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“Role of advertising in brand communication through television media”
Submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award of the degree of
Master in Business Administration
Sumantra Ray-A0102207185 MBA (M&S) 2007-2009
UNDER THE GUIDANCE OF Mr. R. R. GHATAK AMITY BUSINESS SCHOOL – AUUP Mrs. PUNEETA VADEHRA NEGI MANAGER, AD SALES,MCCS.
AMITY UNIVERSITY UTTAR PRADESH (Established under Amity University Uttar Pradesh Act 2005)
Sponsored by Ritnand Balved Education Foundation
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The project deals with finding the effectiveness of the television advertising for different product categories targeted at different consumer segments. The client or the company has some vision in mind when they think of advertising for a new product or an existing one or for brand promotion. It starts with "what" the client wants to advertise and "why". The understanding of the "why" gives leads as to "how" it is supposed to go about the campaign. The company has to weigh the benefits from advertising against the cost incurred in way of advertisements. Being able to reach the precise target audience is not just a function of the distribution channels or the pricing of the goods or services; it is advertising that communicates everything to the consumer. Therefore arises the need to analyze how ad-budgets are allocated to different types of media [print, television, radio, internet etc] based on the product or brand and the target audience. The project intends to find what factors might govern the brand communication, the audience behavioural patterns which point towards innovations needed in television advertising, effectiveness of television advertising compared to other mediums and a secondary objective , which was to find how a news webpage of “star news” would fare if it is created. Since the major competitors of star news have news website it is even more essential to assess the opportunities in this as it would provide an additional platform for advertising.
TABLE OF CONTENT
TOPIC PAGE NO.
CHAPTER 1 : “INTRODUCTION” • • • • • • • HISTORY OF INDIAN TELEVISION CURRENT SITUATION OF MEDIA BUYING INDUSTRY LITERATURE REVIEW OBJECTIVE OF STUDY MOTIVATION OF RESEARCH TYPE OF RESEARCH SAMPLE DESIGN o SAMPLE UNIT o SAMPLE SIZE o SAMPLE SELECTION • DATA COLLECTION TOOLS o PRIMARY DATA o SECONDARY DATA • • SCALING TECHNIQUES USED IN QUESTIONNAIRE LIMITATIONS AND CHALLENGES WHILE UNDER GOING THE RESEARCH CHAPTER 3: “ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION” • • ANALYSIS OF PRIMARAY DATA SECONDARY DATA ANALYSIS
…4 …4 …5 …6 …6 …6 …6 …7 …7 …7 …7 …7 …7 …7 …7 …8 …8 …9 …9 … 22 … 24 … 25
CHAPTER 2 : “RESEARCH METHODOLOGY”
CHAPTER 4: “RECOMMENDATIONS & SUGGESTIONS” BIBLIOGRAPHY
“INTRODUCTION” HISTORY OF INDIAN TELEVISION
Starting with 41 sets in 1962 and one channel Indian television has come a long way. When Television first came to India it was named the National Television Network of India. The first telecast started on September 15, 1959 in New Delhi. After 13 years, second television station was established in Mumbai in 1972. For several years the transmission was in black & white. Television industry got the necessary boost in the eighties when color TV was introduced during the 1982 Asian Games. Indian small screen programming started off in the early 1980s. At that time there was only one national channel Doordarshan. The Ramayana and Mahabharat was the first major television series produced. This serial notched up the world record in viewer ship numbers for a single program. In the late 1980s more people started to own television sets. Television programming had reached saturation in spite of the fact that there was only one channel. So, the government opened up another channel which had part national programming and part regional. This channel was known as DD 2 later DD Metro. Both channels were broadcast terrestrially. The central government launched a series of economic and social reforms in 1991, under the new policies the government allowed private and foreign broadcasters to engage in limited operations in India. In 1992 five new channels belonging to the Hong Kong based STAR TV gave Indians a fresh breath of life. Zee TV was the first private owned Indian channel to broadcast over cable. A few years later CNN, Discovery Channel, National Geographic Channel made its foray into India.. Regional channels flourished along with a multitude of Hindi channels and a few English channels. By 2001-2003, other international channels such as HBO, History Channel, Nickelodeon, Cartoon Network, VH1, Disney and Toon Disney came into foray. In 2003 news channels started to boom.
