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KNOWLEDGE

AVAILABLE

ON

MAINTENANCE

OPERATIONSANDSURVEYINGSYSTEMSHIGHSPEED&
CONVENTIONALLINES

Deliverablen:D1.1.

ECGANumber:

314031

Projectfulltitle:

Development of a Smart
Framework
Based
on
Knowledge
to
Support
Infrastructure Maintenance
DecisionsinRailwayCorridors

WorkPackage:

WP1

Typeofdocument:

Deliverable

Date:

15/03/2013

Transport;GrantAgreementNo314031
Partners:

VIAS(ES),SINTEF(NO),LTU(SE),ADIF(ES)

Responsible:

VIAS
D1.1. KNOWLEDGE AVAILABLE ON

Title:

MAINTENANCE OPERATIONS AND


SURVEYING SYSTEMS HIGH SPEED

Version:1

Page:2/124

&CONVENTIONALLINES

DeliverableD1.1.
KNOWLEDGEAVAILABLEONMAINTENANCE
OPERATIONSANDSURVEYINGSYSTEMSHIGH
SPEED&CONVENTIONALLINES

DUEDELIVERYDATE:M4

ACTUALDELIVERYDATE:M6

KNOWLEDGEAVAILABLEONMAINTENANCEOPERATIONSANDSURVEYINGSYSTEMSHIGHSPEED&CONVENTIONALLINES

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DocumentHistory

Vers.

IssueDate

Contentandchanges

Author

06/11/2012

Firstversion

VIAS

04/02/2013

Secondversion

VIAS

11/02/2013

Thirdversion

VIAS

05/03/2013

Fourthversion

VIAS

DocumentAuthors

Partners
VIAS

ADIF

LTU

SINTEF

Contributors
Carlos Martnez, Manuel Menndez, Jorge Rodrguez, Jose
RicardoRoca,RosalaAlonso,HlneSiboni
Miguel Rodrguez Plaza, lvaro Andrs Alguacil, lvaro
MascaraqueSillero,DianaAlonsoGimeno.
DiegoGalar,RobertoVillarejo,CarlAndersJohansson,Behzad
Ghodrati
Andreas Seim, Narve Lyngby, Andreas kland, Trygve
Jakobsen.

Disseminationlevel:PU

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DocumentApprovers

Partners

Approvers

VIAS

ManuelMenndez

CARTIF

MartaGalende,GregorioSainz

UGR

JoseManuelBentez

SINTEF

AndreasSeim

MERMEC

FrancoisDefossez

OSTFALIA

FrankKlawonn

ADIF

MiguelRodrguez

EVOLEO

PedroRibeiro

KNOWLEDGEAVAILABLEONMAINTENANCEOPERATIONSANDSURVEYINGSYSTEMSHIGHSPEED&CONVENTIONALLINES

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ExecutiveSummary
ThemainobjectiveofthisWPistoanalysehowthemaintenanceoperationshavebeenchangingoverthe
timeand,howareplanningandschedulingbydifferentrailwayadministratorsalongthecorridors,tostart
discovering and undertaking what requirements or needs implied the tracks maintenance and
conservationworksbetweencrossborders.

For that, it is mandatory to have an indepth knowledge about the railway tracks along the corridors
analysing the difference between countries, not only about what elements conform the tracks, at
superstructureandsubgradelevel,butalsowhatconstructiontechniquesarefollowedtoreachthequality
criteria, trying to identify if the subgrade have influence over the superstructure or what external
parametersaffectthetrackmaintenance.

Ananalysisoftrafficthresholdshavebeendoneinthesedeliverabletounderstandtheimportanceofthe
faults found on the track and understand the difference between the countries depending on the
characteristicsoftheirtracks.

Finally,wecanseeanoverviewofthedifferentkindoftrafficthatexistsalongthecorridorswithashort
descriptionofthemaincharacteristicsofthenetsandwhatresourcesareavailable.

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TABLEOFCONTENTS

1.MAINTENANCEOPERATIONSOVERTHETIME......................................................................................................8
1.1HOWMAINTENANCETECHNIQUESCHANGEOVERTHETIME................................................................................8
1.2HOWMAINTENANCEISPLANNINGANDSHEDULINGALONGTHECORRIDORS,CROSSBOARDERS.....................11
2.THETRACKSALONGTHECORRIDORS.................................................................................................................21
2.1SUBSTRUCTURE.....................................................................................................................................................21
2.1.1SUBGRADE........................................................................................................................................................................21
2.1.2STRUCTURES.....................................................................................................................................................................31
2.1.3TUNNELS...........................................................................................................................................................................40
2.1.4DRAINAJEDEVICES............................................................................................................................................................46

2.2SUPERSTUCTURE...................................................................................................................................................50
2.2.1TRACKANDTHEIRELEMENTS...........................................................................................................................................50
2.2.2TRACKBED........................................................................................................................................................................63
2.2.3ECONOMICALANALYSES...................................................................................................................................................75

2.3TRAFFICTHERESHOLD...........................................................................................................................................81
2.3.1QUALITYINDEX,EVALUATIONVALUES,DECISIONSMAKING,ALONGTHECORRIDORS...................................................81
2.3.2LEVELING,ALIGMENT,CAMBER,WARP............................................................................................................................88

2.4DIFFERENCESBETWEENDIFERENTSKINDSOFTRAFFIC,PASSANGERS,FREIGHT...............................................107
2.5INFLUENCEOFINFRASTRUCTUREOVERSUPERSTUCTURE.................................................................................112
2.5.1EXTERNALAGENTS..........................................................................................................................................................112
2.5.2COMPARISONBETWEENTWOEMBANKMENTSBUILDWITHDIFFERENTMATERIALSOVERDIFFERENTFUNDATIONS118

3.REFERENCES....................................................................................................................................................122

KNOWLEDGEAVAILABLEONMAINTENANCEOPERATIONSANDSURVEYINGSYSTEMSHIGHSPEED&CONVENTIONALLINES

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Acronyms
JBV

Jernbaneverket,NorwayRailwayAdministrator

RCM

ReliabilityCentredMaintenance

TRV

Traffikverket,SwedenRailwayAdministrator

SJ

StantensJrnvgar

BV

Banverket

RENFE

RedNacionaldeFerrocarrilesEspaoles,NationalSpanishRailNet

AVE

AltaVelocidadEspaa,HighSpeedSpain

GIF

GestordeInfraestructuraFerroviaria

ADIF

AdministradordeInfraestructuraFerroviaria

CBM

ConditionBasedMaintenance

UT

UltrasonicTesting

UNE

UnaNormaEspaola,ASpanishStandard

NLT

NormadeLaboratorio,LabStandards

EV1

FirstChargingmodulus

EV2

SecondChargingmodulus

UIC

UnionInternationaledesCheminsdeFerInternationalUnionofRailways

TBM

Tunnelboringmachine

NSB

NationalNorwegianRailways

NS

NorwegianStandard

CR

CorazonRecto,StraightFrog

CC

CoraznCurvo,CurveFrog

CM

CoraznMovible,MovableFrog

NAV

NormaAltaVelocidad,HighSpeedStandard

NRV

NormaRenfe,RenfeStandard

MSEK

MillionSwedishKroner

alb

lateralbogieacceleration

avc

verticalaxleboxacceleration

alv

verticalcarbodyacceleration

avv

lateralcarbodyacceleration

JVTC

LuleaRailwayResearchCenter

KNOWLEDGEAVAILABLEONMAINTENANCEOPERATIONSANDSURVEYINGSYSTEMSHIGHSPEED&CONVENTIONALLINES

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1. MAINTENANCEOPERATIONSOVERTHETIME

1.1 HOWMAINTENANCETECHNIQUESCHANGEOVERTHETIME

In these chapter we are going to describe, from railway administrators view, how are changing the
maintenanceoperationsoverthetime.

NORWAY

Historically, maintenance and renewal in JBV have been governed by a body of technical rules (Teknisk
regelverk).Thebodyofrulescoveredbothwhatmaintenancemethodstoapply,howoften/whentoapply
themethods,andthresholdvaluesforcriticalquantitiessuchastwist,gaugefailures,typesofraildefects
etc., to determine intervention/renewal. In 1997 JBV conducted a pilot study to investigate whether
reliability centred maintenance (RCM) would give a more efficient maintenance. The results were
promising,andinthebeginningofthenewmillennium,thesocalledmaintenanceprojectwaslaunched.
Importantactivitieslaunchedwere:

 AgoverningdocumentformaintenanceinJBV(Themaintenancehandbook).
 Introducing MAXIMO as the computerized maintenance management system, and later adopted for
handhelddevicesusedatthetrack.
 TheintroductionoftheconceptofgenericRCManalysis,pilotingthemethodforthesignaldiscipline,
andthentheremainingdisciplinesfollowed.
 The introduction of the concept of local adaption, meaning that the results from the generic RCM
exercisesformsabasisforlocaladaptionbasedonlocalconditions.
 Methodsforprioritizationofrenewalandlargermaintenanceproject.
 TheconceptofsustainablemaintenanceincooperationwithTUGraz.
 Intervaloptimizationmethods.

SWEDEN

The main advantages of rail transport are the large capacity and low energy consumption, but there are
drawbacks. The timetable application procedure is regulated by the Transport Agency; thus, TRV must
applyfortrackcapacityalongwithallotheroperators.AsallapplicationsaresenttoandprocessedbyTRV,
TRV sends its application to itself albeit to another department within TRV. The whole process is
monitoredbytheTransportAgency.

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Statens Jrnvgar (SJ) (Swedish State Railways), founded in 1856, was a Swedish agency responsible for
operating and maintaining the states railways. In 1988, the railways and the infrastructure management
wereseparatedfromSJtoformanewagency,Banverket(BV)(SwedishRailAdministration.Tenyearslater,
new policies in 1998 divided Banverket into a client and contractor in order to increase efficiency and
effectiveness. The first outsourcing of maintenance started shortly thereafter (BV 2008). The de
monopolisationintheEUbeganin1991whenthevariousEuropeanstateswerecommissionedtoseparate
theoperationoftrafficfromtheIMs,sprangfromdirective91/440/EEC(EuropeanCommission1991).Itis
difficulttodirectlycomparestatesderegulationprocesses,astheirapproachesdiffer.Alexanderssonand
HultncalltheSwedishprocesstheincrementalapproach,theBritishprocesstherationalistprocess,and
the German and Dutch process the wait and see incremental process (Alexandersson et al. 2008).
ComparingwiththeUS,thederegulationofrailwaysinstarted1525yearsbeforetheEUderegulation,but
theprocessisdifferent,asitispredominantlyafreightmarket(Alexanderssonetal.2008).

In2001,theSwedishrailwayoperatorSJwasdisbandedandincorporatedintosixtoeightcompanies,all
ownedbythegovernment(Alexanderssonetal.2008,Esplingetal.2008).Twoofthecompaniesaretrain
operators,SJABandGreenCargo.Themonopolyofthetrainoperationwasendedin2009,allowingfree
competition.In2010,42operatorssubmittedapplicationsfortheannualtimetableof2011(TRV2010g).
TRVisoneoftheapplicants,e.g.formaintenanceactivities.

SPAIN

In1941,wasapprovedtheBasicLawonManagementofRailwayandRoadTransportgroupinginasingle
companytoallrailwaycompanieshadgaugesof1.668meters,thatis,RENFE,wasborn.

In1949wasapprovedtheGuadalhorcePlan,GeneralPlanforReconstructionandurgentReforms,which
recovers and strengthens the network and start the electrification of it, including the completion of
CentralizedTrafficCentersandautomationintrafficregulation.

In1975begantheresearchabouthighspeedlines,In1986wasapprovedtheRailwayPlanwhichhad
the objective of achieve speeds over 200 km/h, for that renewal works were done, launching the first
SpanishHighspeedlinein1992,AVE,AltaVelocidadEspaabetweenMadridandSevilla,whichwillreach
300Km/h.

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Theresultofthereorganizationoftherailwayswasestablishingabodyresponsibleoftheinfrastructure,
forthemaintenanceofexistinglinesandtheconstructionofnewlines.ThisorganismistheGIF,Railway
Infrastructure Manager. The rolling stock and its exploitation are left RENFE, but gradually they may
circulateoverGIFlinesanyothercompanies.

InNovember2003publishedtheRailwaySectorlaw.Thislawtakeseffectin2005andmakesbreaking
themonopolyofrailtransportthatprevailedinSpainsincetheendofcivilwar.Theenforcementinvolves
the creation of ADIF, Railway Infrastructure Administrator who will be responsible for managing the
infrastructureandmakeinvestmentsfortheconstructionofnewlines.

The railway maintenance can be defined as the set of actions that ensure the quality of the rail track in
relationwiththerequirementsofthetraffic,owingtothe deteriorationoftheelements constitutingthe
trackasthecorrespondinggeometricparameters,byatmosphericagentsorbythevehiclespassingby.

This operation, called maintenance according to the status of the track, means an initial state of the
elementsandisnotallowedtothatlinesthatneedsarenovationstoreachthesestate.Beforethatpoint
reached,gradualrestorationswillbedone.

Theevolutionoftherailwasboundtothemaintenancedesign,thefirstmaintenancedefinedwasBreak
downmaintenanceeventualandimmediaterepairs,thiscorrectionscanvarythehomogeneityoftheroad
causingrapidwear,andpromptingprematurerenewals.

The faster increase of the trains speed, made fixing other criteria to define a new kind of maintenance,
based not only on the security of the travelers, but in their comfort, that was invest periodic revisions
thatmeanstocheckalltherailwayelements,actingovertheminadeterminateperiodoftime.

Later and as each materials have different degradation speeds was established a cyclical conservation,
defining frequencies depending on the element or in the geometric to maintenance, depending on the
characteristicsofthetrackandtheirtraffic,thatmeansthatitwasmandatorytoestablishtheoperations
andthefrequencyofactingtoobtainahomogeneityoftherailsuperstructure.

One more time, the evolution of the techniques introduced in the railways and in the rolling stock
decreased the importance of railway elements checking, improving the using of geometric parameters

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whichinvolvetheuseofheavymachinesforthedetectionandclassificationsofthefailuresmergingintoa
Maintenance according to the state of the track which acts on the parameters and elements where a
failureisknownanditsdevelopmentwillmakenecessaryanimmediatelyperformance,hereistheneedto
definecorrectiveactions.

1.2 HOWMAINTENANCEISPLANNINGANDSHEDULINGALONGTHECORRIDORS,CROSSBOARDERS

NORWAY

RELIABILITYCENTREMAINTENANCE:

When the maintenance project was launched in JBV, one of the first activities was to plan for the
implementationofreliabilitycentredmaintenance(RCM).Sincethenumberofcomponentsisverylarge,it
wasconsideredimpossibletoconductaRCManalysisforeverycomponentonthetrackalongtheline,e.g.,
all turnouts of a railway line. To cope with this challenge, the concept of generic RCM analyses was
introduced.Insuchagenericapproach,afictive(reference)lineof400kmwasconsidered.Forsuchalinea
representative set of components were assumed. For each component type, e.g., a turnout, a RCM was
thenconductedforthefictivesetofturnoutsonthatline.

Tospeedup,andharmonizetheanalyses,asetofTOPeventswereintroduced.TheseTOPeventswerethe
same for all component types, and covered safety events such as derailment, collision, fire, etc., and
punctuality events like full stop, reduced speed, running with 40 km/h on command from train control
centreetc.Totally,some1012TOPeventswereconsidered,andforeachofthemaconsequencecategory
wasassigned(forsafetyrelated tonumberoffatalities).Then,foreachfailuremodeencounteredinthe
analysis, the corresponding consequence category could be found by a simple lookup by specifying the
TOP event. To plot each event in a risk matrix, the only effort was then to assess the failure frequency
(withoutmaintenance)andmultiplywiththetypicalnumberofcomponentsonthereferenceline.

Theriskmatrixcomprisesthreerisklevels(green,yellowandred),whereforfailuremodesintheredareaa
preventivemaintenanceactivityismandatory,intheyellowareaapreventivemaintenanceactivityistobe
consideredandimplementedifitisefficient,andinthegreenareathedefaultactionisruntofailure,i.e.,
acorrectivestrategy.Theriskmatrixwerecalibratedsuchthatthetotalriskbyacceptingallyellowrisk
wouldnotexceed10%ofthetotalriskassociatedwithrailwayactivityinNorway.

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TheuseofgenericRCManalyses,togetherwiththeuseofTOP eventsmadeitpossibletoworkthrough
almost all component types with a reasonable work load. The generic RCM analyses resulted in a set of
generic maintenance routines with generic intervals. These intervals were not undertaken any formal
optimization,andtheintervalswereinitiallysetbasedonhistoricalexperience.Theseintervalsaretobe
optimizedbyformalmethodsinthefutureaspartofacontinuousimprovementregime.

ThewayRCMhasbeenimplementedhasalsochangedtheviewonmaintenanceinconnectiontothebody
ofrules.Previouslythemaintenanceregimewasimplementedaspartofthebodyoftechnicalrules,both
withrespecttowhattodo,howoften,andinterventionlevels.AftertheRCMexerciseswereconducted,
theideaisthatthebodyoftechnicalrulesdeterminestherequiredqualityofthetrack,e.g.,limitsfortwist,
gaugefailuresetc.Theselimitsarebasedontechnicalcalculationsensuringthatgiventheselimits,itissafe
toruntrains.ThenRCMisariskbasedapproachthatshallverifythatthemaintenanceprogramkeepthe
trackwithinitssafeoperationalenvelope.

To optimize maintenance intervals, JBV has developed the computerized tool OptiRCM, since the TOP
event information is imported from the qualitative RCM, the quantification of the economic impact of a
failuremodeiscalculateddirectlywithoutanyeffortfromtheuserofOptiRCM.However,thequalitative
RCMdoesnotcontainanyinformationregardingcostofpreventiveandcorrectivemaintenance.Hence,an
inputmoduleisprovidedwherethemaintenancecostisspecified.

Forultrasonicinspectionoftherails,adedicatedmodel,theOptiULmodelhasbeendevelopedandused
byJBV.

An economical model has also been developed to assist in the prioritization of renewal and larger
maintenanceprojects.ThemodelisimplementedinthePriFotool.ThemainobjectiveofusingthePriFo
toolistoassisttherenewalmanagerateachlinetoprioritizetheprojectsheorshewouldbringforwardto
thecentralbodyresponsiblefordistributingresourcestotheadministrativeareas,andthereaftertoeach
line.

SWEDEN

Maintenance is divided into preventive and corrective maintenance; see Figure 1 for the respective
subcategories. TRV is in favour of preventive maintenance and, as much as possible, condition based
maintenance(CBM).

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FIGURE1:STRUCTUREOFTHEMAINTENANCEACTIVITIES

PREVENTIVEMAINTENANCE

CONDITIONBASEDMAINTENANCE:

CBM should be carried out in such a way that the lifetime of the assets is maximised. TRV uses five
inspection classes, B15; these are a function of train speed and traffic volume. The boundaries of each
class are found in Figure 2. For example, class B2 is for speed limits 40 to 80 km/h and traffic of 0 to 8
millionoftonpertrackandyear.

FIGURE2:THEFIVEINSPECTIONCLASSESUSEDBYTRV,CLASS=F(SPEED,TRAFFIC)

Every asset must be inspected a certain number of times each year depending on the class and the
followingfactors:

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 Trainspeed

 Geotechnicalprerequisite

 Trafficvolume

 Technicalstructure

 Typeoftraffic,e.g.hazardousfreight

 Builtinsafetysystems

 Typeofsurroundingenvironment

 Ageandconditionofassets

For example, the rail has to be inspected once a year for class B1, twice for B2, and three times for the
otherclasses.However,thenumberofinspectionscanalsobelowerthanonceyearly,e.g.onceeveryfour
years.

The safety inspections are more comprehensive than the maintenance inspections. These inspections
considerthefactorsthatmaycauseriskorharmtohumansand/ortheenvironment,suchastraffic,power,
work,thirdperson,operationandenvironmentalaccidentsandincidents.

TRVs inspection instructions apply to regional primary maintenance contracts and national maintenance
contracts.Thus,theyincludeinstructionsfortrackgeometryandultrasonictestingcars.

Inspection results are classed differently for the two kinds of inspections. For safety inspections, the
classifications are: urgent, week, month and before next inspection. For maintenance inspections, these
are:month,yearandwhentimeisfound.

Trackgeometrymeasurementisapartofthenationalmaintenancecontracts.Theregionalcontractorsdo
thetrackadjustmentsbuttheclientmustmakethetrackmeasurementdiagrams.

Another part of the national maintenance is testing with the ultrasonic testing car (UTcar). All marks
registeredbytheUTcararemanuallycheckedandregisteredinBESSY.

Optram is used to access and analyse data from the measuring cars. Optram is an online Java based
computer program. Using the asset structure of BIS, it combines data from track geometry cars and UT
cars.

Anupdatedlasersystemforcontactwiremeasurementshasrecentlybeenimplemented.

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TRVhasanextensivenetworkofdetectorsinSwedenforconditionbasedmaintenance(CBM);about160
detectors in total. The detectors give automatic alarms or data for manual analysis. Preventive
maintenance of the detectors is regularly carried by contractors. Table 1 shows the various types of
waysidedetectorsusedinSweden.

Indicators extracted from are related to the rolling stock and therefore out of the scope of this report.
Nevertheless, the rolling stock is as important as the infrastructure since it will be in similar condition
(Lardner1850).

TABLE1:RAILWAYWAYSIDEDETECTORSANDTHEIRFUNCTIONINTHESWEDISHRAILWAYNETWORK

PREDETERMINEDMAINTENANCE:

TRVsBVF817regulateshowthepredeterminedmaintenanceactionsaretobeperformed.Examplesare
lamp bulb replacements, battery replacements, traffic information boards maintenance, relay tests,
insulatedjoints,tighteningscrews,lubricatingswitchesetc.,controllingraillubricationmachines,cleaning,
calibration, visual inspections. For facilities, it includes the control of redundant power plants, the
recommendationsfrommanufacturersorempiricalknowledge.Periodicityvariesfrom26timesayearto
onceeverytenyears.

