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Annotated Bibliography

Primary Sources:
De Gomara, Francisco Lopez. Cortes: The Life of the Conqueror. Translated by Lesley Byrd
Simpson. N.p.: University of California Press, 1964.
This primary source recounts the life of the famous conquistador in his successful journey into
the heart of Mexico, which allows us to visualize and understand what really happened. Being
written by Cortes personal assistant, we are getting exclusive recounts that allow us to show/tell
the story in such a way that has never been done.
de Sahagn, Bernardino. "Of how the Spaniards entered Moteucoma's private home, and what
happened there." In Florentine Codex, 125. N.p.: n.p., ca.1570-1585.
This chapter from the Florentine Codex, a bi-lingual encyclopedia of central Mexican life and
history was created by the Franciscan friar, Bernardino de Sahagn and indigenous advisors,
painters and scribes
Leon-Portilla, Miguel, ed. The Broken Spears. Translated by Angel Maria Garibay and Lysander
Kemp. Illustrated by Alberto Beltran. 1992 ed. Boston, MA: Beacon Press, 1992.
This primary source gives us a new look at the conquest that took the powerful Aztec Empire
down through the eyes and words of the indigenous people as well as native Aztec descendants.
We have grown accustomed into looking at a story through the eyes of the Spanish, but this new
outlook has helped us understand the true impact of the Conquest in Mexico.
Sosa-Riddell, Adaljiza. "Como Duele." In Infinite Divisions: An Anthology of Chicana
Literature, edited by Tey Diana Rebolledo and Eliana Rivero. Tucson, AZ:
University of
Arizona Press, 1993.
One of the earliest meditations on Malinche and her meaning published by a Chicana in the
United States. This narrative explores Malinches fate and her abilities to negotiate difficult and
competing cultural demands. It also grapples with the violence of colonization.

Work of Visual Art:

Durham, Jimmie. Malinche. 1988. Wood, cotton, snakeskin, watercolor, polyester, metal.
Museum van Hedenaagse Kunst, Ghent.
A sculpted figure by an internationally-recognized Native American activist, writer and visual
artist. This gives us a perspective on the native people and their way of life.
Malinche Translating from Palace Roof Top. ca. 1570-1585. Pigment/ink on paper.
This image was created by an indigenous painter in central Mexico and accompanies a written
description of the conquest of Tenochtitlan, penned in both Spanish and Nahuatl in the Florentine
Codex. The Florentine Codex is one of the fullest Nahuatl descriptions of the conquest.

Secondary Sources:
Afolla, Carmen. "La Malinche." In Infinite Divisions: An Anthology of Chicana Literature,
edited by Tey Diana Rebolledo and Eliana Rivero. Tucson, AZ: University of
Press, 1993.
A well-known Chicano poem about Malinche. Tafolla took inspiration from the famous 1967
poem of the Chicano movement, Yo Soy Joaqun, but re-writes from an explicitly feminist
perspective. The poem addresses the scene of European colonization, charting Malinches fate
as a conquered woman, traitor, invincible survivor.
Collins, Maurice. "Cortes Marches on Mexico." In Cortes and Montezuma, 86-101. N.p.: Faber,
This section of the biography helped me understand how much Cortes was willing to do to arrive
and control the land in which the Aztec empire was built upon. It gave me details regarding the
ideas that he pondered as to how to cross a deadly path which in turn showed us how desperate
he was in possessing a rich and prosperous piece of land.
Knight, Alan. "Spain and the Conquest." In Mexico from the Beginning to the Spanish Conquest,
193-240. 2002 ed. N.p.: Press Syndicate of the University of Cambridge, 2002.
This biography pronounced the hunger and desire that the Spanish possessed over rich goods.
Unlike other sources which simply feather around this topic, this section gave us a deeper answer
in which the Spanish were made killers.
Levy, Buddy. Conquistador: Hernn Corts, King Montezuma, and the Last Stand of the Aztecs.
New York: Bantam Books, 2008.
This book provided me with a information on the events leading up to the conquests of Cortes. It
goes in depth about the two empires, Spanish and Aztec, that collided in the 1500's. It gives a
detailed account of the events leading up to and including the conquering of the Aztecs by
Hernan Cortes. It also provides background on the Aztec society and King Montezuma.
Thomas, Hugh. Conquest. N.p.: Simon & Schuster, 1993.
This biography tells the story of the Spanish Conquest in a way that will be with the audience for
the rest of their lives. It clearly shows the emotions and thoughts of the characters that were a
part of that world which in turn allows us to show the audience a story within a story
White, Jon Manchip. Corts and the Downfall of the Aztec Empire: A Study in a Conflict of
Cultures. London: Hamilton, 1971.
This biography provides the fortes and faults of both the Aztec Empire and Spain as their actions
advance into the battle that ended a once strong and prosperous civilization. Rather than stating

the facts, he tells the story in his writing in a way that strengthens the reasons as to why the
Spanish began a dangerous expedition

Letter or Memo:
Cortes, Hernan. Letter, 1519.
This primary source written by the conqueror himself recounts the event in which the Spaniards
and the Aztecs first met which allow us to speculate the actions of both parties involved. It also
gives us an insight to his translator, who is exceptionally famous for aiding the victory of the
Spanish Conquest. He mentions his translator as someone who's worthy of praise which
determines the real meaning in their relationship.

