YHHBep3HTeT "CB. KHPHJI H MeTOL(Mj" - Cxonje IIpHp0.

LJ;Ho-MaTeMaTHqKM cpaKYJITeT MHCT11TYT sa crnonornja 11 anrpononornja

COQHJAJIHH II ~YXOBHH ACIIEKTH

HA MATEPMJAJIHATA KYJITYPA

SOCIAL AND SPIRITUAL ASPECTS OF MATERIAL CULTURE

University" Ss. Cyril and Methodius" - Skopje F aculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics .

Institute of Ethnology and Anthropology

2009 Cxonj e/Skopj e

BaCUJIKa .nUMHTpOBCKa (Maeenouuja)

ETHOrPA<I>CKH 6EJIEllKH 3A TPH6YJIYMOT BO PEHY6JIHKA MAKE.nOHHJA

Ancmpasm: Bo 06H)1.0T aa ro HCTpa:lKaM KOHTHH)'HTeTOT aa xopucreu,e na KaMem:ITe (npen ce ,lleJlKaHHTe KpeMeUH) aJIaTKH BO Pertyfimrxa Maxenoaaja on npaacropnjara no HaIIIeTO coapesrne, KaKO ezrna on TeXHOJlOIIIKHTe narrpasa KOH ro HHKopnOpHPaJIe OBOj enexear BO ce6e ce nojasnja )lHKaHHTe, n03HaTH non CBoeTO JlaTHHCKO HMe T'pH6ynYM.

TpH6yrryMOT, eaen THII sa 3eMjO)leJICKO opyzrae n03HaTO on enrorpaipajara, CJIY:lKeJI sa apmen,e na :lKHTHHTe xyrrrypn, Hajxecro ce COCTOH o,n: enna, HO ce cpernysaar H npHMepOUH on ,Il,Be HJIH T'pH napanenar IIITHUH Ha 'Il:Ie ,Il,HO ce naoraar npouena 80 KOH ce BMeTHaTH KpeMeHH anarxa HJIH acenesa HJIH H e}l,HOTO H npyroro. Ha caMHOT TpH6yrryM CTOM 'IOSeK, a nr trre-re e,n:HO, nOHeKoraIII ,n:Be :lKHBOTHH. MO:lKHH ce sapajaarn na osaa aJIaTKa BO 3aBHcHOCT on reorparpcxoro rrozrpasje H npezt ce on TImOT sa )J{HTHHTe xyrrrypa KOH ce spnrar . .l{HMeH3HHTe aa TpH6yrryMOT sapnpaar O,U peraon no peraon, KaKO llITO e cnyxajor P. co H36opOT na ,[(PBOTO H .lle6enHHaTa aa CaMHTe llITHUH.

M)Il(1-1U 36op06U: KaMeHH aJIaTKH, .llHKaH, TpH6yrryM, spmea,e :lKHTO.

Hcropajar a1 nOTeKJIO

Hajpanoro crrouenyaatse aa T'pH6YJIYMOT ce cpernysa na e}l,eH nexar on apxeOnOIIII<HOT JIOKaJIHTeT ApCJIaHTene (Frangipane 1997) BO TYPUHja, .llaTHpaH OKUJJY 3374 ron, np. H.e. Iloroa ce cpersysa aa npeamrre nJro'lKH 0.11 rpanor KHlU (CYMep), ztarnpana oxony 3350 rozt. np, H.e. Ce cnOMeHYBa BO CTapHoT 3aBeT (Bropa KHHra CaMOHJIOBa, rnasa 6;6, rnasa 24;16-24), a CIIOpe}l, nHIlIaHHTe H3BOpH eBl1;.1leHTHO e HerOBOTO npncycrao H BO Crapa I'puaja H PI1M HaKO He 6HJI HaIIIHpOKO ynOTpe6YBaH.

XpOHOJIOrwjaTa na cnOMeHYBaIDe na TpH6yrryMOT BO mnnamrre W3BOPH aa EaJIKaHOT He spaxa BO BpeMeTO aa :lKeCTOKHTe aanana ua BH3aHTHCKHOT HMrrepaTOp HHKOq,op npn 333eMafbeTO na ITJIliCKa aa 20 jYHH 811 rO,UHHa, no 'IHjIlITO noaozt XpOHH'IapOT MI1XaHJl CHPHCKH (AHreJIOB et al. 1983) sanauran: ,.no TOJlKaB crenen My 6Hna JlYTI1HaTa, IIITO aapenan zra ce )lOHeCaT (.;HTe HHBHH MaJIH }l,eu;a,.1la rM nOCTaBaT na 3eMjaTa H)la nOMHHysaaT Bp3 HHB co ,n:wKaHI1".