FAILUREIDENTIFICATIONANDFOLLOWUP:

AllpersonswhofindafaultintherailwayorsuspectafaultareaskedtoreportittoTRVsoperationcentral
in the region in question. Often the person reporting a failure is the train driver. The central operation
registers the fault in the computer program Basun as a work order. Basun is used to handle traffic
informationwithinTRV.FaultsareregisteredinBasunbutthedataaretransferredtoanothercomputer
program,Ofelia,forfollowup.Theoperationcentralscontactthemaintenancecontractorforrestoration

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ofthefaultysystem.Whenaworkorderiscompleted,itisregisteredinOfeliabythecontractor.Followup
canbedoneinOfeliabycontactingtheoperationcentralandreportingthemeasuretaken.Thecompletion
andclosingofworkordersmustbecarriedoutwithin24hours.

CompulsoryfieldstofilloutinOfeliaare:

 Position

 Actiontaken

 Systemtype

 Timeatworkstart

 Actualfailure

 Timeatworkcompletion

 Causeoffailure

Immediatecorrectionmustbetakenifthefaulthasanysymptomsthatcan:

 Influencesafety

 Disturbathirdparty

 Causedelayedtrains

 Involveenvironmentalhazard.

 Createenvironmentalrisksintheworkplace

Actions taken as a result of safety and maintenance inspections are not registered in Ofelia; since 2010,
Rufushasbeenused.

TherepairprocessofanurgentfaultisshowninFigure3.

FIGURE3:FAILUREIDENTIFICATIONANDFOLLOWUP

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POLAND

InPoland,themaintenanceoperationisgovernedby"TechnicalconditionsId1"(D1),refertothetracksof
international gauge railway lines and establish the scope of maintenance requirements of the
superstructureforthesafeoperationofthetechnicalparametersdefinedforcertainlineoperation.

Thediagnosisoftherailtracksincludes:
 Visualinspection,testandmeasurement,
 Analysis,evaluationandinterpretationoftheresults,
 Developmentoftheconclusionsandrecommendationsofoperationandmaintenance,
 Recordingandarchivingoftestresultsandmeasurements.

Thetestsmustshow,directlyorindirectly,thenumericalvaluesofthefollowingparameters:Permissible
speed,permissibleaxleload,gaugeoftheworkandpermissibletrainweight.

Theseresultswiththediagnosticresultsofthetrackbedlayersare,amongothers,thebasisfordecisions
onthefollowingareas:

 Toaskforthepermanentortemporallychangeoftherailwayoperationtechniquesparameters,e.g.
railwayqualification,changesoverthemaximumpermittedaxeload
 Todefinethekind,scope,placeanddeadlineofmaintenanceoperations.
 Changethetimingandscopeofthediagnostictestsperformedperiodically.
 Tokeepthetrackinsidethecurrentlyclass.

Thetestsaredividedin:
 Basic:mandatoryinallkindsofrailtracks,theyinclude:
y

Visualexaminationandmovement(alsomotorwagons);

Technicaltests(checks)withspecializedapparatusmeasuringthegeometricparametersoftherail
trackandtheelementsofitsstructure;

Measuresandtestingusingmeasuringandworkvehicledevices.

 Special:madeoversomerailtrackclassesorwhentheresultsofstandardtestsareinsufficienttomake
thedecisions.

Themeasurescanbedoneandinterpretedbyauthorizedworkersoftherailwayadministrator.

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Inthecaseofunsafelytrafficsituation,theworkerwhodetectedthissituationmustreportimmediatelyto
thenearestcommandpost,then:

 Organizeandensuretheconditionsforthetimelycompletionofthediagnostictest.
 Definesthetypeandscopeoftestingexpresslycomplementary.
 Based on the evaluations and analysis of the results of measurements and tests maintenance
operationswillbedecided.

Thetype,scopeandfrequencyofdiagnostictestingofmaintenanceandoperationoftherailwaylinesare
definedinthefollowingdocuments:"visualexaminationinstruction,testingandmaintenancetechniquesof
railway lines switches" Id4 (D6) , "Instruction monitoring of railway lines" Id7 (D10), "Instruction
diagnostictracksuperstructure"Id8,"Instructionofdefectoscpicastestingofrailsandweldsbyfusionand
pressureoftherailwayslines"Id10(D16),"Instructionoftakingmeasurements,testingandevaluatingthe
state of the rails "Id14 (D75). The diagnosis of the superstructure must be attached to the diagnosis of
subgradelayerswhosearedefinedinthe"MaintenanceTechnicalconditionsforsubgradelayers"Id3(D
4).Dependingontheageandconditionofthesuperstructureandtheintensityandtypeoftrafficthehead
oftheorganizationalentityimplementationcanincreasethefrequencyofdiagnostictests.

SPAIN

Alltheelementsofthetrack,suchasthematerials
thatmakeitupandthegeometricparametersthat
relatetoeachother,woreoutduetotheeffectsof
atmospherics agents and the vehicles driving on
them. In order to continue with their functions,
they have to be performed a set of actions to
ensure the quality of the route in relation to the
needs of the traffic. The maintenance tasks are
aimed at ensuring the safety of the circulation,
reachingthemaximumpossibledegreeofcomfort
for travelers and maintaining regularity indices

FIGURE4:SCHEDULEDMAINTENANCE

thatcharacterizethetrainsoneachtrack.

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InSpain,themaintenancemodeladoptedisthecalledConditionbasedmaintenanceorbystate.The
basis of this system is to maintain continuous intensive monitoring of the elements and track geometry.
TheinterventionthresholdsareashighasaHSLdemands.ThismodelhasbeenusedinSpainsince1992,
yieldingexcellentresultsbothintermsofpeopleandtrainsafety,punctualityandreliability,etc.

Thisconditionbasedonmaintenancemeans:
 Throughknowledgeofsubstructure,railsandinstallations;
 Definitionoftherailstatusparametersandqualitystandardsaccordingtotheconditionsofoperation;
 Anticipationoftheevolutionoftrackqualitydeterioration;
 Referencestopreviousactionsandstatus;
 Analysisanddiagnosisofthecausesoffaults;and
 Systematicandorderlyuseofheavytooling.

Therefore,actionscanbegroupedintwodifferenttypes,accordingtotheirpurpose:
 Thoseaimedatdetectinganomaliesthataffectormayaffectsafety;and
 Thoseaimedatfollowinguptheevolutionoftheparametersrelatedtousercomfort.

With all the data from dynamic auscultation, geometric auscultation, cab train inspection and on foot
inspections we have the information necessary to schedule maintenance work. The analysis of the
acceleration graphs is very useful and it reaches its maximum operational and effectiveness if the most
importantelementsofthesuperstructurearelocatedonit.Fromthesestudies,theworkstobedoneinthe
track are scheduled, taking into account those that need treatment with heavy machinery or specific
studies of topography or dynamic auscultation confirmation to solve the problem. Also those areas or
pointswhosetreatmentrequiresmoreinvestmentandspecificplanningareidentified

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Operation

Resources

Output

Test
Controlovertrackstate

Diagnosis

Geometrictest
Dynamictest
Ultrasonictest
Trackvisualinspection
Routeontraincab
Railsurfacecontrol
Railtrackcomponents control.

In situinspectionsofthe
failures

N.R.Vrules

Determinationof
correctivemeasures

Schedules

N.A.Vrules
Maintenanceregulations
Knowhow

Priorityworks,with
availableresources

Faultsdetecting

Identifyingthecause

Determiningthetypeand
urgencyofintervention
Humanresources
Materialresources
Intervals

Workstobedone
Ownresources
Subcontracted

FIGURE5:PROCESSSCHEMEFORWARDTOSETTHECONSERVATIONOFTHERAILTRACK

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2. THETRACKSALONGTHECORRIDORS

2.1 SUBSTRUCTURE

2.1.1 SUBGRADE

Subgradeisthelayerbelowthesubballast.Itsupportsthestressestransmittedbythetracktothesoil.The
subgradeisthefirstlayerofthesoilinrailwayinfrastructure.Ithastobedesignedaccordingtothestresses
thatitwillhavetosupport.

Herewecanseethedifferentkindofsubgradesindifferentcountries.

NORWAY

CHARACTERISTICSOFTHEDIFERENTSLAYERS:
Thesubgradeshallformasolidbaseforunderandsuperstructure,andotherwisetasktoadjustthepathto
thedesiredheightabovetheterrain.

Ifthefillingismadeupofthesamematerialsasthereinforcinglayer,itwillnotbenecessarytoflattenthe
troughbottomwithcamberintransition.Inthebottomofthefillitmaybenecessarytoaddafilterlayerof
graveltowardstheground.

MATERIALS:

The filling should preferably be made up of friction material, but beyond this it can be used by certain
policies:
 allsoilsthatarenotclassifiedasclay,siltyclay,claysiltandorganicsoil
 drycrustclay,exceptionallyandalwaysalongwithporouskind

FILTERLAYER/SEPARATINGLAYER:

Afilterlayerunderrockmaterialsmaybeconstructedofgravelorsand.Thelayerisbuiltupsothatthe
filtercriteriaaremet.Foradescriptionofthefiltercriteriaitisreferredto"StatensVegvesen"(Norwegian
nationalroadadministration)Handbook018.

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GEOMETRICDEFINITION:
1.

Cuttings

Cutting is performed in soils to establish adequate room through the terrain for the construction of the
path.

Thedesignandsizewillprimarilybedeterminedbytherequirementsfortheminimumcrosssection,and
theplacefactorsrelatedtosoilconditions,snowfallandsnowaccumulation,drainage,water,wastewater,
noiseandterrainadjustments.

Table2indicatesmaximumallowableslopeanglefordifferentsoils.

TABLE2:MAXIMUMSLOPEANGLEFORDIFFERENTSSOILS
GROUND
CONDITIONS,SOIL
Maximumslope

STONE
1:1,25

FINESAND/SILT

GRAVEL,COARSE
SAND
1:1,5

DRYLAYERED
1:2

CLAY

WATERSATURATED
considerespecially

1:2

Thedeepcutsinfinegrainedsoil,siltclay,thecuttingstabilityspeciallyconsidered,usuallyonthebasisof
completedinvestigations.

2.

Embankments

Thegeometryoftheembankmentshallgenerallybeasspecifiedintheplans,usuallydeterminedbynormal
profileforthepath,andlocalterrainandsoilconditions.

CONSTRUCTIONTECHNIQUES,EMBANKMENTSANDCUTTINGS:
1.

Embankments

1.1. Pinchout
If different types of materials is used in the landfill, these shall be spliced together by pinching out the
lengthofthepathdirection,sothattheoffendingwrinkles.

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FIGURE6:PINCHOUTOFMASSESINANEMBANKMENT.SCHEMATICDIAGRAMOFTHELONGITUDINALPROFILE

1.2. Compression
The filling should be built up and compacted in layers. Maximum allowable aggregate size is 2/3 of the
thickness. Requirements for embankment structure will usually be satisfied with the performance by NS
3458Compression.
1.3. Slopeprotection
Whenusingatelephotodangerousmixsoils(eg.Moraine,siltysand/gravel)inthelandfill,itisassumed
thatslopesareprotectedwithwellgradedfrictionmaterials.
1.4. Clayembankments
Constructionofclayembankmentsshallbecarriedoutunderfavourableconditionswithlittleornorain.
Theclaywillbeconstruedin0.2mthicklayersandcompactedintoahomogeneousmasswithminimalair
content.Foreach1.4mlayerofclay,addeddrainagesandlayeris0.2mthick.Fillingslopemustbesteeper
than1:2,seeFigure7.

FIGURE7:SCHEMATICDIAGRAMOFCLAYEMBANKMENT

2.

Cuttings

Topsoilmustberemovedbeforetheactualcuttingworkisdone.Troughbottomleveledandconstructed
with3%crossslopetoavoidwateraccumulation.

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Cuttingisperformedwithadaptedsideslopesoiltype,shearstrength,groundwaterconditionsandterrain.
Erosionprotectionacc.plansarecarriedoutforeachnaturaldigginglevelbeforethenextlevelexcavated.
Necessarycaremustbetakentoneighboringrelationship,eg.higherloadsoccurringuntiltheintersection.

SWEDEN

FILLINGFORRAILWAYEMBANKMENT(SUBGRADE)
Organiccontentofthesoilmaterialmustnotexceed2%byweight.Snowandicemustberemovedpriorto
fillingandpacking.Ofthefillingmaterialthatisavailable,thosefromthebearingstrengthofviewfavorable
shouldasfaraspossiblebeaddedontopofthefilling.

Innewconstructiononeofthefollowingthreesolutionsarerecommended.

 Fillingwithblastedrock(CEB.31)
Thefillingmustbecarriedoutwithmaterialsofthetype1or3A.
Stonesizemaybeupto2/3ofthelayerthicknessaftercompaction.
Thefillingmustbecarriedouttosuchalevelthatthesurfacecanbesealedandleveled.
Fillmaterialshallbecompacted.
Iftheterracesurfaceiscontaminatedofsoilorblastedrockthisshouldberemovedandreplacedwith
new.
TerracesurfaceshouldbesealedwithmaterialsmeetingtherequirementsofDCH.16.

 Fillingwithsoilandaggregatematerials(CEB.32)
Terrace surface should be performed with a height tolerance of + 30 mm. The requirement is for a
finished terrace and shall be fulfilled before overlying layers should be applied. If terrace is checked
andoverlyinglayersistobeappliedafternextwinteroraftertheterraceisadjusted,areinspection
shouldbeperformed.Duringinspectiontheterracehastobeunfrozen.

 Fillingwithroughandintergrainysoilandcrushedaggregate(CEB.321)
Fillingshouldbecarriedoutwithmaterialsofthetype2or3B.
Stonesizemaynotexceedonehalflayerthicknessaftercompaction.
Fillmaterialshallbecompacted.
Fillmaterialmusthaveatemperatureabove+1degreeCduringpackaging.

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Soils which can easily be frozen or erosion sensitive soils should in the slope be protected against
erosion.

 Fillingwithmixedandfinegrainedsoil(CEB.322)
Fillingshouldbecarriedoutwithmaterialsoftype4or5A,butnotwithclayandsiltyclay.
Stonesizeoffillingshallnotexceedonehalflayerthicknessaftercompaction.
FillingshallbeperformedwithdrainagelayersinFigureCEB/5.
FillLotsofdemandsonlyingtimetobespikedoutlengthwiseonalengthofatleastthreetimesthe
layerthickness.

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VARIABLE NORMALVALUE

VARIATION

VARIABLE

VARIATION

VALUE
0

af(m)

3,35

ak(m)

2,6

2,452,8

euh(%)

03

a1(m)

etv(%)

05

3,3*)3,5**)

eth(%)

05

3,4*)3;7**)

hr(m)

0,18

hs(m)

0,22

bm(m)

euv(%)

NORMAL

+3,3/3,4++

03

bv(m)

3,7

3,254,0

sm

01:01,5

bh(m)

3,7

3,254,0

su

1:02

1:1,51:2

b1(m)

0,4

01,0

s1

01:01,5

1:1,51:3

b4(m)

0,6

0,40,8

tm(m)

0,3

0,30,4

dk(m)

0,52

0,30,8

tu(m)

x)

d1(m)

0,4

01,0

t1(m)

xx)

0el.0,21,1

d4(m)

xxx)

0,61,6

t4(m)

0,15

00,2

NR

NAME

CODE

MATERAIL/TYPE

REMARK

Rail

60E1(h=172mm)

Rail

50E3(h=155mm)

Sleeper

Concrete

Sleeper

Wood

10

Ballast

DCH.31

MakadamballastClassI

500mm

1
20

Subballast

DCH.15

Crushedrock material

800mm

21

Subballast

DCH.16

Crushedrock material

Antifreezing(01400mm)semap
(subballastin2layers)

31,32

Subgrade

42,43

Material

CEB.321

blasted rock or soil and aggregate

CEB.322

materials

DBB.132

Geotextile,bruksklassN2N4

ifitsnecessary

separatinglayer

SPAIN

CHARACTERISTICSOFTHEDIFERENTSLAYERS:
Allthedifferentlayersofarailwayplatformmustbebuiltwithadequatematerials,properlycompactedto
reachtherightslopeandtheacceptabletolerance,anddrainagepropertiesifnecessary.

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Therearefourdistinguishedlayers,foundation,core,topandtheformalayer.
 The foundation is the soil which is used as a filling base, once removed the soils that may create
problemsofbearingcapacityorcompressibility.
 Thecoreisthefillingbetweenthefoundationandthetop,
 Thetoplayeristhelastmeterofthefilling.
 Theformalayerisinterposedbetweenthetopoftheembankmentandthesubballastlayeror,in
thecaseofcutting,betweenthefoundationandthesubballastlayer.

Thecharacteristicsofeachmaterialare:

1.

Foundation:

Thematerialusedinfoundationforanembankmentwouldbeeither:
 Similartothecore(withthefollowingspecificrestrictions).
 Withreinforcementsoilcharacteristics.
 Withdrainagecharacteristics.

Inthefirstcase,saturationpossibilitywillbeconsidered,andthepresenceoffinewillbelowerthan15%
(sieve0,080UNE)2metershighabovethenaturalsoilorthedrain.
In areas with problems of bearing capacity or compressibility, cal or cement, textile protective layer or
similarmaterialscouldbeused:
 Maximumsize80400mm(nohigherthan40%ofthethicknessofthelayer)
 Sieven42050%
 Sieven40<30%
 Fines<0,080UNE<8%

Whenthefoundationmustbepermeablewillbeappliedtherockfillsspecifications,until0,5moverthe
inundatedarea,withnotsensitiverockstowater,LosAngelescoefficientlowerthan35,andafinecontent
lowerthan5%,usingatextileprotectivelayerifthefoundationisclayey.

2.

CoreandtopLayers:

Thematerialstouseincoreofembankmentswillbesoils,whichorganicmatterlowerthan1%.
Thesulphitescontentwillbelowerthan5%.

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Thematerialusedinthecoremustensuretheseminimumcharacteristics:
 Liquidlimit<50
 Iftheliquidlimitis>35and<50,thePlasticityindexwillbe>73%ofliquidlimitless20.
 ThefirmdownintheCollapsetest(NLT254)lowthan1%.
 TheMaximumdensityinModifiedProctortest(>1,750kg/dm3)
 CaliforniaBearingRatioIndex>5,andtheswelling,measuredinthistestwillbeunder1%.
 Whentherearesaturationpossibilities,thefinecontentwillbecontrolled.

The top layers of an embankment will be conforming by a better quality material ensuring these
characteristics:
 Liquidlimit<40
 Maximumsizelowthan10cm.
 Sieven0,080UNE<40%inthestretchofmateriallowerthan60mm
 Whentherearesaturationpossibilities,thefinecontentwilllowerthan15%

3.

FormaLayer:

The forma layer is built between the top of the embankment and the subballast layer or over the
foundationofthecutting.

Thematerialusedintheformalayermustensuretheseminimumcharacteristics:
 Therearenoorganicmatters
 Maximumsizelowthan10cm.
 Sieven0,080UNE<5%,Ifthefinearenotplastic,theirpresencecouldbeuntil15%
 LosAngelescoefficient30
 MicroDevaltest25
 Ifthemaximumsizeofthematerialislowerthan25mm,theCBRIndexwillbe>10
 Theswellingbyimmersionwillbelowerthan0,2%

GEOMETRICDEFINITION:
Alongthecorridorswefinddifferentkindsofsectionsifwegoalongembankmentsorcuttings,herewetry
toshowitinageneralform.

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1.

Cuttings

Thestabilityofaslopedependsonitsgeometry,slopeandheight,astotheinherentcharacteristicsofthe
soil that conform it, intern friction angle and cohesion, as they define their shear resistance. From
geotechnicalview,theperfect cuttingslopeinclinationisthatwhichallowastabilitywithoutanykindof
support,thewholeslopeslowerthanthat,willbefinelikefinalsolution.

Thelooseterrainrequiremorelinesslopes(5H:2V),usuallyapproachingtotheinternalfrictionangleofthe
excavatedmaterial,inthatway,therockgeology,allowsubverticalslopeorverticalslopes(3V:2H).

Wheninthesamelocationexistacontactbetweensoftandhardmaterial,itwillberecommendedtobuild
aledgeof4m.

Thelastmeterheightwillhavea2H:1Vslope.

Atthefoundationoftheexcavationwillberemovedallmaterialthatisinappropriate,replacingbygrade
materialat1mdepth,properlycompacted,witha0,5%slopetopreventaccumulationofwater.

FIGURE8:CUTTINGSECTIONS

2.

Embankments

An embankment in a filler made of suitable material to raise its level to a proper height according to a
gradient.

The inclination of the slopes are 2H:1V, independently of the embankments height, the wide of the top
layeris15metresand18m,with0,3mthick,fortheformalayer,thewholeoftheselayerhavea0.5%
slopetopreventaccumulationofwater.

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FIGURE9:EMBANKMENTSECTION

CONSTRUCTIONTECHNIQUES,EMBANKMENTSANDCUTTINGS:
1.

Embankments

This unit consists of laying and compaction of soil and material from the excavations or quarries. Its
implementationincludesthefollowing:

 Preparationoftheseatingsurfaceoftheembankment(sanitizing,scarifying,compaction,drainage
measures,etc.).

 Extensionbytiersofmaterialfromexcavation.
Thethicknessoftheliftsnotexceedtwentyfive(25cm)measuredaftercompact,thethicknesscould
be increased, up to 50 cm, with authorization, based on test, for the forma layer the thickness is
between2030cm.