CURRENT SITUATION OF MEDIA BUYING INDUSTRY
In India, consolidations began in 2002, reducing the media buying industry to a handful of major players who now dominate the media buying business. The top six - though not necessarily in order of importance - are Madison Media, GroupM, Starcom, Carat, Lodestar and Initiative Media. Besides the traditional media planning and buying, now a days the agencies offer a range of other solutions, including client servicing and research. The corporate world is abuzz with its services, and the business is growing at a breakneck speed, yet, media buying in India is at a nascent stage. India's advertising expenditure to GDP ratio is one of the lowest in the world. Compared to China's $25 billion, and the world's $337 billion , India's $2.2 billion advertising market is miniscule. The expected GDP growth should push advertisement spends upwards. Meanwhile, despite room for growth and improvement, the industry continues to fight against several issues. The biggest problems the media buying industry faces is a shortage of talent. The attrition rate is a high 20-28 per cent. The reason is the decrease in payments. Client expectations have risen, and costs related to research, people, and other overheads have spiralled In the rat race for survival, media agencies have been building volumes at the cost of margins. Some agencies resort to undercutting to get business - and clients, who otherwise value stability and consistency, are tempted to move accounts to agencies that offer their services at lower rates.
TAM [Television Audience Measurement]
A joint venture company between AC Nielsen & Kantar Media Research/ IMRB, TAM Media Research is the TV Viewership analysis firm of India. The viewership cell runs what is one of the largest Peoplemeter TV Panels in the World with Approx 30,000 sample individuals representing all the Class-I towns (towns with population more than 100,000) polled every week for their Viewership habits! This division measures television Viewership of audiences for the 300-plus TV stations operating in India.
“RESEARCH METHODOLOGY” LITERATURE REVIEW
I have looked through research papers and other studies than have been conducted in fields allied to my topic and found that research has been conducted in television audience behaviour , advertising and brand communication measures takes by companies. But no one has dealt with all these with news channel as a crux of it. So I did not find any literature on precisely my topic.
OBJECTIVE OF STUDY
The objectives of the research project are • • • • • Find factors governing suitability of product or brand on a specific media or program Figure out which things effect brand recall the most Patterns of TV viewing Audience behaviour analysis during ad-breaks Another secondary objective was to assess how a news website of star news would fare To study and to check upon the above set objectives of the project a structured questionnaire was designed apart from using data from TAM that is collected in the archives of STAR News.
MOTIVATION OF RESEARCH
Being a project for my partial fulfilment of my MBA degree I was motivated to finish this project to the best of my ability. My interest in the field of advertising was a motivation factor towards this research..
TYPE OF RESEARCH
My research is DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH because it tries to identify characteristics of observed phenomenon and explore possible correlations among phenomenon. Here in this research the phenomenon would be audience behavior patterns, brand recall and viewer preferences.
SAMPLE UNIT The sample population was a selection of individuals of varied age groups (above the age of 18). The area covered was the Delhi & NCR region. SAMPLE SIZE The sample size selected was 100 respondents. This was due to the time and resource constraint faced during the project. SAMPLE SELECTION Respondents were selected on random basis but the respondents had to satisfy the following criteria:
Above the age of 18 Belong to HSM[Hindi speaking masses]
DATA COLLECTION TOOLS
Primary data was collected through questionnaire method. SECONDARY DATA Secondary Data was collected from websites, database of Star News and TAM reports.