"The Christian Conquerors." Christian History, 1992, 36.
This features the Spanish conquerors Hernando Cortes and Francisco Pizarro. It provides
information about Cortes' respect for priests and hatred for Indians and Cortes' feudal-style
lordship over the Aztecs. Also talks about Pizarro's encounter with the Incas.
"CORTS' INLAND EXPEDITION." Military History, May 2007, 64-65.
The article discusses the inland expedition of Spanish conquistador Hernn Corts in Mexico.
Corts founded Vera Cruz and appointed a town council who gave him permission to fight.
Leaving a small force at Vera Cruz, the captain headed west with a force of 300 soldiers, and 50
allied Totonac warriors. After being defeated by the Tlaxcaltecs warriors, Corts forged an
alliance with this long-time rival of the Aztecs to bring down Tenochtitln
Fitzgerald, Ian. "Hernando Cortez, Conqueror of Mexico, Dies." History Today, December 1997,
This article recounts the death of Hernando Cortes, conqueror of Mexico, on December 2, 1547.
It tells how Hernando Cortez took Mexico from Montezuma, the strategy of Cortez in handling
his territory, and why Hernando Cortez did not achieve the title `Viceroy.'
"Like Columbus." National Review, January 31, 1986, 46.
This article focuses on the 500th anniversary of the birth of Spanish explorer Hernan Cortes, who
after Christopher Columbus, was another major figure in the New World. It gives a personal
background and birthplace, and description of the exploration of the Indies at the age of 19, and a
summary of his arrival in Mexico in 1519. It tells about the clash between Spanish and Mexican
culture and civilization. The return to the court of the Emperor Charles V bearing a large quantity
of riches and details of Cortes' life and death in the book "The Conquest of Mexico," written by
William Prescott.
American, February 2005, 90-97.
This article discusses how the lives of the Aztec common people were far richer and more
complex than the official histories would have us believe. In 1519, when Hernan Cortes led his

army into Tenochtitln in the Valley of Mexico, that Aztec city was the capital of a far-flung
tributary empire. The emperor Motecuhzoma sat atop a complex social and political hierarchy,
and the Aztec populace owed allegiance and tribute to nobles at several levels.
Stanley, Tim. "Two Cheers for the Conquistadors." History Today, March 2011, 53.
The article presents an evaluation of the fall of the Aztec Empire by the Spanish Conquistadors
in the 16th-century contrary to the mainstream narrative of Western imperialism against a
helpless native culture. The author asserts that the plague which decimated the Aztecs was likely
native and not brought by the Spanish.
"That Fateful Moment When Two Civilizations Came Face to Face." Smithsonian,
October 1992, 56-69.
This presents an adaptation from `The Years of Miracles,' by Charles L. Mee Jr. focusing on the
landing of Hernan Cortes on the shores of Yucatan and Mexico and the natives of Montezuma's
Aztec empire, during the early 1500s.
Tsouras, Peter G. "Cortes's Bridge to Survival." Military History, December
2003, 58-64.
Presents information on how Spaniards in Mexico, led by Hernando Cortez, survived the battle
against the Mexica empire. It also gives information on how Cortez was accepted by
Montezuma, the Mexica emperor;and reasons that triggered the anger of the Cuban governor to
Cortez. It gives an account of events that took place during the battle between the Mexicas led by
Cuitlahuac and the Spaniards led by Cortez, and discussion on the an incident where Spaniards
tried to run away from Mexica and leave behind the horror of what they call The Sad Night.

Website Articles:
Bandelier, A.F. (1908). Hernando Corts. In The Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert
Appleton Company. Retrieved January 5, 2016 from New Advent:
This is from a Catholic encyclopedia. It provides information on Cortess life and death in depth.
"The Fall of the Aztecs." PBS. PBS, n.d. Web. 28 Dec. 2015.
This article, published by PBS, gives the story that is well-known among historians more details
that allow us to picture the events and characters.
"Hernn Corts (1485-1547)." Hernn Corts (1485-1547). N.p., n.d. Web. 06 Jan. 2016. This
biography clearly states and clarifies Hernan Cortes journey/voyage to Mexico. Unlike other
articles, which just state the dates in which he arrived to significant places in Mexico, the author
goes over his entire exploration which helped us gather evidence to support this years' theme.
"Hernan Cortes Biography." Biography. A&T Television Network, n.d. Web. 4 Jan. 2016.
This biography gives detailed facts as well as a clip that summarizes the Spanish

conqueror, Hernan Cortes', life. It has given us a visual representation which allow us to imagine
life in the year of 1519.
"Hernan Cortez Biography." Hernan Cortez Biography. N.p., n.d. Web. 04 Jan. 2016.
This article biography has given us more detailed information about Cortes life before and after
the conquest of Mexico. It has helped us in understanding the conqueror of the Aztecs a little
Szalay, Jessie. "Hernan Cortes: Conqueror of the Aztecs." Livescience. LiveScience, 28 Aug.
2013. Web. 4 Jan. 2016.
This article has given us information on Hernan Cortes life before his voyage to Mexico. It has
also helped us to understand his story by allowing us to know who he truly was.

Works of Visual Art:

Barraza, Santa. La Malinche. 1991. Oil paint on metal. Private Collection, USA.
A representation of Malinche painted by a renowned Chicana visual artist and teacher from
Texas. Behind her appear references to the Spanish conquest, the introduction of Christianity,
and violence of both. While it does not deny the horrors of Christian conquest, it paints a world
where beauty and violence co-exist.
Ruz, Antonio. El sueo de la Malinche. 1939. Oil on canvas. Galera de Arte Mexicano, Mxico
This painting, by a Mexican artist engaged with the international movement of Surrealism,
represents a slumbering Malinche; her body serves as the ground supporting an unnamed
Mexican community and church. This image evokes certain female earth deities known to the
Aztecs, and it sustains the metaphor of the Mexican nation having been built upon the ground
laid by Malinches actions.