 Wettingordryingofeachtier.
Compaction is carried out with humidity in the range of two percent over optimum moisture, 2%,
determiningitwithModifiedProctortest.

 Compaction.
Thecompactionofthelayersmustbeatleastninetyfivepercent(95%)ofmaximumdensityobtained
intheModifiedProctortest.

Ev2 the modulus obtained, EV2, in the charging section of a plate bearing test (NLT357/98) will be
higher than thirty megapascals (30 MPa) on the foundation layers and core layers and sixty

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Page30

megapascals (60 MPa) on top layers, it being necessary also verify that Ev2/Ev1<2.2, whenever the
resultofEv1willbelowerthanthe60%ofEv2.

On forma layer, the Ev2 the modulus obtained, EV2, in the charging section of a plate bearing test
(NLT357/98) will be higher than eighty megapascals (80 MPa), it being necessary also verify that
Ev2/Ev1<2.2,whenevertheresultofEv1willbelowerthan50Mpa.

 Refiningslopes.
Isthesetofoperationsrequiredtogetthefinishedgeometryofanembankmentoracutting.

For the cutting there are no special operations for their refining, the only one, was that it has to be
donebypartialheightnogreaterthan3m.

Onthetopsurfaceoftheembankment,topographicalmarksarearrangedalongtheaxisandonboth
edges thereof, with a distance between cross sections not exceeding twenty metres (20 m), and
leveledtomillimeters(mm).Betweenthemarks,thesurfaceshallnotexceedthetheoreticalsurface
definedbythem,oritwillfallnomorethanthreecm(3cm)atanypoint.

Thefinishedsurfaceshallnotvarybymorethanfifteenmillimeters(15mm)whenitwascheckedwith
aruleofthreemeters(3m),appliedparallelandnormaltotheaxisoftheembankment.Neithermay
beableanyretainwaterareas.

2.1.2 STRUCTURES

A bridge is a structure built to span physical obstacles such as a body of water, valley or road, for the
purposeofprovidingpassageoverthem.Therearemanydifferentdesignsthatallserveuniquepurposes
andapplytodifferentsituations.Thischaptershowsthedifferenttypologiesanddesignofstructuresalong
thecorridors.

NORWAY

Traditionalopensteelbridgesasweknowthemfromthepastwillgenerallynolongerbecurrent.Thereare
two reasons for this. Increased speed results in stricter requirements for wellaligned tracks. A good

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Page31

alignmentandarationallinemaintenancerequiresthatthetrackliesinballastasonthelineasawhole.
Secondly,cleansteel bridgesemitconsiderablenoiseasthestructureisputintooscillationsbythepassing
trains.Thethicknessofthebridgedeckthatcarriesthetrackisimportanttodampenthesound.Therefore,
steelbridgeswillhereaftermostlybebuiltascooperativestructures.

SketchExamplesoftypicalcrosssections(railsnotshown):

 Concretestructures:

FIGURE10:SLABBRIDGE(NORWEGIAN:PLATEBRU)L=210M

FIGURE11:TROUGHBRIDGE(NORWEGIAN:TRAUBRU)L=1025M

FIGURE12:ONEBEAMBRIDGE(NORWEGIAN:ENBJELKEBRU)L=1025M

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FIGURE13:TWOBEAMBRIDGE(NORWEGIAN:TOBJELKEBRU)L=2540M

FIGURE14:BRIDGEWITHBOXSECTION(NORWEGIAN:BRUMEDKASSETVERRSNITT)L=40200M

 Cooperativestructures

FIGURE15:STEELPLATEBEARERWITHCONCRETECOVER(NORWEGIAN:STLPLATEBREREMEDBETONGDEKKE)
L=2540M

FIGURE16:STEELPLATEBEARERWITHINBETWEENCONCRETECOVER(NORWEGIAN:STLPLATEBRERMED
MELLOMLIGGENDEBETONGDEKKE)L=3050M

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FIGURE17:STEELBOXBEARERWITHCONCRETECOVER(NORWEGIAN:STLKASSEBRERMEDBETONGDEKKE)
L=4080M

SWEDEN

Theselectionofthetypeofbridgeisusuallybasedonsuperstructure.Formajorbridges,thelineshiftsare
determinedbyfactorssuchasspan,productionmethodsandmaterial'sprices.Whileaestheticvaluescan
becrucialforthebridgetypechosen.

 ConcreteBridges

Slabbridge
Simply supported flat bridge can be used for spans up to about 15 m but for continuous slab
bridgetherangeuptoabout20m.Atspansneartheupperlimit,thebridgeisusuallyperformed
prestressedofthebridge.

Plateframebridge
Plateframebridgescanperformbetterwithspansuptoabout20m.Thewingspancloseto20m
plateshouldbeprestressed.
LaunchedofonesideRambridgeisusuallyclosed.

Girder
Forspansbetween1030mconcretegirderscanbeselectedforbridges.Forspanmorethan20m
theconcretegirderoftenprestressed.

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TroughGirderBridge
Troughgirderbridgeshavethesamespanlimitsasbeambridgesofconcrete,ie.spansbetween
10 and 30 m. A concrete trough has a lower height than the superstructure of a concrete plate
withthesamespanandcanthereforebeappropriatefortheavailableheight,whichitslimited.
Beam'sheightinatroughbridgeislimitedbytherequirementsoffreespacefromanothertrack.

Forthedesignofthesupport:
If greater depth is required that can be obtained by maximum distance to rail height aggregate
thicknessofthebottomplatethickness,beamsoveredgeslocatedbelowthebottomtrayplate.
This can be done if you want to save the extra weight that an increased aggregate thickness
causes.

Boxgirderbridge
Thespanapproximatelybetween30and150mmayselectgirderbridgeboxofconcrete.Forthe
longest,spansbuiltbridgeswithsuchtechnologyifnodeterminationcanbearranged.

Steeltroughbridge
The steel trough is a type of bridge with through ballast, the superstructure is limited and low
weight height. This bridge may be an appropriate choice when older abutments have a new
superstructure.

Inthistypeofbridgeitisdifficulttoinspectthebottomplateandtheinside.Inordertomakea
detailedinspectionitisrequiretoremoveballast.Therefore,itisadvisabletochoosesteeltrough
forpathwithdoubletrackswithspacebetweenthemtoallowtheinspectionandmaintenance.

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 CooperativeBridges

Cooperativebridgeswithbeams
Thespansbetweenspan15toabout6070mcanusesteelplatebearwithconcretecover.Dueto
the limitation of plates altitude the span should not be more than 70 m for continuous
collaborativebridgesand50mforsimplysupportedbridge.

Cooperativebridgeswithboxgirder
Box girder of steel can be obtained when steel beams have a common bottom flange. Box
structurehasgreattorsionalrigidityandshouldbeselectedonthesteelbridge,ifitsinacurve.
Spanrangeisthesameascooperativebridgeswithbeams.Boxgirderofsteelshouldbeavoided
atobliqueangularityapproach.

SPAIN

We are going to analysis the different types of Viaducts on a representative high speed rail track as the
MadridBarcelona,where60Kmoftheirtracksrunoverthesestructures,reviewingthemostimportant
actionsactingonthebridgeswhichconditionthedifferenttypes.

ACTIONS:

Themostimportantactionsactingonthesestructuresare:

 Sturdy,understandingitliketherelationbetweenthetrainsandstructuresweight.
 Horizontal actions, starting and breaking with maximum values of 100 and 600 t, on viaducts with
curvedroute,thecentrifugalforcecanreachvaluesof3t/mfor7000mradius.

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 Thelengthwiseactionsthattherailtransmitsbythermicexpansionorcontractioncanreachavalueof
200t.
 The interaction railtrackdeck became by the lengthwise actions that act on the rails and by the
deformationsdifferencesbetweentherailandthedeck.

Themaincausesare:

 Differentdistortions,bytheeffectofthetemperatureoftherailandthedeck.
 Raildistortioncausedbythebreakingandstartingforcesthatthetraintransmitstotherail.
 Deckdistortioncausedbythecreepandtheshrinkageoftheconcrete.

Thosedifferentmovementsthataresufferedbythedeckandtherailmakethoseimportanteffortswhen
theyaretransmittedamongthemself,dependingonthelengthofthedeckandtheplacedoftheexpansion
jointsatthedeckandrail.

TYPOLOGIES
Themostofthebridgesaremadewithprestressedconcreteforthedeckandreinforcedforabutments,
pilesandfoundations.

The design or typologies change conforming to orographic, geotechnical or environmental standards, in


thatwaywecanfind:

 Continuousstaticallyindeterminatestretch
Itisusedforlengthslowthan1200mandwhenthebridgesisbuiltbyincrementallaunchingmethod
withafixedpointatthedeck,ifthesepointwillbeinthemiddleofthedeck,likeinanintermediate
pile,thelengthscanbeimprovingto2000m.

Forthesetypologies,upto100m,itisnotnecessarytouseexpansionjoints,orupto200mifthefix
pointisinthemiddleofthedeck.

 Severalstaticallyindeterminatestretches
Itisusedforlengthshigherthan1200,withfixespointsattheabutmentandinapile.

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 IsostaticSpans
Forquitelongandlowbridges,thiskindlettoprecastpartofthedeck.

 IsostaticsspansandContinuousstaticallyindeterminatestretch
The mayor length for a isostatic span its over 40 m, these reason required a continuous statically
indeterminate stretch for not building any support in a section of 60 m caused by the presence, for
example,ofariver.

 Comprehensivebridges
Theyarestaticallyindeterminatestructures,wherethedeckisbuiltintothepilesandtheabutments,
theyareusedforquiteshortlengthanditsavedofusingjointsorstructuralbearing.

 Sections
In this chapter we are going to show the most typically Bridge sections used in Spanish high speed
lines:

FIGURE18:SLABBRIDGE

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FIGURE19:GIRDERBRIDGE

FIGURE20:LIGHTWEIGHTEDCONCRETESLAB

FIGURE21:MIXEDBRIDGE

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2.1.3 TUNNELS

Tunnels are a special type of structure in the railway infrastructure. A tunnel is an underground
passageway,completelyenclosedexceptforopeningsforegress,commonlyateachend.

Here,wecancomparethedifferentsectionsbuiltindifferentcountriesandknowhowdoesitdependson
thespeedofthetrains.

NORWAY

Normal Profile for tunnels used when the construction works length of track longitudinal direction is
greater than 20 m Such structures can be tunnels, snow and avalanche protection roofs and other
superstructures (constructs bearing house, garage, etc.). In such structures there should be room to the
smallestcrosssection,catenaryoutliersandrelaxations,signallingsystems,cablesystems,etc.Thereshall
also be space for people who stay next track while the train passes. Moreover, air resistance and any
security requirements and considerations necessary to accommodate construction and maintenance of
structuresshallbetakingintoaccount.

Normal profiles of single and double track tunnel in Figure 22 and Figure 23 apply for speed 200 km/h.
Figure24andFigure25showtherelationshipbetweenstandardprofileandtheoreticalblastingprofileand
apply for double track tunnel with speeds respectively 200 km/h and 250 km/h. The above space
requirementsareincluded.

For speeds between 200 and 250 km/h track distance 4.7 m from the track centre in the double track
tunnelshallbeused.

For tunnels with significantly slower speed limit than 200 km/h, the crosssection can be dimensioned
specifically, as required cross section is equally depend on the system for technical installations of
performerspressureandsuctionforces.

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FIGURE22:NORMALPROFILE,TUNNEL,SINGLE

FIGURE23:NORMALPROFILEDOUBLETRACK,V=

TRACK,V=200KM/H

200KM/H

FIGURE24:RELATIONSHIPBETWEENNORMAL

FIGURE25:RELATIONSHIPBETWEENNORMAL

PROFILEANDTHEORETICHALBLASTINGPROFILE.

PROFILEANDTHEORETICHALBLASTINGPROFILE.

EXAMPLEFROMDOUBLETRACK,V=200KM/H

EXAMPLEFROMDOUBLETRACK,V=250KM/H

SWEDEN

Tunnels are a special type of structure in the railway infrastructure. A tunnel is an underground
passageway,completelyenclosedexceptforopeningsforegress,commonlyateachend.

Arailwaytunnelhasarelativelystandardizedgeometry,howeverdependingonifitisatunnelforsingle
trackordoubletrack.Thecrosssectionareaofamainrailwaytunnelisapproximately70m2.

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The trackrestsonabed ofballast. Thebase courseunder the sleepershas athicknessofapproximately


0.3mandawidthof6m.Thesubbasecourseoftheballastis0.8mthick(ballasttype0150mm).Below
thesubbasecourse,therecanbeanadditionalsubbasecourseforfrostprotection.Thefrostprotection
layerisalso0.8mthick(ballasttype0150mm).Thislayerisonlyusedwherefrostprotectionisneeded.
Thefrostprotectionlayerisused0600mfromeachmouthofthetunnel.Thus,ifthetunnelisshorterthan
1200m,thefrostprotectionlayerisusedintheentiretunnel.Thewidthofrl1esubbasecoursesis8m.
Trackballastisusedaroundthesleepers.

The design of service and access tunnels is relatively equal compared to main tunnels. The cross section
areaissmallercomparedtoiliemaintunnel(25.6m2forservicetunnelsand35.7m2foraccesstunnels).
The interior installations are mainly electric installation such as lightning, cables and cable suspension
bridges.

TheNormalprofilesofsingleanddoubletracktunnelaredescribedinthefollowingfigures.Inthefigures,
themeasurementscanbefoundindetail.

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SPAIN

TYPOLOGIESANDSECTIONS
Tunnelsfunctionsasitssize,shapeandcoatingarediverseandarecriticaltochoosingthemosteffective
methodsofconstruction.

Themostimportantfactorstoanalyseinatunneldesignare:

Soft,hardrocks,uniform,heterogeneous,waterpresence,etc.
THEGROUND

Differentkindsofgroundsmeanchangesinthegeometry,thestructuralshape
andtheconstructionmethods.

SIZEANDGEOMETRY
STRUCTURALSHAPES
CONSTRUCTIONMETHODS

Wide, height, length, leveling, slopes and curves, depends on the tunnel
function.
Standard,Circular,ordifferentshapesthatcansupportdifferentloads
Conventional, TBM or precast, the selection of the method is limited by the
soil.

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Thereareseveralcriteriaforthedesignofthetunnels,astheaerodynamicphenomena,thediameter,in
termsofthepressureinsidethetrainortrainairtunnelfriction,orthelengthofthetunnels,thissection
willfocusontheparametersgeometric.

OUTLINEMARKER
TheUIC(UnionInternationaledesChemisdeFer)definedthreetypesofgauges,designatedbytheletters
A, B and C, the Spanish railway, because of having different track gauge, defined an adapted C gauge,
recognizedbythedesignationC.

NewlinesareconstructedwithgaugeC,andformixedtrafficlinesasuperiorgaugeisprovide[highwayrail
(AF)]allowingthetransporttruckonconventionalcars,seeTable3.

TABLE3:GAUGEKIND
GLIBO

Gaugeandhighoutlinemarker

3,15x4,32

3,15x4,32

3,15x4,65

DIMENSIONSOFTHEOUTLINEMARKER
ThehighspeedtrainscrosssectioninSpainis9m2.

GAUGEBETWEENTRACKS
Currentlyinhighspeedlinesisrecommendedminimumgaugeof4.20m.However,thereisgreatvarietyin
thevaluesadoptedforthegaugeinthevariouslinesthatarecurrentlyinoperation.Anexampleishigh
speedMadridSevillewith4.30m.

CROSSSECTION
Conditionedbyvarioustechnicalfactors,amongwhichwecanmention:
 Performanceandmaintenanceneeds.
 Characteristicsofthesoil.
 Excavationmethods.
 Liningandcoatingtype.

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SHAPESANDSIZES
 Standardsection
Typicallyusedinmediumorgoodqualitysoil.Theconstructionmethodsusuallybethetraditional.

 Circularsection
Thissectionshouldbeusedinpoorqualitysoilsandwithstrongpresenceofwater,butingeneralit
becameimposedbytheTBMconstructionmethods.

Thefirstproblemthatariseswhenatunnelisdesigningischoosingbetweensingletubeanddoubletubeor
double and single track. The increasing knowledge of aerodynamic phenomena and improvement of the
technique makes more common to build singly tunnels when their length is <4 km, when it is significant
doubletubeisbuiltincreasingthegaugeandtheusefulsection.

The UIC 77911 recommended to define a minimum cross section not less than 52 m2 (approximate
diameterof8.50m)inthesingletracktunnels,or75m2(approximatediameterof11.35m)inthedouble
track.

Theevolutionintheconstructionoftunnelsanditsdesigncanbeseenintwoclearexamples,forthehigh
speed line MadridSeville the designed the tunnel section was 75 m2 (deadline 1992, v = 250300 km/h,
doubletrack).ButfortheMadridBarcelona(deadline2008,v=350km/h,doubletrack)projectedsection
was100m2a,andnowinthetunnelPertus,FigueresPerpignan(v=350km/h,twosingletracktubes),
highspeedlineunderconstruction,linkingSpainwithFranceonsingletracksectionisapproximately54m2
free.

FIGURE26:SPANISHTUNNELSECTIONS,SINGLEANDDOUBLE.

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DIFFERENCESBETWEENCONVENTIONALANDHIGHSPEEDTUNNELS:

DIFFERENCESBETWEENCONVENTIONALANDHIGHSPEEDTUNNELS
PARAMETERS

CONVENTIONAL

HIGHSPEED

160200km/h

250350km/h

Singletrack

2030

4560

Doubletrack

4050

75115

ballast

Slabtrack

3,674,20

4,54,8

25

12

1750

6000

Runningspeed
Section
Typeoftrack
Separationbetweenrailtracksaxle
Slope
Curveradii
Lining

Projectconcrete

Precastconcretesegments
Tunnelformworkcarriages

2.1.4 DRAINAJEDEVICES

Tocontrolthehydrogeologicalconditionsontherailway,drainagedevicesarerequired.Railwaydrainage
affect to tracks, embankments, cuttings and walls. The type of infrastructure may be providing a quick
drainageofrainwater.

Drainingfunctionstocollectanddrainawaysurfacewaterand/orgroundwaterforthepurposeofkeeping
track body drained. Furthermore, the drainage ensures the building against erosion, maceration, and
reducedcarryingcapacityandstability.

NORWAY

The next figure shows the principle of the location of trenches, manholes, over water and drain lines, of
sectionfrontlinetrench,ditchlineClosed,CloseddrainageditchandStormwaterLinesinNorwayrailway
tracks.

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 Openlinetrench
Thistypeofdrainagewillconsistofopenandgenerallyshallowtrenchthathastheprimaryfunctionto
interceptanddivertsurfacewater,therebypreventingwaterfromenteringtheballastsubbase.

Trenchbottomshouldbeatleast0.5mbelowtheFP,andstandard(practical)bottomwidthfornew
facilitiessetto0.5mtrenchshallfallatanypointismin5(1:200).Wherefallthelinegoesinthe
oppositedirectionoftheappropriatetrenchfall,surfacewatersofthetrenchlineisinsertedintothe
manholesandflowawayinclosedpipes.

Wheretheintersectionwithlinetrenchgoesintofilling,recordedsurfacewatercontrolledatculvert
outlet or the terrain. Outlet along the filling slope must like the line trench, be secured against the
surfacewaterenteringthefillmasses.

Deeplinetrencheswillorbitthebodymoresusceptibletopenetrationoffrostfromtheside.Itshould
thereforenotbeprojectedlinetrenchesdeeperthannecessarygiventheprevailingconditions.

Thelinetrenchesshouldhavearigidbase,whilesealedupto0.2munderformationplane.

 Closedlinetrench
Specialconditionsmaymakeitnecessarytoclosethebarditch.Thiscanbeinplaceswheredrainage
route of extraordinary reasons broken by permanent structures (eg. Noise barriers, different
foundationsformasts,kiosks,retainingwalls,etc.).Thenewfacilitieswillgenerallybeapplicableonly
over short sections. One must therefore pipes by "obstacle" to ensure continuity of line trench.
Recommendedpipesizeinthiscaseis400mm.

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Incaseofclosureoverlongdistances(eg.Associatedwithstationconstruction/stands,constructionof
platformsindeepcuts,etc.),itmustinprinciplebeperformedasacloseddrainagewithdrainwireora
combined drainage/surface water trench. The dimension of the drain pipe shall be at least 150 mm.
Thetrenchmaybefilledwithopenwaterpermeable(permeable)loadsuptothetopsurfacecaneasily
dropdowntothewire.Toreducetheriskofingressofsoilmaterialsplacedgeotextileatthebottom
andsidesofthetrench.

 Closeddrainageditch
With closed drainage means closed ditches drains and/or draining soil, which should be able to
suck/collectinggroundwaterandleaditalongtheditchbottomuntilproofdrain.Thepurposeofthis
systemisprimarilytolowerandholdthegroundwateratacontrolledlevel.Theneedforsubsurface
drainagemustbeconsideredfromthelocalgeotechnical/hydrologicalconditions.

Longitudinallinedrainageinsoilcutplacedontheedgeoftheslopeorthelinetrench.SeeFigure27
Longitudinallinetrench.

Drainagepipeshallhavefallallthewayintherightdirection,minimum5.Permitteddeviationfrom
thetheoreticalheightisnormally50mm.

Thereisusuallynoneedforbothclosedandcloseddrainageditchline.

By frost technical reasons it is not desirable to drain roadbed so that this becomes absolutely dry.
Closeddrainagetrenchismadetoensurethatthereisaccessatanywaterroadbedaddedinheight
somewhataboveroadbedbutnothigherthanthebottomofthesubbase.

FIGURE27:LONGITUDINALLINETRENCH

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SWEDEN

Drainagesystemsshouldcollectanddivertstormwaterandgroundwater.Thewatermanagementinthe
embankment(clearopening2.0m)isperformedsothatupstreamcandrainatamediumflowwiththe
traindrums.