SCALING TECHNIQUES USED IN QUESTIONNAIRE
1. QUESTION 1 – 2. QUESTION 2 – 3. QUESTION 3 – 4. QUESTION 4 – 5. QUESTION 5 – 6. QUESTION 6 – 7. QUESTION 7 – 8. QUESTION 8 – 9. QUESTION 9 – Unstructured questions &Nominal Scale Nominal Scale Nominal Scale Nominal Scale Nominal Scale Dichotomous question Interval Scale Ordinal Scale Nominal Scale
10. QUESTION 10 – Nominal Scale 11. QUESTION 11 – Nominal Scale 12. QUESTION 12 – Unstructured questions ( open ended) 13. QUESTION 13 – Nominal Scale 14. QUESTION 14 – Nominal Scale
LIMITATIONS AND CHALLENGES WHILE UNDER GOING THE RESEARCH
• Television viewing patterns vary immensely across different cross sections of the society. Therefore my sample population would probably not contain enough variety of the audience. • • • Time constrain to complete the project was also another limitation faced during the research. There were some qualitative questions that needed explaining hence some respondents needed assistance thus slowing down the process of data collection. Limited access to data available in archives
“ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION”
ANALYSIS OF PRIMARAY DATA A]
Others 13% Mobile Netw orks 30% Cellphones 12%
FMCG 32% Automobiles 7% Electrical Appliances 6%
From the data collected through this questionnaire I classified people’s choices for which advertisements they recalled into different product categories as follows: FMCG, Automobile, Electrical appliances, Cell phones, Mobile networks& Others. From the pie chart we can see that FMCG and mobile networks have more recall than others thus proving that television is the most effective for these categories compared to others which need strong back up advertising from outdoor, print and other media. As for FMCG we can attribute the high figures in the graph due to the large number of products under that category and their innumerable advertisements and in the telecommunication sector the frequency of advertisements is much higher which might also be a reason for the high recall.
Brand Ambassador Phrases Any other Series1 Jingle
30 25 20 15 10 5 0
After tabulating the recall factors we come to the conclusion that Brand Ambassadors have biggest impact on the consumers mind along with the jingle that forms an integral part of any brand’s identity. That is why millions are spent in roping in stars and celebrities for brand endorsement as the Indian consumers behaviour regarding brand recall is governed by it. India is still a market primarily governed by the herd behaviour, so, larger the fan following larger will be the attention garnered by the brand. Hence more recall. As for recall since the jingle of a brand reaches the consumer even when they are not watching, therefore it goes a long way in helping recall. The jingle is an integral part of the brand building exercises. It helps to carry though a continuous flow during the transition phase when the brand is undergoing a revamp or rebranding, like for example in hutch’s transition to Vodafone. They kept the tune of the jingle same while they changed other brand elements like logo, colour etc. This is a direct proof of the fact that since jingle brings in the strongest recall that is why it was used to introduce newer elements of the brand.
Obligatory 22% viewer
Certain 37% preferred Programs
From the results in this pie chart we can derive that effectiveness of advertising for certain niche products during certain specific programs that are watched by the prospective target buyers. Since only 37 percent of respondents said they have a fixed schedule of television watching therefore advertisement for precisely targeted audience would be effective only to that extent Obligatory viewer here are the percentage of people who do not have the choice of watching the programs they like , instead have to go in for the channel being preferred by the majority of family or gathering they are in. Out of the 22 percent shown in the pie, majority of obligatory viewers were found to be housewives. Therefore we can deduce that advertisements of products appealing to housewives can be placed randomly to a certain extent on prime time programs because some percentage of the target audience will be watching as obligatory viewers irrespective of the program content. The third quadrant of the pie which denotes the percentage of people watching according to leisure is the highest among the three, this shows that most people are not used to watching television in a fixed schedule. Therefore content specific media buying for targeting precise audience will have limited effect and spending huge amounts spent to secure advertisement slots during specifically targeted programs may not be the way to go always. This in a way proves why agencies want an all days repeat routine for the advertisement even though the product may be catering to a specific market.