O'lYif nezmo .n:eKa .n:HKaHOT OCBeH KaKO 3eM j O}l,eJICKa aJIaTKa 6Hn rcopacren H KaKO nanpasa sa Ma'lelhe. OBa ro nOTBp}l,YBaaT H rrperrstertrre 0)1, Masenoanja co rrpHMepOKOT on KpHBa ITaJIaHKa (MOMeHTaJIHO BO Eraorparpcioror My3ej BO Benrpan) sa KOj rrOCTOH CBe,[(OIIITBO nexa 6HJ1 nponajnes 1912 roznraa 0,[( cprtcxara sojcxa rrpn aneryaarsero BO OBOj rpaa a nperxoznro 6wn KopHCTeH sa Ma'lelhe na 3aTBopeHHUHTe so TypCKHOT saraop (<DHJIHnoBHl'i 1954).

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Osaa anarxa aa spmanfia, xoja ce CMeTa sa HCKnyqHTeJIHO Me.uHTepaHCKH eJIeMeHT, H nea-nenecxa e n03HaTa so 3eMjHTe 0.11. Me.uHTepaHOT H Ha 6JIHCKHOT I1CTOK. Ce cpernyna SO Byrapnja (Gurova 2001), Fpunja, TYPUHja, Kanap (Whittaker 2003), Eraner, Ilanecrana, I1paH, Mana A3Hja, Becapatinja, Hspaen, 116epHcKHoT Ilorryocrpos HTH.

ETHMOJIOfHjaTa na 360pOT .uHKaH 6ellIe noson zta aanpasax JIHHrSHCTH'-l!(a xosrnapauaja rra osoj TepMHH 38 6aJIKaHCKHTe 3eMjH SO KOH e perncrpnpaa,

Hcrpaxyeas-ero rH naae CJIe.uHHTe pesyrrrara:

Cpfizja - .u,Hl(jaH (dikjan), zracxa (daska), ,[(HrMeH (digmen) TYPUHja - dujen, dikjaska, dugan

Byrapaja - ,n:HKaHJI

Maxeaoaaja - ,n:HKa, ,lJ,HKaH, .uHJ(aHHja, naxaa, ,n:HJ(ajHa, ,[(HKaFba (Tesrenaja)

,Um<jaH, ,[(HKajH, ,UHKaHH, zuncan, ,UHI(aHH (novery Zlojpaa H KYKYllI)

Tpnaja - 'WKaVt (dikani).

TpH6yJIyl\fOT BO Maseaonaja

E,UeH HanHC on seCHHKOT ITOJIHTHKa (nOJIHTHKa 1952) csenovn .lleKa BO 1952 ronnaa rpafiynyxor ce yurre ce xopacren BO HeKOH spaesa na Maxenoaaja, a ¢lIfJIHnOBHK (¢lHJIHnOBIfll 1954) so 1954 rozmna 3aPHllIaJI neica TOj ce yurre 6rm BO ynorpefia BO perHOHMTe OKOJIY I'esrennja, ,!1;ojpaH M jy)!,(HO ce .LIO COJlj·H. Cnopen MCTHOT aSTOp nsa npasrepoxa KOf! nOTeI:HYBaaT 0)]; MapHoBo4S H 0.11. KpHBa naJIaHKa46 (CJI. I) HMeHYBaHH KaKO .LIHrMeHH, MOMeHTaJIHO ce naoraar BO ,n:enoTO na ETHonOIliKHOT My3ej Bo6enrpJ,U47.