A waterbearing structure is designed so that harmful erosion does not occur at high tide position. The
intersection between the drum and the grooves is possible if the design has 90 crossing angle.
Watercoursealignmentmustbetakingintoaccountforwaterboreduringpossibleneedoferosioncaused
bychangesflowconditions.Theminimumburialdepthdependsupontheloadofsoil,trafficandtubetype
andvariesbetween1.0to2.0m.

SPAIN

TRANSVERSAL
These kinds of works let the water pass through the platform. In function of the flow to evacuate, are
defining different systems, like, concrete pipes (5002500), reinforced concrete box (1000x1750
4000x2500),orbridgesforlargersizes.

LENGTHWISE
Depending on the flow values provided, the maximum flow which can carry each of the types of ditches
andspacerequirements,canbedisposedseveraltypesofditcheslike:

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Theconcreteditchesusedare:
 Protectingsideslopesditches:atthetopofthecuttingsandatthebottomoftheembankments.
 Platformditches:betweentheplatformandthebottomofthecuttings.

Thedifferentkindsofditchesarelengthwiseconnectedtodrainagethewater.

2.2 SUPERSTUCTURE

2.2.1 TRACKANDTHEIRELEMENTS

2.2.1.1 DEFINITIONOFTHEGAUGE

Trackgaugeorrailgaugeisthedistancebetweentheinnersidesoftheheadsofthetwoloadbearingrails
thatmakeupasinglerailwaytrack.

NORWAY

InNorwaythegaugeofthetracksare1435mm.

SWEDEN

InallMalmbanan,1.435butitcanbebetween(1.4301.470),anothergaugeisusedinSwedenanarrow
oneof891mmcalledThreeFootGaugeRailways.

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FIGURE28:GAUGEUSEDINSWEDEN

POLAND

InPolandcoexistawiderangeofgauge:
 International1435mm
 Narowgauge.600,750y1000mm
 Sovietgauge1520mm

PORTUGAL

InPortugaltherearetwogauges:
 TheViaEstreita,Narrowgaugetrackof1000mm.
 TheViaLarga,Broadgaugetrack,isthe1668mm,alsoknownas"Ibrica".

SPAIN

InSpaintherearethreedifferentgaugefordifferentkindofrailtracks.

FIGURE29:GAUGEUSEDINSPAIN

2.2.1.2 SLEEPERS

Thefunctionsofsleepersinrailwayworksareasfollows:
 Togriptherailtogaugeandtodistributetherailloadstoballastwithacceptableinducedpressure.
 Thesidefunctionsofasleeperincludetheavoidanceofbothlongitudinalandlateraltrackmovement.

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 Italsohelpstoenhancecorrectlineandleveloftherails.

NORWAY

 Timbersleepers

 Concretesleeper
There are different kinds of concrete sleepers depending on the fastening and on the dimensions of
therails:

ConcretesleeperJBV54,JBV97andJBV60withPandrolfastclipfasteningsystem,withdifferent
anchorscastedin,andJBV60BRUandJBV54BRU,areidenticaltoJBV60andJVB54withthe
exceptionofcastinanchorforfasteningofguiderail.

Concrete sleepers NSB 95, NSB 93 and NSB 90 with Pandrol fastclip fastening system, with
differentanchorscastedin,NSBistheoldnameforthecombinedinfrastructureowner(NowJBV)
and the Rolling stock operator (Now NSB). NSB is old type sleeper and JBV is responsible for
them.

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SWEDEN

 Timbersleepers
InSwedenthewoodsleepersarestillusedfortherailwaytrack.Forswitchesandforbridgestheyhave
differentshapesanddimensiondependingontheiruse.

The timbers sleepers are used on conventional lines in a reduced way, they are been renewed by
concretesones.Theyaremadebypine,oakandbeechwood,beingallowedtheuseofotherkindsof
woods.Totallengthis2600mm.

FIGURE30:WOODSLEEPERS

 Concretesleepers
Concretepresentstwoweaknessesforitsuseinsleepers:brittlefractureandlittlefatigueresistance.

Toovercomesuchdisadvantages,itisrequiredtoplaceanabsorbingmaterialbetweensleepersand
railandtousereinforcingbarsinsidethesleepers.

ThemostusedinSwedenisthemonoblockandprestressed.

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Monoblockprestressedconcretesleepers:
Themonoblocksleeperhasthefollowingcharacteristics:

It withstands alternating stresses better, since the stress on the concrete is always
compressive.

Itoffersareducedsleeperheightatthecentralpart,sincethesteelbarsdonothavetobe
located,asinreinforcedconcrete,asfarawayfromtheneutralaxisaspossible

Itallowsareductionofthesteelused,incomparisontothetwinblocksleeper

It is generally lighter, compared to the twinblock sleeper; this fact, however, reduces
transverseresistance.

Monoblocksleeperspresentasimilarbehaviourtothatofthetwinblocks.Theymaintainthetrack
gaugeinasatisfactorymannerandhavealonglifetime.Theyrequireelasticfasteningsandspecial
accessoriesforsignalling.However,monoblocksleepersdistributeloadsbetterthantwinblocks,
but not as well as timber sleepers. Their transverse resistance is lower than that of twinblocks,
buthighercomparedtotimbersleepers;monoblocksleepersprovidealsoagoodsurfaceforthe
maintenanceinspectionstaff.

POLAND

 Timbersleepers
InPolandthewoodsleepersarestillusedfortherailwaytrack,forswitchesandforbridgesthey,have
differentshapesanddimensiondependingontheiruse:

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 Concretesleepers
Therearetwokindofconcretesleepersdependingonthefastening:

Prestressed concrete sleeper INBK7 designed for K Fasteners, the dimensions refer to the rail
UIC60(60E1),valuesinbracketsareindicatedforrailsS49(49E1).

PrestressedconcretesleeperPS94designedforSBelasticfasteners,thedimensionsrefertothe
railUIC60(60E1),valuesinbracketsareindicatedforrailsS49(49E1).

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SPAIN

 Timbersleepers
Thetimberssleeperswereusedonconventionallinesinareducedway,theyarebeenrenewableby
concretesones,theyaremadebypine,oakandbeechwood,beingallowedtheuseofanotherkindsof
woodsincludingintheruleU.N.E.25.00276.

FIGURE31:WOODSLEEPERS

 Concretesleepers
InSpainaretwodifferentkindsofconcretesleepers,thebiblockandthemonoblock

Thebiblocksleepers:ThemostcommontypewascalledRS;currentlyisdeprecatedinSpanishrail
networks.

FIGURE32:BIBLOCKSLEEPERUSEDINSPAIN

The monoblock sleepers can be used for one gauge, iberico or international and for the both
called polyvalent monoblock sleepers, within these types we summarize these ones: Mono
bloque DW sleeper (Iberico), monobloque MR sleeper (iberico), mono bloque AI sleeper
(Internacional)andPolivalentePRsleeper(Ibericoandinternacional).

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MONOBLOQUEMRSLEEPER

MONOBLOQUEDWSLEEPER

POLIVALENTEPRSLEEPER

MONOBLOQUEAISLEEPER

FIGURE33:CONCRETESLEEPERSUSEDINSPAIN

2.2.1.3 RAILS

Rails support and guide the wheels of the train vehicles. Rail profile has been the object of continuous
improvementsincethebeginningofrailways.

Thecrosssectionsofgaugerailsare:

TABLE4:RAILSSIZE
DIMENSIONSMM
KINDOFRAIL

RULES

SECTIONS

MASSM

CM

KG/M

EUROPEANRULES
RN45

UNE25122

45E1(BS90A) EN136744

142

130

66

40,5

15

57,05

44,79

142,8 127

66

46

13,8

57,45

45,1

46E2(U33)

EN136741

145

134

62

47

15

58,04

46,27

49E1(S49)

EN136741

125

125

67

51,5

14

62,92

49,39

DBS9182541

125

125

67

51,5

14

62,59

49,13

50E6(U50)

EN136741

140

140

65

49

15,5

64,84

50,9

54E1(UIC54)

EN136741

140

140

70

49,4

16

69,77

54,77

54E2(UIC54E) EN136741

125

125

67

51,4

16

68,56

53,82

EN136741

125

125

67

55

16

69,52

54,57

DBS9182541

125

125

67

55

16

69,19

54,31

60E1(UIC60)

EN136741

150

150

72

51

16,5

76,7

60,21

60E2

EN136741

150

150

72

51

16,5

76,48

60,03

49ES

54E3(S54)
54E4

NORWAY

ThemostusedrailsinNorwayare49E1,54E1/E2/E3and60E1

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SWEDEN

InSwedishRailwaysalotofRailprofilesareusedforinstance:50E3(BV50),54E3(S54),60E1(UIC60),EJ
32,Gatu56,MAV32,S43,SJ34,SJ41,SJ43,SJ50.InMalmbanantheverymostcommonis60E1(UIC60).

During20062009mostoftheRailbetweenKirunaandRiksgrnsenwasrenewedto60E1withPandrol,E
Clip,andPandrol,FastClipfastenings.

POLAND

ThemostcommonistheUIC60/900in250mraillengthandS49.

Otherrailprofilesusedare:6d/e,38a/b(IIIa),L,39a/b(IIa),15a/c,S41,8a/b,S42,S45,C,Xa

SPAIN

CurrentlythemostusedrailistheVignoletype,composedofthreeparts,head,web,foot.

Therailssizingisveryneartothekindoftrack,whenwearetalkingaboutaxleload,runningspeedandthe
trafficdensity.

Thiscircumstancedeterminedthatthedenominationoftherailsusedadigitwhichreferstotheirweight
permeter,UICX,whereXistheweightoftherailexpressedinkg/ml.Themostfrequentlyusedsections
rightnow,areUIC45,UIC54,UIC60.

InSpain,foribericogauge,themaintracksused54kg/mlrailsand45kg/mlbythesecondary.Although,in
thelastrenewalareused60k/mlrails,asinthehighspeedlines.

2.2.1.4 FASTENINGS

Inthisunit,wearegoingtotalkaboutthefasteningsinageneralway,withoutspecifiedbycountry:

THEMAINFUNCTIONSARE:

 Fixtherailstothesleepers.
 Ensurethegaugeinvariance.

THEBASICCHARACTERISTICSARE:

 Tohaveahighervibrationfrequencythanthe
rail.

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 Absorb and transmit vertical and  HighLenghwiseSlipresistance.


horizontalloads.

 Mechanicaltightnessandresilience.

 Avoidtherailtipping.

Thefasteningscanbeclassifieddependingon:
 Theirelements:
y

Directfastenings:theelementwhichfasttherailandtheplateisthesame.

Indirect fastenings: the elements which fast the plate to the sleeper is different to that which
fastentherailtothesleeper.

Mixedfastenings,havefastenerstofixtheplatetothesleeper,somedirectandothersindirect,
theseonesarewhichmakefixingtherailtotheplate.

 Clampingelementscharacteristics:
y

Rigid fastenings: The stress transmission between the rail and the sleeper is made by a rigid
element.

Elasticfastenings:Thetransmissionismadebetweenelasticelements.

2.2.1.5 SWITCHES

The switches are these apparatus which are installed in the track, and let the junction between two or
moretracks.

Afundamentalcharacteristicofrailwayistheonedegreeoffreedomofthemovementoftherailvehicleon
the track. However, trains must have the possibility to change course from one track to another. This is
realizedbysocalledswitchingdevices,definedastheequipmentandpartsthoughtwhichthedirectionof
movementofarailvehiclecanbechangewithoutinterruptingitscourse.

NORWAY

 Railprofile
Whenconstructingorrebuilding,thereshallbechosenswitcheswithsamerailprofileastherestofthe
track,butnotswitcheswithlighterrailsthan54E3.

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 Sleepertype
Forswitcheswith60E1railprofile,concretesleepersshallbeused.Forswitcheswithrailprofile54E3,
concrete sleepers shall be used if radius of switch is above 760m. In other case, wood or concrete
sleepersmaybeused.

 Fastening
y

60E1switchesshallhavePandrolFastclip/eclipfasteningsystem

54E3switchesshallhavePandroleclipfasteningsystem

TherearetwokindsofSwitches,withfixedormovablecrossing:
 FixedCrossing:
y

Type54E3,woodorconcreteSleeper,Bevel1:9,1:12,1:14,Radius300,500,760

Type60E1,concreteSleeper,Bevel1:9,1:12,1:14,1:15Radius300,500,760,760

 Movablecrossing:
y

Type 60 E1, concrete Sleeper, Bevel 1:9, 1:12, 1:14,1:18, 1:26,1 Radius 300, 500, 760, 12001,
25001

SWEDEN

ThenexttableshowsthemostimportantSWITCHESusedinSweden.Someparametersarestartingtobe
more standardized, even if the manufacturing design is not exactly the same. The most important
parametersofstandardsingleSWITCHESinmainlineare:

 Geometry(Radiusandangleatthecrossingnose)
 Railtype22
 Sleepertype
 Sleeper,railandcrossingMaterial

ThenexttableshowsthemostimportantSWITCHESintheSwedishrailnetwork(BIS,2012).

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TABLE5:THEMOSTIMPORTANTSWITCHESINTHESWEDISHRAILNETWORK

TheradiusoftheswitchbladeisthebasetocalculatethemaximumallowedspeedoftheSWITCHESAND
CROSSINGS.Therailtypeandsleepertypeis,tolargeextent,influentialonthepossibletechnicallifetime
(TLT)ofSWITCHESANDCROSSINGS.InSweden,nodirectlimitisstated,butinFinlandfiguresof300MGT
forS54profileandwoodensleeperand450MGTforSWITCHESANDCROSSINGSwithUIC60E1profileand
concretesleeperhasbeenpresented.

Steel material of the stock rail, switch blade and crossing is important for the life time of these
components.InSwedenR350HT(Headhardenedcarbonsteelwithhardness360HBandultimatetensile
strengthof1300MPa)materialisusedinstockrailandswitchbladesandexplosionhardenedmanganese
incrossingsinnewerSWITCHESusedinmaintrack.Thisisanareawherefurtherimprovementisexpected.

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InSweden,themostcommonSWITCHESaretheSJ50111:9andsimilarturnoutsarefoundinmanyother
countries.TodaySwedenpreferstoinstallnewturnoutsofthedimensionUIC607601:15.

POLAND

The kind of switches and their maintenance requirements are defined in the "Instruction of the review,
testingandmaintenancetechniquesofswitches"Id4(D6).

InPolandtherearedifferentswitchesdependingontherailkind:
 Type60E1,RZ60E1XXX1:n
y

Railkind60

XXX:DivertedtrackradiusR1501200

Bevel,1:n:1:91:18,5

Gauge:14351520(190,300Divertedtrackradius)

 Type49E1,RZ49E1XXX1:n
y

Railkind49

XXX:DivertedtrackradiusR140190

Bevel,1:n:1:71:9

Gauge:14351520(190,300Divertedtrackradius)

SPAIN

TheADIFswitchesclassificationis:

 Consideringthefrogtype,straight(CR),curve(CC)ormovable(CM).
 Weldableornot
 FortheTypecouldbe:
y

TypeA,noweldable,withtangentsof0,09CRand0,11CR,maintrackspeed140km/h,diverging
trackspeed30km/h

TypeB,weldable,withtangentsof0.75CR,0.09CR,0.11CR,0.09CC,,maintrackspeed160Km/h,
divergingtrackspeed60504055km/hrespectively.

Type C, weldable with tangents of 0.071CR, 0.09CR, 0.071CC, 0.085CC, 0.11CC Y 0.125CC. The
maintrackspeed200km/hexceptthe0,11CCtangentwitha160km/hspeed,thespeedsbythe
divergingtrackare604580605045respectively.

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TypeV,weldable,thecrossingtangentsare:0.042CR,0.049CR,themaintrackspeedis200Km/h
and100Km/hbythedivergingtrack.

TypeAV,weldable,onlyusedathighspeedlinestracks,theangletangentofthecrossingcouldbe:
0.026CM, 0.071CM. The main track speed is 250 Km/h and by the diverging track is 160 and 80
Km/hrespectively.

SwitchesforhighspeedinUICgauge,weldable,theangletangentofthecrossingis0.0154CM.The
maintrackspeedis300Km/handbythedivergingtrackis220Km/h.

ThejoinoftheswitcheswiththerailswillbedonebyjointbarsfortypeAandbyweldingsfortheothers.

2.2.2 TRACKBED

2.2.2.1 BALLAST

Theballastconformalayerwhichreceivesthedynamicstressanddamperthevibrationtotheplatform.
Alsoensuresquickdrainageofthewater.Theballastmusthavethesefollowingprimaryfunctions:

 Todamperthestressesmadebytherollingstockoverthetrackandtransmitswthemtotheplatform
inanevenlyway.
 Avoidlongitudinal,verticalandlateraltrackmovement.
 Facilitatethewaterdrainage.
 Protecttheplatformsoilagainstfrostaction.
 Allowtorecovertherailtrackgeometrybyalignmentandlevellingoperations.
 Reductionofnoisegeneratedbythepassageoftrains
 Ensurethatthesleepersdownwillbesuitable.

CHARACTERISTICS
AccordingtotheEuropeanruleUNEEN13450,Aggregatesforrailwayballast,twodifferentkindsofballast
aredefined:

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TheballastAaccordingtotheEuropeanstandardmustfollowthesesizes:

SIEVES

%PASS

%RETAINEDBETWEEN

MM

(WEIGH%)

SIEVES31,550MM

63,0

100

50

70100

40

3065

31,5

025

22,4

03

>50

 ThetypeAissubdivideinto:
y

Ballast 1: Used in high speed lines with a speed higher than 220 Km/h, with a Los Angeles
coefficientlessthan15%.

Ballast2:Usedinconventionallines,withaLosAngelescoefficientlessthan18%.

 TypeB,limestonesourcerocksareusedinsomelinesandstationswithlowtrafficintensity.Atpresent
thistypehasbeendeprecated.

SWEDEN

ThemainpropertiesfortheSwedishrailwayare:
 Geology:itsPetrographicanalysebothmacroandmicroscopically.Rocktype,mineralogyandtexture,
limitationformicasis10%.
 Grainsize:ClassI:3263mm;410%:Thisballastisusedtoupperballastlayerofrailwaybench.
 ClassII1132;410%;forsubballastorasupperandsubballastattheprivatelowtrafficrailways.
 Shapeisthe10%ofparticlesmighthaveratiooftwoprincipaldimensionsmorethan3,cubicshape
mostwanted.
 Durability:LosangelestestisASTMC35889.
 Surface texture: Natural roughness from crushing, measurements not requires, (no fast analysing
techniqueexists).
 Size: Diameter minimum: 31,5mm; Diameter maximum: 63mm; Maximum length less than 120mm;
Resistancetotheice(EN13671).

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SPAIN

ThetypesandtestrulesarespecifiedintheStandardNAV340.2/4ADIFqualitymark,andNAV340.1
/2TechnicalCharacteristicsofballast.

Theteststoestablishthequalityoftherocksandtheirlimitsareasfollows:
 TheAngelescoefficient:
y

Ballast1:<14%(forhighspeedlines.)

Ballast2:<16%(conventionallines.)

 Compressivestrength>1.200Kg/cm2
 Waterbeadup:<0.5.Ifitis1.5%ithastobedonearesistancetofreezingthetestbymagnesium
sulphate.
 Resistancetomagnesiumsulphate:<4%
 Shapeindex<10%

POLAND

The quality of the ballast is specified at the annexe n 6 of Id 1 (D1), Technical conditions for the
maintenanceofthesuperstructureoftherailwaylines.

Fortheproductionofballastmustuseigneousrocks,metamorphicrocks(exceptcrystallinelimestoneand
schist)andsedimentaryrocksofsiliceousbinder.

Therearethreedifferentclassesofballastfordifferentkindoflines,bellowwecanseesomeofthemost
importantproperties.

PROPERTIES

CLASSES

CATEGORYOF

PNB11114:1996

II

III

RAILWAYLINE

CLASS

Compressivestrength[MPa]

160

140

80

MAINLINES(0)

Deval[%]

5,6

7,0

9,0

PRIMARYLINES(1)

Waterbeadup [%]

1,5

2,0

3,0

SECONDARYLINES

II

Resistancetofreezingde

1,5

3,0

5,0

LOALLINES

IIgeneral
IIIopcional

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CONSTRUCTIONTECHNIQUES
NORWAY

 Lowerballastlayer
Thegravelislaidoutinasinglelayeruptoalevel500mmbelowthelowestrail(railhead).Thegravel
iscompressedeasilywithoutmaterialscrushed.

Thelowerballastlayershallbecalculatedbythefollowingtolerances:
y

deviationfromtheplannedheight:+0/20mm

deviationfromtheplannedwidth:+100/0mm

Agraveltrenchwithdepth/width5/80cmisconstructedinthelowerlayerofthegravel.Thepurpose
of the trench is to prevent accidental arrangement of concrete sleepers. The trench should be laid
centriconthecenterlinetrack.

 Upperballastlayer
The upper layer ballast laid out using gravel wagons after the track is built and includes any
replenishmentafterthetrackisadjusted.

SPAIN

Fortheconstructionoftheballastbeddingwecanconsiderdifferentwaysdependingontheline,inlines
withaspeedequalorhigherthan200km/htheassemblyofthetrackmustbedownaftertheconforming
ofthefirstlayerofballastwithathicknessof23cm,inconventionallineswithaspeedlowerthan200km,
theassemblycanbedoneoverthesubbalastlayerorovera18cmthicknessballastlayer.

Then for ballast bedding defining we will have to apply the Ballast management and tamping machine
severaltimestoreachtherequiredlevel.

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GEOMETRICDEFINITION
NORWAY

ThetotalheightoftheballastlayerinNorwayshallbe:
 750mmtothetopofrailforUIC60tracks.
 700mmtothetopofrailforothertracks.