This data can be used to understand audience preference patterns which can help advertisers choose which time slots to buy according to their intended target market. As discussed in the previous analysis content specific media buying may not always help to reach the target audience, so in order to make sure that the money being invested in buying premium spots is not going waste, the advertiser must study the behavioural patterns of the consumer. This could help figure out correlation between genres of programs watched by a certain target group. For example, in the above diagram it can be seen that people watching game shows are more likely to also watch comedy programs. Therefore for a product being advertised during game shows it would be most beneficial to do re-run of their advertisements during comedy serials as they will have an overlap of the same audience. The same audience watching the same advertisement again would increase the chances of brand recall manifolds. Taking another example of the movies section, only one respondent said that he usually watches only movies. We can deduce from this that there would not be a large percentage who will only be interested in watching movies. So, to force recall the advertiser needs to chase the audience by advertising in other shows from the thriller and family drama genre also. This study is essential for those products which don’t have a huge advertising budget and therefore want to advertise sparsely but to a large number of audiences. A television premier of a movie would be ideal for such an advertiser but from the responses of the questionnaire we can also figure out that even though he might reach out to lot of people during a movie but to force recall he must follow the audience
in other programs too. This highlights the importance of allocation of the advertising budget
Move away for other jobs 21%
Keep watching same channel 7%
Surf through channels
These results help us understand the behavioural patterns during advertisement breaks, this is necessary to chalk out innovations in advertising and placements of advertisements during breaks so as to grab maximum attention. Majority [72%] surfs through channels during advertisement breaks this speaks out why new innovations like advertising simultaneously with content, creating roadblocks etc are being practiced. When we talk of advertising simultaneously with content, we mean the advertisements that play even when the program is still showing. This grabs attention of the audience because it is being displayed in the same screen as the program televised and the audience cant surf channels also during this period as he would miss the proceedings of the program. It is for this reason that the first advertising slot in an advertisement break is the most expensive one. Because the first advertisement is the only place where the audience still has their attention glued to the television screen since it comes right after the content pauses. It is usually during this advertisement that the person watching decides to shuffle channels, hence the first advertisement always manages to get most eyeballs than the following slots. The following three analyses split the behavioural patterns into 3 halves to make more precise judgment on how to target the audience with advertisements. The length and frequency of advertisement breaks vary with the content type therefore even the behavioural pattern varies accordingly. Thus slight adjustments in the advertisements
need to be made to increase effectiveness. Its for this purpose that when the beta tape of the advertisements are sent for broadcasting to the television channel they have different versions of the same commercials tailor-made for different slots.
Movie Channel Breaks
70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 3 Keep watching same channel Surf through channels 36
Move away for other jobs
The movie channels usually have breaks that occur in lesser in frequency but are longer in duration. From the answers of respondents we can clearly make out that majority “moves away for other jobs rather than just sit and surf”. This behaviour may be governed by the fact that since a movie consumes much more time than any normal program, the audience prefers to complete some work as the long breaks allow them to. This fact may be used by the advertiser to tweak the advertisements in a way, such that, the jingle of the brands is more prominent and audible because that is what reaches the target audience even when they are finishing some work and not having their attention on the television screen. Thus this would maximise the effectiveness of the advertisement in spite of the person not watching it.
N sC ew hannel B reak
4 1 3 7
4 5 4 0 3 5 3 0 2 5 2 0 1 5 1 0 5 0
2 2 S rie e s1
Ke p w tch g e a in sa e ch n e m anl
S rf th u h u ro g ch n e a n ls
M v a a fo o e o e w y r th r jo s b
The remarkably high percentage of people who said that they keep watching a news channel even through the break can be attributed to the fact that news channels have news bands ticking away the headlines at the bottom of the screen during advertisements. So according to me news channels demonstrate the complete amalgamation of advertising with the content because both are always on screen, during news content broadcast the advertisements are the tickers whereas during advertisements its reverse. Since people don’t watch news channels though out the day it is essential to keep them glued to one channel which can only be done by providing news at any point the viewer switches on to the news channel. In spite of a lot of people watching even through the break, the majority voted that they prefer surfing through channels. This is why “roadblock” strategy is essential especially during hours/time slots when people are surfing through news channels looking for a summary of the day’s news. Basically “roadblock” strategy literally means creating roadblocks. This is done by buying advertisement slots on parallel news channels in the same time band or during same advertisement breaks so that even if the target audience shuffles through other channels he will still encounter the same advertisement.
C k tB a s ric e re k
6 0 5 0 4 0 3 0 2 0 1 0 0 7
5 3 4 0
S rie e s1
K e w tch g e p a in sa e ch n e m anl
S rf th u h u ro g ch n e a n ls
M v a a fo o e o e w y r th r jo s b
More than 50 percent of the respondents said they surf through channels during cricket breaks. This justifies the need for innovative advertising that would integrate the advertisements with the content being shown. Ad-bands and ticker advertising have now been present for some time in cricket broadcasts. The fact that majority of people would not have watched the advertisement breaks proves the effectiveness of
these innovation and since cricket is so popular in India ,it would be a waste of advertising opportunity had simple advertisement breaks been the only way of communicating with the masses. The ad-bands celebrating the fall of a wicket or a boundary being hit is a good way of connecting with the audience and slipping the brands message in the middle. Constant innovation and need for more eye catching in-content advertising has paved way for the latest “L-bands” which have increased the scope of using the brand mascots etc. without all these cricket broadcast advertising would have been futile due to channel surfing. [E] Advertorials are another way of approaching the target market with the promotion of products being masked to look different from normal advertisements. Indian consumers’ probably still value peer suggestion or user reviews or better still market sale patterns more when they have to decide on which cell phone to buy or which car to purchase . This is evident from the fact that majority do not bank on advertorials for purchase of such products. But still I feel the 37% who said yes is a big improvement from earlier years otherwise there wouldn’t have been this increase in advertorial over the last decade. More people are showing interest in these reviews which push a brand to market its product differently but still effectiveness of this mode is limited. The scope or opportunity of communicating through advertorials arises from the fact that unlike a general television commercial , here, the money spent would entirely be directed towards the target market as only the interested would make the effort of watching an advertorial .