45 Tpl16ynyMoT (HHB. 6p. 5106) e H'8TIp8BeH 0,[( zme 60pOBI1 IlITI1U;H co CBl1eHH SPBOBH RaRO Raj C8HRHTe. 0'[( ,!J;OJUI3Ta CTpaH8 so npaBI1J1HI1 pe.n;OBI1 ce BTI1CHaTI1 KpeMeHI1. )lHMeH3I1M: l(OJIlKHHa 1,65 M, IlII1pl1H8Ta e 38 CM nanpen, a xa OHOj .1IeJI KOj e KOH rope e 61 CM •

• 46 Tpl16ynYMOT (I1HB. 6p. 5107) e HanpaBeH 0.11 l(Be 6YKOBl1 urnll.\H co CBl1eHH BPBOBH KaKO xaj C8H.ulTe. 0.11 .1IOJlHaTa crpaHa 6e3 penocnen ce BTUCHaTH KpeMeEll (xaapu) 11 MeTaJIHI1 nnO'lKI1 HaJIl1K rra BOJTOBCKa nOTKOBI1U;8. ,l{liMeH31111: .1IOJllKHHa 1,40 M, IlII1pl'IHaT3 e 40 CM.

47 3a I1HCpOpMaUmITe My finaronapaa na BI1WHOT KyCTOC no ernonornja on ETHOJlOWI{IlO:- My3ej BO Benrpaa, r. PaHKO Eapuurah.

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a 6

Crr. I. TpH6yJIYMH 0,[1 36HpKaTa na Ersonounotor MY3ej BO Eerrrpan a. Mapaoao; 6. Kpasa Ilanaaxa

Cmrsna Hl-I¢OpMaI.{HIr nocseno-ryaa H HanHCOT aa Epanacnas PYCHI( ot( 1955 rO,[(HHa BO BeCHHKOT HOBa Maxezroanja (PYCIiK 1955), KOj Hii orxpnna nen on nOKaI.{HHTe xane nrro )];0 TOj neprron ce YUlTe ce «opacrena osaa 3'::MjO)leJICKa aJlaTKa .

... Bo Csoncxa Ilpna Fopa UMaJlO uexoj euo COFbU '1UU nnasoeu (opeja tumo ce cnuseaam no seuja) 6uIle Ha'lU'-IKOHU co «peuetea UJ/U co ocmpu »ceneeua (06U'-lHO 00 oompaeuu eoeeocxu UJIU KOI-bCKU nnouu) ...

Bo SojMllja, m.e. npeoenom jYJICHO oo /{eMllp Kanuja, u nooanexy NO ucmo« u jyeoucmo« (OKOflY /{ojpan u KyKyUl) u na sanae (eo Mapuoeo), UMQJlO CIlU'-lHO sanpaea no UMe "dUKal-ba" lIf1U "OUlWjflCl" . Taa 6URa sanpaeo eona oocma oe6eJlQ U oonea tiopoea tumuua ad oea oena eoe« 60 OPY2, nanpeo MaJlKY nomecna U HO epeom C(JumKGHa IW20pe KOKO CM)''1Ka (cxuja}. Peuucu uenama uejsuna dOIlHO cmpaua inma ucmo masa NO'lU'IKOHO co 30KO'{eHU U npuuepcmeuu speuen-a UJ/U »ceneeua.

Hauecmo maxea opeeua cnpaea cauume nyie 60 nOH080 epeue npaeene Cf/U'WG 00 pe6pecm U KpYJlCeH nnex uono Cf/Y.JlCeJI sa noxpueaiee 60eHU eK.l7aOUUJma, U moo na mol Ha'lUH utmo .My omeapane oynsu ooneynecmu 14 ootiueane ocmpa noeptauna KaKO pesoe.

Bo HeKOU cena ceeepno 00 Teezenuja nauecmo eouama u opyeama ,,6pUJaJlKa" CJlYJICella KOMI co 06e KOJ1lJO. Bo npeoenom J(e6apl(a ceeepno 00 OXptu) MOJICe aa ee euou u mpem npeouem sa epiueiee no UMe ,,8aJlall" UJ/U ,,6allyma'l ". Toj e 06U'IHO 00 mpxanecm opee« mpyn, nate Ha'lU'IKoH co :J/ceJle3HU nJlO'JU, UI1U 6iJOJlJIC u30Jla6e14 KaKO «onue co ocmpu sanuu ...