SWEDEN

The thickness of the ballast is 50cm. For bridges the thickness of this layer increase to 0.4 m in order to
increasetheelasticity.Ballastshoulderisnormallygivenawidthof0.40m,makingtheballastedareawidth
ofthestraightsectionisnormally3.3meters.

ThecurveswithhorizontalradioR<500mskravfritttrackwidthtoincreaseballast0.55m.WhenR<400m
is also performed an increase in the ballast shoulder to 0.1 m in outer string. Macadam Aggregate slope
shouldbe1:1.5inbothstraighttrackswhichcurvedtrack.

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POLAND

In the polish railway tracks the thickness of the layer below the sleeper must be, at least, 35 cm. The
inclinationoftheslopesis1:1.5.

FIGURE34:DOUBLEANDSINGLERAILTRACKSECTIONINPRINCIPLESLINES(0)ANDMAINIMPORTANCE(1)

FIGURE35:DOUBLEANDSINGLERAILTRACKSECTIONINPRINCIPLESLINES(0)ANDSECUNDARYIMPORTANCE(2)

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FIGURE36:RAILTRACKSECTIONINREGIONALLINES(3)

SPAIN

IntheSpanishrailwaytracksthethicknessofthelayerbelowthesleepermustbehigherthan30cminhigh
speedlinesand20cminconventionalones.

The ballast bedding shall be determined as indicated in the standard NRV 3410. "Ballast Bedding
dimensions" while the thickness of the ballast must be 30 cm in the lines with a speed higher than 120
km/h, should be 2530 centimetres in conventional lines with an equal or less speed than 120 Km/h,
dependingonthesectionoftrackwithorwithoutasubballastlayeraccordingtothestandardindicating
3401.Thetolerancesinthenewtrackareboth2,+5cm.

Theinclinationoftheslopesis3H:2V.

FIGURE37:BALLASTSECTIONSFORIBERIANGAUGE

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FIGURE38:BALLASTSECTIONSFORINTERNATIONALGAUGE

2.2.2.2 SUBBALLAST

Subballastistheplatformtoplayer,whichsupporttheballast.Itisawaterprooflayerwhichpreservethe
platform from the rainwater, transmitting the train loads through the ballast in a uniformly way to the
platform.

CHARACTERISTICSOFTHEMATERIALS
NORWAY

FIGURE39:NORWAYRAILTRACKSECTION

 Frostblanketcourse
Thefrostprotectionshallbebuiltupofgoodfrictionmaterials,i.e.wellgraded,welldrainedandfrost
ensuredmasses.

 Subbase
The subbase shall have minimum thickness 700 mm. Excluded from this requirement is subbase in
tunnels,onbridgesandintracksthatarenotmainlines.Toppartofsubbasemayconsistofalevelling

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layerofgravel/crushedstoneasunderlayfortheballast.Thesubbaseshallbedrained.Materialsused
inthesubbaseshallbeaccordingto[NS3420I54"ReinforcementStroke"].

Rockfill
Subbasemadeupofrockfillshallhavemaximalstonesizeof300mm,butnotgreaterthanhalfthe
layerthicknesswhicharelaydout.Thestonematerialsmustbewellgraded,withgrainsgradation
figuresCu=d60/d1015th.

Crushedstone
Same requirements as for rockfill to grading and stone sizes also apply for subbase made up of
crushedstonesasforrockfill.

Gravel
Reinforcement Stroke of gravel materials shall consist of wellgraded pulps from natural gravel
occurrences.Materialsmayincludestonebutmaximumgrainsizeshallnotexceed150mm.

Lightweightaggregateandfoamglass
Lightweight aggregate and foam glass utilized primarily as stabilizing measures for to reduce
tensions(sheartensions)insubsurface,andforloadreduction.

Foamedpolystyrene
Foamed polystyrene is used by same causes as Lightweight aggregate and foam glass. Foamed
polystyrene cannot be used if there is danger for buoyancy or large water pressure of
embankment.

 Rockfillandcrushedstone
Therockmaterialsmustbewellgraded,withgrainsgradationfiguresCu=d60/d1015th.Maximum
permittedstonesizeis500mm,butnotgreaterthan2/3oflayerthicknesswhichislaidout.

 Sandandgravel
Frost protection layer made up of gravel materials shall consist of wellgraded pulps from natural
graveloccurrences.Materialsmayincludestonebutmaximumgrainsizeshallnotexceed150mm.

SWEDEN

InSweden,thesortingofsubballastreachesdiameterhigherthatintherestofthecountriesandin fact
correspondwithasizeofembankment.

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SPAIN

 The100%ofthematerialmustcamefromcrashmaterialretainedbysieve4UNE.
 The100%retainedbysieves4UNEmustcamefromcrushing.

Thesizeofthematerialmustbe:
SIEVE40UNE
%PASS(WEIGH%)

40

31,5

100 90100

16

0,5

0,2

0,063

8595

6580

4565

3050

1040

525

39

 Theorganicmatterandthesulphateswillbelessthan0.2%.
 The uniformity coefficient (D60/D10) will be equal or higher than 14 and the Cu (D30 2/D60xD10)
between1and3(byUNEEN9331)
 TheAngelescoefficientmustbelowerthan28andthemicrodevalcoefficientlowerthan22.
 Waterproofindex:106cm/s
 Sandequivalenttestmustbehigherthan45forthepastmaterialfromsievenumber2.

CONSTRUCTIONTECHNIQUES
NORWAY

Thesubbaseshallbebuildupinlayersofapprovedmaterials.Thicknessadaptedtograinsize.
Placementandcompactionshallbeinaccordancewith[NS3420I54"subbase"].

 FormationPlan(gradelevel)
Theformationplanshallatnoplacehavelargerdeviationsthan+0and50mmfromtheprojected
height.Theformationplanshallnothavelargerdeviationsthan+100mmfromtheprojectedwidth.

SWEDEN

Ifthesubballastismadeupwithgainthethicknessismorethan80,butifitsbuiltwithrockitwillbe50cm.
Frostinsulationlayersofdifferenttypesdonotmix.Everytype,crushedrockmaterial,soilorgravelcrusher
materials provided an extent with less than 200 m in the track longitudinally. Shifting of frost insulation
layer is not permitted transversely. Transitions between types impaled out with slope of the track 1:20
longitudinally.

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SPAIN

Theunitincludesthefollowingoperations:
 Provisionofmaterial.
 Extendedwetting(ifrequired)andcompactionofeachlayer.
 Refinementofthesurfaceofthelastlayer.

Thecompactedlayerpresentadrydensityequal,atleast,toonehundredpercent(100%)ofthatobtained
intheModifiedProctortest,theaverageofsixtestforeachbatch,therebeingnolessthan98%value.

TheEv2modulusobtainedinthechargingsectionofaplatebearingtest(NLT357/98),plateof30cmwill
behigherthan120MPa,itbeingnecessaryalsoverifythatEv2/Ev1<2.2wherethevalueofEV1would
havebeenlessthan75MPa.

Topographicalmarksarearrangedalongtheaxisandonbothedgesthereof,everytwentymetres(20m),
andlevelledtomillimetres(mm).Eachmarkshallnotgetdownmorethan15mmfromthetheoretical,like
thesurfacebetweenmarks,nomorethan10mmin3mlength.

GEOMETRICDEFINITION
NORWAY

Thesubbaseshallhaveminimumthickness700mm.Excludedfromthisrequirementissubbaseintunnels,
onbridgesandintracksthatarenotmainlines.

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SWEDEN

Therearetwodifferentlayersforthesubballast:
 One first layer with a view to increasing the lifting capacity (Frstrkningslager) with a minimum
thicknessof80cm(exceptiftheplatformisofrock)
 OtherlayerofsubballastinordertoprotecttotheplatformoftheiceFrostisoleringslagerthatcan
oscillate between its absences until thicknesses of 140 cm (depending of the geographic position in
Sweden).InMalmbanancorridorthethicknessisbetween100140cm.

Infactoneofthemainexigencieswithaviewtoprotecttheplatforminfrontoftheiceconsistsindicing
thebaseofthelayerfromsubballast.

POLAND

The inclination of the slopes are 1:1.5, these layer have a 0.5% slope to prevent water accumulation, in
singletracks,theseslopehasadifferentgeometricdefinitionthan,e.g.,Spanishones,seethefigurebelow.

5%

5%

Poland

5%

5%

Spain

SPAIN

ThethicknessshallbedeterminedbytheworkProject,althoughitwillbehigherthan25cmintrackswitha
speed equal or higher than 160 km/h, currently, for high speed lines the thickness will be 30 cm, if the
speedislowerthan160km/hthethicknesswillbe25cm,whentheballastheightbelowsleeperwillbe
lowerthan30cm,inotherway,causedbyconstructionconditions,theminimumthicknesswillbe15cm.

Theinclinationoftheslopesis2H:1V,thislayerhavea0.5%slopetopreventwateraccumulation.

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2.2.3 ECONOMICALANALYSES

2.2.3.1 CONSTRUCTIONVSMAINTENANCEVSRENEWAL

CONSTRUCTIONOFTHEHIGHSPEEDRAILWAYINFRASTRUCTURECOSTS
The highspeed railway projects must meet many requirements and constraints, mainly technical. Thats
why a comparative analysis of investment costs of a high speed railway infrastructure can be highly
subjective.

Itwillalsodependonthelevelofaggregationofthestudy,beingabletoanalyzefromthetotalinvestment
costinalineorsection(i.e./km)ordisaggregatetotheleveloftherailwaysuperstructurecomponents
(i.e.typeoftrackorsleeper).

The key investment budget is divided into three main sections according to UIC studies and previous
experience:

 Planning and site preparation costs, including feasibility studies and land acquisition/expropriation.
Represents510%ofthetotalinvestmentcosts.
 Constructionofrailwayplatformcosts.Itvariesdependingonthespanlengthandpreviousterrains
characteristic. Represents 1025% of the total investment, which may be up to 4050% of the total
projectcostifuniqueperformances(bridge,viaduct,tunnel)areneeded.
 Investment in railway superstructure. Includes other items associated with the new line at a cost
generallyproportionaltothelength.Itaccountsfor510%ofthetotalinvestment,includingplatforms,
stationsandsidings.

Signalingelements(witha10%approximateeach)completemajorinvestmentchaptersofhighspeedrail.
Traffic control facilities, security and communications are becoming a bigger part of the total budget.
Amongthefactorsthatmayhaveastronginfluenceonsavinginvestmentcostswecaninclude:

 Acloseddesign,i.e.ahighspeedlinenotsuffering(orsufferingthefewestpossible)changesfromthe
studyphase/projecttoconstruction.

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 A unique operating model: a highspeed line exclusively dedicated to passenger traffic allows higher
slopesinthelayout(upto3.5%insteadof11.5%).Itrestrictstheuseofmoreexpensiveconstruction
solutionsastunnelsandviaducts.Thisdependsontopographyandterraintype.
 "Space economy": There are higher construction costs in environments of high population density.
Building a highspeed line in urban or suburban, where a single corridor can attend various
infrastructures, leads overruns by establishing interim operating situations (affections, provisional
status and replacement of existing infrastructures), limited work periods (short and night) and
performanceofexistingsignalingsystems.
 Environmentalimpactmanagementandproposedintegrationmeasures.
 "Economy of the experience". Although it seems to be no evidence regarding this. The specificity of
every project, diversity of construction methods and technological advances difficult making
homogeneouscomparisonsbetweencountrieswithhighexperienceindesigninghighspeedline.

Ballastedtrackhasbeenthehistoricallymoreoftenusedtypologyinconventionallines.Therefore,thereis
an extensive experience in technical and economic management. Consequently, the design and
construction of the first highspeed lines was done on ballast, which motivated the analysis and
implementationofthetechnicalcharacteristicsofthesuperstructureonballast.

There is a lot of information about costs by type of infrastructure and superstructure, but its great
dispersion doesnt offer a wide enough statistical sample. Nevertheless, several studies have established
ratios of costs of construction of a high speed line on track in ballast, ballastedballastless transition and
crossingandswitches.

BALLASTEDTRACKHSR
BALLASTEDBALLASTLESSTRANSITIONHSR
CROSSINGANDSWITCHESHSR

COST(OFJUNE2007)

445/mrailtrack
62.200/unit
330.000/unit

Ontheseratioswecanapplydifferentcoefficientstoreflecttheinfluenceonthecostoftheinfrastructure
ofdifferentfactorsastunnels,viaducts,embankments,benchesorlayout.

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Addingtothetracktherestofbudgetchaptersandtakingintoconsiderationtheexperienceincountries
withhighspeedlines(10countriesand45projectsconsidered),theaveragecostperkilometer,expressed
in2005,isbetween6and45million/km.Theaveragevalueis17.5million/km.

MAINTENANCE,OPERATIONANDINFRASTRUCTURERENEWALCOSTS
Aftertheconstructionoftheinfrastructure,theprovisionofrailservicesinvolvestwomaintypesofcosts:
those associated with the provision of services and, bigger than this, maintenance cost of that
infrastructure.

A significant portion of maintenance costs are fixed costs, determined by periodic auscultation programs
andmaintenanceoperations.Thesearemoreorlessindependentoffactorssuchastrafficvolume,inorder
tomaintainthesetqualitystandards.

These costs include maintenance personnel labor cost, materials and replacement parts as well as the
energyconsumedinthesetasks.Despiteconsideringscheduledmaintenance(preventiveorpredictive)as
fixedcosts,scheduletypeandfrequencyofmaintenancewillhaveinfluenceonfixedcostscomposition,as
seenindifferentrailwayadministrations.

Justapartofthemaintenancecostsarevariable,andtheyaremainlyconcentratedintherailelements.
Thereareanumberofstudiesexaminingtheinfluenceonthemaintenanceandrenewalcostsofvariables
such as the type of railway superstructure (ballasted or ballastless track), the speed or the intensity of
traffic.

INFLUENCEOFTHETYPEOFSUPERSTRUCTURE
Aftertheanalysisofmaintenancecostsunitvalues,itisestimated15/mtrackandyearasareasonable
costonballastedtrack.Inslabtrack,basedonJapaneseexperience,avalueof4.5/moftrackperyearis
taken as the lower limit of the maintenance costs. This sets the relation between slab / ballast track
maintenancecostsinto30%.

INFLUENCEOFTRAFFIC
Thetrafficrunningthroughalineappearsasadeterminantfactorofthetrackdegradationandtherefore
thecostofmaintenance.Howeveritisunknowntheexactfunctiontoelatemaintenancecostsandtraffic
volume.

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Fromthesetofstudieswecanconclude:
 Trafficvolumecontributespositivelytoincreasedtrackmaintenancecosts.
 According to references, traffic volume contribution to maintenance costs is between 0.210 and
0.327/kmoftrackperyearperaveragedailyTBK(calculatedonanannualbasis).
 Thesevariationshavebeenobtainedfrom10,000trafficsoverthedailyaverageTBK.Noreferencesare
availablefortrafficbelowthisthreshold.

Paradoxically,the"Economyoftheexperience"incountrieslikeSpainhasmeantthatdespiteanincrease
intrafficvolume(+41%),maintenancecostshavebeenreducedinthesameperiod(11%nominal).

MAINTENANCEANDRENEWALOPERATIONS
Giventhelimitedexperienceavailableforrenovationactivitiesinhighspeedlines,mostoftheunitcostsin
literatureconcernstoconventionalnetworkrenovationactivities.

Additionally,amountsprovidedbysomerailwaysinfrastructuremanagershaverelevantvariationstoeach
other. The cause of this could be the differences in initial conditions of renewed lines and the different
natureoftheoperationscarriedoutineachcase.

RegardingtotheFrenchexperienceinrenovationactivitiesinthehighspeedlines,thecostoftheballast
renewalwas250/moftrack,whileswitchesandcrossingsrenewalaccounted2.25millioneurosperunit.

There are no quantitative values regarding to plates, sleepers or rails renewal in highspeed lines.
Therefore, it is proposed taking as reference the construction and initial installation costs of these
elements. This hypothesis is probably underestimating the renovation costs, because its not taking into
accounttheremovalofthematerialsonsite.

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MAINTENANCECOSTSBY SYSTEMANDCOUNTRY/KMOFSINGLETRACK

BELGIUM

FRANCE
%

ITALY
%

KMSINGLETRACK(N)

142

2.638

TRACKMAINTENANCE

13.841

43,7

19.140

ELECTRIFICATION

2.576

8,1

SIGNLLING

3.248

COMUNICATIONS

SPAIN
%

492

949

67,3

5.911

46,0

13.531

10,1

4.210

14,8

2.455

19,0

2.986

8,9

10,3

5.070

17,8

4.522

35,0

8.654

25,9

1.197

3,8

5.637

16,8

OTHERCOSTS

10.821

34,2

2.650

7,9

AGGREGATEMAINTENANCE

31.683

12.919

33.457

28.120

2.2.3.2 USEFULLIFE:THEORETICALVSREAL

Useful life is the estimated duration in which a given system can properly fulfill its function without
affectingthetrafficsafety.Thelifetimecanbeestimatedforeachtrackcomponentindependentlyorfor
thewholetrack.

 Rail
Interaction between wheel and rail produces a progressive wear on the contact surfaces, altering
railheadgeometryandreducingitsresilientsection.Duetocyclicloadsovertherail,railrenewalcan
be needed when a number of cycles has been reached. Specific studies quantified rail life in
approximately40to60years.

 Sleepers
Thelifeofthesleepersisconditionedbyitsshapeandmaterialtheyaremadeof,climaticconditions
andtermsofuse.

Specificstudiessetconcretesleeperslifein3040years,or500milliongrosstons.Thisisconditioned
bythequalityoftheconcreteused,thecorrectsiteworkanditscareandmaintenance.(Pueblaetal,
2000).

 Ballast
Cyclicloadscausesbythetrafficandstonetostonecontactsslowlycrushtheballastovertime.This
causesballastcontaminationand,eventually,requireswashingorballastreplacement.

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Siliconballastusefullifeisquantifiedat300milliongrosstons,equivalentto25to30years.(Pueblaet
al,2000)

 Infrastructure
Thenexttablerepresentstheusefullifeofdifferentinfrastructurecomponents.

COMPONENT

Tunnel

USEFUL

50100

Steelbridge

5080

Concretebridge

50100

Overpassesandunderpasses

50100

REFERENCE:BAUMGARTER(2001)

The useful life of the different railway system according to the Spanish Railways Infrastructure Manager
(ADIF)isshowninthenexttable.

USEFULLIFEOFRAILWAYSYSTEMS(ADIF)
SYSTEM
Plattform

USEFULLIFE

Earthmovingworks

100

Tunnels,bridgesandengineeringstructures

100

Drainage

25

Linefencing

50

Tracksuperstructure
Electricinstalations

3060

Contactwire

20

Supportingposts

60

Powersubstations

60

Signalling,comunicationsandsecurity

25

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2.3 TRAFFICTHERESHOLD

2.3.1 QUALITYINDEX,EVALUATIONVALUES,DECISIONSMAKING,ALONGTHECORRIDORS

NORWAY

The quality number (Knumber) indicates for which portion of a line all values are within the limits. It is
used to monitor track quality on longer sections of line. The Knumber is calculated using the following
formula:

l=thesumofalltracklengthswherestandarddeviationiswithinthequalitylimits.
L=themonitoredtracklength.
values gives the limit for good track quality, expressed as standard deviation of faults in the track
geometry.

TABLE6:QUALITYLIMITS
QUALITYCLASS

QUALITYLIMITS(MM)

SPEED
(KM/H)

VERTICALGEOMETRY SUPERELEVATION

HORISONTAL

CONSCIENCE

K0

145

H
1,1

R
0,9

GEOMETRYP
1,1

S
1,6

K1

125140

1,3

1,0

1,2

1,7

K2

105120

1,5

1,2

1,3

1,9

K3

75100

1,9

1,4

1,7

2,4

K4

4570

2,4

1,8

2,0

3,1

K5

40

2,9

2,2

2,4

3,6

The size of conscience is a vector sum of horizontal geometry and superelevation, in order to
accommodate the cases where this is greater than the two parameters separately. Size is only relevant
whenmeasuringcarriagedriving.

Thequalitynumbershouldbeashighaspossible.Lowqualitynumberwillalsoacceleratethedegradation
ofthetrack.

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TABLE7:REQUIREMENTSFORQUALITYNUMBER
QUALITYCLASS

SPEED(KM/H)

QUALITYNUMBER
NEWLYADJUSTED

MAINTENANCELIMIT

ACTIONLIMIT

K0

145

90

90

50

K1

125140

90

85

40

K2

105120

90

80

30

K3

75100

90

75

20

K4

4570

90

70

20

K5

40

SWEDEN

Trackqualitymeasurementsandimprovementsisoneoftheprimeissuesinrailroadsintermsofplanning
time and related cost. Making decision concerning measurements interval and how to allocate limited
resourcesformaintenanceexecutionhasanenormousinfluenceonmaintenanceefficiency.Applyingthe
efficient and optimal tamping strategy helps reduce maintenance costs, making operations more cost
effectiveandleadingtoincreasedsafetyandpassengercomfort.

Trackgeometrymaintenance(tamping)isamaintenanceactionusedtocompactballastandcorrecttrack
geometry faults such as incorrect alignment (lateral deviation) or incorrect longitudinal level (vertical
deviation).InSweden,theannualtampingcostisabout100120MSEK,andthetotalamountoftamped
trackisapproximately1700km,about14%ofthetotaltracklength.

TRACKQUALITYMONITORINGANDMAINTENANCE:

To monitor track quality, Traffikverket regularly (every 12 months from April to October) uses an
inspection car to measure the deviation of the track with an inertia measurement system and an optical
system.Anaccelerometermeasurestheaccelerationofthevehicle;basedontherecordedaccelerations,
theverticalandlateraldeviationofthetrackiscalculatedforconsecutive25centimeterintervals.