54% of the sample population said that they watch television with family during dinner.31% said that they watch television with family during dinner sometimes.The remaining 15% population never watches television with family. This brings out the importance of prime time advertising because that is the time when the whole family watches television together. According to a report by TAM several households in India stick to the rule of having only one television set at home so that at least once a day, during dinner that is, the whole family sits together. This itself shows the huge viewer ship an advertisement telecast during prime time would get. Apart from just the numbers it is also the cross-section of different age groups that is covered in this time slot that matters to the advertiser. For example a family watching television over dinner which might be buying a car soon would end up discussing a particular car on the spur of its advertisement. This would be immensely beneficial for the brand. [G]
100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 1 2 3 4 total 19 20 35 30 26 37 9
35 16 9
Print Internet Television Radio
The above graph shows the number of people who have given the corresponding ranks to the mediums according to the time devoted. The total is calculated by adding up the product of the number of people and corresponding ranks. [example for television : it is (1X35)+(2X30)+(3X26)+(4X9)=209] The medium getting the lowest score is one getting the highest average rank.
Hence the ranks are : 1- Television, 2 – internet, 3 – radio, 4- print. This calculation proves that even though it faces a tough challenge from internet still television is the media on which people spend most time. Therefore an Advertisement on the idiot box still has more reach and impact than any other medium.
radio television internet print <25 Female>25 male >25 male >25
The table above shows the preference of media age wise. Therefore products targeted for young adults or teenagers would get maximum advertisement effectiveness on the radio, and products aimed for different age groups would get best reach likewise according to the chart.
Uses of Internet
50 40 30 20 10 0 News and Information 36 36 41 23
This graph elaborates the primary use of internet for the respondents. Majority of 41 people said they used internet for communication, 36 said they used it for news and information while 23 said it was mostly used for entertainment. The interpretation is of this written combined with the interpretation of the next 3 graphs.
Whicch websites do you use for News updates?
40 30 20 10 0 Series1 37
33 19 11
As visible in the graph above: 37 people said they used indiatimes for their news updates, 11 used Rediff for the same, 33 used yahoo, And 19 wrote other responses. The interpretation is of this written combined with the interpretation of the next 2 graphs.
Why do you prefer the specified choice?
50 40 30 20 10 0 Authenticity of information 49 9 Lack of clutter and pop ups 9 Precise information/news 42 49 42
This graph tries to identify the precise reason for which the respondents preferred the websites mentioned in the earlier question. Majority voted for the authenticity of information while precision in news came second in terms of importance.The I nterpretation is of this written combined with the interpretation of the nextgraph.
Name any 3 hindi News Channels
35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Series1 Star News 28 Aaj Tak 34 India TV 14 28 14 11 NDTV 11 13 34
Zee News 13
This question uses unaided recall to find which Hindi news channel stays top of the mind. As per the figures Aaj Tak gets highest ratings and star news comes second. Now, all the major competitors of star news have a news webpage but star does not. What I am trying to identify here is the scope existing for such a website. From answers of a previous questions we can easily see that news search is an important use of internet therefore a webpage from star would be useful for users if u consider the type of content. From another 2 question we can derive that since the respondents give more weight age to authenticity of information and indiatimes comes on top of their choice list then star news too would definitely be very well received. This is because being a news channel there will be no doubts regarding the authenticity of information and in comparison to indiatimes it is an equally well know, if not better, brand. Thus guaranteeing a huge number of initial clicks on the webpage, if one is created. As for the competition with the other news channel websites from the graph of a question we can see that , being number two in unaided recall, star news’ webpage would definitely be on top of the mind. Therefore according to me there is tremendous scope of having a website.