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en. 2. TpI16ynYMI1 0.0. ['eBreJll1CK04~

Heny6mlKYB8HHTe MaTepl1jaI.1H na EpaHFlCJlaB PYCHK 0.11. HerOBHOT CPOM BO ApXHBOT rrpa MAHY (PYCHK 1953) BO cpopMa na cpoTorpaqH-1I1 rosopar sa npacycrso aa Tp116YJIYMH (Cn. 2) BO I'earenaekara If ,UojpaHcKara OKOJIl1ja (Heropua, KOHCKO, <1lYPKa), .I1.0p;eI<a zraara ITpl1MepOI<a (Cn, 3) KOM ce saoraar 80 MY3ejoT sa Masezroaaja nOTeKHYBaaT on c. I'asaro, Fearennja, orxynemr

ozt crpaaa na . OT BO 1970-nlTe rOllHHI1 20 BeK49.

3 6

en. 3. Tpl16ynYMH BO nOCTaBK3T3 H3 Mysejor aa MaKe.uoHl1ja50

48 Helly6JlJ1KYB3HI1 M3TepI1janl1 on CPOH)lOT sa EpaHI1CJl3e pYCl1I{ BO MAHY.

4933 HHcj:JOpM3UlHne My finaronapai« aa Eope Henerncoscxn, eMU! KYCTOC no eraonornja BO Mysejor na MaKe.uOHHJa.

50 a) TpH6yJT)'MOT ce COCTOH 0.0. zme .ue6eJIH nrraua H3BHeml KOH BPBOT co nrro .u06Hsa aarnea ua calha, T.e. C3HKa. On ,1J,OnU3Ta crpana I1Ma 1l0BeKe pe,1J,OBI1 H3 BTl1CH3nl

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TpaCeOJlOWKH anaJlH3H

Ilpoysryaarsero tra fioranrre eraorpadicxn KOJIeKl.{HH na TPH6YJIYMOT on Memrrepaaor, npocneneao co HCTpruKYBaFba BO paMKHTe na excnepaveararrsara apxeonornja (EARTH), YKa)KYBa na Toa .nexa rlOTeKJIOTO aa onaa aJIaTKa rpefia .aa ce 6apa BO )laJIe"IHOTO MHHaTO, BO rrpaacropajara, noroano BO HeOJUlTOT H paaoro 6poH3eHo . .D:.06a Ha EllHCKHOT MCTOK (Anderson, Inizan 1994: 85~ 103).

Enea on npBI1Te apXeOJI03H ROj ja paJBHJI resara nexa rpH6YJIYMOT na 6am:aHOT 6Hll BO ynorpefia BO npancropajara e M. BacHE: (Bacnh 1948: 200), HCTpalKyBaqOT aa apxeononncror JlOKaJIHTeT BUHlIa, xpaj Benrpan. l-1J06HJICTBOTO tra aJIaTKH on KpeMeH H OnCH)lHjaH na OBOj llOKaJIHTeT ro aaseno na npeTIIOCTaBKa )leKa THe nOTeKH)'BaaT on nexoja rrpliMHTHBHa nanpaaa sa spurea.e xoja 6H 6H1Ia CJIHt{Ha sa nonomrexorara 4l0pMa UlTO ja n06HJI Tpu6ynyMOT. Ha HCTOTO MHCJIeFbe e u M. tYPOBa K~ja TBp,D;I1 ,D;eRa 0rpOMHOTO KOJIWleCTBO KpeMeHH apTecpaKTH Oll HeOJIHTCKHOT JIOKaJIHTeT KapaHOBO BO Byrapnja nOTeKHYBaaT 0)l3eMjo.uenCKo opyzme xoe HaJIHKYBano na rpH6YJIYMOT (Gurova 2001).

On 1980 [OnHHa rra ce rrocera, aa xpexemrre aJIaTKH 0):( npaacropnjara ce najnemr "He06HlIHH TparH" KOli ce TOJIKysaaT co nOMOUl aa 4lYHKuHOHaJIHaTa aHaJIH3a (Anderson et al. 2006). Toa e MeTO,llOJIOUlKH npacran co ql1ja nOMOUl aa aJIaTKaTa MOlKaT na ce nposnrraar rpara O)l Hej3MHaTa ynorpefia. OYHKUHjara aa aprerpaxror HHe aajxecro ja npernocraayaave Bp3 OCHOBa na HerOBMOT 06JIUK, HO 11 rrpexy aanrara cy6jeKTHBHa u):(eja aa aerosara npmreaa, 6e3 na HMaMe CHryPHH }lOKaJH ,lleKa II npaHcTopHCKHOT qOBeK ja HMaJI HCTaTa nneja, OrpOMHHOT 6poj eKcnepHMeHTaJIHH npHO.l1.H H pa60THJIHHUH yxaxysaar aa roa ztexa rpanrre tra T<peMeHHTe aJIaTKH yrrorpeoyaaaa BO npaacropajara najnofipo ce cosnaraar co .rparare na KpeMem':Te aJIaTT<H BMeTHaTH BO TpJ16ynYMoT, T<OH aa HHB 6HJIe OCTaBeHH rrpn IKHeeFbe HJIH npnren,e tra IKHTO. Osaa )lHHaMHKa sa mrrepnperauaja rronery apxecnornjara H eraonorzjara )103BonyBa rrOHHaKOB U HOB HaqUH sa peKOHCTpYKUHja aa