Based on these 25centimeter interval measurements, the standard deviation, S, of the monitored cant
error(C)andtheaveragemonitoredlateralpositionerrorofthehighrail(SHigh)(seeFigure40andnext
equation)arecalculatedfor200metersections.Thestandarddeviationoftheaveragemonitoredvertical
errorfortheleftandrightrail,Hisalsocalculatedfor200metersections.

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Thestandarddeviationsforlateralandverticalerrors(SandH)arecalculatedfromshortwavelength
signals. Since the recorded signals from the measuring car are the combination of long and short
wavelengths,filteringisrequired.Thiscanbedonebyselectingonlysignalsintherangeof1to25meters.

Traffikverket uses several condition indices to describe the condition of the track, the most important of
whicharetheQvalueandKvalue.Thesearecalculatedbasedonthestandarddeviationoftheverticaland
lateraldisplacements,SandH,andthecomfortlimitsthatdefinetheacceptablestandarddeviationof
thelongitudinallevelfor200metertracksections.

TheformulaforcalculatingtheQvalueis:

Where:

Slim=ThecomfortlimitfortheSvalue,definedfordifferenttrackclasses(seeTable8)
Hlim=ThecomfortlimitfortheHvalue,definedfordifferenttrackclasses(seeTable8).

FIGURE40:SCHEME

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The other index, the Kvalue, is the ratio between (l), the total length of the track with standard
deviationsbelowthecomfortlimits,andthetotallengthoftrack(L).Thisindexisusedtoobtainanoverall
pictureofthetrackconditionoveralongdistanceandiscalculatedbytheequation:

InadditiontotheQvalueandtheKvalue,twofaultlimitsaredefinedfor25cmtracksections,Bfaults
andCfaults.Cfaults,whicharesafetyrelatedlimits,identifythemaximumallowabledeviationfromthe
design position (see Figure 40), while Bfaults identify the limits for the execution of preventive
maintenance.Althoughtheselimitsaredefinedforpointfailure(25cm),thefaultnormallyoccursovera
lengthofatleast1to5metersduetorailstiffness.

The track of the iron ore line consists of two quality classes, K2 and K3, each with a different allowable
speed,dissimilarfaultthresholdsandcomfortlimitsforlocaltrains(seeTable8).

TABLE8:COMPARISONOFTHEALLOWABLELIMITSBETWEENK2ANDK3

Traffikverket outsources the tamping of each line to different contractors, mostly using performance
contracts.Inthistypeofoutsourcing,itisuptocontractorstoselectappropriatemethodsandplanforthe
work.Theyareresponsibleforbothregularmeasurementsoftrackgeometryandtamping,andtheybase
theirexecutionoftampingonthecalculatedQvaluesandCfaultlimits.

Tamping is executed as either preventive maintenance or corrective maintenance. Execution of tamping


due to the Cfault is considered corrective maintenance; tamping due to the Q value is considered
preventivemaintenance.ThismeansthatiftheQvalueofthetracksectionfallsbelowthecontractuallimit

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and/or there is deviation in the track greater than the Cfault limits (safety limits), tamping should be
performed.Tampingisobligatory(i.e.requiredbyregulation)iftheCfaultvalueexceedstheCfaultlimit.

Intheperformancecontracts,twolimitsarespecifiedfortheQvalue,agoallimitandacontractuallimit.If
theactualQvalueofthetrackishigherthanthegoallimit,contractorswillreceiveabonus,whileifitis
belowthecontractuallimit,theymustpayapenalty.

POLAND

Thestateoftherailwaytrackisevaluatedby:

 Measuring the basic parameters which characterize the situation of the tracks, the gauge, the
differences between the height of the rails, the twist, the horizontal and vertical differences of the
rails.
 Thevalueofthestateofthetrackindex"J"
J=Sz+Sy+Sw+0.5Se/3.5

 Measurementofadditionalparameterslike:
y

thesituationofthetrackinhorizontalandverticaltothealignmentofthecenterofthetrack,

In continuous welded rail track, the values of the displacements of the rails regarding to fixed
points.

Inunweldedrailtrackthevaluesofthedisplacementsoftheexpansionjoints.

Thereareotherindexwhichshowsthesuperstructuredegradationaccordingtothedegradationoftherails
(Gs),sleepers(Gp)andballast(Gt).

PORTUGAL

 QualityIndexes
Thegeometricqualityofthetrackisevaluatedbasedonthestandarddeviationforthealignmentand
longitudinal level, calculated for each 200 meters track section. The worst value (alignment or level)
dictatesthequalitylevel.

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GEOMETRICANALYSISFOR200METERSSECTION
INDEX

LIMITS

ACTION

QN1

WarningLimit

Tracksectioningoodstatus.

QN2

>WarningLimit1.3timesWarningLimit

Track section with maintenance needs for medium term.


Actions should be planned in line with the annual planning
accordingly with the desired geometric quality and the
degradationtrendknown.

QN3

>1.3timesWarningLimit

Tracksectionwithstrongevidenceofmaintenanceneedsin
a very short term. Actions to be included on the annual
maintenanceplanning.

SPAIN

Themethodologyusedforevaluatingthegeometricqualityofthetrackdependsonifitisconventionalor
highspeed.

On conventional lines, is expressed by the value of a Q index. This indicator is calculated appreciating,
ponderously,alltheflawsinthevariousparametersthatdeterminethegeometricqualityofthetrack.The
qualityindexQisobtainedfromthefollowingexpression:

S0=QualificationofparameterP0,longitudinallevellingofleftrail.
S1=QualificationofparameterP1,longitudinallevellingofrightrail.
S3=QualificationofparameterP3,trackgauge.
S4=QualificationofparameterP4,trackwarping.
S5=QualificationofparameterP5,crosslevelling.
S6=QualificationofparameterP6,alignmentonleftrail.
S7=QualificationofparameterP7,alignmentonrightrail.

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TABLE9:PARAMETERSANDQUALITYINDEX.TRACKINOPERATION,NRV7300
RAIL144M

PARAMETER

GOOD ACCEPTABLE

RAIL288M

FAIR

POOR

BAD

GOOD ACCEPTABLE

FAIR

POOR

BAD

LEVELLINGS0,S1

56

5762

6370

7180

>80

112

113124

125138 139156

>156

WARPING,S4

24

2528

2934

3540

>40

38

3942

4348

4956

>56

GAUGE,S3

15

1620

2130

3145

>45

15

1620

2130

3145

>45

CANT,S5

108

109120

121136

137156

>156

164

165180

181206 207234

>234

ALIGMENT,S6,S7

56

5762

6370

7180

>80

112

113124

125138 139156

>156

QUALITYINDEX,Q

125

126140

141160

161185

>185

230

231255

256285 286325

>325

According to the table, is associated to each interval of Q variation a qualification of the track: good,
acceptable,fair,poorandbad.

Inhighspeedlinesindicatorsforlongitudinallevellingandalignmentaredefined,QN1,QN2andQN3.
 QN1:Valuewhichadvisedamonitoringoftheprogressorremovedinnormalmaintenancecycles.
 QN2:Valuethatforcetomademaintenanceoperationsinashortperiodoftime.
 QN3:Unwantedsituation.

TABLE10:GEOMETRICQUALITYINAHIGHSPEEDLINE,ETI2005

SPEED

ALIGNMENT

LONGITUDINALLEVELING

QUALITYLEVELVALUE

QUALITYLEVELVALUE

QN1

QN2

QN1

QN2

12

14

12

MAXIMUM

DESVIATION

VALUE

QN1

QN2

QN1

QN2

Longitudinal levelling

MAXIMUMABSOLUTEVALUE

v80

PARAMETER

STANDARD

16

325m

1.0

1.3

Alignment325m

0.7

1.0

Longitudinal levelling
80<v120

10

12

2570m

2.0

3.0

120<v160

10

Alignment2570m

1.3

2.0

Longitudinal levelling
160<v200

70120m

2.7

4.0

10

200<v300

Alignment70120m

3.4

4.0

10

Warp

STANDARDDESVIATION

v80

1,5

1,8

2,3

2,6

Cant

0.7

10

80<v120

1,2

1,5

1,8

2,1

Gauge

0.7

+53

+105

120<v160

1,3

1,4

1,7

160<v200

0,8

1,1

1,2

1,5

200<v300

0,7

1,3

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We can see that the geometric quality requirements are higher in high speed lines than in conventional
ones.

Ismandatorytoremarkthatbothmethodologiesareuseful,beingtheirobjectivesquitedifferent.Qisa
globalqualityindicator,ittrytoshow,inonevalue,thequalityofthetrackgivingmoreorlessimportance
toeachparameter.

Otherwise,theQNindex,triedtoevaluatetherailtrackqualityfromotherview,eachoftheseindicators
indicates a situation, trying to control the evolution of the rail track faults, recommending several
preventiveperformancetoeachlimitvalue,thesemethodlooksmoresuitable.

2.3.2 LEVELING,ALIGMENT,CAMBER,WARP

NORWAY

FromJD590:ThetrackgeometryisperiodicallymonitoredusingaTrackRecordingVehicle(ROGER1000).
Thetestfrequencyisdependentonthequalityclassofthetrack.Basedontheserecordingsthestandard
deviationandqualitynumberofthetrackiscalculated.

The standard deviation is as a rule calculated on the bases of 200 m or 1000 m length of line. Standard
deviationiscalculatedfortheselengthsandwithaccuracyasshowninthenexttable.

PARAMETRES

Standard deviation of
verticalalignment
Standard deviation of
horizontalalignment
Standard deviation of
superelevation(cant)

WAVELENGTH

MEASURINGACCURACY

BASISOFCALCULATION

3 25m

0.2mm

200m

2570m

0.5mm

1000m

70150m

1.5mm

1500m

3 25m

0.2mm

200m

2570m

0.5mm

1000m

70150m

1.5mm

1500m

3 25m

0.2mm

200m

2570m

0.5mm

1000m

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 Deviationingauge
Alloweddeviationsingaugefromcorevalue1435mm:

TABLE11:ALLOWEDDEVIATIONSINGAUGE
DEVIATIONINGAUGE(MM)
QUALITY

SPEED

CLASS

(KM/H)

NEWTRACK

MAINTENANCELIMIT

ACTIONLIMIT

IMMEDIATELIMIT

K0

145

+2/2

+5/3

+15/5

+28/7

K1

125140

+2/2

+7/3

+20/5

+35/8

K2

105120

+2/2

+7/3

+20/5

+35/9

K3

75100

+3/3

+15/5

+30/8

+35/9

K4

4570

+4/4

+15/5

+30/8

+35/9

K5

40

+5/5

+15/5

+30/8

+35/9

 Deviationingaugeoverdistance

TABLE12:ALLOWEDDEVIATIONFORCHANGEINGAUGE
CHANGEINGAUGE(MM)
QUALITYCLASS SPEED(KM/H)

MAINTENANCELIMIT

ACTIONLIMIT

K0

145

10

K1

125 140

12

K2

105 120

15

K3

75 100

10

18

K4

45 70

12

21

K5

40

15

25

 Variationsingaugeovertime
ActionLimit:Ifthegaugechangeswith6mmormoreduringayearshallbeinitiatedinvestigationsof
trackconstructiontouncoverthecauseoftherapidchange.
y

Woodensleepersshallbeexaminedforrottogetherwiththescrewholes.

Concretesleepersshouldbeexaminedforcracks/fracturesandwearoftheslip.

 Trackgaugesincrosscurves
Incrosscurveswithouttransitioncurveswithintermediatestraightlinelessthan7m,thegaugeshall
notbegreaterthanthevalueinthetablebelow.

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FIGURE41:TRANSITIONCURVESWITHINTERMEDIATESTRAIGHTLINELESSTHAN7M

TABLE13:MAXIMUMGAUGE
R1(M)

R2(M)

MAX.GAUGE(MM)

140200

140 200

1440

140200

200 300

1450

200300

200 300

1460

Ifoneofthecurveradiusesisgreaterthan300m,thegaugemustnotexceed1465mm.

 Verticalgeometry
TABLE14:ALLOWEDUNEVENNESSINHEIGHT
UNEVENNESSINHEIGHTOFEACHRAIL(+/MM)
QUALITYCLASS

SPEED(KM/H)
NEWLYADJUSTED

MAINTENANCELIMIT

ACTIONLIMIT

K0

145

K1

125140

10

K2

105120

12

K3

75100

10

16

K4

4570

13

21

K5

40

17

27

TABLE15:ALLOWEDUNEVENNESSINSUPERELEVATION
UNEVENNESSINSUPERELEVATION(+/MM)
QUALITYCLASS

SPEED(KM/H)
NEWLYADJUSTED MAINTENANCELIMIT

ACTIONLIMIT

K0

145

K1

125140

K2

105120

K3

75100

10

K4

4570

10

13

K5

40

12

16

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TABLE16:ALLOWEDTWISTWITH2METERMEASURINGBASIS
TWIST(+/MM)
QUALITYCLASS

SPEED(KM/H)

NEWLY

MAINTENANCE

ACTIONLIMIT

IMMIDIATELIMIT
R400M1) R<400M1)

K0

145

ADJUSTED
2

LIMIT
7

10

14

12

K1

125140

10

14

12

K2

105120

10

14

12

K3

75100

10

14

12

K4

4570

10

14

12

K5

40

10

14

12

TABLE17:ALLOWEDTWISTWITH9METERMEASURINGBASIS
TWIST(+/MM)
QUALITYCLASS

SPEED(KM/H)

NEWLY

MAINTENANCE

ADJUSTED

LIMIT

IMMIDIATELIMIT
ACTIONLIMIT
R400M1)

R<400M1)

K0

145

20

31

43

34

K1

125140

20

31

43

34

K2

105120

20

31

43

34

K3

75100

20

31

43

34

K4

4570

12

20

31

43

34

K5

40

15

20

31

43

34

 Horisontalgeometry

QUALITY

SPEED

CLASS

(KM/H)

DEVIATIONSINRISING HEIGHT(+/ MM)


NEWLY

MAINTENANCE

ACTION

IMMIDIATE

ADJUSTED

LIMIT

LIMIT

LIMIT

K0

145

10

K1

125140

14

K2

105120

17

K3

75100

10

17

K4

4570

10

13

22

K5

40

13

16

22

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 Adjustment
y

Where the gauge exceeds the immediate limits, the adjustment must be executed immediately.
Speedrestrictionsuntilthefaultiscorrected.

When exceeding the action limit, it shall be repaired and monitored so that the limit of a) isn't
exceededbeforethenextmeasurement.

Exceedingthemaintenancelimits,maintenanceplannedsothattheerroriscorrectedatthelatest
beforetheactionlevelisexceededcanbeexpected.

SWEDEN

LEVELING,ALIGNMENT,CAMBER,WARP
Tomeasuretrackpositions,TraffikverkethasacentralmeasurementcarriageSTRIX(LittQih238).Vehicle
whatisrecordingistheBVF541.60.

 TrackModeControl
Track mode control is performed to check the unevenness of track and allocate in relation to the
landscapedgeometry.Smalltrackirregularitiescanresultuncomfortabledisruptiontopassengersand
largertrackirregularitiesmayinvolveriskofderailment.

Differentkindsoftrackpositioncontrol:
y

TrackModeControlwithrecordingvehicle:Thetrackwillbeloadedandthemeasurementresultis
recordedcontinuously.ThemeasurementcarriageSTRIXalsomakesatrackpositionthatprovides
objectivequalityforshortandlongdistances.

Manualtrackpositioncontrol.Itisusedwhenderailmentisnotrecordingvehicle.

Control of the absolute position in the track. It is used in track measure geodetic and whose
position is consolidated. Intended mode can always be restored and rail voltages can be
controlled.LimitsareinBVF541.60.

 QualityClassesfortrackposition
QualityClassfortrackpositionisdeterminedonthebasisofappliedsthforlocomotivecategoryAand
thesthspeedinTable19.SthfortraincategoryBwith20%higherthancategoryAdoesnotaffectthe
qualityclass.

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TABLE18:QUALITYCLASSESFORTRACKPOSITION
QUALITYCLASS

STH LOCOMOTIVE
KATA(KM/H)

STHSPEED

K0

145

185

K1

125 140

160 180

K2

105 120

135 155

K3

75 100

95 130

K4

40 70

90

K5

40

K0K4refersrailroadtracksandK5intendssideandindustrialsidings.

Quality
Qualitystandardsrelatetoboththerequirementsforgoodpassengercomfortandforoptimum
safetyagainstderailment.

Pointfailures
Forsinglepointfailures,thegeometryarrangedinthefollowingrespects:

AltitudeMode125m(shortwave),leftandrightrails

HeightLocation2560/80/100m(longwave),meanleftandrightrails

Skewthemeasurementbase6mand3m

Cant

Lateralalignment125m(shortwave),leftandrightrails

Lateralalignment2560/80/100m(longwavelength),meanrightandleftrails

Track

QualitystandardsforsinglepointfailuresaregiveninTables19and20.ThevaluesinTable19and
20 relate deviations from the default value of lines of track position chart. For skew, cant and
gaugeisthedefaultvalueequaltotherashtoappearwithregardtoarrangedtrackgeometry.The
tablecolumnsA,BandCwiththefollowingmeanings:

ColumnA
Specifies the size allowed on the residual error in new adjustment of the track. Occasional
larger error can be accepted. The newly built seamlessly track with new track equipment
alwaysappliedclassK0independentofappliedsth.

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ColumnB
Specifies values for maintenance. Track Location errors should be corrected in most cases
before they reach this size. Table values can be exceeded in individual points that are kept
undersurveillanceuntiltheyresolved.

ColumnC
Errors that exceed this limit must be addressed urgently. Until the fault is rectified
contemplated, the rate reduction depend on the magnitude of the error, track position in
generalandotherconditions.

TABLE19:QUALITYSTANDARDSFORSINGLEPOINTFAILURES,HEIGHT

DEVIATIONFROMDEFAULT(MM)
UPPERREGISTER

QUALITY
CLASS

STH
LOCOMOTIVE
KM/TIM

STHSPEED
KM/TIM

CANT

SHORTWAVY

LONGROW

WRONG125M

ERROR

SKEW
DEVIATION

SKEW

MEASUREMENT MEASUREMENT

WAVELENGTH (BENCHMARK)

BASE6M

BASE3M

K0

145

185

15

13

K1

125140

160180

10

15

10

15

10

K2

105120

135155

12

15

11

17

11

K3

75100

95130

10

16

10

13

19

13

K4

4070

6090

13

21

10

13

16

23

10

15

K5

40

17

27

12

16

10

19

27

12

15

Lineinthegraph

2and 3

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TABLE20:QUALITYSTANDARDSFORSINGLEPOINTFAILURES,LATERALPOSITION

DEVIATIONFROMDEFAULT(MM)
LATERALALIGNMENT

QUALITY
CLASS

STH
LOCOMOTIVE

STHSPEED
KM/TIM

KM/TIM

GAUGE

SHORTWAVY

LONGWAVY

DEVIATIONFROM

MODIFICATI

WRONG125M

ERROR

NOMINALVALUE1435

ONIN10M

MM

TRACK

WAVELENGTH (BENCHMARKS
A

K0

145

185

10

+15,5

10

K1

125140

160180

10

+7,5

+20,5

12

K2

105120

135155

10

+10,5

+25,5

15

K3

75100

95130

10

+15,5

+30,5

10

18

K4

4070

6090

10

13

+20,5

+35,5

12

21

K5

40

13

16

+20,5

+35,5

15

25

Lineinthegraph

8and 9

10

11

TrackLocationStats
The measurements in the trailer analysis system calculate the standard deviation () for track
location parameters height, cant, position and interaction. Standard deviations are calculated
sliding over a track length of 200 m in Table 21 below shows the thresholds (benchmarks) for
comfort.

TABLE21:COMFORTLIMITSFORSTANDARDDEVIATIONS
COMFORTLIMIT
QUALITY
CLASS

STH

STHFAST

LOCOMOTIVE

TRAIN

KM/TIM

KM/TIM

K0

145

185

K1

125140

160 180

K2

105120

135 155

K3

75100

95 130

K4

4070

60 90

K5

40

UPPER

RATIORAIL

LATERAL

COLLABORATION

REGISTERH

ALIGNMENTP

MM

MM

MM

MM

1,1

0,9

1,1

1,6

1,0

1,2

1,7

1,2

1,3

1,9

1,4

1,7

2,4

1,8

2,0

3,1

2,2

2,4

3,6

1,3

The values of the table are used i.e. for the calculation of quality factor Q and K, which among
otherthingsreportinthevaluationchartsandvaluationlists.

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Ahighqualityvaluemeansthattrackpositionaverageisgood,buttherestillmayhaveafewlarge
isolateddefects.

QratioisameasureoftheaveragevaluesrelativetothecomfortlimitsinTable21.Itcanbe
usedasabasisformaintenanceplanningandmonitoringoftracksectionswithalengthofabout
onekilometreandup.

Cost ratio indicates how much of a stretch where all values below the comfort limits. K's are
primarily used for Traffikverket comprehensive monitoring of trace mode for longer distances
(trackpiecesandstring)andisunsuitableasabasisformaintenanceplanninginshortersections.

KandQfactor>80meansthatthetrackpositionontheroutelargelycomplieswiththelimitsin
Table21.

DerailmentHazardouswrong
If the irregularities in the track are detected, and can present a risk of derailment, should be
considered:

Iftrafficmustbeimmediatelystopped;or

Iftrafficmaybedrivenatreducedspeedandunderanycoveragebycheckingthetrackbefore
eachtrainuntilthefaultisrectified.

Thefollowingtrackirregularitiesshouldbegivenspecialconsiderationwithregardtotherisk
ofderailment:
-

Trackwidthgreaterthan1470mm.Vulnerablesectionsarecurvedtrackwithsmallradio
(side wear on surface), especially itineraries in and adjacent to the crossing where the
sleepersandrailfastenersareinpoorcondition.

