e-d t h e a dv an e emr-n t of Musl ims towards Mavl'-'-

un-Nchr.

..!..Qx~.- i -!!~.!l is a I a rge nove I cover i ng a p a r t

or pre-Islamic, Isl..lI.i" a n d post Islamic history. It IS

89

a unique novpl which throws light on the sayings and

deeds of the Holy Prophet. Thus it is evident that in

every novel Sharar touches upon a different theme.

Ali Ahbas Hus~aini has paid tribute to Sh~rar

and says

that Sharar wanted ~he

Indian Muslims

to

think about the reasons of their downfall by reminding

thea

of

the ancient

chivalrous

deeds

of

their

ancestors;

SOy sometimes, he reminded

them of

the

Crusades as

in Malik ul Aziz Varjana and Shaugeen

at other times he repeated the triumph of

the

Turks over the Russians as in Hasan Angelina. He wrote

about

the history of Ansari Family in Sind in M~nsoor

presented the religous controversy aroused by :.:J".l ..

the Batenia sect in Firdous-i-~ari~ and gave a vivid to

picture of Paradise. In Aziza-i-misr he talked of the

era of Bani

Toloon, in Flora Florinda he gave

the

details of

t h e events in Spain, In Fath-i-AndJus he

related

the Arab conquest in Spain,

in F i I p_i:l_!la he

talked about the wars of Holy Prophet' (peace he upon

him)

companions,

in Babuk Khurmt

he r e I at £'d

the

ill t r i gu e s 0 f the Abba s i d era, in M <!_ll M a_Uk he

'"Iked

about the r i s e of women, in Zawli=-i-B~_g_h_Qad hr- r e l a t e d

sectarian

fights b e t w e e n Mus) i ms , in t\..Yyam-i-:,Ar_!!]l he

touehed upon the thf>me of the pre-Islamic stafp of

unr.ivilized Arah~

and

Iftlkpd ahout

90

~iciJy. These are some of the great

23 Maulana •

Nnw,

own opinions of his thpmes, as he was not only a

novelist but a great critic as well. He wrote detailed

and explanatory articlbs about the aspects of the novel

in his

journal piI'gudaz. He felt

that

the average

readers could be more easily motivated and inspired by

the novel, so he decided to write novels for didactic

purposes. The selection of themes was a difficult

matter for him. He could choose contemporary political

and social events as themes ror his novels but for a

long time, he was und e c i d e d about the themes ('If his

novel. Some people wished him to take up the period of

1857 and show the picture of the turmoils of that era.

Some friends wanted him to take some period from the

ancient history of India. others suggested to him to

turn to European history as his theme but after a great

deal or reflection he reached tIle conclusion that

0' -4- ~ )JfC/ v.. '-)~ L. c.*)Jf r / ~ o~; I ..:;.,v.J1J L. j.I. ~ ~, /t ,,) t/-" ~,I vi" t.:')i. - Vl J/ ~ oJl:j I ~"'" L J:il' c,Jj )Jj J/ , c,' I' ~, ~. v..j ,,)

(23) Hu s s ai n , Ali Abba s , Nnv~~l_fu__ TA.rikh_~-T.!l.JICJPf'c_!, Lo ndo n , 1975, p. 256.

91

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