KaMelba (KpeMeHH) H MeTaJlHH napsaaa, Harrpasen e 0,Ll aae 60pOBI1 lliTI1lU1, a on ,a.011H3Ta crpaaa ce BCaJleHI1 KaMelba If KpeMelba IJ ocrpa IT<e11e3HH nap-raaa, )l,HMeH3HIJ:

Jl011lT<I1Ha 1,60 M, urxpnnara e 60 eM HanpeJl. na OHOj Jlen KOj e KOH rope, H333Jl. e 75 eM, a JJ:e6emiH3Ta e 6·7 eM. I-bpa6OTeH e OJl eaMoYKH MajcTopH, pa"lHa Hspa60TKa co rrowonr na TIHJTa, cetcrpa, TYPI1Hja (nypna ~ sa M33Hel-be na JlPBOTO). )l,HKaHoT e Oil c. I'aaaro, Fearemtja, K3Jl.e ce KOpHCTen, HaKO so MOMeHTOT xora e OTKyneH He 6l1JJ SO ynorpefia. 6) Tp116ynYMoT e aanpasea OJl JlBe 60pOBl1 lIlTI1LU1, 113pa6oTeHI1 co nOMOllJ na nana, eeK11pa, TypnHja (ztypna, nypnnja ~ aa M33Hefbe Ha .n:PBOTO). 3aceUlue on JlDnHaT3 erpaHa ce HanpaBeHH noztousa 11 so HI1B ee Ha6l1eHl1 (scaaeaa) KaMelha v. KpeMelha 11 ocrpn lKene3HH napamsa co KOM ce llpo6H IT<I1TOTO, r.e, ce 0.[lBOjYB3 3pHOTO on nneaara, )l,HMeH31111: .[IOJ'TlT<I1Ha 1,35 M, Illl1pHHaT3 e 54 eM Hanpe.[l aa OHOj zren KOj e KOB rope, trasazr e 76 eM, a .a.e6eJUlHaTa e on 6 eM. )l,uKaHoT e 0.[1 e. Fasaro, Tearenaja, l<a.a.e ce xopacren, l1at<O .BO MOMeHTOT xora e orxynea He 61111 BO yrrorpefia.

,UpeSHHTe OTIlilTeCTSa H e enea on KJly'lHHTe enesretrra sa neurarppapaa,e na aamara saenaaxxa KYJITYpHa ,lO-IK.