Skew(evenacantchange):

POINTEDRUSH[MM]

POINTEDRUSH[MM]

Basemeasurements6m

RAMPTALIPARENTES
>30

RAMPTALIPARENTES
>25

Basemeasurements3m

(<200)
>18

(<240)
>15

(<167)

(<200)

(Ramptal=1000*measurementbase/rash)

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Superelevationerrorsarecalculatedfromthezerolineofthecantramp(totalskewwillbetaken
intoaccount).

Skewederrorthecurveshouldbeconsideredmoreseriousthaninthestraighttrack.Pointedrash
intrackmodediagrammeansshortfaults,suchaslowjointinonerail.

Blunt ruling means that the fault is long and that the real change of cant terms with longer
measurementbaseislargerthantheangleofthetrackpositionchart.

POLAND

These tables show the Permissible deviations of the measured parameters to ensure the comfort of the
travel depending on the measures made by work test car and electronics surveys systems and manually
ones.

Thepermissiblevaluesofthemainparametersoftherailwaytracksituation(forcontinuousmeasurements
madewithaDresinaandelectronicsurveysystem)are:

SPEED
[KM/H]

INEQUALITIES
HORIZONTAL VERTICAL

TWIST
5M[MM]

RAILWAYGAUGEDIFFERENCES
WIDER

REDUCTIONS

GRADIENT

[MM]

[MM]

[MM/M]

CANT

INDEX

[MM]

J[MM]

[MM]

[MM]

200

1,3

180

1,6

160

2,1

140

10

12

2,7

120

10

12

12

3,3

100

13

14

14

10

15

4,3

80

17

18

16

10

20

5,3

70

20

21

18

12

20

6,1

60

24

25

19

15

25

7,0

50

29

30

21

17

25

8,2

40

35

35

23

20

25

9,6

30

44

40

25

25

25

11,2

20

53

50

30

32

10

25

14,5

KNOWLEDGEAVAILABLEONMAINTENANCEOPERATIONSANDSURVEYINGSYSTEMSHIGHSPEED&CONVENTIONALLINES

Page97

Thepermissiblevaluesofthemainparametersofthetracksformanuallymeasuresare:

HEIGHT
SPEED[KM/H]

GAUGE[MM]

ARROW

LEVEL

DIFFERENCEOF DIFERRENCEIN DIFFERENCEOF

DIFFERENCES
INHEIGHTOF

RAILLOCATION

10MROPE

ALIGMNET

ALIGMNET

[MM]

[MM]

MARKS[MM]

MARKS[MM]

200

Nomeasuresaredone.

180

Nomeasuresaredone.

EXPANSIN
DIFFERENCESIN
THESAMEUNION
JOINTS:
MAX/MIN.[MM]

160

+4,6

10

10

140

+8,5

12

10

10

120

+9,7

12

10

10

10

100

+10,7

15

12

15

15

80

+10,8

20

14

15

15

70

+12,8

20

15

15

15

60

+15,8

25

16

15

15

50

+17,8

25

17

15

15

40

+20,9

25

18

20

20

30

+25,9

25

20

30

30

20

+35,10

25

25

35

35

Belowarethedifferencesevaluationcriteriaofthestateoftherailwaysuperstructure.

 Rails
NUMBEROF
CLASS

ADMISSIBLERAIL
BREAKINGPER1KM

VERTICALADMISIBLE

LATERALADMISIBLE

WEARINGOFTHERAIL[MM]

WEARINGOFTHERAIL[MM]

UIC60(60E1)

OTHERS

UIC60(60E1)

DECLINATION
ANGLEOF
LATERAL
SURFACEOFRAIL

ALL

ORIGINALS

DNPC

DNPP

12

14

14

18

12

16

10

20

14

60

16

14

20

17

55

4Y5

10

20

16

22

19

55

OTHERS

HEAD
65

LATERALTRACKS

28
25
totheloweredgeofthehead
55
Comment:
1) When there are simultaneous vertical and lateral wear should be reduced by half the effective lateral
wear.
2)Inclass0tracks,afterreachingtheallowablelateralwearisforbiddentochange(swap)railsofdifferent
sides.
3) On changed rails, the vertically wear have tobe reducedbyhalf of the sumof the actual wear of both
lateralsides.

KNOWLEDGEAVAILABLEONMAINTENANCEOPERATIONSANDSURVEYINGSYSTEMSHIGHSPEED&CONVENTIONALLINES

Page98

 Sleepers

SLEEPERS

CLASIFICATIONCRITERIA

DEGRADATION
LEVEL

WOODSLEEPERS
LOWWEAR

Incisionoftheplatetothedepthof6mm.
Openlongitudinalcracksnogreaterthan10mm.Obliquitynotexceeding50mm.
MEDIUMWEAR Incisionoftheplate612mm.Openlongitudinalcracksgreaterthan15mm.
Dentsandscratchesfromthesurfaceupto20mm.Obliquityto130mm(withabsence
ofcracksandincisionsto160mm).
HIGHWEAR
Incisionsoftheplatesandthetotaldepth.Longitudinalcracksopenmorethan15mm.
Moresurfacedefectsof20mm.Tracesofrot.Obliquityasintheprevioussection.
VERYHIGH
Youcantaketheboltsfinger.Opencracks30mmandmore.Transversecracks(cracks)
visible.Decayedsleepers.
WEAR

00,2
0,20,7
0,70,9
0,91,0

CONCRETESLEEPERS.
LOWWEAR

Nocracksandbreaksintherailbelow.Uniquehairlinecracksinthecentralportionin
theamountofupto5perrailsleepers30m(4to25sleepersperlanem).

MDIUMWEAR Nocracksandbreaksintherailbelow.Sloughinghairlinecracksintheconcreteinthe
centralpartupto10sleepersforrail30m(8sleepersforrailto25m).
HIGHWEAR

VERYHIGH
WEAR.

Cracksintheundersideoftherailwithoutsloughingofconcretesleepersto5perlane
of30m(upto4sleepersperrail25m)orshreddingup2runnersperlaneof30mand
25m.Hairlinecracksinthecentralpartofconcretecrumblinguntilsleepersforrail15
(30mto12sleepersforrail25m).Cracksinthecentralpartofconcretecrumbling
sleepersforrailto330mand25m.Breaksup2runnersperlaneof30and25m.
Cracksintheundersideoftherailwithoutbreakinguptheconcreteintheamountof
upto5perrailsleepers30m(upto4sleepersforrail25m)orcrumblingofconcrete
sleepersover2perlaneof25to30m.Cracksinthecentralpartoftheconcrete
withoutchippinginover15sleepersperlaneof30m(over12sleepersperrail25m)
orcrushingofconcretesleepersforover3lanesof30mand25m.3andmorebreaks
byrailsleepers30and25m.

00,2
0,20,7

0,70,9

0,91,0

 Ballast

BALLAST

CLASIFICATIONCRITERIA

GOOD

Noclog.Smallamountofherbs.Completefillingofthebottomfacesofthesleepers.
Nodetachmentoftheballastisinthebottomfacesofthesleepers.Sleepersspaces
filled.Theballastcompactedandstabilized.Nosymptomsofvoidsbeneaththe
sleepers.
Clogsingular,nomorethantwoconsecutivesleepersintheamountnotexceeding
15%ofsleepers.Lotsofherbs.Sleepersuniquelowerfacediscovereduntil2/3height.
Clogin3to5consecutivesleepers,haveoverallinanamountofupto30%ofsleepers.
Lotsofherbs.Deficienciesofballastspacesbetweensleepersto2/3oftheheightof
theties.
Clogover5consecutivesleepers,intotalinanamountexceeding30%ofsleepers.
Emptyspacesbetweenthesleepers.Theundersidesofthesleeperscompletely
uncoveredoveralengthof4m.

REGULAR
BAD

WORST

WEARLEVEL

00,2

0,20,6
0,60,8

>0,8

KNOWLEDGEAVAILABLEONMAINTENANCEOPERATIONSANDSURVEYINGSYSTEMSHIGHSPEED&CONVENTIONALLINES

Page99

PORTUGAL

Here are presented the tolerances and standard deviations of the geometric parameters for the track
gauges1668mm,1435mmand1000mm.Thefollowingsituationsareconsidered:
 Worksacceptance(distinguishedbetweennew/renewedtracksandmaintenanceworks)
 Maintenancedecisionsactions

The track quality evaluation for the maintenance decisions is performed taking the following tolerance
concepts:
 Warning(workplanning)
 Intervention(shorttermactions)
 Immediateaction

Thetolerancesforworksacceptanceandimmediateactionaremandatory,theotheronesareestablished
as reference values and managed accordingly the REFER maintenance policy taking as input the quality
level desired for the track, anomaly corrections timings and monitoring and inspections frequencies
affectedtothemajoranomalies.

TOLERANCESDEFINITIONS
 Warningtolerance
Thevalueofthegeometricparameterthatwhenoverpassedoriginatesaninputontheprogrammatic
maintenance works. The timeline for the works scheduling will be defined by infrastructure
maintenanceresponsibleorganizationrelyingonthedefinedlimitsandresourceavailable.

 Interventiontolerance
The value of the geometric parameter that when overpassed originates a short term maintenance
actionsinorderthatthedegradationdoesntreachtheworsttoleranceclassificationandtheneedof
animmediateaction.

KNOWLEDGEAVAILABLEONMAINTENANCEOPERATIONSANDSURVEYINGSYSTEMSHIGHSPEED&CONVENTIONALLINES

Page100

 Immediateactiontolerance
Thevalueofgeometricparameterthatshouldnotbereached,otherwiseanimmediatemaintenance
correctionactionshalltakeplaceortherespectivetracksubmittedtoaspeedconstrainorcirculation
interdiction.

GEOMETRICTOLERANCESFORMAINTENANCEWORKSACCEPTANCE

TABLE22:GEOMETRICPARAMETERSTOLERANCESFORTRACKGAUGES1668MMAND1435MMFORMAINTENANCE
WORKS

25M70M

ALIGNMENT

ALIGNMENT

25M70M

1M25M
LONGITUDINAL

LONGITUDINAL

(3METERS)

PROJECTEFERENCE

ALIGNMENTWRT

LONGITUDINAL

TRANSVERSAL

GEOMETRICPARAMETERS (MM)

II

160<V230

2/+5

III

120<V160

2/+5

4.5

n.a

n.a

IV

80<V120

3/+5

4.5

n.a

n.a

40<V80

3/+7

4.5

n.a

n.a

VI

V40

3/+8

n.a

n.a

1M25M

2/+4

LEVEL

V>230

LEVEL

WARP

(KM/H)

LEVEL

CLASS

LEVEL

SPEED

GAUGE

QUALITY

TABLE23:GEOMETRICPARAMETERSTOLERANCESFORTRACKGAUGE1000MMFORMAINTENANCEWORKS

ALIGNMENT

LONGITUDINAL

(3METERS)

PROJECTREFERENCE

ALIGNMENTWRT

LONGITUDINAL

TRANSVERSAL

GEOMETRICPARAMETERS (MM)

40<V80

3/+7

VI

V40

3/+8

1M25M

3/+5

1M25M

80<V120

LEVEL

IV

WARP

(KM/H)

LEVEL

CLASS

LEVEL

SPEED

GAUGE

QUALITY

KNOWLEDGEAVAILABLEONMAINTENANCEOPERATIONSANDSURVEYINGSYSTEMSHIGHSPEED&CONVENTIONALLINES

Page101

GEOMETRICTOLERANCESFORMAINTENANCEACTIONSPLANNING
 Warningtolerances

TABLE24:GEOMETRICPARAMETERSWARNINGTOLERANCESFORTRACKGAUGES1668MMAND1435MMFOR
MAINTENANCEACTIONSPLANNING

(3METERS)

25M70M

ALIGNMENT

ALIGNMENT

25M70M

LONGITUDINAL

LONGITUDINAL

GEOMETRICPARAMETERS (MM)

1/+16

10

18

13

II

160<V230

4/+20

3/+16

12

20

15

III

120<V160

6/+25

3/+16

15

n.a.

n.a.

12

IV

80<V120

7/+25

5/+22

16

n.a

11

n.a

12

40<V80

7/+25

6/+25

18

n.a.

15

n.a.

12

VI

V40

7/+25

n.a./+25

18

n.a.

15

n.a.

12

LEVEL

WARP

3/+20

1M25M

V>230

LEVEL

1M25M

(KM/H)

AVERAGE

CLASS

GAUGE

SPEED

GAUGE

QUALITY

TABLE25:GEOMETRICPARAMETERSWARNINGTOLERANCESFORTRACKGAUGE1000MMFORMAINTENANCE
ACTIONSPLANNING

(3METERS)

ALIGNMENT

IV

80<V120

7/+25

5/+22

16

11

40<V80

7/+25

6/+25

18

15

VI

V40

7/+25

n.a./+25

18

15

WARP

GAUGE

1M25M

(KM/H)

1M25M

CLASS

LEVEL

SPEED

AVERAGE

QUALITY

GAUGE

LONGITUDINAL

GEOMETRICPARAMETERS (MM)

TABLE26:STANDARDDEVIATIONWARNINGTOLERANCESFORTRACKGAUGES1668MMAND1435MMFOR
MAINTENANCEACTIONSPLANNING
STANDARD DEVIATION(MM)

QUALITY

SPEED

CLASS

(KM/H)

LONGITUDINALLEVEL1M25M

ALIGNMENT1M25M

V>230

1.5

1.0

II

160<V230

1.9

1.1

III

120<V160

2.4

1.3

IV

80<V120

2.7

1.5

40<V80

3.0

1.8

VI

V40

3.3

2.1

KNOWLEDGEAVAILABLEONMAINTENANCEOPERATIONSANDSURVEYINGSYSTEMSHIGHSPEED&CONVENTIONALLINES

Page102

TABLE27:STANDARDDEVIATIONWARNINGTOLERANCESFORTRACKGAUGE1000MMFORMAINTENANCE
ACTIONSPLANNING
STANDARDDEVIATION(MM)
QUALITY

SPEED

LONGITUDINAL

CLASS

(KM/H)

LEVEL

ALIGNMENT
1M25M

1M25M
IV

80<V120

2.7

1.5

40<V80

3.0

1.8

VI

V40

3.3

2.1

 Interventiontolerancesfortrackgauges1668mmand1435mm

TABLE28:GEOMETRICPARAMETERSINTERVENTIONTOLERANCESFORTRACKGAUGES1668MMAND1435MMFOR
MAINTENANCE

(3METERS)

25M70M

ALIGNMENT

ALIGNMENT

25M70M

LONGITUDINAL

LONGITUDINAL

GAUGEAVERAGE

GEOMETRICPARAMETERS (MM)

4/+23

2/+18

12

20

14

12

II

160<V230

5/+23

4/+18

14

23

17

12

III

120<V160

8/+30

4/+18

17

n.a.

10

n.a.

15

IV

80<V120

9/+30

6/+25

19

n.a.

13

n.a

15

40<V80

9/+30

7/+28

21

n.a.

17

n.a.

15

VI

V40

9/+30

n.a./+28

21

n.a.

17

n.a.

15

WARP

V>230

1M25M

LEVEL

(KM/H)

1M25M

CLASS

LEVEL

SPEED

GAUGE

QUALITY

TABLE29:GEOMETRICPARAMETERSINTERVENTIONTOLERANCESFORTRACKGAUGE1000MMFOR
MAINTENANCEACTIONSPLANNING

6/+25

19

13

11

40<V80

9/+30

7/+28

21

17

11

VI

V40

9/+30

n.a./+28

21

17

11

(3METERS)

9/+30

WARP

80<V120

1M25M

GAUGEAVERAGE

IV

ALIGNMENT

(KM/H)

1M25M

CLASS

LEVEL

SPEED

LONGITUDINAL

QUALITY

GAUGE

GEOMETRICPARAMETERS (MM)

KNOWLEDGEAVAILABLEONMAINTENANCEOPERATIONSANDSURVEYINGSYSTEMSHIGHSPEED&CONVENTIONALLINES

Page103

 Immediateactiontolerancesfortrackgauges1668mmand1435mm

TABLE30:GEOMETRICPARAMETERSIMMEDIATEACTIONTOLERANCESFORTRACKGAUGES1668MMAND
1435MMFORMAINTENANCE

(3METERS)

25M70M

ALIGNMENT

ALIGNMENT

25M70M

LONGITUDINAL

LONGITUDINAL

GAUGEAVERAGE

GEOMETRICPARAMETERS (MM)

5/+28

4/+20

16

28

10

20

15

II

160<V230

7/+28

6/+20

20

33

12

24

15

III

120<V160

10/+35

6/+20

23

n.a.

14

n.a.

21

IV

80<V120

11/+35

8/+27

26

n.a.

17

n.a.

21

40<V80

11/+35

9/+32

28

n.a.

22

n.a.

21

VI

V40

11/+35

n.a./+32

31

n.a.

25

n.a.

21

WARP

V>230

1M25M

LEVEL

(KM/H)

1M25M

CLASS

LEVEL

SPEED

GAUGE

QUALITY

TABLE31:GEOMETRICPARAMETERSIMMEDIATEACTIONTOLERANCESFORTRACKGAUGE1000MMFOR
MAINTENANCEACTIONSPLANNING

8/+27

26

17

15

40<V80

11/+35

9/+32

28

22

15

VI

V40

11/+35

n.a./+32

31

25

15

(3METERS)

11/+35

WARP

80<V120

1M25M

GAUGEAVERAGE

IV

ALIGNMENT

(KM/H)

1M25M

CLASS

LEVEL

SPEED

LONGITUDINAL

QUALITY

GAUGE

GEOMETRICPARAMETERS (MM)

SPAIN

Railways must have geometric quality requirements to operate the circulations in conditions of comfort
and safety. The quality of the railways can be defined as a set of inherent properties that allow
characterizingthepathandvalue.

ThetablesbelowshowtheparametersmeasuredinthegeometricauscultationsmadeintheSpanishhigh
speedtracks.

KNOWLEDGEAVAILABLEONMAINTENANCEOPERATIONSANDSURVEYINGSYSTEMSHIGHSPEED&CONVENTIONALLINES

Page104

TRACK

FILTERING

PARAMETERS

PARAMETERS

AXLEBOX
ACCELERATIONS

TRACKGEOMETRY

DYNAMICSEFECTS

0.030.10m.

Shortwavecorrugation

0.100.30m.

Mediumwavecorrugation

Railwheeldynamicoverloads:Rollingcontactfatigue

Longwavecorrugation

Vibrations:Lackofcomfort

Levellingdefectsinweldsandjoints

Noise:Lackofcomfort

0.301.00m.
13m.

Longwavecorrugation
Railwheeldynamicoverloads:

LONGITUDINAL

325m.

Shortwavelevellingdefects

Rollingcontactfatigue
Insecurity

LEVELLING
2570m.

Mediumwavelevellingdefects

Carbodyaccelerationsmediumspeed:Lackof

70120m.

Longwavelevellingdefects

comfort
Railwheeldynamicoverloads:

325m.

Shortwavetransversalleveldefects

Insecurity

TRANSVERSAL
LEVELLING

2570m.
70120m.
base3m.

WARPING

Rollingcontactfatigue

base5m.

base9m.

Mediumwavetransversallevel
defects
Longwavetransversalleveldefects
Warpingdefectsshortdistance
betweenpivots
Warpingdefectsmediumdistance
betweenpivots
Warpingdefectslongdistance
betweenpivots

Carbodyaccelerationsmediumspeed:
Lackofcomfort

Bogiederailment

Shortaxlewagonderailment

Longaxlewagonderailment
Railwheeldynamicoverloads:

325m.

Shortwavealignmentdefects

Rollingcontactfatigue
Insecurity

ALIGNMENT
2570m.

Mediumwavealignmentdefects

Carbodyaccelerationsmediumspeed:Lackof

70120m.

Longwavealignmentdefects

comfort
Railwheeldynamicoverloads:

TRACKGAUGE

325m.

TRANSVERSE

Rollingcontactfatigue
Insecurity

70m.
HEADRAIL

Trackgaugevariation

Mediumtrackgauge
Verticalwearinrail
Lateralwearinrail

SECTION

Ridestability:insecurity

Ridestability:insecurity

Totalwear

CURVATURE

70m.

Trackgroundlayout

SUPERELEVATION

70m.

Trackground layout

Determinationmaximumcirculationspeed

TRACKPROFILE

200m.

Trackelevationlayout

Determinationofminimumbrakingdistances

KNOWLEDGEAVAILABLEONMAINTENANCEOPERATIONSANDSURVEYINGSYSTEMSHIGHSPEED&CONVENTIONALLINES

Page105

The thresholds depend on the speed of the trains and they are more restricted as higher is the speed.
Whenameasureisexceeded,thepathisincludedinthemaintenanceschedule.

TABLE32:SHORTWAVEACTION
CORRECTIVEACTIONFORPUNCTUALDEFECTS

CORRECTIVEACTIONFORQUALITYTRACK

TRESHOLDS(WAVELENGTH325M)

TRESHOLDS(WAVELENGTH325M)

LONGITUDINAL TRANSVERSAL ALIGMENT

SPEED(KM/H)

LEVEL(MM)

LEVEL(MM)

(MM)

V80

+/16

+/10

+/ 14

80<V120

+/12

+/8

120<V160

+/10

160<V200

WIDE
VARIATION

LONGITUDINAL TRANSVERSAL ALIGMENT

WIDE
VARIATION

LEVEL(MM)

LEVEL(MM)

(MM)

+/ 9

2,5

2,4

1,8

+/ 10

+/ 8

2,1

1,9

1,5

1,7

+/7

+/ 8

+/ 7

1,8

1,5

1,3

1,5

+/ 9

+/6

+/7

+/6

1,5

1,2

1,1

1,3

200<V240

+/ 8

+/5

+/ 6

+/ 5

1,3

1,0

1,0

1,1

240<V280

+/ 7

+/4

+/ 5

+/ 4

1,1

0,8

0,8

1,0

280<V320

+/ 6

+/3

+/ 4

+/ 3

1,0

0,7

0,7

0,9

V>320

+/ 5

+/2

+/ 3

+/ 2

0,9

0,6

0,6

0,8

(MM)

(MM)

Othercorrectiveinterventionthresholdstoevaluatethequalityofthetracksaremadewithdifferentlong
wave,2570,70120.