W ic fo o a c m a n c n u s toy u re a h h rm f d a p ig o trib te o r c ll?
6 0 5 0 4 0 3 0 2 0 1 0 0 S rie e s1 1 9 ra io d 1 9 te v n le iso 5 9 1 2 p t ritn 1 2 1 0 o td o u or 1 0 5 9
The graph above shows the how much consumers think each medium contributes towards the brand recall. Radio - 19 Television – 59 Print – 12 Outdoor – 10 Here also television is higher than other mediums by a huge margin. The combination of audio and video advertising naturally has more impact on the consumers mind. And as we have seen earlier in the report the brand ambassador and jingle rate highest in recall factors, these two are seen together in television hence the recall. Even the other mediums are essential, but, they mainly complete the all round brand identity development. As for the brand image building exercise, television is indispensable.
SECONDARY DATA ANALYSIS
Star News Aaj Tak NDTV India Zee News India TV IBN 7
5:00 6:30 8:00 9:30 11:00 12:30 14:00 15:30 17:00 18:30 20:00 21:30 23:00 24:30:00
Source: TAM, Market: HSM, TG: CS 15+, Day part: ALL DAYS, Period: Wk 16-08
This graph here is the viewership data collected and processed by TAM. It plots the viewership of the different Hindi news channels against the time of the day. As per the weekly surveys Aaj Tak comes first while star news is the second most viewed news channel across Hindi speaking masses, but here we can observe a sudden spike in star news’ viewership at around two thirty in the afternoon while other channels show normal ratings. The spreadsheet of the viewership of all Hindi news channels throughout the day is attached in the annexure. If we take a look at the schedule of programs, this sudden increase can be associated with the program “saas bahu aur saazis”. This program deals with the news of popular serials across channels and the television world. This unique show gives a recap of the popular serials and predicts the likely turn of events in the following episodes. It also delves deep into the lives of television celebrities. Therefore it is very clear that the show is aimed towards
housewives also it is timed in the afternoon so that the target audience is free to watch television. Now if we see the advertising slots bought in this program, we can clearly identify that the products are either fmcg or good appealing to housewives. This is done because effectiveness of the advertisements increase manifold at this hour since the advertisers are being able to communicate directly with target market and also since majority of the target market is hooked to this particular show so there are no worries of channel switching. This proves how content can drive brand communication with the help of immense reach of the television.
“RECOMMENDATIONS & SUGGESTIONS”
Television has always been a very powerful medium of communication and it stands till today in spite of challenges from the internet. But because of the multi-utility of the internet people are spending more and more time on the internet and moving away from the television. Therefore according to me the faster IPtv technology is made available in large scale the better it is for survival of television advertising. As we deduced in the way of analysis new innovative content that gives the audience a feeling of involvement would definitely help increase trps and along with it the advertisement effectiveness like we saw in case of the program "saas bahu ki saazis" on star news. Integration of cellular service with television programming would help to maintain touch with audience and help in personalised brand communication. E.g.: sending reminders of programs via sms. Use of long tail theory of advertising by targeting more than just one market segment can be done. This can be done by differently positioned advertisements of same product according to genre of program being advertised in. The number of ad repeats must be cut down to channel that saved money into the extra variety of commercials being made. Great care should be taken to make sure that the in-content advertising stays within un-irritable limits. Some channels have started overdoing the "L-bands" so much so that the broadcasted content gets hidden sometimes. This would turn away audiences. According to me there is tremendous scope of having a news website of star news. The content of the webpage would already be there with star news it only needs to be converted into html for the internet. So no additional spend required for the web page. Secondly if it can follow Google’s model of sponsored links then that would open a completely new avenue for advertising revenue to flow in. Very topical and related ads can be provided with the news search that one does on the page. This would help the advertiser address his target market directly without having to mass-broadcast his advertisement. The advertisers might even be ready to pay premium rates for such precise advertising. For example: if someone searches for the news of petrol price hike then the sponsored links could be advertisements of CNG kit suppliers.
• • • • • • exchange4media.com tamindia.com agencyfaqs.com emeraldinsight.com hindustannews.com domain-b.com
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