Ilpastapua uenrpn aa JJ.HCTPH6YUHja aa TPH6YJlYMOT na Eamcaao'r

KapHMaJIH (Karimali 2001) naaenyaa ztexa CeJIOTO Merano Moaacrnpa (so OKOJIHH.lTa Ha zteaeurxa Jlapnca, TeCaJIHja) BO rO,UHHHTe npen Bropara CBeTCKa sojna 6HJIO cHa6):(YBaHo on rrexoja crtenajarmanpaaa pa60THJIHHua sa cexana on Eyrapaja, ¢lU:mmoBHK sarraman neKa osaa aJIaTKa, OCBeR BO Fearerrnja (Peny6JIHKa Maxenonaja), BO ro.n::MHHTe rtcsrery J 931-1935 HHTeH3MBHO 6Jma ynorpeoysaaa BO OKOJIMHaTa aa IIeTpH'I, Byrapaja (¢lHJIHIIOBHIi 1954), nOneKa BaKapeJICKH (BaKapeJJCKH 1974) satienexan ziexa raa e aJIaTKa co xoja ce spureno )KMTOTO BO 3anaJ(HMOT, HO M BO HCTO'lHHOT JJ:eJI on Byrapaja. EBHneHTHa e CJIH'IHOCTa aa Ha3HBOT aa osaa aJIaTKa H:\ Banxanor co HeKOH TonOHHMH BO neaenraa Byrapnja, KaKO WTO ce Fopna H )lOJIHa )lHKaffia BO IIepHwJKaTa 06JIaCT. Cml'1HOCTa BO TonOHHMOT MO)Ke ynrre JJ:a ce cornena BO cerroro AOJIHa AHKaHHja, Maaposo (Perryfimnca Maxenomrja), a ce YWTe e HenIJ3HaTO nann sapajasrara tIHKaHH (JJ:HhaHM) e MOiKe6H OCHOBa aa HalMBOT na .lleqaHM (.lleliamr) - cpncxn MaHaCTHp OJJ: cpeJJ:H"OT BeR, MOMeHTaJIHO aa repnropnjara na KOCOBO. OCTaHYBa na ce HCTpa)KH nOTeKJIOTO na OBOj TonOHHM no KOj ce HMeHYBaHH OBHe MeCTa aa EaJIKaHOT BO O,UHOC na roa JJ:aJIH M ))!(e6H ce THe H rrpavapaare uearpn sa npOH3BOJJ:CTbO na oaaa 3eMjo.n::eJICKU UJIaTRa.

Cnopea YCHaTa I1H<jJopMaLVlja na MOI1Te xonera" OJJ: ApXeOJIOIl1KHOT HHCTI1TYT npn EAH BO Peny6JIHKa Byrapnja KOH pa60TaT co KpeMeHH aJIaTKH IlITO rrOTeKHYBaaT 0.11 TpI16YJJYMH, cypoazxara sa HHBHOTO nenxarse najsmory rroara O)l CeBepOI1CTO'lHa Eyrapnja H OJ( Ponormre, Bo nocneznnrre 20 rOnHHH THe ce 06HJJ:ene na nofiapaar )KI1B MajcTop KOj npOH3Be . nyna HJII1 nponasezrysan KpeMeHH aa TpI16YJIYMI1, HO HMBHMOT 06l1JJ: 3aBpWlIJI Geaycneumo.

Mo)!(e6H BpClI:HTe rrovery ClITe OBHe MeCTa BO rrpancropnjara 6HJIe nojaxa, nocetiao BO HeOJIlnOT, eHeOnl1TOT H 6pOH3eHOTO .n::06a, HO co osaa npemocrasxa rpefia na 6HneMe xpajno rtperrtaanaaa,

3aKJIYQOK

Bo nOCJJe,n;HOTO aecernerae BO TYpHCTH'II<HTe MeCTa OKOJIY

Cpenoseeje-o ce 3rOJIeMYBa HHTepeCOT aa rp"6YJIYMHTe KaK0 yspacen npezneer, noztexa so pypanmrre Cpe.n:HHH e 3a6ene)KJIl1sa HHBHaTa ynorpefia KaKO BpaTH 0)1. nexoe apXHTeKTOHCKO 3.n:aHl1e.

YnoTpe6YBaH HaWHpOKO BO npaucropajara, BO nOJ(OQHe)f(HHTe nepl10nH rrpHCYCTBOTO Ha TpH6ynyMOT ce CMaJIHJIO Ha oonaCTa Ha

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, 3a I1HcpopMaUHHTe 11M 6JTaro.n;apaM aa M-P Enxa Anacracosa, n-p Crerpxa HBaHoBa H

n-p Mapnja Fyposa 0.11 HaUl10HaneH apxeonoraxecicn HHCTHTyr C MY3eii BO Corpaja, Penyfinaxa Byrapnja.

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Menarepaaor, a BO Maxenonnja, KaKO WTU MO)Ke aa ce 3a6enell<'i1 cnopen ernorpaocrorre sanaca, .llHKaHOT 6HJI BO yrrorpefia )'.1;0 cpemrnara na 20 BeK.

I1HTepecHo e ztexa JIOKaUHjaTa nanocera npoaajaemrre npavepoua ira TPH6YJIYMH BO Maxeztonnja renepanao He ce nosnonysa co rrpteaapaare nearpn aa HeOJIHTH3aUHja HHTy nax co xormempauajara na HeOJIHTCKHTe, eHeOJlllTCKH7e H 6pOH3eHO)'.l;o6HHTe JlOKaJIHTeTH.