Other kind of thresholds can be finding into dynamic auscultations, they are a great source to plan
maintenance tasks. Next, the accepted ranges of values of lateral bogie acceleration alb,vertical axle box
accelerationavc,andverticalandlateralcarbodyacceleration,alv;avv,andtherecommendedactionsifthese
valuesareexceededcanbeseeninthetablebelow.

ACCELERATIONLEVELANDRECOMENDED

ACCELERATIONAUSCULTATIONS,AVES100(M/S2)

2,5(1)

alb

4,0
>6,0

avc
4

30

50

1(2)

6,0

50,0

70,0

2,0

>70

alv

>2,5

ACTION

avv
2

2,5

2,0

2,5
>2,5

Surveillancelevel
Checkoutandprogrammedactions
Checkoutandimmediateactions

KNOWLEDGEAVAILABLEONMAINTENANCEOPERATIONSANDSURVEYINGSYSTEMSHIGHSPEED&CONVENTIONALLINES

Page106

2.4 DIFFERENCESBETWEENDIFERENTSKINDSOFTRAFFIC,PASSANGERS,FREIGHT

Inthischapterwecanseeandoverviewofthedifferentkindoftrafficthatexistsalongthecorridorswhita
short description of the main characteristics of the nets and what resources are used for maintenance
measures.

NORWAY

Norwegianrailwaynetworkisformedby4087kilometres,242kilometresofdoubletrack,2622kilometres
electrified,which64areofhighspeed.

Thetablegivesanoverviewofvalidanddifferentsuperstructureclassesandcorrespondingpassengersand
freighttrainsAxleLoadandspeed.

Wagons in passenger trains Passenger train sets


S uperstructure
class

Nominal axle
load (ton)

M ax speed
(km/h)

Nominal axle
load (ton)

M ax speed
(km/h)

16

90

16

90

18

100

18

100

18

160

20,5
18

130
160

C+

18

160

20,5

160
160
200
250
300
130

18

230

20,5
20
18
17

Ofotbanen

18

130

20,5

Freight trains/working machine s

Nominal axle
load (ton)

M ax speed (km/h)

22,5
16,5
22,5
20,5
18
22,5
20,5
18
24
22,5
18
25
22,5
18

30
70
30
70
80
80
90
100
50
90
110
70
100
110

30
22,5

50
70

Thetableistransformedintothreeschematicmaps:
 Wagonsinpassengerstrains
 Passengerstrainsets
 Freighttrains

Visualizing the geographical coverage of lines, the values for axle Load and corresponding Speed are
optimal values and are limited by specific sign post along the lines. The colour of the lines in the map
reflectstheclassificationcolourintable.

KNOWLEDGEAVAILABLEONMAINTENANCEOPERATIONSANDSURVEYINGSYSTEMSHIGHSPEED&CONVENTIONALLINES

Page107

 Contactlinevoltage:Thevoltageinthecontactlineisnominal15kV20/+15%(12kV17,25kV).
 Nominaltrackgauge:Nominaltrackgaugeis1435mm.

SWEDEN

SwedishRailnetisconfirmedbyatotalof12,821kmdividedinto:
 1152doubletrackkilometres
 7918electrifiedkilometres
 221kmareofnarrowgauge

LOADCAPACITYOFTHETRACK
Twoparametersdefinetheloadcapacityofatrack:maximumpermittedaxleload(STAX,unit:tonnes)and
maximumpermittedvehicleweightpermetre(STVM,unit:tonnes/m).

EverytrackhasaSTAXvaluewhichindicatestheamountofloadthateachaxleisallowedtoexertonthe
track.STAX30tonnesareonlyallowedwithfouraxlebogiewagonsonspeciallyupgradedroutesoftrack.

EverytrackhasanSTVMratingwhichindicatesthehighestpermittedvehicleweightpermetre.InSweden,
themostcommonfigureisSTVM6.4tonnes/metre.

On the Malmbanan and on the Boden centralLule section the permitted vehicle weight is
12.0tonnes/metre.

POWERSUPPLY
Trainsobtaintheirpowersupplyfromanoverheadcontactwirewhichdeliversanominalvoltageof15.000
voltsat162/3Hz.

Theresourcesusedformaintenanceandtheirfrequenciesare:

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Therearetwotypesoftrackgeometrycars:
 therearethreeolderIMV100s(100km/h);and
 anewerSTRIX(160km/h).

The following, with their respective annual frequency according to inspection class, are measured by the
trackgeometrycars:
 Geometricpositionofrail,16timesperyear
 Railprofile,2timesperyear
 Longandshortpitchcorrugation,1timesperyear
 Videorecordingoftrackandsurroundings,12timesperyear
 Ballastprofile,1timesperyear
 Overheadcontactwire,3timesperyear

POLAND

ThelengthsofPolishrailwaytracksare23.429km;themainrailwaytrafficisover14.800kminfirstclass
lines, corresponding to 90 % of the traffic operations. 11.938 km are power supply lines, 3 Kv, 7.929 km
overdoubletracks,and4.009oversingleones

NO

CATEGORYOF
RAILWAYLINE

TECHNICALEXPLOTATIVEPARAMETERS
LOADBYTRAIN

SPEEDOFPASSENGER

SPEEDOFGOOD

MAX.LOADPER

PERYEAR

TRAIN(KM/H)

TRAIN(KM/H)

AXIS(KN)

(TG/YEAR)
1

Mainlines(0)

T25

120<Vmax200

80<Vmax120

P221

PrimaryLines(1)

10T<25

80<Vmax120

60<Vmax80

210P<221

Secondarylines(2)

3T<10

60<Vmax80

50<Vmax60

200P<210

Loallines(3)

T<3

Vmax60

Vmax50

P<200

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Where:
 InternationalgaugeUIC(1435mm),20.171km
 Widegauge(600,750y1000mm),189km.
 Sovietgauge(1520mm),con3.069km.

PORTUGAL

Portuguese railway network is formed by 2794


kilometres, 610 kilometers of double track, and
2184kilometresofsingletrack

Where 2602 km are of Broad gauge track (1668


mm) and 192 km are Narrow gauge track (1000
mm)1629kmarepowersupplylines,1604km25
Kv/50Hz,25km1500V.

Thefasterlinesallowspeedbetween160km/hand
220 km/h, while the slowest allow speeds of 50
km/h.

SPAIN

The highspeedlinesare mostlybuilt with theInternationalgauge,1435mm.thereare84KminIberian


gauge1668,dobletrack,thevoltageisnominal25kV50HzfollowingtheEuropeanETI.

The conventional net is spread through


Spainandisthesupporterofdifferentkind
of transport services, passengers, freight
and medium distances not covered by the
high speed ones, the conventional nets
administrated by ADIF has 11628 km with
Iberiangaugethereare120kmwiththree
railsfortwogauges,onetrack,mostofthe
70% of the net, and 54% of it is power
supply.

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The conventional line is classificated in sub


networks:
 CercaniasNet(A1,A2,ByC)
 NetA1yA2(principlecorridors)
 NetB(stretcheswithlowtraffic)
 NetC(littletraffic)

Thereareanotherkindofnetwork,themetricgauge

one,with1192km,28bypowersupplyanda7%of
doubletrack.

Thehighspeedlinesallowspeedof300km/horhigher,theconventionalones,Iberiangauge,reachspeeds
between160and220km/h,withnominalloadexefrom16tnto22,5tn.

RESOURCES:
GEOMETRICTRACKTEST:

ULTRASONICTEST:

 Labcar(200km/h):

 Trackcar(80Km/h)

Conventional lines (A1, A2 yB): 1 time

peryear
y

HighSpeedLines:2timesperyear

Conventional lines (A1, A2 yB): 2 times


peryear

HighSpeedLines:2timesperyear

 Testmotorvehicle(120km/h).
y

Conventional lines (A1, A2 yB): 2 times


peryear

HighSpeedLines:3timesperyear

VISUALINSPECTIONS:

DYNAMICTEST:

 Labcar200Km/h

 TrainSpeed:300km/h

Conventional lines (A1, A2 yB): 2 times

peryear
y

HighSpeedLines:2timesperyear.

Conventional lines (A1, A2 yB): 2 times


peryear

HighSpeedLines:12timesperyear

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2.5 INFLUENCEOFINFRASTRUCTUREOVERSUPERSTUCTURE

2.5.1 EXTERNALAGENTS

Therearemanyfactorswhichinfluencethedegradationprocess.Thesefactorshavebeenidentifiedduring
thestudyofrailsandflowlinesandarebrieflydescribedinthischapter.Theconceptofthevirtualfailure
stateisalsohighlightedinthistask.

IDENTIFICATIONOFTHEFACTORSINFLUENCINGRAILDEGRADATION
Inordertoidentifythefactorsinfluencingtheraildegradationprocess,varioussourcesofinformationhave
been examined. These included a literature survey, inputs from various railwayrelated conferences
attended,anddiscussionsandconsultationswithrailmaintenanceexpertsfromTrafikverketandJVTC.The
identifiedfactorsresponsibleforraildegradationareillustratedusingacauseandeffectdiagraminFigure
42andarebrieflydescribedbelow.

FIGURE42:CAUSEANDEFFECTDIAGRAMFORTHEFACTORSINFLUENCINGRAILDEGRADATION

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Theidentifiedfactorsare:

 ConditionofAssets
Assets in a poor condition (for example sleepers, fastenings, ballast, etc.) accelerate the rail
degradationrate.Fishplateshavingadegradedconditionorloosefishboltswillcausetherailjointgap
tocloseorfullyopen,evenatminortemperaturechanges.Thismayresultinrailbucklingorrailend
degradation.

 AgeofRails
Sometimesrailreplacementbecomesessentialduetodegradationintherailsmaterialpropertiesover
aperiodoftimeandusage.Thisisknownasageinginrailsandreplacementisrequired,asagedrails
maydegradethewheelmaterialduringrailwheelinteractionorviceversa.

 Axleload
This is a measure of the deterioration of track quality and as such provides an indication of when
maintenanceandrenewalarenecessary.Aheavyaxleloadcausesstaticanddynamicstressattherail
wheelcontactpatch,whichmayaccelerateraildegradation.

 Speed
Vehiclespeedcanadverselyinfluencethecurvingperformanceofthevehicleand,inturn,leadtowear
andstressintherailandwheel.Therunningspeedhasacertaininfluenceonthedynamicinteraction
betweenthevehicleandthetrack,becausethepointofapplicationoftheloadmoveswiththerunning
speed.

 Tamping
This is a process whereby the ballast under the ties (sleepers) is compacted to provide proper load
bearing. Ties are the portion of the track structure generally placed perpendicular to the rail to
maintain the track gauge, distribute the weight of the rails and rolling stock, and keep the track
properly aligned. The majority of ties are made of wood. Other materials used to manufacture ties
includeconcreteandsteel.

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 BallastCleaning
Despiteanidenticaltrackstructure,thesameyearofconstructionandthesametrafficload,therates
of deterioration may differ widely even between adjacent sections. One of the reasons is the non
homogeneityoftheballastbeds.Infrequentballastcleaningmayresultinundesirablechangesinthe
trackposition,whichmaycausemorestressgenerationandmorewear.

 TrafficDensity
Themorefrequentlytrainspassoverarailsection,themorerailwheelinteractiontakesplaceleading
tomorewearandRCFgeneration.

 TrafficType
The type of traffic passing over the rail (passenger or freight traffic) defines the axle load and thus
influencestheraildegradationrate.

 CharacteristicsoftheBogieType
InSweden,railwayoperatorsandmaintenancecontractorshavebeenderegulated,whichhasledtoa
tendency for operators to introduce lowcost rolling stock. This may increase track degradation.
Therefore,thecharacteristicsofthebogietypeinfluenceraildegradation.

 GrindingFrequency
Preventivegrindingleadstoasignificantincreaseintheservicelifeoftherails,delayintheoccurrence
of rail corrugation and a decrease in traffic noise levels. An optimal grinding frequency helps to
increasetheraillife.

 RailWheelInteraction
Railwheel interaction is a very complex phenomenon. Repetitive wheel loads on the rail result in
rollingcontactfatigue(RCF).Railwearoccursduetorailwheelinteractionandismorecommonon
curveswheremaximumrailwheelshearingoccurs.

 MillionGrossTonnes(MGT)
Alltypesoftrackdegradationfeatures,suchasanincreaseingeometricaldeviationsandanincreasein
railfracturesandrailwear,canbeexpressedasafunctionofthetonnage,whichisoftenexpressedas

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Million GrossTonnes (MGT). Itis used toexpresstheintensityorcapacityofrailtrafficon aspecific


line.

 TrackCurvature
The optimal wear rate depends on the differences in the traffic type and density, axle load, rail
metallurgy,andtrackcurvature.(Forexample,theraildegradationrateonacurvewithacurveradius
of500meterswillbedifferentfromthatonacurvewitha1200metercurveradius).

 TrackElevation
More traction force is required to overcome gravitational force when vehicles travel in an uphill
direction.Limitedlubricationisrequiredtoavoidslippageonuphilltrackscausingmorewearonthis
sectionoftrack.

 InspectionInterval
Morefrequentultrasonicinspectionisrequiredtomanage/reducetheriskofinternaldefects.

 Superelevation
This is the difference in elevation between the two edges of the track; it allows vehicles traveling
through the turn to go at higher speeds than would normally be possible. Superelevation helps to
preventoverturningofthevehicle.Itisprovidedtoovercomethecentrifugalforceofthevehicleatthe
curves.Degradationoneitherthehighrailorlowraillyinginthesamecurveradiusdependsonthe
speedofthevehicle.Ifthevehiclespeedishigherthanthedesignatedspeedlimitofthecurvedtrack,
consideringthesuperelevation,moredegradationwilltakeplaceonthehighrail.Thisisbecausethe
wheelflangeismoreincontactwiththeinnersurfaceofthehighrailthantheinnersurfaceofthelow
railduetocentrifugalforceactingonthevehicle(seePaperII).Ifthevehiclespeedislowerthanthe
designatedspeedlimitofthecurvedtrack,consideringthesuperelevation,moredegradationwilltake
placeonthelowrail.

 OperationalEnvironment:
Wear is highly dependent on thirdbody properties, which are strongly influenced by lubrication,
environmentalconditions(humidity,rainandsnow),andthepresenceofsand.DuringwinterinNorth
America and Russia, there is more wheel shelling damage than in the summer time; this is evident
becauseofanincreaseintrackstiffnessandthustheimpactoftrackdistortionsonforcesbetweenthe

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wheelandtherail.Anothercauseofthisphenomenonistheinfluenceofliquid.Waterintheformof
rainormeltedsnowconsiderablyenhancesthecrackpropagationrateduetothehydrostaticeffectof
liquidtrappedinthecrack.Theworstconditionsoccurwhenadryperiod(whencracksareinitiating)is
followedbyawetperiod,whenwaterenhancescrackpropagation.Dustandacorrosiveenvironment
accelerate rail wear. A high ambient temperature (greater than 25C) may cause the longitudinal
expansionofrails,whichmayresultintrackbuckling.Thisposesaseriousriskofderailment.

 RailWheelMaterialType
Therailwheelmaterialplaysaveryimportantroleinraildegradation.Themechanicalpropertiesofa
pearliticrailsteelstructurearegovernedbythedistancebetweenthecementite(Fe3C)layersandthe
grainsize.Thesearecontrolledbythecoolingrateofthesteel.Theyieldpointandtensilestrengthare
inverselyproportionaltothedistancebetweenthecementitelayersandgrainsize.Therearedifferent
typesofheattreated,alloyedorplaincarbonsteelrailsbeingusedaroundtheworld.Apartfromthe
usual manufacturing process of the rails, the tensile strength and toughness are increased by heat
treatment. Heat treatment is usually carried out on the rail head, turnouts and at the ends of non
weldedrailstoaddresstheissueofmaximumstressconcentration.

 RailHardening
Rail hardening aims to reduce wear and to increase the resistance to RCF of rails in operation,
particularly in tight and medium curves. A head hardened rail is a rail where only the rail head has
beenheattreatedtoprovidehardersteelforlocationsofextremeservice,suchascurves.

 InclusionofResidualStress
Residualstressescanbebuiltupinrailsduringtherailmanufacturingprocess,duringtherailwelding
processorasaresultofcontactstressesgeneratedbythewheelsrollingontherails.Themaximum
longitudinalandtensileresidualstressintherailfoot,formedduringrailmanufacturing,shouldbeless
than250MPa.Residualstressformationcanaccelerateraildefectinitiationandpropagation.

 FormationofBlowholes
Blowholesarepossibledefectsformedduringrailmanufacturing.Thepresenceofblowholesweakens
therailsectioncausingfurtherdevelopmentofothertypesofdefects.Today,newrailshavetopass
throughseveralqualitychecks,includingultrasonicinspection,beforetheircommissioning.Therefore,
itisveryraretofindblowholesorothermanufacturingdefectsinrails.

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 RailSize
The weight of the rail in kilograms per meter denotes the rail size. Rails of different sizes will have
differentdegradationrates.

 RailProfile
Manydifferentrailprofilesareinuse.Differentrailinfrastructureownersusedifferentstandardsfor
railprofiles.Differentrailprofilesaredesignedaccordingtotheiroperationalrequirements.

 TrackConstruction
A track is constructed according to the requirements of the axle load, speed, and required service
lifetime,amountofmaintenancetobedone,operatingconditionsandavailabilityofbasicmaterial.For
example, the condition of the subgrade and soil properties should be analysed during track
construction.

 LubricationFrequency
Applyinglubricantatthewheel/railinterfacesignificantlyreducesthewheelandrailwear,aswellas
dramatically decreasing the locomotive fuel consumption. Lubrication can be optimized for rails to
effectareductionintheflangewearsothatmaintenanceresourcesareminimizedandtherail/wheel
lifemaximized.

 RailWelding
Railweldingresultsinresidualstressesthataredistributedinaverycomplexmannerwithrespectto
theirmagnitudeanddirection.Inmanycases,thesestressesarethecauseofrailwebfailure.Theuse
of improved welding technology and postweld heat treatment considerably decreases the extent of
weldinitiatedresidualstresses(IHHA,2001).

 TrackAccessibility
Poortrackaccessibilityleadstodelayedmaintenance,whichcausesmoredegradation.

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2.5.2 COMPARISON BETWEEN TWO EMBANKMENTS BUILD WITH DIFFERENT MATERIALS OVER DIFFERENT
FUNDATIONS

Generally,inembankmentsofimportantheight,appearhigherfirmdowns,althoughitdependsonmany
otherfactorslike:thekindofsoil,compactation,constructionmethods,etc.

Furthermore, another important problem for the high speed rails, regarding to the embankments is the
CriticalTrainsspeed:atsoftsoilwithhighertrainsspeedthereisa"ripple"oftheembankmentterrain,
aphenomenonthatinvolvestheamplificationoftheverticalmovementsofsoilparticlesundertrain.

Thisresearchiscarriedoutonanembankmentofabout15mhighand200moflongitudeofthehighspeed
line north northwest of Spain, its construction was completed in 2005, the goal is to see how it has
behaved this embankment along the time checking the maintenance operations, to know if there are
actionswhichbringmanifesttheinfluenceofinfrastructureonthebehaviourofthesuperstructure.

Partofthisembankmentisbuiltonanareawithunsuitablematerialithadtobereplacedbyrocks.That
willallowustoseehowitbehavesanembankmentbuildondifferentnaturefoundations.

The material used for its construction came from the excavation of the work with the following
characteristics,ineachofthelayersthecompactionreachedwereofthe95%ofthemodifiedproctor.

%FINES

ATTEMBERGLIMITS

8,2

Noplastic

MODIFYPROCTOR
2,12

7,6

C.B.R

ORGMATTER

SULFH

17,4

0,46

0,02

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Oncethefillingisfinishedithasbeenmonitoredbythreesections.

The measures were progressive from May 2004 to May 2005 while the embankment was built until it
stabilizedaftercompletion,withthefollowingresults.

FIGURE43:SECTION1.PK302+920

FIGURE44:SECTION2.PK302+940

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FIGURE45:SECTION3.PK302+980

Theembankmenttookayeartostabilizewithvalueslowerorveryclosetothelevelofaccuracyofreading
equipment.

Thenextspetwasthetheassemblyofthenewtrackandtheirplacinginservice.Accordingtothehistorical
fileofmaintenanceinterventionsmadeovertheseembankmentwecanseethatupto2008thereareno
movements or operations registered, from these year to actually there are, at least, one tamping or
alignment operation per year, more common over left hand, where the rock fill was made replacing the
inappropriatematerial,sothebehaviorwasbetteroverthesidewherethefoundationwasnoreplaced.

Regardingtothesewecananalyzethebelowfigures,wherewecanseethefirmdownofhighspeedline
embankmentsover15mhigh,overthetimeandparticularlythebehaviorofonefilling.

Thefirmdownsreachedintheembankmentwasabout300mmintenyears.

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To sum up, these simple research demonstrate that the subgrade have a lot of influence over the track
condition, i.e. loss of vertical alignment, so a deep development of the fullest understanding of these
influence is mandatory to optimize the degradation of rail tracks, developing a model that will link the
effectsofthesubbase,ballastandtracksystem,tovehicleridequalityanddynamicloadingordesigning
newconstructiontechniquestoensurethestabilityofthefilling.

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