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Sample of the book produced by the AMT

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AMT P U B L I S H I N G

Australian Mathematics Trust

University of Canberra Locked Bag 1

Canberra GPO ACT 2601

AUSTRALIA

Telephone: +61 2 6201 5137

www.amt.edu.au

AMTT Limited ACN 083 950 341

National Library of Australia Card Number and ISSN

Australian Mathematics Trust Enrichment Series ISSN 1326-0170

Australian Intermediate Mathematics Olympiads 1999-2013

ISBN 978-1-876420-73-4

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vii

Preface

Australia entered a team in the International Mathematical Olympiad (IMO) for the first

time in 1981 and has participated in this competition ever since, enjoying significant success

and assisting in the development of many fine young mathematicians. In 1983, the Australian

Mathematical Olympiad Committee (AMOC) was set up to identify and train students for

international competition, as well as to stimulate a general interest in mathematical problem

solving. Key components of this identification process were the AMOC Inter-State competitions which led to participation in training and then the Australian Mathematical Olympiad

(AMO). In 1986, a junior division of the Inter-State competition was introduced, aimed at

students in Years 710. The importance of identifying talented students as young as possible

was recognised; a small number of outstanding juniors were invited to training camps. This

contest was renamed the Telecom Junior Contest in 1990, and in 1993, the Telecom Intermediate Contest. Eventually, and in a revised format, it became the Australian Intermediate

Mathematics Olympiad in 1999.

At every stage the purpose of this competition has been to provide a stimulating set of

challenging questions for young mathematicians, with the hope of identifying talented individuals, who might become involved in state or national training leading to participation

in the senior Olympiad program. Whilst the Australian Mathematics Competition attracts

many more students and is also used to identify potential, the AIMO is a longer exam (4

hours) and requires some proofs and investigation, essential skills at the Olympiad level.

The AIMO is now seen as the culmination of the Mathematics Challenge for Young Australians (MCYA) and there could be no better preparation for the AIMO than to complete

the Challenge and Enrichment Stages. Indeed, the AIMO is based on material found in the

later stages of the Enrichment Stage (particularly Gauss and Noether). The AIMO papers

have been developed by a small committee, chaired initally by Bruce Henry and, from 2007,

by Kevin McAvaney. While the AIMO is certainly challenging, we feel that some students

who might be able to do well are not encouraged to enter or do not know about the competition. In producing this book of past papers, we hope to bring the contest to a wider

audience and to provide some opportunity to practise. Individually, AIMO papers have been

available in the AMOC yearbook, Mathematics Contests The Australian Scene, but this is

the first time that a collection of papers has been put together. We hope that it will prove

a useful and stimulating resource for teachers and students.

The papers are presented in very much their original form, though edited to fit on smaller

pages. Some diagrams have been redrawn for greater clarity. The student instructions have

changed very little over the years, and are provided on the next page. These instructions

have been removed from the individual papers in the interests of space.

Statistics are provided next to the marks for each question as to the number of students with

the correct answer per total number of students. For questions 9 and 10, the mean number of

marks obtained is given. The solutions are as originally published in Mathematics Contests

The Australian Scene each year, sometimes with several alternatives for each question.

I am extremely grateful for the efforts of Bruce Henry and Kevin McAvaney, not only in their

many years as successive Chairs of the AIMO Committee, but also in the preparation of this

volume of collected papers. I also acknowledge the work of our in-house editor, Bernadette

Webster, whose tireless efforts in proofreading and editing have eliminated many errors and

greatly improved the final appearance, and Heather Sommariva, our graphic designer, who

produced the cover and other aspects of the final design and layout.

Mike Clapper

Executive Director, Australian Mathematics Trust

Adjunct Professor, University of Canberra

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viii

Student Instructions

Time allowed : 4 hours

No calculators are to be used.

Questions 1 to 8 require only numerical answers, all non-negative integers less than 1000.

Questions 9 and 10 require written solutions which may include proofs.

The investigation in Question 10 offers bonus marks, used only to determine prize winners

where required.

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AIMObook1999-2013b5 2014/6/18 16:33 page ix #4

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ix

Dr K McAvaney

Mr J Dowsey

Dr M Evans

Mr B Henry

Assoc Prof H Lausch

Mr R Longmuir

Adj Prof M Clapper

Deakin University

(Chair, 20072013)

University of Melbourne

AMSI, Victoria

Victoria

(Chair, 19992006)

Monash University

China

Australian Mathematics Trust

7 years; 20072013

15 years; 19992013

15 years; 19992013

15 years; 19992013

15 years; 19992013

2 years; 19992000

1 year; 2013

Dr G Carter

Mr J Carty

Dr K Dharmadasa

Dr A Di Pasquale

Mr W Evers

Dr G Gamble

Mr K Hamann

Mr J Hassall

Assoc Prof D Hunt

Dr W Palmer

Dr M Peake

Dr V Scharaschkin

Assoc Prof P Schulz

Dr A Storozhev

Dr E Stoyanova

Dr P Swedosh

Dr N H Williams

Dr O Yevdokimov

Queensland University of

Technology

ACT Dept of Education

University of Tasmania

University of Melbourne

St Michaels Collegiate School, TAS

University of Western Australia

SA Department of Education

Burgmann Anglican School, ACT

UNSW

University of Sydney

Adelaide

University of Queensland

University of Western Australia

Australian Mathematics Trust

WA Department of Education

King David School, VIC

University of Queensland

University of Southern Queensland

12 years; 20012012

14 years; 19992012

10 years; 20042013

5 years; 20092013

5 years; 19992003

8 years; 20062013

7 years; 19992005

2 years; 20122013

7 years; 20072013

15 years; 19992013

7 years; 20062012

3 years; 20112013

1 year; 1999

2 years; 20072008

6 years; 20002005

15 years; 19992013

2 years; 19992000

4 years; 20102013

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C ONTENTS

PRE F AC E

vii

O LYM PIAD C O M M ITTEE

ix

QUE STIO N S

11

13

15

17

19

21

23

25

27

29

31

S OL UTIO N S

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35

40

44

48

53

58

63

70

76

82

88

96

109

119

131

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