Hajpaaare JJ:aTHpaHH HeOJlRTCKH cnoesa ce on nOKaJIRTeTHTe ,n:OJlHO TpHOBO (KY3MaH et al. 1989) H 3nacrpaHa, OXPHACKO (KY3MaH 1990), KOH ce aaoraar BO jyrosanaaauor zten rra Maxencanja OA xane WTO zrocera He e perncrpxpaa HHTy enen rrpnxepon aa AHKaH. J10KaURjaTa na npOHa.Jr8FbeTO H8 OSHe ,LlHKaHH BO noronex 6poj cnyuan He ce rroxrronyaa HHTY co xonuetrrpatrajara na ziocera ncrpazcyaamrre HeOJIHTCKH 110K8JIHTeTH na repnropajara aa Maxenonaja KOH ce rrperesoro rpyrrapaan so perHOHOT na Ilenaronnja, Osve Ilone H CRonCRaTa KOTl1HHa (CaHeB 1995). Hcrpaacenocra, nax, aa nOKaJIHTeTHTe o,n eHeOl1HTOT H 6poH3eHoTo ,Ll06a H HHBHHTe KaMeHH 36HPKH e cenax npenana H He A03B0l1YBa rrOHaTaMOWHH penauna aa osaa TeMa.

3eMjoAencKaTa MaTKa TPH6ynYM zrocera nocrojaao ce rroapsyaame HCKl1YllHBO cavo co Me,LlHTepaHcKHoT TIojac. Henocroersero na 3anHCH sa npHMepOUH na TPH6YJIYMH KOH nOTeRHYBaaT ozt reparopajara na Penytinaxa Maxenormja npHJJ;OHe110 OBOj rrpocrop na OCTaHe HaABOp on HHTepeCOT sa osaa rexaraxa, xoj ce CPOKYCHpan ripen ce aa CpeJJ:03eMjeTO. TpH6Yl1YMOT nocera He 6Hn 06jeKT na nozteramm aHaJIH3H BO MaKellOHCKaTa apxeorrornja H eTHOJIOrHja. Haxo OBOj TeKCT rpetia JJ:a nocnyzor KaKO fiaaa H8 xoja Ke ce aaztorpazryaa HCTpa)KYBalbeTO sa TpH6ynYMHTe, nocefino BO Perryfimnca MaKe)J,OHHja, TeMaTa cenax rrOTT'I'IKHYBa MHOry )J,HHaMH'iHH rrpanrarsa H OCTaHYBa oraopena aa nOHaTaMOWHH .lUfCKYCHH.

Dimitrovska Vasilka (Macedonia)

ETHNOGRAPHIC NOTES ON TRIBULUM IN MACEDONIA

Resume

The attempt to explore the use of stone artifacts, primarily chipping flint stone artifacts, on the territory of Republic of Macedonia, leads to one of the technological tools that incorporated them, i.e. the tribulum.

The tribulum - or dikanjta) as it is called in this area - is an agricultural tool used to separate the chaff from the wheat. Archaeological findings offer evidence of its use from prehistory to our time, from various nations. Given the locations where it was found, previously it was associated with the Mediterranean area and was considered its typical element. The lack of any records of tribulum specimens found on the territory of the Pepublic of Macedonia has lead to the leaving out of this particular area from the interest in this topic, focusing primarily on the Mediterranean.

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Latest research indicates that this type of farm implement was present in the Republic of Macedonia, thus expanding the area of its use. Ethnographic notes about this region, as well as the large number of preserved specimens are a testimony to the continuity and the use of the tribulum in Macedonia up until 1955.

So far the tribulum has not been the subject of in-depth analysis in Macedonian archaeology and ethnology in the Republic of Macedonia, and yet this topic raises many dynamic questions and remains open for further debate.

JIuTepa-rypa:

Anrenoa ~, CT. Kaures, E. '40JInaHOS, Bsnrapcxa soeaaa HCTopml, OT aHTH'-IHOCTTa )l,0 uropara "IeTB'bpT aa X BeK, 1983, c. 228.

BaKapeJICKH X., Ernorpaqnra aa E'bJIrapHH, Cotpaa, 1974, c. 109-110.

BaCHn M., JOHcKa KOJIOHHja BHH"Ia, 360pHHK <I>HJI03o<pcKor <p&KYJITeTa I, Eeorpa;::t" 1948,c. 200.

KY3MaH Il., CHMocKa ,n:., KHTaHocKH E., )1_OJIHO Tpaoso, paHoHeoJIHTCKa rracenfia, An 1987, J1yGJbaHa, 1989.

KY3MaH I1., 3JIaCTPaHa - HeOJIHTCK.a HaCeJIGa BO OXPH)l,CIW, Macedoniae acta arcbaeologica 11, Cxonje, 1990.

PyGpHKa: )1_aml 3HaTe?, Ilomrraxa, Beorpan, 6 jaayap, 1952, c. 6.

PYCHK E., CTapHHcKo apnrea,e xa lI<HTO BO Masenoanja, paxonnc, 1953, 06jaBeH AE 39/1-5, ApxHB npa MAHY, 1953.

PYCHl{ E., KaKO aexoranr ce BpmeJIO lI<HTO, HOB a Maxenoanja, roztaaa III, 6poj 21, Cxonje, 22 Maj, 1955.

Caaes B., He·OJIHTOT H HeOJIHTCKHTe KyJITYPH BO Maxeztoxaja, I_(HBHJIH3al{HH na no-mara aa Maxeaoaaja 2, MAHY, Csonje, 1995.

CTaP 3aBeT, STopa KHHra CaMOHJIOBa, rnasa 6:6, rnasa 24: 16-24.

cI>HJIHIIOBHn M., ,n:HKjaH Y Maxenoanja, fJJaCHUK Ernorparpcxor My3eja y Beorpany, KIn. XVII, Beorpaa, 1954, c. 71~74.

Anderson P., lnizan M.-L., Utilization du tribulum au debut du IIIe milienarie: des lames "cananeennes" lustrees aKutan (Ninive V) dans la region Mossoul, Iraq. ~ Paleorient 20/2, 1994, c. 85-103.

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AuderSlGH iP"et al., Ins~gbt~ from a tl'~bGJog~caJ] analysis ·of the tribulum, Journal of Archaeological Science 33,. 2006, c. t559-1568,

EARTH (Earl.y A,gr.icuUurnl R,e'nllltllnlS and "f,e>chni!oa] Heritage) (2fJ05-200:6). rOnUne] )lOCT;j.f[~O H;l,: hl'ttp:Jlad .arts, usyd ,.edu.auip.rqj,e:<:t:s/e:anhl, [npH'C1'1Ua:CHO !'f·a 24.0 l.2:009)1.

Frangipane M. A.. 4fl1 millenntum templa palace complex at .\:rsl,anrepe .. Malatya.,. No[ttil-South, relations and the formadcn o·f esrly state saeieties inthe nG'rtherul .[ie:,g.iQllS ofgr'e'Zllter MeSQPolam ia, ra~eo:!'"1e~~t 23 (l). 1997, ,c""S~ 73"

Gur-ova M", Elements de rribublm de Bu,garie - references et!h,!1Qgr.-:fph~ques et oOil1:texllep.re.hi,s:~ur.~ql1uo~ A:r:chllle(l~og:ia Bulgarica No I, V~, Sofia. 2001. c. 1-19.

Ki!lw.i.ma.1 i L •• Jnferences and [,~m.imtjotls i.11 ell ippcd-Stone Maddjng ; Learning f[iom an et!hnQa.r'Chaeolog;ica,~ ease {Th!'!eshillg-Sledge Produdionin Thessely, Greeoe)'\ X[V,e Congres de; l'1!:m,iO'.I} Iatematicuale des Sciences Prefu~stQrjqij!e's ,et Pmtohlsrorique£i,} U. LS .. P.J?, Liege 2-8 Sep:~emlbe~rj 2001,

Whiu~ker J .• Threshing Shadges and Threshing Floors in C-ypnl:S. Eo: Le "fraitement des Reeeltes: Un Regard sur la Dh .. e:rsl.h~ du NeoHthi!que au Present XXII[ Rencontres Internationaies D· An:beolog~e et D' Hi:s·~o;ir:e D' Antilles. P. c. Ande~Q!1, L. S., Cummings. T. K. Sehippets, ami B. Sim.on.e~ eds., 2(103, c. 375- 38'.

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